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Education policy

Education policy refers to the collection of laws and rules that govern the operation of
education systems.
Education occurs in many forms for many purposes through many institutions. Examples
include early childhood education, kindergarten through to 12th grade, two and four year
colleges or universities, graduate and professional education, adult education and job
training. Therefore, education policy can directly affect the education people engage in at
all ages.
Examples of areas subject to debate in education policy, specifically from the field of
schools, include school size, class size, school choice, school privatization, tracking,
teacher education and certification, teacher pay, teaching methods, curricular content,
graduation requirements, school infrastructure investment, and the values that schools are
expected to uphold and model.
Education policy analysis is the scholarly study of education policy. It seeks to answer
questions about the purpose of education, the objectives (societal and personal) that it is
designed to attain, the methods for attaining them and the tools for measuring their
success or failure. Research intended to inform education policy is carried out in a wide
variety of institutions and in many academic disciplines. Important researchers are
affiliated with departments of psychology, economics, sociology, and human
development, in addition to schools and departments of education or public policy.
Examples of education policy analysis may be found in such academic journals as
Education Policy Analysis Archives.

Better Policy Making

• Better Policy Making on Policy Hub

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Policy making is: 'the process by which governments translate their political vision into
programmes and actions to deliver 'outcomes' - desired changes in the real world'.
(Modernising Government White Paper, 1999)
This concern with achieving real changes in people's lives is reflected in the
Government's overall strategy for improving public services published in March 2002
(Reforming our public services: principles into practice - pdf, 4082kb) [No 10 website]
Promoting good practice in policy making is fundamental to the delivery of quality
outcomes for citizens and to the realisation of public sector reform.
Policy makers should have available to them the widest and latest information on
research and best practice and all decisions should be demonstrably rooted in this
The features of good policy-making are considered in detail in Better Policy-Making
(pdf, 1120kb) [CMPS website] and Professional Policy-Making for the 21st Century

The Policy and law making process

What is in this guide
This guide looks at the processes of making laws and policies in
the different spheres of government. Opportunities for the public to
participate in these processes are also identified.
Making new laws and policies is usually a very slow process
involving a number of stages during which key issues are debated
and negotiated before being finalised as official government policy
or before being passed as a law. It can take a few years before a
proposed law or policy is implemented and before its impact is felt
on the ground.

What is the difference between a law and a policy?

It is important to understand the difference between a policy and a
A policy outlines what a government ministry hopes to achieve and
the methods and principles it will use to achieve them. It states the
goals of the ministry. A policy document is not a law but it will
often identify new laws needed to achieve its goals.
Laws set out standards, procedures and principles that must be
followed. If a law is not followed, those responsible for breaking
them can be prosecuted in court.
So, policy sets out the goals and planned activities of a ministry
and department but it may be necessary to pass a law to enable
government to put in place the necessary institutional and legal
frameworks to achieve their aims. Laws must be guided by current
government policy.
Stages of policy and law making
Government and parliamentary structures as well as the different
branches of government all play very important roles in the making
of laws and policies. Below is an explanation of the stages of
making policies and laws, using a specific example of compulsory
Stage one – Ruling party conference gives vision, goals and
Stage one in the process takes place at the major conferences of the
ruling party where policies are made. At these conferences
particular issues are debated and discussed and the ruling party
decides its overall vision, goals and direction on specific issues.
For example, the ruling party may decide at their national
conference that the policy regarding access to education should be
that all children under the age of 17 must be in school –
compulsory education. It is now the role of the party’s members in
the executive and legislative arms of government at national and
provincial levels to initiate the processes that will lead to the
implementation of this policy.
Stage two – Executive (Ministry) draws up policy on an issue
Stage two of the process takes place at national level where the
ruling party attempts to convert its party policy into official
government policy or law following the procedures prescribed by
the Constitution. It is clear therefore that there is a strong political
link between key legislative and executive structures and the
majority party.
It is the responsibility of the executive branch of government to
develop new policies and laws. It is the responsibility of the
legislative branch (Parliament) to approve policies and pass new
laws to give legal effect to the policies. But this is a long and slow
process during which the policy or law proposed by the ruling
party is debated and negotiated with various stakeholders, such as
opposition parties, the public, non-government organisations, etc.
This can take many years to complete.
During this time, the government ministries will draft discussion
documents, called Green Papers and White Papers on the policy or
law to allow for debate and comment. Public service Senior
Management Service members are often used as resource people
for this process. Various parliamentary and select committees in
national Parliament and in the National Council of Provinces, as
well as portfolio committees in Provincial Legislatures provide
opportunities for public participation in debating the proposed
policy or law.
Stakeholders can use different opportunities for input, such as
attending parliamentary committee hearings, setting up meetings
with department heads or the minister, using the media to put
pressure, etc.
The ruling party has stated its policy of compulsory education for
all children under the age of 17. The national Minister of
Education now informs his/her department of the need for a policy
document to be produced on this issue. The first discussion
document to be published will be a Green paper. This will be
drawn up by the Ministry and the Education Department with the
help of advisors, experts in education, advisory committees, etc.
The Green paper identifies the key issues and suggests
alternatives. It is then made public and invites comment from all
stakeholders and the public.
Stage three - Finalising a policy
Stage three of the process is when the policy is finalised by the
relevant Department and Ministry. Once a policy has been properly
debated the Department and Ministry look at the issues and options
and draw up a final policy which is published as a White Paper.
The White Paper is a statement of intent and a detailed policy plan
which often forms the basis of legislation. It is debated and
adopted by Parliament and approved by Cabinet.
The Education Department looks at all the options and comments
from stakeholders and the public regarding the policy of
compulsory education for all children under the age of 17 years.
For example, there may be input from Treasury saying that the
government cannot afford to provide compulsory education
immediately for all children under 17 years, so the policy should
be phased in over 5 years. If agreed to by the Portfolio Committee
these changes will be included in the revised document which is
called a White Paper. Cabinet then has to approve the final policy.
Stage four - Passing a law
A White Paper often forms the basis of legislation. If the Minister
or the Department decides that a new law is necessary to achieve
its objectives and implement its policy, the Department will begin
the job of drafting the new law. In its early stages before a new law
has been tabled in Parliament it is called a draft Bill. Once it has
been tabled in Parliament it is called a Bill.
Before the draft Bill is tabled in parliament the following takes
• The draft Bill goes to the relevant Cabinet committee for

• Once Cabinet has given its approval it may be released for

public comment.

• Once comment has been received, the department and

ministry will make any changes they think are necessary as
a result of public input.

• The draft Bill goes to Cabinet to ensure that it has kept to

agreed aims and principles and does not contradict any
other policies.

• The draft Bill is sent to the State legal advisors for legal

• The draft Bill is then tabled by the Minister in Parliament.

Once a Bill has been tabled, it will be given a number and then
released as a Bill, for example, B6 of 2004 and go through the
process of becoming a law. This is a summary of the steps:

• The Bill is sent to the National Assembly (NA) who will

refer it to the relevant Portfolio Committee.

• The Portfolio Committee reviews the Bill and asks for

public comment. When the Portfolio Committee considers
the Bill it is regarded as the best time to lobby for changes
or to protest the principle of the Bill. Once the committee
has made changes and asked for clarity, they will send a
report on their findings to the NA.

• The NA considers the Bill and then votes on it with the

changes the Portfolio Committee may have made.

• The Bill then goes to the National Council of Provinces

(NCOP) where the appropriate Select Committee in the
NCOP considers the Bill. The Bill goes through a different
process depending on whether it contains issues that affect
the provinces or not.
Table showing how NCOP works when it receives a Bill
If the Bill contains issues that affect the provinces If the Bill contains issues that do not affect
(s76 Bill) the provinces (S 75 Bill)
Members of the Select Committee go to their own The NCOP considers the Bill and can
provinces to review the Bill. either reject or propose changes that are
Each Provincial legislature gives a recommended by the Select Committee.
provincial mandate that recommends
changes or leaves it as it stands. Each member of the NCOP
votes according to their party.
Provincial representatives report back to the NCOP If the NCOP makes changes to the Bill, it
Select Committee on their provincial decisions. will need to go back to the NA for
The Select Committee then negotiates a
final version of the Bill and sends a
report of their decision and any
suggested changes to the NCOP.
The NCOP considers the report and then
votes on the Bill. Each province gets one
If the NCOP makes changes to the Bill,
it will need to go back to the NA for
Once both houses of Parliament have agreed to a final version of a
Bill, it will be sent to the President. The President then signs the
Bill and it becomes an Act and law in South Africa.
Stage five - Subordinate legislation and implementing the law
and policy
Once National Parliament has passed a law, or a policy has been
published, it is up to national and provincial ministries and
departments to implement the law and/or policy.
If it is necessary national and provincial legislatures and local
authorities can pass subordinate legislation that gives more detail
on matters contained in the original law. Examples of subordinated
legislation are:

• Proclamations issued by the President

• Regulations for acts made by ministers

• Regulations of local authorities

• Provincial proclamations

• Municipal by-laws
A provincial legislature can also make its own laws on areas that
are defined in the Constitution. These laws will only apply to the
province which has made the law.
Local governments can also pass ordinances that have the same
legal force as national and provincial parliaments.
The Policy-making Process is an examination of the process of policy-making from a political
science perspective. It focuses upon analytic policy-making and the role of power therein.
The Policy-making Process has been required reading in multiple political science courses at the
University of Colorado at Boulder. This work will be of interest to readers who wish to improve
their understanding of the policy-making process. Lindblom has divided the work into three
main parts with an introduction and appendix. Chapter one is an introduction which examines
the relationship between policy-making and political science. Part one is devoted to the topic of
analytic policy-making. The author discusses: policy analysis, the limits of that analysis and how
one might make the most effective use of that analysis, however limited.
Part two focuses upon what Lindblom terms, 'the play of power'. The first chapter in this section
outlines this metaphorical play. The author then examines in turn, the components, or those
parties who are holding power to make policy. He first considers the citizen as policy-maker.
Next, he examines the relationship between the voter and the competition between political
parties for the power to make policy. The effect of interest-group leaders on the formation of
policy is considered prior to a discussion of proximate policy-makers. The necessity and
complexities of organized cooperation among these proximate policy-makers is the subject of
chapter ten. Chapter eleven expands this discussion by considering informal cooperation among
proximate policy-makers.
The final part is an overview containing two chapters. The first of which considers how policy-
making is also a way for reconstructing preferences. The final chapter addresses three allegations
made against the American policy-making system. That the system is out of control; that the
system is controlled by an elite; and that regardless of the validity of either allegation, the system
is not sufficiently responsive to ordinary citizens are examined separately. The text is appended
with a summary of analysis, or executive summary of the book.
The Policy-making Process is an introductory analysis of policy-making. It offers a political
science perspective which focuses upon power relationships in its assessment of policy-making.