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NSW MARITIME

ENGINEERING STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES FOR MARITIME


STRUCTURES

COPYRIGHT

© NSW Maritime

This Document is copyright. No part of this Document may be reproduced or copied in any
form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, without the written
permission of the Chief Executive, NSW Maritime.

Published by NSW Maritime, Locked Bag 5100 Camperdown NSW 1450. All enquiries to be
addressed to the Chief Executive, NSW Maritime.

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Engineering Standards & Guidelines NSW Maritime
For Maritime Structures
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DISCLAIMER

Every effort has been made and all reasonable care taken to ensure the accuracy of
the material contained within this Document.

However, the Waterways Authority trading as NSW Maritime does not accept any
liability or responsibility in any way whatsoever and expressly disclaims any liability
or responsibility for any loss, damage or costs howsoever incurred by any person as
a result of or in connection with reliance upon any part of this Document.

Where required, independent advice from competent professional persons should be


sought on matters covered in this Document.

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CONTENTS
Page
SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL

1.1 General 5
1.2 Reference Documents 5
1.3 Notations 5
1.4 Definitions 6

SECTION 2 SITE INVESTIGATION

2.1 General 11
2.2 Survey 11
2.3 Geotechnical 11
2.4 Existing Structures 12
2.5 Assessment 12

SECTION 3 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

3.1 General 13
3.2 Australian Standards 13
3.3 Stability 14
3.4 Strength 14
3.5 Serviceability 14
3.6 Durability 14
3.7 Redundancy 15
3.8 Design Life 15
3.9 Scour and Siltation 15
3.10 Sea Level Rise 15
3.11 Disability Requirements 16
3.12 Risk 16
3.13 Health and Safety 16

SECTION 4 DESIGN ACTIONS

4.1 General 17
4.2 Imposed Actions 17

SECTION 5 TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION

5.1 General 21
5.2 Marinas 21
5.3 Wharves, Jetties and Boardwalks 21
5.4 Piles 21
5.5 Ramps 22
5.6 Handrails 22
5.7 Pontoons 21
5.8 Fenders 23
5.9 Boat Ramps 23
5.10 Boatsheds 24
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5.11 Seawalls 24
5.12 Ladders 24
5.13 Davits and Winches 24
5.14 Stormwater Drains 25
5.15 Slipways 25
5.16 Skids 25
5.17 Embankments 25
5.18 Stairs and Steps 26
5.19 Lifebuoys 26
5.20 Demolition 26

SECTION 6 MATERIALS

6.1 General 27
6.2 Concrete 27
6.3 Steel 29
6.4 Timber 30

SECTION 7 MAINTENANCE

7.1 General 32
7.2 Inspections 32

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SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL

1.1 GENERAL

This Document sets out minimum engineering standards for maritime


structures proposed to be constructed on the NSW Maritime Authority’s
land.

1.2 REFERENCE DOCUMENTS

The following are recommended as useful reference documents.

1.2.1 Design Guidelines for Wharves and Jetties – NSW Public


Works 1990

Advice is provided for the planning, investigation, assessment, design,


construction and maintenance of public wharves and jetties. Guidance is
given on pile design and calculating berthing forces.

1.2.2 Marina Guidelines – NSW Public Works 1987

Guidance is given on approval processes, site investigation, design


loads, planning, design, materials, safety aspects, services, boat
launching ramps and maintenance of marinas.

1.2.3 Boat Launching Ramps – Guidelines – NSW Public Works


Department 1985

Advice is provided for the design and construction of trailer-boat


launching facilities. Guidance is given on planning, geometry, materials
and design of boat ramps.

1.2.4 British Standard Code of Practice for Maritime Structures –


BS6349

Advice and guidance are given on the planning, design, construction and
maintenance of maritime structures.

1.3 NOTATIONS

CD
Chart Datum.

DWT
Dead Weight Tonnage.

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GRT
Gross Registered Tonnage.

H1
Wave height used for the design of structures.

Hs
Significant wave height.

HAT
Highest Astronomical Tide.

ISLW
Indian Spring Low Water.

LAT
Lowest Astronomical Tide.

LOA
Length overall of a vessel.

MHWM
Mean High Water Mark.

MSL
Mean Sea Level.

ZFDTG
Zero Fort Denison Tide Gauge.

1.4 DEFINITIONS

For the purpose of this Document the definitions below apply.

Accretion
The growth of sand banks and other marine deposits by the movement
and settlement of waterborne particles.

Bathymetry
The depth of water in oceans, seas, rivers and lakes.

Beam
The greatest width of a vessel including all permanent attachments.

Berth
An area of water allocated for the wet storage of vessels attached to a
fixed or floating facility and allowing for walk-on access to the vessels.

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Boardwalk
A horizontal decked walkway on piered or piled footings, providing
pedestrian access that extends over or beyond the intertidal zone, but not
intended to provide direct access to a vessel.

Boat ramp
A structure designed primarily for the launching of trailer-borne
recreational vessels and includes associated car parking facilities.

Boatshed
A building or other structure used for the storage and routine
maintenance of a boat or boats and which is associated with a private
residence and includes any skid or other structure or device used in
connection with the building.

Breakwater
A fixed or floating barrier in the water to intercept waves and create a
sheltered area to protect vessels and property from storm and wave
damage.

Capwale
A horizontal structural member connecting two or more piles and
providing support for superstructure decking, girders and joists.

Channel
An unobstructed waterway which allows the movement of vessel traffic.

Chart Datum
The datum used on Australian hydrographic charts and other
hydrographic surveys for the specific region. This datum usually
corresponds to the level of LAT.

Chine
The lower external line of any flotation component.

Davit
A mechanical device used for lifting or lowering a vessel out of or into the
water.

Dredging
The removal of material from the sea or harbour bed or the bed of a river
below MHWM.

Fairway
An unobstructed waterway between rows of berths which allows vessel
movement between interior channels and individual berths.

Fender
A buffer, usually made or rubber or timber, to protect vessels and
structures against damage during berthing.

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Fetch
The distance over open water across which wind waves can be
generated.

Freeboard
The vertical distance between the still water level and the top of the
flotation unit of a pontoon.

Gangway or Ramp
A structure which provides pedestrian access between a walkway or
shore and a floating structure or vessel.

Girder or Joist
A longitudinal structural member supporting the deck of a boardwalk, jetty
or wharf.

Headstock
A horizontal structural member connecting two or more piles and
providing support for girders or joists. A headstock is generally supported
directly on the top of the piles.

Indian Spring Low Water (ISLW)


Obsolete estimate of LAT formerly used as Chart Datum. Equates to a
reading of zero on the Fort Denison Tide Gauge.

Jetty
A horizontal decked walkway on piered or piled footings providing
pedestrian access from the shore to the waterway.

Landing steps
A set of steps located at the end of a jetty or abutting a seawall or rock
face used for providing access from vessels to the shore.

Length overall
The length of a vessel measured between extremities of fittings.

Marina
A group of pontoons, jetties, piers or similar structures designed or
adapted to provide berthing for vessels used primarily for pleasure and
recreation and may include ancillary works such as slipways, facilities for
the repair and maintenance of vessels and the provision of fuel,
provisions and accessories.

Mean High Water Mark (MHWM)


The position where the plane of the mean of all ordinary local high tides
intersects the foreshore. This is presently 1.48 m above ZFDTG.

Mean Low Water Mark (MLWM)


The position where the plane of the mean of all ordinary local low tides
intersects the foreshore. This is presently 0.415 m above ZFDTG.

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Mean Sea Level


The average of the sea surface over a long period, or the average level
which would exist in the absence of tides.

Mooring
A detached or freestanding structure to which a vessel is moored.

Pontoon
A floating platform used for access to the water or a vessel.

Reclamation
An area of dry land that was previously submerged land but now is
enclosed by seawalls that alter the natural line of the foreshore.

Revetment
An inclined face of stone, concrete or synthetic material protecting an
embankment from waves or currents.

Seawall
A structure separating land and sea.

Significant wave height (Hs)


The average height of the highest one third of waves in any given time
interval.

Skid
An inclined ramp used for the manual launching of small craft but does
not include a slipway.

Slipway
A structure, usually in the form of two supported parallel rails on which a
wheeled cradle is run to draw a vessel out of the water for maintenance
and repair and includes any facility over which a vessel or object is
hauled by means of a manually operated or power operated appliance
such as a powered or manual winch, a block and tackle, etc.

Sponson
A rubbing strip, generally at the main deck level, to strengthen and
protect a vessel from berthing impacts.

Stub jetty
A short jetty designed as support for a ramp or gangway to access a
pontoon.

Swimming enclosure
A net or other structure placed in the waterway for the purpose of
providing a protected swimming area.

Vessel
Any boat longer than 5.2 m excluding rowing boats, dinghies and other
non-motorised craft.

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Vessel displacement
The total mass of a vessel and its contents.

Wharf
A structure on and parallel to the foreshore alongside which vessels may
lie to load or unload cargo, passengers, etc.

Zero Fort Denison Tide Gauge (ZFDTG)


The hydrographic datum adopted by the NSW Maritime Authority in
Sydney Harbour.

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SECTION 2 SITE INVESTIGATION

2.1 GENERAL

Site investigations are an essential part of the planning and design of


maritime structures. Consequently, site investigations should be
undertaken to provide sufficient information for the design and
construction of any maritime structure.

It is anticipated that site investigations will be aimed at two levels.

The first level, preliminary investigation, will be aimed at collecting


information to assess whether the proposed facility is feasible. This
assessment will usually be carried out based upon a site inspection and a
review of existing data.

The second level, detailed investigation, will generally proceed following


development consent and will usually be based on detailed hydrographic
surveys and geotechnical investigations.

2.2 SURVEY

Hydrographic surveys are required in order to determine the available


depth of water and in particular to determine whether any dredging will be
necessary in order to accommodate the proposed structure. Reference is
made to the NSW Maritime Authority’s Guidance Note GN 03 – Depths in
Berths and Fairways.

Hydrographic surveys shall be undertaken in accordance with the NSW


Maritime Authority’s Guidance Note GN 01 – Provision of Hydrographic
and Geotechnical Data.

2.3 GEOTECHNICAL

Geotechnical investigations are required in order to determine the


properties and constituents of the seabed and underlying rock strata and
the depths of the various layers comprising the seabed.

Information required from an investigation might include some or all of the


following:

(a) soil, sediment and rock classification;


(b) grain size distributions and shape;
(c) in-situ soil density;
(d) stratigraphy;
(e) soil strength parameters;
(f) soil deformation parameters and;
(g) chemical composition of any sediments to be dredged.
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Geotechnical investigations are generally performed under the direction


of specialist geotechnical engineers and geologists.

Geotechnical data shall be collected in accordance with the NSW


Maritime Authority’s Guidance Note GN 01 – Provision of Hydrographic
and Geotechnical Data.

2.4 EXISTING STRUCTURES

Any existing structures on the site need to be considered during the


planning and design of proposed new structures.

In particular, site investigations should consider the following aspects:

(a) whether any part of an existing structure is suitable to be


incorporated into the new structure; and
(b) where any part of an existing structure will become redundant,
demolition of same.

2.5 ASSESSMENT

Together with the above, site investigations should also include


assessment of the following aspects:

(a) wind climate;


(b) wave climate;
(c) currents;
(d) water levels (tidal range, storm surge, flood levels, seiching);
(e) coastal processes (accretion, erosion); and
(f) services.

For further guidance on these aspects, reference is made to the British


Standard Code of Practice for Maritime Structures – BS6349 and
Standard Australia’s - DR 02536 - Guidelines for Design of Maritime
Structures.

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SECTION 3 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

3.1 GENERAL

The design of maritime structures proposed on the NSW Maritime


Authority’s land shall take into account, as appropriate, stability, strength,
serviceability, durability and redundancy.

The design shall be carried out in accordance with appropriate Australian


Standards together with the requirements of this Document. Where this
document and the appropriate Australian Standards conflict, the requirements
of the Australian Standards will prevail to the extent of the conflict.

3.2 AUSTRALIAN STANDARDS

Commonly used Australian Standards for the design of elements of


maritime structures include the following.

AS/NZS1170.0 Structural design actions – General principles

AS/NZS1170.1 Structural design actions – Permanent, imposed and


other actions

AS/NZS1170.2 Structural design actions – Wind actions

AS/NZS1170.4 Minimum design loads on structures – Earthquake


loads

AS1428 Design for access and mobility

AS/NZS1664.1 Aluminium structures – Limit state design

AS/NZS1664.2 Aluminium structures – Working stress design

AS1657 Fixed platforms, walkways, stairways and ladders –


Design, construction and installation

AS1684.1 Residential timber framed construction – Design


criteria

AS1720.1 Timber structures - Design methods

AS2159 Piling – Design and installation

AS3600 Concrete structures

AS3962 Guidelines for design of marinas

AS4100 Steel structures

DR02536 Guidelines for design of maritime structures

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Generally these Standards are strength limit state or ultimate limit state
design though some are working stress design.

3.3 STABILITY

The structure and its elements shall be designed for static stability under
overturning, uplift and sliding and for dynamic stability. Appropriate
combinations of design actions shall be considered so that stability loads
and other actions exceed the destabilising loads and other actions.

3.4 STRENGTH

The structure and its elements shall be designed for strength in


accordance with appropriate Australian Standards together with the
requirements of this Document as follows:

(a) Determine the appropriate loads and other actions;


(b) Combine and factor the loads to determine design loads for
strength;
(c) Determine the design action effects for the structure and its
elements for each load case; and
(d) Determine the design strength.

The effects of fatigue from wind, wave and current action under normal
conditions shall also be considered.

3.5 SERVICEABILITY

The structure and its elements shall be designed for serviceability by


controlling or limiting settlement, horizontal displacement and cracking.

Under the appropriate load combinations for serviceability design, vertical


deflection shall be limited in accordance with the requirements of the
appropriate materials Standards.

Horizontal deflection and acceleration limits for trafficable structures shall


be limited to a maximum deflection of l /150, where l is the distance
between underside of the deck structure to the level of the support in the
seabed, and a maximum acceleration of 0.1 g.

3.6 DURABILITY

The structure and its elements shall be designed for durability in


accordance with this Document.

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3.7 REDUNDANCY

Consideration should be given in the design of the structure and its


elements to allow for redundancies to prevent failure of the structure in
the event of the loss of a critical element.

For example, when designing a timber capwale supported by timber


piles, consideration should be given to specifying at least one additional
bolt than that required for strength purposes at the capwale/pile
connection and/or notching the capwale into the pile.

3.8 DESIGN LIFE

Design life is the period of time for which a structure or an element of the
structure remains fit for use for its intended purpose with appropriate
maintenance. The design life of maritime structures will depend on the
type of facility, the intended function and the applicant’s requirements.

Design life should be based on consideration of capital and maintenance


expenditure. The designer, in consultation with the applicant, should
determine an appropriate maintenance regime consistent with the
adopted design and materials that will achieve the design life.

Particular care should be taken when considering design life and


maintenance regimes for inaccessible elements of the structure. Such
elements should have a design life (with no maintenance) equal to the
design life of the structure.

At the end of its design life, the structure should have adequate strength
to resist ultimate loads and be serviceable, but may have reached a
stage where further deterioration will result in inadequate structural
capacity.

Guidance on design life is given in Standard Australia’s - DR 02536 -


Guidelines for Design of Maritime Structures. It is recommended that a
minimum design life of 25 years be adopted for maritime structures.

3.9 SCOUR AND SILTATION

The structure and its elements shall be designed to remain stable, of


sufficient strength and not become over-stressed in the event of
temporary or permanent changes in the level of the seabed due to scour
or siltation.

3.10 SEA LEVEL RISE

Structures shall be designed to allow for future sea level rise caused by
global warming.

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Guidance on the amount of sea level rise to be considered is given in


Standard Australia’s - DR 02536 - Guidelines for Design of Maritime
Structures.

3.11 DISABILITY REQUIREMENTS

Structures which will be utilised by the public shall be designed to provide


access for disabled persons in accordance with AS1428 and the
Commonwealth Government’s - Disability Standards for Accessible
Public Transport Guidelines 2001 and this Document.

Aspects that are to be considered and addressed in the design include,


but are not limited to the following:

(a) Ramp slope;


(b) Lighting;
(c) Obstructions;
(d) Tactile surfaces; and
(e) Rest points.

3.12 RISK

Consideration shall be given in the design of the structure and its


elements to firstly identify, then minimise or remove risks to future users
of the structure.

Examples of potential risks to users include, but are not limited to the
following:

(a) Tripping;
(b) Slipping;
(c) Falling;
(d) Pinch spots;
(e) Inadequate lighting;
(f) Inadequate safety and rescue equipment; and
(g) Inadequate egress points from the water.

3.13 HEALTH AND SAFETY

The design of all structures to be used by the public or to be used in a


workplace shall take into consideration occupational health and safety
requirements in accordance with the Occupational Health & Safety Act
2000 and Workcover NSW.

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SECTION 4 DESIGN ACTIONS

4.1 GENERAL

The design for ultimate strength, serviceability, stability and other relevant
limit states shall take into account appropriate design actions in
accordance with AS/NZS1170 and Standard Australia’s - DR 02536 -
Guidelines for Design of Maritime Structures except as modified by this
Document.

In particular, the following design actions shall be considered, where


appropriate:

(a) permanent actions (dead loads);


(b) imposed actions (live loads);
(c) wind actions;
(d) current and debris actions;
(e) hydrostatic actions;
(f) wave actions;
(g) construction and maintenance actions;
(h) lateral earth actions;
(i) boat wash; and
(j) earthquake actions.

Combinations of design actions shall be considered generally in


accordance with AS/NZS1170 and Standard Australia’s - DR 02536 -
Guidelines for Design of Maritime Structures.

4.2 IMPOSED ACTIONS

4.2.1 Marinas

Minimum live loads for marinas shall generally comply with AS3962.

Fixed structures, other than gangways, shall be designed for a minimum


uniformly distributed live load of 5.0 kPa or a minimum concentrated live
load of 4.5 kN whichever produces the more adverse effect.

Gangways shall be designed for a minimum uniformly distributed live load


of 4.0 kPa or a minimum concentrated live load of 4.5 kN whichever
produces the more adverse effect.

Floating structures shall be designed for a minimum flotation load of 3.0


kPa or a minimum stability load of 2.0 kPa.

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4.2.2 Wharves, jetties and boardwalks

Minimum live loads for wharves, jetties and boardwalks shall generally
comply with Standard Australia’s - DR 02536 - Guidelines for Design of
Maritime Structures.

Wharves, jetties and boardwalks subject to pedestrian traffic only shall be


designed for a minimum uniformly distributed live load of 5.0 kPa or a
minimum concentrated live load of 4.5 kN whichever produces the more
adverse effect.

Where wharves, jetties and boardwalks are subject to access by


emergency and service vehicles such structures shall be designed for a
minimum uniformly distributed live load of 10.0 kPa or a minimum
concentrated live load of 45.0 kN whichever produces the more adverse
effect.

4.2.3 Ramps

Ramps leading from wharves, jetties, boardwalks or the like shall be


designed for a minimum uniformly distributed live load of 4.0 kPa or a
minimum concentrated live load of 4.5 kN whichever produces the more
adverse effect.

4.2.4 Handrails

Minimum live loads for handrails, including handrails associated with


gangways and ramps, shall generally comply with those given for
guardrails in accordance with AS1657 Clause 2.1.2.2.

4.2.5 Pontoons

Pontoons shall be designed for the minimum flotation and stability loads
as shown in the following table.

CATEGORY FLOTATION LOAD * (kPa) STABILITY LOAD ** (kPa)

Private 1.5 1.5

Home Units 2.0 2.0

School/Club 2.0 2.0

Marina 3.0 2.0

Public 3.0 3.0

* Flotation load to be applied over the whole of the pontoon deck area and ramp
where applicable. For pontoons that will support shelters or building structures, the

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flotation load shall also be applied to the whole of the roof area of such shelters or
structures.

** Stability load to be applied in the most adverse locations over the pontoon deck
area and ramp where applicable with consideration being given to pattern loading.
For pontoons that will support shelters or building structures, the stability load shall
also be applied to the roof area of such shelters or structures.

4.2.6 Fenders

Fenders shall be designed so that the deceleration of the


vessel/acceleration of the berthing structure does not exceed 0.1 g.

In deriving the berthing energy of a vessel, the eccentricity factor Ce shall


be taken as 1.0.

4.2.7 Boat ramps

Boat ramps shall be designed for a minimum uniformly distributed live


load of 10.0 kPa or a minimum concentrated live load of 45.0 kN
whichever produces the more adverse effect.

4.2.8 Boatsheds

Minimum live loads for boatsheds shall generally comply with the Building
Code of Australia.

4.2.9 Seawalls

Subject to recreational use only of the land behind the seawall, seawalls
shall be designed for a minimum uniformly distributed surcharge live load
of 5.0 kPa.

4.2.10 Ladders

Minimum live loads for ladders shall generally comply with AS1657
Clause 2.1.2.5.

4.2.11 Skids

Skids shall be designed for a minimum uniformly distributed live load of


4.0 kPa or a minimum concentrated live load of 4.5 kN whichever
produces the more adverse effect.

4.2.12 Stairs and steps

Steps shall be designed for a minimum uniformly distributed live load of


4.0 kPa or a minimum concentrated live load of 4.5 kN whichever
produces the more adverse effect.

Minimum live loads for stairs shall generally comply with AS1657 Clause
2.1.2.4.

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4.2.13 Marine growth

It is recommended that in stability calculations for concrete pontoons


allowance is made for marine growth with a minimum buoyant weight on
all submerged surfaces of 15 kg/m2.

Fibreglass pontoons are generally not affected by marine growth.

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SECTION 5 TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION

5.1 GENERAL

Requirements are given below in relation to various types of construction


for which the NSW Maritime Authority’s approval is sought.

These requirements are not exhaustive and designers shall investigate


and determine the requirements relevant to the type of construction for
which approval is being sought.

5.2 MARINAS

Marinas shall be generally designed in accordance with AS3962.

Marina berths and fairways shall comply with the NSW Maritime
Authority’s - Guidance Note GN 03 - Depths in Berths and Fairways.

5.3 WHARVES, JETTIES AND BOARDWALKS

Wharves, jetties and boardwalks shall generally be designed in


accordance with Standard Australia’s - DR 02536 - Guidelines for Design
of Maritime Structures.

Wharves, jetties and boardwalks shall be designed so as not to impose


lateral loads on existing seawalls.

Wharves, jetties and boardwalks providing for disabled access shall be


designed in accordance with AS1428 and the Commonwealth
Government’s - Disability Standards for Accessible Public Transport
Guidelines 2001.

Wharves, jetties and boardwalks shall have a minimum clear width of 1.8
m.

5.4 PILES

Piles shall generally be designed and installed in accordance with


AS2159.

Consideration shall be given to achievable tolerances when installing


piles over water when designing elements of structures to later be
connected to such piles.

Consideration shall be given to marine growth when designing piles.

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Where timber piles are used they shall have a minimum toe diameter of
300 mm.

5.5 RAMPS

Ramps leading from wharves, jetties, boardwalks or the like shall


generally be designed in accordance with Standard Australia’s - DR
02536 - Guidelines for Design of Maritime Structures.

Attention shall be given to the design of connections and appropriate


bracing where lateral loads from the end of the ramp are being
transferred to the jetty.

Ramps for facilities providing for disabled access shall be designed in


accordance with AS1428 and the Commonwealth Government’s -
Disability Standards for Accessible Public Transport Guidelines 2001.

Ramps shall have a minimum clear width of 1.2 m.

5.6 HANDRAILS

Handrails shall generally be designed in accordance with AS1657.

Handrails for facilities providing for disabled access shall be designed in


accordance with AS1428 and the Commonwealth Government’s -
Disability Standards for Accessible Public Transport Guidelines 2001.

5.7 PONTOONS

Pontoons shall be stable under the most adverse combination of dead


and live loads applied to the pontoon deck. Under such loads, unless
permitted otherwise, the following requirements shall be met:

(a) For pontoons with a rectilinear flotation system, the minimum


freeboard shall be the greater of 50 mm or 5% of the moulded
depth of the pontoon, measured from the top of the flotation unit;
(b) For pontoons with a horizontal cylindrical flotation system, the
minimum freeboard shall be the greater of 50 mm or 25% of the
diameter of the cylindrical float, measured from the top of the
flotation system;
(c) The pontoon chine shall not emerge; and
(d) The angle of tilt shall not exceed 15 degrees.

Consideration shall be given to marine growth when designing pontoons.

Pontoon stability shall be calculated in accordance with the metacentric


height method.

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Any restraint from adjacent piles or moored vessels shall not be taken
into account in calculations for pontoon stability.

Pontoons composed of a number of compartments shall be designed so


that the stability requirements above are met with a single compartment
flooded. All compartments should be accessible from hatches in the
pontoon deck and consideration should be given to ventilation of all
compartments.

Pontoon decks shall be designed to have a positive fixing to the flotation


unit. Such fixings shall be capable of supporting the deck in the event the
pontoon turns over.

Consideration should be given to the “ride” of the pontoon together with


its suitability for the proposed wave and wind climate. Factors such as
weight, freeboard and form of restraint shall be considered in the pontoon
design.

For certain types of pontoons involving a stepped or sloped deck the


NSW Maritime Authority may give consideration to varying the above
stability requirements and may permit part of the deck to become
submerged. Such pontoons will be considered on a case by case basis.

The minimum depth of water required to accommodate a pontoon shall


generally comply with Clause 3.3 of the NSW Maritime Authority’s -
Guidance Note GN 03 - Depths in Berths and Fairways. This depth of
water shall be provided under the pontoon and for a minimum distance of
500 mm measured in plan around the pontoon perimeter.

5.8 FENDERS

Fenders shall generally be designed in accordance with Standard


Australia’s - DR 02536 - Guidelines for Design of Maritime Structures.

Proprietary fenders are recommended to be used and in these instances


manufacturer’s catalogues will assist in the selection of an appropriate
fender.

Absorption of a proportion of the berthing energy through deflection of the


vessel hull is not recommended. Consideration should be given to not
exceed the vessel hull pressure when berthing.

5.9 BOAT RAMPS

Boat ramps shall generally be designed in accordance with the Public


Works Department’s - Boat Launching Ramps Guidelines.

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5.10 BOATSHEDS

Boatsheds shall generally be designed in accordance with AS1684 and


the Building Code of Australia.

Attention shall be given to the design of connections and in particular


bracing and tie-down details to resist wind loads.

5.11 SEAWALLS

Seawalls shall generally be designed in accordance with Standard


Australia’s - DR 02536 - Guidelines for Design of Maritime Structures and
AS4678.

Where applicable, seawalls shall be designed taking into account the


recommendations made in the NSW Maritime Authority’s – Guidelines for
Waterside Works Subject to Rivercat and Harbourcat Wash.

Allowance shall be made in the design for the loss of at least 600 mm of
material from the seaward face of the seawall unless the seawall is
founded on rock.

Seawalls shall be designed to incorporate drainage holes together with a


suitable filter layer to relieve water pressure behind the seawall.

5.12 LADDERS

Ladders shall be installed to permit access to and from the water where
suitable alternate access is not possible in close proximity to a maritime
structure.

Ladders shall generally be designed in accordance with AS1657 as step-


through ladders.

The maximum spacing between ladders shall not exceed 50 m unless


there are objects located between ladders that a person in the water can
hold on to as they attempt to make their way to a ladder. In such
situations the maximum spacing between such objects and between such
an object and a ladder shall not exceed 10 m.

The ladders rungs shall extend from deck level down to below low water
level with the bottom rung 300 mm below LAT.

5.13 DAVITS AND WINCHES

Davits and winches shall generally be designed in accordance with


AS1418.

Davits and winches shall comply with the requirements of the WorkCover
Authority’s - Construction Safety Branch - Requirements for Shore
Mounted Cranes and Hoists .
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Proprietary davits and winches are recommended to be used. In these


instances, applicants should ensure that the manufacturer is prepared to
supply a certificate indicating that the davit or winch has been designed in
accordance with the above requirements.

5.14 STORMWATER DRAINS

Stormwater drains shall generally be designed in accordance with the


NSW Maritime Authority’s - Guidance Note GN 100 – Stormwater
Discharge.

5.15 SLIPWAYS

Slipways shall generally be designed in accordance with Standard


Australia’s - DR 02536 - Guidelines for Design of Maritime Structures.

A minimum horizontal clearance of 600 mm over a vertically projected


height of 2 m shall be provided each side of the slipway between the
vessel cradle and any other object during slipway operations.

Vessel cradle track wheels shall be guarded to prevent persons


becoming trapped between the leading face of the track wheel and the
slipway rail.

Winch controls shall be located so that the vessel cradle remains in full
view of the operator during slipway operations.

5.16 SKIDS

Skids shall generally be designed in accordance with Standard


Australia’s - DR 02536 - Guidelines for Design of Maritime Structures.

Skids shall be designed to provide a safe foothold. This can be achieved


by means of spaced decking or the use of cleats. Where cleats are used
they shall comply with AS1657 Clause 3.1.2.

5.17 EMBANKMENTS

Embankments shall generally be designed in accordance with the US


Army’s Shore Protection Manual.

Where applicable, embankments shall be designed taking into account


the recommendations made in the NSW Maritime Authority’s – Guidelines
for Waterside Works Subject to Rivercat and Harbourcat Wash.

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5.18 STAIRS AND STEPS

Stairs and steps shall generally be designed in accordance with Standard


Australia’s - DR 02536 - Guidelines for Design of Maritime Structures and
AS1657.

Steps shall have a minimum clear width of 1.8 m.

Stairs shall have a minimum clear width of 1.2 m.


Steps in the tidal zone shall be provided with an antiskid treatment.

5.19 LIFEBUOYS

Lifebuoys shall be provided on all public facilities.

Lifebuoys shall be located in order to cover the water area a distance of


10 m measured in plan around the perimeter of the public facility.

Lifebuoys shall generally comply with the Australian Maritime Safety


Authority’s Marine Orders Part 25 Appendix 1.1.

Lifebuoys shall be fitted with a buoyant lifeline which shall comply with
the Australian Maritime Safety Authority’s Marine Orders Part 25
Appendix 1.4.

5.20 DEMOLITION

Demolition shall generally be carried out in accordance with AS2601.

All demolished materials shall be removed from site and disposed of in


an approved manner in accordance with AS2601.

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SECTION 6 MATERIALS

6.1 GENERAL

Maritime structures are usually located in very aggressive environments.


Materials for maritime structures shall be chosen so that the structures
are capable of withstanding this environment and achieving the required
design life in conjunction with an appropriate preventative maintenance
programme.

Materials shall generally comply with the durability requirements specified


in Standard Australia’s - DR 02536 - Guidelines for Design of Maritime
Structures and appropriate Australian Standards.

Whilst this Section only deals with the use of typical materials, it does not
preclude the use of other materials.

6.2 CONCRETE

6.2.1 General

The deterioration of concrete maritime structures is predominantly caused


by the corrosion of steel reinforcement and prestressing tendons as a
result of chlorides in the marine environment coming into contact with
steel.

Steel corrosion shall be minimised by designing durable concrete


structures and limiting concrete crack widths. Common methods used to
achieve the above include, but are not limited to the following:

(a) use of plain concrete members;


(b) use of high strength, low water to binder ratio concrete mixes;
(c) use of chemical absorption agents in the concrete mix;
(d) use of pore blockers in the form of admixtures to wet concrete or
surface applications to finished concrete;
(e) painting of concrete members;
(f) use of non corrosive reinforcement such as galvanised steel,
stainless steel, plastic filament and carbon fibre;
(g) designing for low stresses in steel reinforcement;
(h) minimising the use of thin sections particularly in the wetting and
drying zone;
(i) encapsulating prestressing tendons in watertight plastic conduits;
(j) use of epoxy coatings to reinforcement;
(k) use of cathodic protection systems; and
(l) careful attention to structural detailing particularly with respect to
constructability and maintainability.

Care shall be taken by designers in specifying high strength concrete


(concrete with a characteristic compressive strength above 50 MPa) in
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order to improve durability. Further advice regarding the use of high


strength concrete is given in Standard Australia’s - DR 02536 -
Guidelines for Design of Maritime Structures.

6.2.2 Maintenance Considerations

If normal (carbon steel) reinforced concrete is used repairs would be


expected after about 25 years and thereafter at about 5 to 10 year
intervals. A higher grade of reinforcement and/or concrete may extend
the life to the first repairs.

Repairs will require the removal and replacement of deteriorated concrete


and reinforcement. Consideration should be given to the following:

(a) the ability to access the repair location including the need for any
scaffolding;
(b) the ability to remove and contain waste materials during repairs;
and
(c) the ability to apply and maintain an adequate curing regime to the
repairs.

Saltwater washdown of concrete members should be avoided.

6.2.3 Structural Design

Concrete maritime structures and elements shall generally comply with


the design and performance requirements of AS3600 together with the
requirements of this Document.

6.2.4 Material Requirements

Requirements for concrete, reinforcement and prestressing steel shall


generally comply with Standard Australia’s - DR 02536 - Guidelines for
Design of Maritime Structures.

6.2.5 Exposure Classifications

Exposure classifications for concrete elements shall be determined


generally in accordance with Standard Australia’s - DR 02536 -
Guidelines for Design of Maritime Structures.

6.2.6 Cover to Reinforcement

Minimum requirements for cover to reinforcement shall generally comply


with Standard Australia’s - DR 02536 - Guidelines for Design of Maritime
Structures.

6.2.7 Crack Control

Crack widths shall be limited by designing structures with low stresses in


the reinforcement. Maximum allowable reinforcement stresses shall

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generally comply with Standard Australia’s - DR 02536 - Guidelines for


Design of Maritime Structures.

6.3 STEEL

6.3.1 General

Whilst steel is a suitable material for use in the construction of maritime


structures, particular where design loads are high, its vulnerability to
corrosion after exposure to seawater should be considered when using
carbon steel in the marine environment.

In the design of steel members, designers shall consider appropriate


protection systems to protect and maintain steel members. In addition,
designers shall also consider methods for installation and connection of
steel members to prevent damage to pre-applied protection systems.

Consideration should be given to the selection of steel members to allow


ease of application and maintenance of protection systems and not
simply based on the most efficient size or shape with regard to strength.
Further advice regarding the selection of steel members is given in
Standard Australia’s - DR 02536 - Guidelines for Design of Maritime
Structures.

6.3.2 Maintenance Considerations

Paint coatings can generally provide a service life of 10 to 20 years,


before repair or recoating is necessary.

In relation to any repairs or recoating, consideration should be given to


the following:

(a) the ability to access the repair/recoating location including the need
for any scaffolding;
(b) the ability to remove and contain waste materials during
repairs/recoating; and
(c) the ability to prepare and apply protective coatings in-situ to
achieve the required standard.

The preparation and recoating of steel in the marine environment is


difficult and standards reached in the manufacturing process are
generally not achievable in this environment.

6.3.3 Structural Design

Steel maritime structures and elements shall generally comply with the
design and performance requirements of AS4100 together with the
requirements of this Document.

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6.3.4 Material Requirements

Minimum sizes of steel members and connections shall generally comply


with Standard Australia’s - DR 02536 - Guidelines for Design of Maritime
Structures.

Requirements for stainless steel shall generally comply with Standard


Australia’s - DR 02536 - Guidelines for Design of Maritime Structures.

6.3.5 Protection Systems

Protection systems for steel structures and elements shall generally be


applied or installed in accordance with Standard Australia’s - DR 02536 -
Guidelines for Design of Maritime Structures.

6.4 TIMBER

6.4.1 General

Timber has many applications in maritime structures, particularly in small


craft facilities such as jetties, ramps, skids and steps due to its ease of
workability.

Timber can be used on its own to construct complete structures (including


piles, headstocks, bearers, joists and decking) or in conjunction with
other materials to provide economical, and durable structures.

The deterioration of timber is usually by rot or attack by living organisms.


Timber durability is dependant predominantly upon the species chosen in
the design.

Further advice regarding the use of timber is given in Standard Australia’s


- DR 02536 - Guidelines for Design of Maritime Structures.

6.4.2 Maintenance Considerations

Individual timber members are relatively small, forming an assembly of


members within a structure. Members can usually be replaced easily
within a structure to maintain the structural capacity, without significant
interruption to service operations.

Timber members will generally have a shorter service life than concrete
or steel members. For timber piles affected by marine organisms a
service life of 5 to 10 years would be expected. For timber decking
exposed to weathering a service life of 10 to 15 years would be expected.

Natural shrinkage of drying timber will result in the need to tighten bolted
connections during the early years of the structure’s life.

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In relation to maintenance, consideration should be given to the following:

(a) the availability of skilled carpenters, able to maintain the works over
the structure’s design life;
(b) the future availability of suitable timber species and member sizes;
and
(c) the detail and accessibility of bolted connections for ease of
replacement during maintenance.

6.4.3 Structural Design

Timber maritime structures and elements shall generally comply with the
design and performance requirements of AS1720.1 together with the
requirements of this Document.

6.4.4 Material Requirements

Requirements for timber shall generally comply with Standard Australia’s


- DR 02536 - Guidelines for Design of Maritime Structures.

Hardwood timbers shall be either durability class 1 or class 2 in


accordance with AS1720.1.

Suitable species for timber members are shown below:

(a) Piles:
Turpentine.

(b) Headstocks, wales, capwales, girders, joists and braces:


Grey ironbark, grey gum, white mahogany, tallowwood, grey box,
yellow stringybark, white stringybark, woollybutt, forest red gum,
mountain grey gum and turpentine.

(c) Decking:
Brushbox, blackbutt, grey gum, white mahogany, tallowwood, grey
box, yellow stringybark, white stringybark, woollybutt, forest red
gum and mountain grey gum.

(c) Kerbs:
Blackbutt, grey gum, white mahogany, tallowwood, grey box, yellow
stringybark, white stringybark, woollybutt, forest red gum and
mountain grey gum.

(d) Handrails:
Tallowwood, white mahogany and grey box.

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SECTION 7 MAINTENANCE

7.1 GENERAL

During the design life of a maritime structure maintenance will need to be


carried out in order to ensure that this design life is achieved.

Costs associated with such maintenance can be greatly reduced by


adopting an appropriate preventative maintenance programme.

Essential features of such a programme include the following:

(a) regular inspections;


(b) timely repairs;
(c) timely renewal of protection systems;
(d) timely replacement of worn-out components; and
(e) keeping records of inspections carried out and maintenance
performed.

7.2 INSPECTIONS

7.2.1 General

Inspections should be carried out by suitably qualified persons


experienced in the design and construction of maritime structures.

Typical inspections for various structures that should be performed are


given below together with suggested inspection intervals. These
inspections are not an exhaustive list and will vary from structure to
structure. More frequent inspections may be required where structures
are located in extreme environments or subject to severe loads.

7.2.2 Piles

The tidal zone of a pile should be inspected visually from the surface at
low tide annually. Signs of excessive wear or evidence of marine borer
attack or corrosion should be noted and remedial measures taken if
necessary.

Timber pile tops should be inspected for deterioration due to decay or dry
rot annually.

At intervals of 3 years or after major storms or other severe events, a


detailed inspection of piles should be carried out. It is recommended that
experienced divers be used to inspect the condition of piles below water
level. Timber pile circumferences should be measured above and below
low water, pile alignments measured, any corrosion noted and marine
fouling removed.

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The intervals between inspections above should be reduced for old or


partially damaged piles.

7.2.3 Pontoons

Pontoons and their mooring systems should be visually inspected above


water at 6 monthly intervals. Such inspections should take note of any
damage from boat impacts, mooring line chafing, chemical spillage,
pontoon freeboards and levels, and the condition of pontoon connections.

At intervals of 3 years, a detailed inspection should be carried out. This


inspection should include an underwater investigation of marine fouling
and pontoon connections not normally visible above water.

7.2.4 Timber Structures

Timber components above water should be inspected annually for decay


and infestation.

Major structures should have a detailed inspection at 5 yearly intervals.


Such inspections should note the condition and alignment of the
structure, fastenings and all associated hardware.

7.2.5 Steel Structures

Steel fittings and components should be inspected for wear and corrosion
on an annual basis. Any damage to protective coatings should be noted
for repair. Distortions due to overstress should be noted and remedial
action taken. Attention should be paid to wear and corrosion in pile guide
systems and pontoon connection hardware, where visible.

Major structures should have a detailed inspection at 5 yearly intervals.


Such inspections should consider corrosion, deterioration of protective
coatings together with signs of fatigue and wear.

7.2.6 Concrete Structures

Inspections should be carried out to check for signs of deterioration


usually evidenced by white salt encrustations, cracks, rust stains and
spalling. Such inspections should be carried out at intervals of 5 years.

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