This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
3G Systems are intended to provide a global mobility with wide range of services including telephony, paging, messaging, Internet and broadband data. International Telecommunication Union (ITU) started the process of defining the standard for third generation systems, referred to as International Mobile Telecommunications 2000 (IMT-2000). In Europe European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) was responsible of UMTS standardisation process. In 1998 Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) was formed to continue the technical specification work. 3GPP has five main UMTS standardisation areas: Radio Access Network, Core Network, Terminals, Services and System Aspects and GERAN. 3GPP Radio Access group is responsible of: • Radio Layer 1, 2 and 3 RR specification • Iub, Iur and Iu Interfaces • UTRAN Operation and Maintenance requirements • BTS radio performance specification • Conformance test specification for testing of radio aspects of base stations • Specifications for radio performance aspects from the system point of view 3GPP Core Network group is responsible of: • Mobility management, call connection control signalling between the user equipment and the core network. • Core network signalling between the core network nodes. • Definition of interworking functions between the core network and external networks. • Packet related issues. • Core network aspects of the lu interface and Operation and Maintenance requirements 3GPP Terminal group is responsible of: • Service capability protocols • Messaging • Services end-to-end interworking • USIM to Mobile Terminal interface • Model/framework for terminal interfaces and services (application) execution • Conformance test specifications of terminals, including radio aspects 3GPP Services and System Aspects group is responsible of: • Definition of services and feature requirements. • Development of service capabilities and service architecture for cellular, fixed and cordless applications. • Charging and Accounting • Network Management and Security Aspects
• Definition, evolution, and maintenance of overall architecture. Third Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP) was formed for technical development of cdma2000 technology which is a member of IMT-2000 family. In February 1992 World Radio Conference allocated frequencies for UMTS use. Frequencies 1885 - 2025 and 2110 - 2200 MHz were identified for IMT-2000 use. See the UMTS Frequency page for more details. All 3G standards are still under constant development. In 1999 ETSI Standardisation finished for UMTS Phase 1 (Release '99, version 3) and next release is due December 2001. UMTS History page has a list of all major 3G and UMTS milestones. Most of the European countries and some countries round the world have already issued UMTS licenses either by beauty contest or auctions.
2. UMTS Services
UMTS offers teleservices (like speech or SMS) and bearer services, which provide the capability for information transfer between access points. It is possible to negotiate and renegotiate the characteristics of a bearer service at session or connection establishment and during ongoing session or connection. Both connection oriented and connectionless services are offered for Point-to-Point and Point-toMultipoint communication. Bearer services have different QoS parameters for maximum transfer delay, delay variation and bit error rate. Offered data rate targets are: • 144 kbits/s satellite and rural outdoor • 384 kbits/s urban outdoor • 2048 kbits/s indoor and low range outdoor UMTS network services have different QoS classes for four types of traffic: • Conversational class (voice, video telephony, video gaming) • Streaming class (multimedia, video on demand, webcast) • Interactive class (web browsing, network gaming, database access) • Background class (email, SMS, downloading) UMTS will also have a Virtual Home Environment (VHE). It is a concept for personal service environment portability across network boundaries and between terminals. Personal service environment means that users are consistently presented with the same personalised features, User Interface customisation and services in whatever network or terminal, wherever the user may be located. UMTS also has improved network security and location based services.
3. UMTS Architecture
A UMTS network consist of three interacting domains; Core Network (CN), UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN) and User Equipment (UE). The main function of the core network is to provide switching, routing and transit for user traffic. Core network also contains the databases and network management functions. The basic Core Network architecture for UMTS is based on GSM network with GPRS. All equipment has to be modified for UMTS operation and services. The UTRAN provides the air interface access method for User Equipment. Base Station is referred as Node-B and control equipment for Node-B's is called Radio Network Controller (RNC). UMTS system page has an example, how UMTS network could be build. It is necessary for a network to know the approximate location in order to be able to page user equipment. Here is the list of system areas from largest to smallest. • UMTS systems (including satellite) • Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) • MSC/VLR or SGSN • Location Area • Routing Area (PS domain) • UTRAN Registration Area (PS domain) • Cell • Sub cell
4. Core Network
The Core Network is divided in circuit switched and packet switched domains. Some of the circuit switched elements are Mobile services Switching Centre (MSC), Visitor location register (VLR) and Gateway MSC. Packet switched elements are Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) and Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN). Some network elements, like EIR, HLR, VLR and AUC are shared by both domains. The Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is defined for UMTS core transmission. ATM Adaptation Layer type 2 (AAL2) handles circuit switched connection and packet connection protocol AAL5 is designed for data delivery. The architecture of the Core Network may change when new services and features are introduced. Number Portability DataBase (NPDB) will be used to enable user to change the network while keeping their old phone number. Gateway Location Register (GLR) may be used to optimise the subscriber handling between network boundaries. MSC, VLR and SGSN can merge to become a UMTS MSC.
5. Radio Access
Wide band CDMA technology was selected to for UTRAN air interface. UMTS WCDMA is a Direct Sequence CDMA system where user data is multiplied with quasi-random bits derived from WCDMA Spreading codes. In UMTS, in addition to channelisation, Codes are used for synchronisation and scrambling. WCDMA has two basic modes of operation: Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) and Time Division Duplex (TDD). UTRAN interfaces are shown on UMTS Network page. The functions of Node-B are: • Air interface Transmission / Reception • Modulation / Demodulation • CDMA Physical Channel coding • Micro Diversity • Error Handing • Closed loop power control The functions of RNC are: • Radio Resource Control • Admission Control • Channel Allocation • Power Control Settings • Handover Control • Macro Diversity • Ciphering • Segmentation / Reassembly • Broadcast Signalling • Open Loop Power Control
6. User Equipment
The UMTS standard does not restrict the functionality of the User Equipment in any way. Terminals work as an air interface counter part for Node-B and have many different types of identities. Most of these UMTS identity types are taken directly from GSM specifications. • International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) • Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) • Packet Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (P-TMSI) • Temporary Logical Link Identity (TLLI) • Mobile station ISDN (MSISDN) • International Mobile Station Equipment Identity (IMEI) • International Mobile Station Equipment Identity and Software Number (IMEISV) UMTS mobile station can operate in one of three modes of operation:
• PS/CS mode of operation: The MS is attached to both the PS domain and CS domain, and the MS is capable of simultaneously operating PS services and CS services. • PS mode of operation: The MS is attached to the PS domain only and may only operate services of the PS domain. However, this does not prevent CS-like services to be offered over the PS domain (like VoIP). • CS mode of operation: The MS is attached to the CS domain only and may only operate services of the CS domain. UMTS IC card has same physical characteristics as GSM SIM card. It has several functions: • Support of one User Service Identity Module (USIM) application (optionally more that one) • Support of one or more user profile on the USIM • Update USIM specific information over the air • Security functions • User authentication • Optional inclusion of payment methods • Optional secure downloading of new applications
Picture below shows how an UMTS 3G network could be build.
TD/CDMA) Unpaired. 1980-2010 and 2170-2200 MHz Satellite uplink and downlink. Such use does not preclude the use of these bands by other services to which they are allocated.UMTS network layout example 3G Frequencies According to "WARC-92 frequencies for IMT-2000" resolution: "The bands 18852025 MHz and 2110-2200 MHz are intended for use. on a worldwide basis. Tx and Rx are not separated in frequency. channel spacing is 5 MHz and raster is 200 kHz. high-capacity network. 1900-1920 and 2010-2025 MHz Time Division Duplex (TDD. W-CDMA) Paired uplink and downlink.4 channels (2x15 MHz or 2x20 MHz) to be able to build a highspeed." Here is the summary of UMTS frequencies: 1920-1980 and 2110-2170 MHz Frequency Division Duplex (FDD. by administrations wishing to implement International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000). channel spacing is 5 MHz and raster is 200 kHz. An Operator needs 3 . .
1626.5. as well as the bands 2500 .Carrier frequencies are designated by a UTRA Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number (UARFCN). 1545 .2690 MHz. The general formula relating frequency to UARFN is: UARFCN = 5 * (frequency in MHz) WARC-92 IMT-2000 Frequencies WRC-2000 in Istanbul • Identified the bands 1710 . depending on market developments • Decided that "the bands. 1610 .5 and 2483.2500 MHz may be used for the satellite component of IMT-2000. or portions of the bands. 1646. This identification does not preclude the use of these bands by any application of the services to which they are allocated and does not establish priority in the Radio Regulations".5 .2520 MHz and 2670.1885 and 2500 .5 .1626. are identified for use by administrations wishing to implement International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000).5.960 MHz which are allocated to the mobile service on a primary basis • Admitted that High Altitude Platform Stations (HAPS) may use the WARC-92 frequency bands for terrestrial IMT-2000 on restrictive conditions • Decided that the frequency bands 1525 .1544. .1885 MHz and 2500 2690 MHz.2690 MHz for IMT-2000 • Identified those parts of the band 806 .1559. 1710 .1645.5 .1660.
WRC-2000 IMT-2000 Frequencies From the TS 25.101 Specification: UTRA FDD frequency bands TX-RX frequency separation .
UARFCN definition UARFCN definition (Band II additional channels) UTRA Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number Channel Multiplexing Structure This is a short overview how data stream is modified during processing in layer 2 and 1 in downlink direction. Rate matching is dynamic frame-by-frame operation and done either by puncturing or by repetition of the data stream. Channel coding separates different down link connection to users within a cell. turbo coding is used for higher bit rates. . Channel coding includes the spreading. f8 algorithm gets five inputs to generate a keystream block that is ciphered by binary addition to a data stream. Ciphering happens in RCL or MAC-d part of the layer 2. Half-rate and 1/3-rate convolutional coding is used for low data rates. In the uplink direction Channel coding is used for separation of physical data and control channels. Interleaving is done in two stages. Uplink coding is done in a similar way. It is first done by inter-frame and then by intra-frame.
Transport channel multiplexing structure for downlink .
building penetration) • Behavior and type of mobile (speed. Even using 25dB as inbuilding penetration loss into the building core area. Some of the values can be debated.WCDMA Link Budget Link budget planning is part of the network planning process. so inner city cells will be dimensioned by required Erlangs/km² for voice and data. capacity and quality of service requirement in the network. capacity will be the limiting factor. capacity and quality needs with each area and service. System is loosely balanced by design. UMTS WCDMA macro cell coverage is uplink limited. which is a way too much for a capacity purposes. when typically cells are less congested. handover gain) • Required coverage probability • Financial and economical factors (use of more expensive and better quality equipment or not the cheapest installation method) and to match all of those to the required system coverage. max power level) • System configuration (BTS antennas. as BTS transmission power (typically 20-40W) has to be divided to all users. link budget would typically allow about 300m cell range. cable losses. In a network environment both coverage and capacity are interlinked by interference. Downlink direction limits the available capacity of the cell. In an urban area. . In a rural area uplink power budget will determine the maximum cell range. which helps to dimension the required coverage. because mobiles power level is limited to (voice terminal 125mW). The object of the link budget design is to calculate maximum cell size under given criteria: • Type of service (data type and speed) • Type of environment (terrain. BTS power. including the propagation model. A typical cell range in rural areas will be several kilometers depending on a terrain. So by improving one side of the equation would decrease the other side. but it gives an idea of the calculation methods. Below is an example of how WCDMA voice call link budget can be done.
the application of authentication algorithms is stricter and subscriber confidentially is tighter. The main security elements that are from GSM: • Authentication of subscribers • Subscriber identity confidentially • Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) to be removable from terminal hardware • Radio interface encryption Additional UMTS security features: . Encryption algorithm is stronger and included in base station (NODE-B) to radio network controller (RNC) interface . Some of the security functions have been added and some existing have been improved.UMTS link budget UMTS Security The security functions of UMTS are based on what was implemented in GSM.
• User untraceability: the property that an intruder cannot deduce whether different services are delivered to the same user by eavesdropping on the radio access link. and which in particular protect against attacks on the (radio) access link. Core network traffic between RNCs.• Security against using false base stations with mutual authentication • Encryption extended from air interface only to include Node-B to RNC connection • Security data in the network will be protected in data storages and while transmitting ciphering keys and authentication data in the system. UMTS specification has five security feature groups: • Network access security: the set of security features that provide users with secure access to 3G services. so all switches will have to have security measures against unlawful access. MSCs and other networks is not ciphered and operators can to implement protections for their core network transmission links. UMTS specification has the following user identity confidentiality security features: • User identity confidentiality: the property that the permanent user identity (IMSI) of a user to whom a services is delivered cannot be eavesdropped on the radio access link. but that is unlike to happen. and protect against attacks on the wireline network. Air interface ciphering/deciphering in performed in RNC in the network side and in mobile terminals. Ciphering in function of air interface protocol Radio Link Control (RLC) layer or Medium Access control (MAC) layer. • Visibility and configurability of security: the set of features that enables the user to inform himself whether a security feature is in operation or not and whether the use and provision of services should depend on the security feature. . • Mechanism for upgrading security features. • Network domain security: the set of security features that enable nodes in the provider domain to securely exchange signalling data. • User location confidentiality: the property that the presence or the arrival of a user in a certain area cannot be determined by eavesdropping on the radio access link. • User domain security: the set of security features that secure access to mobile stations • Application domain security: the set of security features that enable applications in the user and in the provider domain to securely exchange messages. MSCs will have by design a lawful interception capabilities and access to Call Data Records (SDR).
.67 s 38400 chips 10 ms 512 primary / 15 secondary for each primary code No.04 s 133. DL Type ComplexValued Gold ComplexOrthogonal Gold Codes Code Segments Valued Gold Variable (long) or Code Primary Synchronization Spreading Factor ComplexCodes (PSC) and Segments (OVSF) codes Valued S(2) Secondary Codes (short) Synchronization Codes sometimes called Pseudo Noise (SSC) Walsh Codes Pseudo Noise (PN) codes (PN) codes Length Duration Number of codes 256 chips 66.67 s 4-512 chips 1.Main UMTS Codes Here us a summary of the main UMTS FDD codes: Synchronisation Codes Channelisation Codes Scrambling Codes. 512 DL Yes. does not change bandwidth No.. UL Scrambling Codes.223 Synchronisation Different UTRAN synchronisation required in a 3G network: • Network synchronisation • Node synchronisation • Transport channel synchronisation . 256 UL. 25.777.201.216 No. increases bandwidth 16. 25. does not change Spreading bandwidth Usage UL: to separate physical data and To enable terminals control data from to locate and same terminal synchronise to the DL: to separate cells' main control connection to channels different terminals in a same cell Separation of terminal Separation of sectors Further reading: 3GPP TS 25. secondary codes 4 .213.. does not change bandwidth = spreading factor 1 primary code / 16 4 .34 s 38400 chips / 256 chips 10 ms / 66..
The Time Alignment Handling procedure over Iu relates to the control of DL . In FDD Radio Interface Synchronisation is necessary to assure that the UE receives radio frames synchronously from different cells. The distribution of an accurate frequency reference to the network elements in the UTRAN is related to several aspects. considering radio interface timing. The Transport Channel Synchronisation mechanism defines synchronisation of the frame transport between RNC and Node B. Positioning / Localisation functions may also set requirements on Node Synchronisation. FDD and TDD have different mechanisms to determine the exact timing of the radio frame transmission and also different requirements on the accuracy of this timing. One main issue is the possibility to provide a synchronisation reference with a frequency accuracy better than 0. Node Synchronisation relates to the estimation and compensation of timing differences among UTRAN nodes. in order to minimise UE buffers. The Radio Interface Synchronisation relates to the timing of the radio frame transmission (either in downlink [FDD] or in both directions [TDD]).• Radio interface cynchronisation • Time alignment handling Synchronisation Issues Model Network Synchronisation relates to the distribution of synchronisation references to the UTRAN Nodes and the stability of the clocks in the UTRAN (and performance requirements on UTRAN internal interfaces). FDD and TDD modes have different requirements on the accuracy of the timing difference estimation and on the necessity to compensate for these differences.05 ppm at the Node B in order to properly generate signals on the radio interface.
402 Co-location.2 Spurious emissions limits for protection of the BS receiver The table above corresponds to -80 dBm / 3. which are caused by unwanted transmitter effects such as harmonics emission. but exclude out of band emissions.104 Fig. intermodulation products and frequency conversion products. Further reading: 3GPP TS 25. 6. Isolations Spurious emissions are emissions. parasitic emission. .84MHz spurious emission requirements from UMTS DL to UMTS UL. Spectrum Emission Mask. 3GPP TS 25. This is measured at the base station RF output port. This procedure is controlled by SRNC.transmission timing in the CN nodes in order to minimise the buffer delay in SRNC.
they will quote a lower figure The transmit intermodulation performance is a measure of the capability of the transmitter to inhibit the generation of signals in its non linear elements caused by presence of the wanted signal and an interfering signal reaching the transmitter via the antenna. they will quote a lower figure The receiver blocking characteristics is a measure of the receiver ability to receive a wanted signal at its assigned channel frequency in the presence of an unwanted interferer on frequencies other than those of the adjacent channels. spurious emission and blocking • Co-existence issues. EXAMPLE Max Node B power Blocking level Min required isolation 43 dBm = 20W .EXAMPLE Spurious emission DL to . mobile phone receivers.FDD isolation requirement due to receiver blocking Note: Check with your vendor.5. The transmit intermodulation level shall not exceed the out of band emission or the spurious emission requirements. spurious emission and blocking • Intermodulation issues • All wireless systems need to be considered • Vendor equipment specification far better that 3GPP specifications Solution considerations • Equipment specifications • Horisontal antenna separation • Vertical antenna separation • Additional filtering • Antenna beamwidth • Antenna bearing .80 dBm See above UL . Summary: Co-location and isolation related issues • Co-location issues.40 dBm 3GPP 25104 7. base station receivers.121 BS reference Max sensitivity dBm sensitivity degradation 41 dB Min required isolation UMTS FDD isolation requirement due to spurious emissions Note: Check with your vendor.1 83 dB UMTS FDD .
3G and beyond. and compared to LAN data speeds. GSM 05. 2.05.329-9 3G and LAN Date Speeds Here are the theoretical maximum data speeds of 2G.• Frequency coordination with other carriers • Smart designs for common antenna systems Further reading: 3GPP TS 25. Data Speed of Mobile Systems (top) and LANs (bottom) .5G.104. ITU-R SM.
DPCH Time Slot Structure . TCP stands for Transmit Power Control. Pilot bits are always the same and are used for channel synchronisation. Here is an example of DPCH (Dedicated Physical Channel) downlink and uplink time slot allocation.UMTS Time Slots UMTS has several different time slot configuration depending on the used channel. Feedback Information (FBI) is used for closed loop transmission diversity. Transport Format Combination Indicator (TFCI) contains the information relating to data rates.
mapped to BCCH. DCCH and DTCH Uplink Common Packet Channel (CPCH). mapped to DCCH and DTCH Downlink Shared Channel (DSCH). DCCH and DTCH Paging Channel (PCH). mapped to DCCH and DTCH Broadcast Channel (BCH). mapped to RACH Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH). which is a lower sublayer in Data Link Layer (Layer 2). PCH Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH). UL/DL Common Control Channel (CCCH). mapped to CCCH. mapped to DCH Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH). Logical to Transport channel conversion happens in Medium Access Control (MAC) layer. UL. CTCH. mapped to CPCH Synchronisation Channel (SCH) Common Pilot Channel (CPICH) Acquisition Indicator Channel (AICH) Paging Indication Channel (PICH) CPCH Status Indication Channel (CSICH) Collision Detection/Channel Assignment Indication Channel (CD/CA-ICH) . which are again mapped to physical channels. DL. mapped to DSCH Physical Common Packet Channel (PCPCH). UL/DL Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH). DL Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH). Downlink (DL) Paging Control Channel (PCCH).UTRA Channels UTRA FDD radio interface has logical channels. UL/DL Common Traffic Channel (CTCH). mapped to DCCH and DTCH Physical Channels: Primary Common Control Physical Channel (PCCPCH). mapped to BCCH Forward Access Channel (FACH). mapped to PCCH Random Access Channel (RACH). Logical Channels: Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH). which are mapped to transport channels. DL. CCCH. Unidirectional (one to many) Transport Channels: Dedicated Transport Channel (DCH). mapped to DCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH). DL. DL. UL/DL. mapped to BCH Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (SCCPCH). UL. mapped to FACH.
Interference margin is calculated from that: Interference Margin = Process Gain . System losses are typically 4 6 dBs .512 to spread the base band data over ~5MHz band. Spreading factor in dBs indicates the process gain.UTRA Channels WCDMA Spreading TDD WCDMA uses spreading factors 4 . Spreading factor 128 = 21 dB process gain).(Required SNR + System Losses) • Required Signal to Noise Ration is typically about 5 dB • System losses are defined as losses in receiver path.
An End-to-End Service may have a certain Quality of Service (QoS) which is provided for the user of a network service. These aspects are among others the control signalling. this means from a Terminal Equipment (TE) to another TE.Overview of Spreading Process Quality of Service Network Services are considered end-to-end. user plane transport and QoS management functionality. It is the user that decides whether he is satisfied with the provided QoS or not. . A UMTS bearer service layered architecture is depicted below. each bearer service on a specific layer offers it's individual services using services provided by the layers below. To realise a certain network QoS a Bearer Service with clearly defined characteristics and functionality is to be set up from the source to the destination of a service. A bearer service includes all aspects to enable the provision of a contracted QoS.
QoS Architecture There are four different QoS classes: • conversational class • streaming class • interactive class • background class Traffic class Conversational class Real Time Real Time .Preserve time Fundamental .Request -Destination is response pattern not expecting the data within a certain time -Preserve payload content -Preserve Streaming class Interactive class Background class .Preserve time characteristics relation (variation) relation between (variation) information between entities of the information stream entities of the stream Best Effort Best Effort .
'streaming'. 'background') Maximum bit rate (kbps) Guaranteed bit rate (kbps) Delivery order (y/n) Maximum SDU size (octets) SDU format information (bits) SDU error ratio Residual bit error ratio Delivery of erroneous SDUs (y/n/-) Transfer delay (ms) Traffic handling priority Allocation/Retention Priority Source statistics descriptor ('speech'/'unknown') SDU = Service Data Unit Further reading: 3GPP 23.Conversational pattern (stringent and low delay ) Example of the voice application streaming video UMTS QoS classes web browsing payload content telemetry. 'interactive'..107 Channel Coding Channel coding and multiplexing example for DTCH and DCCH: . emails List of UMTS Bearer Service Attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Traffic class ('conversational'.
Shift_JIS. Media formats and codecs Multiple media elements shall be combined into a composite single MM using MIME multipart format. UTF-8.104. 25. US-ASCII.Channel coding example for the UL 64 kbps channel Further reading: 3GPP TS 25. ISO-8859-1. MMS User Agent supporting specific media types shall comply with the following selection of media formats: Text Plain text. In order to guarantee a minimum support and compatibility between multimedia messaging capable terminals. The media type of a single MM element shall be identified by its appropriate MIME type whereas the media format shall be indicated by its appropriate MIME subtype. Any character encoding (charset) that contains a subset of the logical characters in Unicode shall be used (e.).944 Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS).g. Any other unrecognized . Unrecognized subtypes of "text" shall be treated as subtype "plain" as long as the MIME implementation knows how to handle the charset. etc.
subtype and unrecognized charset shall be treated as "application/octet . Synthetic audio The Scalable Polyphony MIDI (SP-MIDI) content format defined in Scalable Polyphony MIDI Specification and the device requirements defined in Scalable Polyphony MIDI Device 5-to-24 Note Profile for 3GPP should be supported. Huffman coding .stream". either in format 0 or format 1. The maximum sampling rate to be supported by the decoder is 48 kHz. In addition. Source codec bit-rates for the AMR codec Audio MPEG-4 AAC Low Complexity object type should be supported. the MPEG-4 AAC Long Term Prediction object type may be supported.0. SPMIDI content is delivered in the structure specified in Standard MIDI Files 1. The channel configurations to be supported are mono (1/0) and stereo (2/0). Speech The AMR codec shall be supported for narrow-band speech. non-differential. The support for ISO/IEC JPEG only apply to the following two modes: • mandatory: baseline DCT. The AMR wideband speech codec shall be supported when wideband speech working at 16 kHz sampling frequency is supported. Huffman coding • optional: progressive DCT. non-differential. Still Image ISO/IEC JPEG together with JFIF shall be supported.
263 profile 0 level 10 shall be supported. ITU-T Recommendation H. since non-ISO codecs are used here. ITU press release regarding H.263 Profile 3 Level 10 • MPEG-4 Visual Simple Profile Level 0 These two video codecs are optional to implement. it is called the 3GPP file format and has its own file extension and MIME type to distinguish these files from MPEG-4 files. not to its conformance definition.1 and Mobile SVG as W3C Recommendations (14/01/03) File format for dynamic media The file format used in the present document for timed multimedia (such as video. However. Read the EETimes article. This is the mandatory video codec for the MMS. MMS should support: • H. NOTE: ITU-T Recommendation H.263 baseline bitstream can be decoded by both H. When the present document refers to the MP4 file format. World Wide Web Consortium Issues Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) 1. it is referring to its structure (ISO file format). It also provides a simple upgrade path for mandating more advanced codecs in the future (from both the ITU-T and ISO MPEG). associated audio and timed text) is structurally based on the MP4 file format. (11/10/03) Vector graphics For terminals supporting media type "2D vector graphics" the "Tiny" profile of the Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG-Tiny) format shall be supported.263 baseline has been mandated to ensure that video-enabled MMS support a minimum baseline video capability and interoperability can be guaranteed (an H. .Bitmap graphics The following bitmap graphics formats should be supported: • GIF87a • GIF89a • PNG Video For terminals supporting media type video. In addition.263 and MPEG-4 decoders).264 video compression standard (23/12/02) Etsi and Digital Video Broadcasting Project are developing DVB-X standard for UMTS. and the "Basic" profile of the Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG-Basic) format may be supported.
From the 3GPP TS 25.To ensure interoperability for the transport of video and associated speech/audio and timed text in an MM. the instantaneous transmit power is increased in the compressed frame in order to keep the quality (BER. Additionally.212: In compressed frames. 3GPP MMS should provide the following format: • XHTML Mobile Profile • The 3GPP MMS uses a subset of XHTML 1. As illustrated below.234.234 also includes an informative annex B that provides guidelines for SMIL content authors. etc. 3GPP 26140 Compressed Mode During inter-frequency handover the UE’s must be given time to make the necessary measurements on the different WCDMA carrier frequency. Further reading: 3GPP 26071.0 Basic Language Profile.1 but a superset of XHTML Basic. the MP4 file format shall be supported. MMS clients and servers with support for scene descriptions shall support the 3GPP PSS5 SMIL Language Profile.) . • Puncturing bits. These slots can either be in the middle of the single frame or spread over two frames. This will remove various bits from the original data and hence reduce the amount of information that needs to be transmitted. MMS clients and servers with support for scene descriptions shall support XHTML Mobile Profile. • The higher layer scheduling could also be changed to use less timeslots for user traffic.1 as a format for scene description. • The 3GPP MMS uses a subset of SMIL 2. TS 26. Media synchronization and presentation format The mandatory format for media synchronization and scene description of multimedia messaging is SMIL. 1 to 7 slots per frame can be allocated for the UE to perform this intra frequency (hard handover).0 as format of the scene description. XHTML Mobile Profile is a subset of XHTML 1. defined by the WAP Forum. This will increase the data rate so bits will get sent twice as fast. The usage of the MP4 file format shall follow the technical specifications and the implementation guidelines specified in TS 26. Transmission Gap Length slots from Nfirst to Nlast are not used for transmission of data. This compressed mode operation can be achieved in three different methods: • Decreasing the spreading factor by 2:1.0 Language Profile but a superset of the SMIL 2. FER. This profile is a subset of the SMIL 2.
The frame structure for uplink compressed frames is illustrated below. the pilot field of the last slot in the transmission gap is transmitted. What frames are compressed. . are decided by the network. or requested on demand. the TPC field of the first slot in the transmission gap and the pilot field of the last slot in the transmission gap is transmitted. Transmission is turned off during the rest of the transmission gap (below). Type A maximises the transmission gap length and type B is optimised for power control. The amount of power increase depends on the transmission time reduction method. The rate and type of compressed frames is variable and depends on the environment and the measurement requirements. When in compressed mode.unaffected by the reduced processing gain. • With frame structure of type A. There are two different types of frame structures defined for downlink compressed frames. compressed frames can occur periodically. Transmission is turned off during the rest of the transmission gap (below). The frame structure type A or B is set by higher layers independent from the downlink slot format type A or B. • With frame structure of type B.
Further reading: 3GPP TS 25. Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO). Release 4 specifications provide efficient IP support enabling provision of services through an all-IP core network and Release 5 specifications focus on HSDPA to provide data rates up to approximately 10 Mbps to support packet-based multimedia services. and advanced receiver design. HSDPA is evolved from and backward compatible with Release 99 WCDMA systems. MIMO systems are the work item in Release 6 specifications. In 3rd generation partnership project (3GPP) standards.212 HSDPA in W-CDMA High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) is a packet-based data service in WCDMA downlink with data transmission up to 8-10 Mbps (and 20 Mbps for MIMO systems) over a 5MHz bandwidth in WCDMA downlink. HSDPA implementations includes Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC). which will support even higher data transmission rates up to 20 Mbps. Currently (2002) 3GPP is undertaking a feasibility study on high-speed downlink packet access. fast cell search. Hybrid Automatic Request (HARQ). HSPDA and CDMA2000 1xEV-DV Comparison .
the site of co-located base stations from which several sector-cells are served. Overall UTRAN description 3GPP TS 25. In softer handover.3GPP TS 25.Iub/Iur Protocol Aspects 3GPP TS 25. • Softer handover Softer handover is a special case of soft handover where the radio links that are added and removed belong to the same Node B (i. whereas generally in soft handover on the downlink. In practice a handover that requires a change of the carrier frequency (inter-frequency handover) is always performed as hard handover.876 Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Antenna Processing for HSDPA 3GPP TS 25. which refers to the condition that several radio links are active at the same time. between UMTS and other 3G systems) FDD soft/softer handover FDD inter-frequency hard handover FDD/TDD handover (change of cell) TDD/FDD handover (change of cell) TDD/TDD handover .855 High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA). Generally we can distinguish between intra-cell handover and inter-cell handover.890 High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA).877 High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) . Normally soft handover can be used when cells operated on the same frequency are changed. Soft handover is performed by means of macro diversity. macro diversity with maximum ratio combining can be performed in the Node B. Seamless hard handover means that the handover is not perceptible to the user. Hard handover can be seamless or non-seamless. • Soft Handover Soft handover means that the radio links are added and removed in a way that the UE always keeps at least one radio link to the UTRAN.e. User Equipment (UE) radio transmission and reception (FDD) Lucent announced the world's first turbo decoder chip for HSDPA UMTS terminals (11/02/03) UMTS Handover There are following categories of handover (also referred to as handoff): • Hard Handover Hard handover means that all the old radio links in the UE are removed before the new radio links are established. macro diversity with selection combining is applied.856 High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA).e. Layer 2 and 3 aspects 3GPP TS 25. For UMTS the following types of handover are specified: • • • • • • Handover 3G -3G (i.
ME. • Inter-frequency measurements: measurements on downlink physical channels at frequencies that differ from the frequency of the active set.• Handover 3G . • Inter-RAT measurements: measurements on downlink physical channels belonging to another radio access technology than UTRAN. • Quality measurements: Measurements of downlink quality parameters. handover from GSM) The most obvious cause for performing a handover is that due to its movement a user can be served in another cell more efficiently (like less power emission.g.e. It may however also be performed for other reasons such as system load control. • UE-internal measurements: Measurements of UE transmission power and UE received signal level. It will be possible to identify and report in a standard format (e.g. A measurement object corresponds to one cell. A measurement object corresponds to one timeslot in case of SIR (TDD only). but are included in the CELL_INFO_LIST belong to the Monitored Set.g. UMTS Location Based Services UMTS networks will support location service features. A measurement object corresponds to one transport channel in case of BLER. e.3G (e. • Cells detected by the UE. handover to GSM) • Handover 2G . e. The different types of air interface measurements are: • Intra-frequency measurements: measurements on downlink physical channels at the same frequency as the active set. downlink transport block error rate. A measurement object corresponds to one cell. The UE supports a number of measurements running in parallel.2G (e. network operator.g. to allow new and innovative location based services to be developed. which are not included in the active set. • Active Set is defined as the set of Node-Bs the UE is simultaneously connected to (i. geographical co-ordinates) the current location of the user's terminal and to make the information available to the user. • Traffic volume measurements: measurements on uplink traffic volume. Reporting of measurements of the detected set is only applicable to intra-frequency measurements made by UEs in CELL_DCH state. • Cells.. GSM. A measurement object corresponds to one cell. which are neither in the CELL_INFO_LIST nor in the active set belong to the Detected Set. the UTRA cells currently assigning a downlink DPCH to the UE constitute the active set). The UE also supports that each measurement is controlled and reported independently of every other measurement. • UE positioning measurements: Measurements of UE position. less interference).g. . A measurement object corresponds to one cell.
location-based services. Locationindependent PLMN or country Regional (up to 200km) District (up to 20km) Up to 1 km 500m to 1km 100m (67%) 300m (95%) 75m-125m 50m (67%) 150m (95%) 10m-50m Most existing cellular services. stock prices. emergency calls. information services (where are?) U. value added service providers and for PLMN internal operations. This is meant to be used for charging.service provider. traffic information (pre-trip) Local news. asset tracking. home zone pricing. It is possible for the network operator or service provider to define additional. security. localized advertising. FCC mandate (99-245) for wireless emergency calls using network based positioning methods Urban SOS. network maintenance. priority. navigation Example of location services The table below lists the attributes of specific location based services as determined by the GSM Alliance Services Working Group.. sports reports Services that are restricted to one country or one PLMN Weather reports.S. as well as the positioning services. localized weather warnings. Location based services categories Public Safety Services Location Sensitive Charging Person Tracking Fleet Management Asset Management Traffic Congestion Reporting Traffic Monitoring Roadside Assistance Enhanced Call Routing Routing to Nearest Commercial Enterprise Location Based Information Service Navigation Tracking Services Standardized Service Types Emergency Services Emergency Alert Services .S. route guidance. network demand monitoring. The location is provided to identify the likely location of specific MEs. manpower planning. lawful interception. information services (where is the nearest?) U. non-standardised service types. privacy and other related aspects. FCC mandate (99-245) for wireless emergency calls using handset based positioning methods Asset Location. targeted congestion avoidance advice Rural and suburban emergency services. etc. Location Information consists of: • Geographic Location • Velocity (the combination of speed and heading ) • Quality of Service information (horizontal & vertical accuracy and response time) 3GPP specification also describes location based service reliability. traffic reports Vehicle asset management.
Request Type Immediate Deferred Response Time Immediate Delayed (event driven) Number of Responses Single One or More Location Service Requests The LCS Server will provide. data. . commercial asset tracking and.g. The periodic reporting function is generally applicable for asset management services and exists as several variants. manpower planning. an error indication plus optional reason for the failure. e. following receipt of the emergency call request.g. Using the Location Service Request. A LCS server consists of a number of location service components and bearers needed to serve the LCS clients. each applicable to different value added services: Location reporting only within predetermined period Periodic location reporting within specified period and reporting triggered by a specific event Periodic location reporting triggered by a specific event e. the current or most recent Location Information (if available) of the Target UE or. when the call is answered. As shown in below.g. an LCS client communicates with the LCS server to request the location information for one or more target UEs within a specified set of quality of service parameters. a location service may be specified as immediate or deferred. subject to provision of privacy. The LCS server shall provide a platform which will enable the support of location based services in parallel to other telecommunication services such as speech. if positioning fails. transit passenger information systems A LCS Client is a logical functional entity that makes a request to the PLMN LCS server for the location information of one or more than one target UEs.City Sightseeing Localized Advertising Mobile Yellow Pages Service Provider Specific Services Standardized Service Types UE locations is reported periodically. the geographic location may be provided to an emergency services LCS Client either without any request from the client at certain points in an emergency services call (e. messaging. other teleservices. on request. 24hr depot management. The former type of provision is referred to as a “push” while the latter is known as a “pull”. when the call is released) or following an explicit request from the client. user applications and supplementary services. e. For emergency services (where required by local regulatory requirements). stolen vehicle monitoring. high value asset security.g. home zone charging.
Initial location at start of emergency call Location information that may be provided The specification Release '99 specifies the following LCS positioning methods: • Cell coverage based positioning method • Observed Time Difference Of Arrival (OTDOA) method with network configurable idle periods • Network assisted GPS methods OTDOA Location Method . answered. released Geographic location.Type of Access Information Items Current Geographic Location (if available) MSISDN IMSI IMEI Push NA-ESRK NA-ESRD State of emergency call: – unanswered. either: .Current location Pull .
in the slot immediately after the TPC_cmd can be derived. while if SIRest < SIRtarget then the TPC command to transmit is "1". The UE transmitter is capable of changing the output power with a step size of 1.UMTS Power Control Open loop power control is the ability of the UE transmitter to sets its output power to a specific value. Inner loop power control frequency is 1500Hz. in order to keep the received uplink Signal-to-Interference Ratio (SIR) at a given SIR target. 1. It is used for setting initial uplink and downlink transmission powers when a UE is accessing the network. generate TPC commands (TPC_cmd) and transmit the commands once per slot according to the following rule: if SIRest > SIRtarget then the TPC command to transmit is "0". It is mandatory for . Algorithm 1: • The power control step is the change in the UE transmitter output power in response to a single TPC command Algorithm 2: • If all five estimated TPC command are "down" the transmit power is reduced by 1 dB • If all five estimated TPC command are "up" the transmit power is increased by 1 dB • Otherwise the transmit power is not changed Transmitter power control range The transmit power of the downlink channels is determined by the network.5 or 2 dB. Two algorithms are supported by the UE for deriving a TPC_cmd. combining multiple TPC commands if more than one is received in a slot. The power control step size can take four values: 0. Which of these two algorithms is used. 2 and 3 dB. is determined by a UE-specific higher-layer parameter. Upon reception of one or more TPC commands in a slot.5. "PowerControlAlgorithm". the UE derives a single TPC command for each slot. The serving cells estimate SIR of the received uplink DPCH. 1. The open loop power control tolerance is ± 9 dB (normal conditions) or ± 12 dB (extreme conditions) Inner loop power control (also called fast closed loop power control) in the uplink is the ability of the UE transmitter to adjust its output power in accordance with one or more Transmit Power Control (TPC) commands received in the downlink.
25. The downlink outer loop power control is the ability of the UE receiver to converge to required link quality (BLER) set by the network (RNC) in downlink. The slot timing of the cell can be obtained by detecting peaks in the matched filter output.849 Cell search procedure During the cell search. Since the cyclic shifts of the sequences are unique the code group as well as the frame synchronisation is determined. This is done by correlating the received signal with all possible secondary synchronisation code sequences. This is typically done with a single matched filter (or any similar device) matched to the primary synchronisation code which is common to all cells. and identifying the maximum correlation value. 25. 25. Further reading: 3GPP TS 25. even dynamically. while support of other step sizes is optional. 25.101. Bit Error Ratio) for each Radio Resource Control connection.133.215.841. In general the ratio of the transmit power between different downlink channels is not specified in 3GPP specifications and may change with time. 25.331. 25. the UE uses the SCH's secondary synchronisation code to find frame synchronisation and identify the code group of the cell found in the first step. The uplink outer loop power control is responsible for setting a target SIR in the Node B for each individual uplink inner loop power control. This target SIR is updated for each UE according to the estimated uplink quality (BLock Error Ration. Step 2: Frame synchronisation and code-group identification During the second step of the cell search procedure.UTRAN to support step size of 1 dB. The UE generates TPC commands to control the network transmit power and send them in the TPC field of the uplink DPCCH.214. 25. Outer loop power control is used to maintain the quality of communication at the level of bearer service quality requirement. Additional special situations of power control are Power control in compressed mode and Downlink power during handover. while using as low power as possible. .433. The cell search is typically carried out in three steps: Step 1: Slot synchronisation During the first step of the cell search procedure the UE uses the SCH's primary synchronisation code to acquire slot synchronisation to a cell. Power control of the downlink common channels are determined by the network.435. the UE searches for a cell and determines the downlink scrambling code and frame synchronisation of that cell. Upon receiving the TPC commands UTRAN adjusts its downlink DPCCH/DPDCH power accordingly. 25.
The 10 ms radio frames of the Primary and Secondary SCH are divided into 15 slots. …. the Primary and Secondary SCH. the UE determines the exact primary scrambling code used by the found cell. The SSC is denoted csi. 1. This sequence on the Secondary SCH indicates which of the code groups the cell's downlink scrambling code belongs to.and cell specific BCH information can be read. The Secondary SCH consists of repeatedly transmitting a length 15 sequence of modulated codes of length 256 chips.Step 3: Scrambling-code identification During the third and last step of the cell search procedure. The SCH consists of two sub channels. the Primary CCPCH can be detected and the system. …. each of length 2560 chips. Picture above illustrates the structure of the SCH radio frame. transmitted in parallel with the Primary SCH. 14 is the slot number. The primary scrambling code is typically identified through symbol-by-symbol correlation over the CPICH with all codes within the code group identified in the second step. and k = 0. Symbol Note 256 chips .k in figure 20. After the primary scrambling code has been identified. the Secondary Synchronisation Codes (SSC). If the UE has received information about which scrambling codes to search for. 1. 63 is the number of the scrambling code group. The PSC is the same for every cell in the system. Summary of the process: Channel Primary Synchronisation acquired Chip. Each SSC is chosen from a set of 16 different codes of length 256. where i = 0. Slot. steps 2 and 3 above can be simplified Structure of synchronization channel The Synchronisation Channel (SCH) is a downlink signal used for cell search. The Primary SCH consists of a modulated code of length 256 chips. the primary synchronization code (PSC) is transmitted once every slot.
different for different cells and slot intervals To find the primary scrambling code from common pilot CH Fixed 30 kbps channel 27 kbps rate spreading factor 256 Carries FACH and PCH channels Variable bit rate *) Primary Common Control Physical Channel **) Secondary Common Control Physical Channel Further reading: 3GPP TS 25.SCH Synchronisation Secondary SCH Frame Synchronisation. The RACH is characterized by a collision risk and by being transmitted using open loop power control.213 Random Access The Random Access Channel (RACH) is an uplink transport channel.211 25. . Code Group (one of 64) Common Pilot CH PCCPCH *) SCCPCH **) Scrambling code (one of 8) Super Frame Synchronisation. There are 16 secondary synchronisation codes. BCCH info The same in all cells 15-code sequence of secondary synchronisation codes. The RACH is always received from the entire cell. There are 64 S-SCH sequences corresponding to the 64 scrambling code groups 256 chips.
2. while a 20 ms message part consists of two consecutive 10 ms message part radio frames. 128. A 10 ms message part consists of one message part radio frame. and 32 respectively for the message data part.RACH access slot numbers and their spacing RACH preamble is of length 4096 chips and consists of 256 repetitions of a signature of length 16 chips. 64. This corresponds to a spreading factor of 256.3. The data and control parts are transmitted in parallel. The data part consists of 10*2k bits. Structure of the random-access message part radio frame The Acquisition Indicator Channel (AICH) is a fixed rate (SF=256) physical channel used to carry Acquisition Indicators (AI). Acquisition Indicator AIs corresponds to signature s on the PRACH. each of length Tslot = 2560 chips. where k=0.1. There are a maximum of 16 available signatures. All 16 preamble signature codes available in every cells. Each slot consists of two parts. The 10 ms RACH message part radio frame is split into 15 slots. Structure of Acquisition Indicator Channel . a data part to which the RACH transport channel is mapped and a control part that carries Layer 1 control information.
The part of the slot with no transmission is reserved for possible use by CSICH or possible future use by other physical channels. followed by a part of duration 1024chips with no transmission that is not formally part of the CD/CA-ICH. or CD Indicator/CA Indicator (CDI/CAI) at the same time if the CA is active. AP acquisition indicator APIs corresponds to AP signature s transmitted by UE. CD/CA-ICH and APAICH may use the same or different channelisation codes.The Access Preamble Acquisition Indicator channel (AP-AICH) is a fixed rate (SF=256) physical channel used to carry AP acquisition indicators (API) of CPCH. The Collision Detection Channel Assignment Indicator channel (CD/CA-ICH) is a fixed rate (SF=256) physical channel used to carry CD Indicator (CDI) only if the CA is not active. PCPCH Access Example: PCPCH (similar to RACH) and AICH transmission as seen by the UE DPCCH PCPCH AP-AICH CD/CA-ICH AP CD/CA Dedicated Physical Control Channel Physical Common Packet Channel Access Preamble Acquisition Indicator Channel Collision Detection/Channel Assignment Indicator Channel Access Preamble Collision Detection/Channel Assignment Indicators are means of fast low-level signalling entities which are transmitted . The structure of CD/CA-ICH is shown in figure 25. The CD/CA-ICH has a part of duration of 4096chips where the CDI/CAI is transmitted. Uplink Common Packet channel (CPCH) is an extension to the RACH channel for packet-based user data.
without using information blocks sent over transport channels. Indicators are transmitted on those physical channels that are indicator channels (ICH). and between UTRA RRC connected mode and GSM/GPRS packet modes for PS domain services. The indicators defined in the current version of the specifications are: • Acquisition Indicator (AI) • Access Preamble Indicator (API) • Channel Assignment Indicator (CAI) • Collision Detection Indicator (CDI) • Page Indicator (PI) • Status Indicator (SI) Indicators may be either boolean (two-valued) or three-valued. including transitions between UTRA RRC connected mode and GSM connected mode for CS domain services. Further reading: 3GPP TS 25. The meaning of indicators is specific to the type of indicator.211 UMTS RCC States Picture below shows the RRC states in UTRA RRC Connected Mode. Their mapping to indicator channels is channel specific. . It also shows the transitions between Idle Mode and UTRA RRC Connected Mode and furthermore the transitions within UTRA RRC connected mode.
• The UE is assigned a default common or shared transport channel in the uplink (e. • The UE continuously monitors a FACH in the downlink. • In TDD mode.g. and a combination of these transport channels can be used by the UE. CELL_FACH state is characterised by: • No dedicated physical channel is allocated to the UE. one or several USCH or DSCH transport channels may have been established. .RRC States and State Transitions including GSM CELL_DCH state is characterised by: • A dedicated physical channel is allocated to the UE in uplink and downlink. and uses DRX for monitoring the selected PCH via an associated PICH. • No uplink activity is possible. • The position of the UE is known by UTRAN on cell level according to the cell where the UE last made a cell update. RACH) that it can use anytime according to the access procedure for that transport channel. • The UE is known on cell level according to its current active set. • Dedicated transport channels. downlink and uplink (TDD) shared transport channels. • The UE selects a PCH with the algorithm. CELL_PCH state is characterised by: • No dedicated physical channel is allocated to the UE. • The position of the UE is known by UTRAN on cell level according to the cell where the UE last made a cell update in CELL_FACH state.
URA_PCH State is characterised by: • No dedicated channel is allocated to the UE. • The UE selects a PCH with the algorithm. procedure Cell reselection. When an Initial cell reselection is triggered. If the change of cell implies a change of radio access technology. the RRC connection is released. One example where this procedure is triggered is at radio link failure. Call reselection procedures: States and procedures in the cell reselection process in connected mode When a cell reselection is triggered. and if a better cell is found that cell is selected. • No uplink activity is possible. the UE shall use the Initial cell reselection procedure to find a suitable cell. and uses DRX for monitoring the selected PCH via an associated PICH. If no suitable cell is found in the cell reselection procedure. the UE eventually enters idle mode. If the UE is unable to find a . and the UE enters idle mode of the other RAT. • The location of the UE is known on UTRAN Registration area level according to the URA assigned to the UE during the last URA update in CELL_FACH state. the UE evaluates the cell reselection criteria based on radio measurements. where the UE may trigger an initial cell reselection in order to request re-establishment of the RRC connection.
The general structure of frames Data frame example: . Header Payload: Data or Control Information General Frame Structure There are two types of frames (indicated by the Frame Type field).331 UTRAN Iub Interface General Frame Structure The general structure of a Common Transport Channel frame between Node B and RNC consists of a header and a payload. • Control frame.suitable cell. Further reading: 3GPP TS 25. • Data frame. the UE eventually enters idle mode.
DL FDD DSCH data frame structure CRC FT CFN TFI SF SP MC Info TB Cyclic Redundancy Checksum Frame Type Connection Frame Number Transport Format Indicator Spreading Factor Spare Multi Code to indicate the number of parallel PDSCH codes on which the DSCH data will be carried Transport Block Control frame example: .
435 Call Setup .Iub Common Transport Channel Control Frame Format Further reading: 3GPP TS 25.
The structure is based on the principle that the layers and planes are logically independent of each .331 UTRAN Protocol Model The general protocol model for UTRAN Interfaces is shown below.303. 25.Basic Mobile Originating Call Diagram Further reading: 3GPP TS 25.
but without any UTRAN specific requirements. and the Signalling Bearer for transporting the Application Protocol messages.e. the Application Protocol is used for setting up bearers for (i. The Data Stream(s) is/are characterised by one or more frame protocols specified for that interface. All UTRAN related issues are visible only in the Radio Network Layer. The Transport Network Control Plane does not include any Radio Network Layer information.e. Radio Access Bearer or Radio Link) in the Radio Network Layer. It includes the ALCAP protocol(s) that is/are needed to set up the transport bearers (Data Bearer) for the User . RNSAP or NBAP. The User Plane Includes the Data Stream(s) and the Data Bearer(s) for the Data Stream(s). and the Transport Network Layer represents standard transport technology that is selected to be used for UTRAN. the standardisation body can easily alter protocol stacks and planes to fit future requirements. RANAP. as and when required. Among other things.other. Vertical Planes The Control Plane Includes the Application Protocol. Radio Network Layer. Therefore. and is completely in the Transport Layer. and Transport Network Layer. General Protocol Model for UTRAN Interfaces Horizontal Layers The Protocol Structure consists of two main layers. i.
The introduction of Transport Network Control Plane is performed in a way that the Application Protocol in the Radio Network Control Plane is kept completely independent of the technology selected for Data Bearer in the User Plane. the decision to actually use an ALCAP protocol is completely kept within the Transport Network Layer. Iur Interface Protocol Structure Iur layers Further Reading: . The Transport Network Control Plane is a plane that acts between the Control Plane and the User Plane. It also includes the appropriate Signalling Bearer(s) needed for the ALCAP protocol(s). Indeed.Plane.
Iur specification numbers Protocol layering specification numbers .
Of these.More further reading: 3GPP TS 25. The remaining 12 bits are not formally part of the PICH and shall not be transmitted (DTX). The part of the frame with no transmission is reserved for possible future use. SCCPCHs carrying FACH only shall not be counted). The transmission of the PCH is associated with the transmission of physical-layer generated Paging Indicators. in one Paging Occasion per DRX cycle. for instance when making an emergency call without USIM. In a cell.420 Paging The Paging Channel (PCH) is a downlink transport channel. 288 bits are used to carry paging indicators. Picture below illustrates the frame structure of the PICH. "Index of selected SCCPCH" identifies the selected SCCPCH with the PCH and the uniquely associated PICH to be used by the UE. If the UE has no IMSI. where K is equal to the number of listed SCCPCHs which carry a PCH (i. The PCH is always transmitted over the entire cell. When DRX is used the UE needs only to monitor one Page Indicator. The Paging Indicator Channel (PICH) is a fixed rate (SF=256) physical channel used to carry the paging indicators. . Paging Channel selection System information block type 5 (SIB 5) defines common channels to be employed in Idle mode. In case that more than a single PCH and associated PICH are defined in SIB 5. the UE shall perform a selection according to the following rule: • The UE shall select a SCCPCH from the ones listed in SIB 5 based on IMSI as follows: "Index of selected SCCPCH" = IMSI mod K. One PICH radio frame of length 10 ms consists of 300 bits. These SCCPCHs shall be indexed in the order of their occurrence in SIB 5 from 0 to K-1. to support efficient sleepmode procedures. Thus.e. PI. Each Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (SCCPCH) indicated to the UE in system information may carry up to one PCH. the UE shall use as default number IMSI = 0. 25. for each defined PCH there is one uniquely associated PICH also indicated. The PICH is always associated with an S-CCPCH to which a PCH transport channel is mapped. The UE may use Discontinuous Reception (DRX) in idle mode in order to reduce power consumption.401. a single or several PCHs may be established.
i. In addition. in idle or connected mode.g. PICH / S-CCPCH timing relation Picture below illustrates the timing between a PICH frame and its associated single SCCPCH frame. UTRAN may initiate paging for UEs in idle mode. which also can contain other information PAGING TYPE 2 message is used to page an UE in connected mode (CELL_DCH or CELL_FACH state). CELL_PCH or URA_PCH state using the paging control channel (PCCH). . Upper layers in the network may request initiation of paging. can be paged in one message. UTRAN may initiate paging for UEs in CELL_PCH or URA_PCH state to trigger a cell update procedure. to e. the S-CCPCH frame that carries the paging information related to the paging indicators in the PICH frame. UTRAN initiates the procedure by transmitting a PAGING TYPE 2 message on the DCCH using AM RLC.Structure of Paging Indicator Channel (PICH) Two Paging Procedures: Paging procedure is used to transmit paging information to selected UEs in idle mode. Upper layers in the network may request paging.e. when using the DCCH for CN originated paging. establish a signalling connection. One or several UEs. A paging indicator set in a PICH frame means that the paging message is transmitted on the PCH in the S-CCPCH frame starting tPICH chips after the transmitted PICH frame. UTRAN initiates the paging procedure by transmitting a PAGING TYPE 1 message on an appropriate paging occasion on the PCCH. For a UE in CELL_DCH or CELL_FACH state. CELL_PCH and URA_PCH state to trigger reading of updated system information. UE dedicated paging procedure is used to transmit dedicated paging information to one UE in connected mode in CELL_DCH or CELL_FACH state. Two Paging Message Types: PAGING TYPE 1 message is used to send information on the paging channel.
Paging occasion: (FDD) The SFN of the PICH frame where the UE monitors its paging indicator (i. For Release 5.304 Virtual Home Environment (VHE) Virtual Home Environment (VHE) is a concept for Personal Service Environment (PSE) portability across network boundaries and between terminals.g. activate. (For FDD.) • enable the identification of a user's personalised data and services information directly or indirectly from the user's profile(s) • enable authorised HE-VASPs to access the user's profile(s) • enable VASPs controlled and limited access to the user's profile(s) (e.g.e. modify. User Interface customisation and services in whatever network and whatever terminal (within the capabilities of the terminal and the network). deactivate etc. CAMEL. The concept of VHE is such that users are consistently presented with the same personalised features.g. activate. modify. CAMEL MExE MRF OSA USAT Customised Application For Mobile Network Enhanced Logic Mobile Execution Environment Media Resource Function Open Service Access Universal SIM Application Tool-Kit A user's VHE is enabled by user profiles as logically depicted in a picture below.Timing relation between PICH frame and associated S-CCPCH frame tPICH = 7680 chips (3 slots) Paging Block Periodicity (PBP): Period of the occurrence of Paging Blocks. Further reading: 3GPP TS 25. MExE. for general user preferences and subscribed services information). PBP = 1). OSA and USAT are considered the mechanisms supporting the VHE concept.211 25. the SFN of the PCCPCH frame in which the PICH frame begins). wherever the user may be located.) • enable the home environment and HE-VASP to manage one or more user profiles (e. deactivate etc. . The home environment shall: • enable the user to manage one or more user profiles (e.
The home environment shall: • be able to provide and control services to the user in a consistent manner also if the user is roaming • provide the necessary means to create and maintain a set of user profiles • Support the execution of services – through its Service Toolkits in the network. the USIM and in the ME • uniquely identify the user in the telecommunication networks supported by the Home Environment. .The home environment's view of the Virtual Home Environment concept is logically depicted in a picture below.
• Framework: providing applications with basic mechanisms that enable them to make use of the service capabilities in the network. The discovery function enables the application to find out which network service capability features are provided by the Service Capability Servers. allowing applications to be developed independently of any UE platform. Examples of service capability features offered by the Service Capability Servers are Call Control and User Location.Logical VHE Role Model (Operator's Home Environment's View) The Open Service Access consists of three parts: • Applications: e. The UE (consisting of the ME and SIM/USIM) can then be targeted at a . conferencing. and an ability to negotiate its supported capabilities with a MExE service provider. location based applications. These applications are implemented in one or more Application Servers. which are abstractions from underlying network functionality. • Service Capability Servers: providing the applications with service capability features. VPN. Mobile Execution Environment (MExE) provides a standardised execution environment in an UE. Examples of framework functions are Authentication and Discovery.g.
limited memory. A transport mechanism is provided enabling applications to be down-loaded and/or updated. SAT/USAT provides mechanisms which allow applications. MMI etc. low processor speeds. independent of the respective manufacturers and operators.range of implementations for MExE from small devices with low bandwidth. .. limited displays. Generic MExE architecture Universal Subscriber identity module Application Toolkit (USAT) provides a standardised execution environment for applications stored on the USIM/SIM card and the ability to utilize certain functions of the supporting mobile equipment. existing in the USIM/SIM. to sophisticated with a complete MExE execution environment. to interact and operate with any ME which supports the specified mechanism(s) thus ensuring interoperability between a USIM/SIM and an ME.
057 23.121 22.955 .057 23.078 23.038 22.127 23.USAT Diagram Further reading: 3GPP TS 22.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.