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. .

&

&

, 201
2012

1: , , ,
.

2: , .

. . ,

- & & -

(abiotic environment): ,

(, , , , , , , .. ).
.
- (abiotic substances or factors): -
.
, , , ,
, , , , , ..
- - (vascular plants - spermatophytes):
, .
- (wild life): (
), , , .
-: . ,
, .
. .

.
. .
, .
.

. . .
. , , , .

- - (agro-ecosystem):
( ) ()
.
. . ,

- & & -

, .
, (, ..),
, , ,
, ..
- (agro-tourism): , ,
.
, , (. ,
, ..), ( , , , ,
, , , ..), (. , , ,
..), (.. , , ,
, , , ., , ),
(.. , , , , ,
, , , , , ..).
- (agro-chemicals): .
, , , , (
).
- (graminae, grassland formations): ,
, , , , , , , , ,
..
- (conductivity):
. ,
, ,
() .. ,
,
. , 50-500S/cm,
10000S/cm.
- (sustainability, sustainable development) :
, ,
... ,
,
. , .
-

(evergreen

sclerophyllus

scrubs,

matorrals,

chaparrals,

maquis):

(,
, , , , ..), .
. . ,

- & & -

- (aerobic): . ,
.
- (seashore zone) :
.
- (seashore): .
- (aeolic energy): .
- (aesthetic forest): ,
, . ,
.
- (extreme meteorological & climatic phenomena):
.
, , ,
..
.
- (coast,shore): , .
- & (salinity):
, , , , , , , ..
35%0,
27%0 . .
- (salted soil): .
.
- (alkalinity): pH,

.
meq/l .
- (calm and warm winters days): ,
& 16 16 ,

4 C, 14 C.
.
.
- (mutual influence): - , .
. . ,

- & & -

-- (alluvial materials): - ,
.
.
- (allochthonous materials):
.
- (halophytes):
(, ..), , , , , ,
.
- (rotation of crops):
, , ,
. (, , ) ,
(, , , ),
( ).
- (sand dynes):
.
.
- (mutualism): ,
.
- (reforestation):

.
- (anaerobic):
.

- (recycle of materials):
( -
, , , ..). ,
.
- -AE (renewable energy resources):
.
,
. ,
. ,
.
. . ,

- & & -

( ). , .

- (reproduction): .
- (respiration): ,
.
- (climbing plants): ,
, . , ,
,
, .
.


, , , .
. ,
, , -, , , , , , ,
, .
- (waterbloom):
- ,
.
- (calcareous rocks): .
- (man-made activities):
( , , , , , , , , ..).
- (human environment):
. .
.
- (inorganic nutrients):
. C (), () ()
, . , (),
(), (), Ca (), Mg (), S (),
, Fe (), Zn (), Mn (), (),
Cu (), Cl ( ) Mo (), .
- (drought, lack of rain): , .
- (competition): ,
.
. . ,

- & & -

- (amensalism, antibioses): ,
, .
- (fire preventing zone):
, , .
-

(hazard

assessment)

&

(risk

assessment): .
,
.
.

(Assessment of environmental and ecological risk).

.
- (evaluation of habitat types):
, (, , , ),
(<15%, 2-15%, 0-2%),
( & ,
, ),

( ..
, , .., , ).
- (effluents & sewages):
(, , ). ,
.
- (soils denudation): (, ,
, , ) ,
, .
- (reserve of biosphere):
(.., ).
- (materials deposition):
, .
- (decomposers or detritovorus organisms):
(, , ) -- ( ,
, , ..) . ,
.

. . ,

- & & -

- (household & trade wastes, garbages):


(, ).
, ,
-, .
- (detergents) :
. ,
,
.
- (weathering of rocks):
, , -
, . .
- (deforestation):
, .
- (clay): 0.002
, .
- (limestone):
. ,
.
- (atmosphere): .
. (78%),
(21%), , , , .
.
0,038 , , .
- (self-regulation): ,
, , .
- (autotrophic or primary producers):

( ), , .
- (indigenous species):
,
.

. . ,

- & & -

- (desalination):
. ,
.

(swamp): , -

. (marsh) ,
(bog & fen) .
- (heavy metals): (heavy metals)
5 g/cm3. ,
, , , , ..
, , .., ,
.
,
.
( ,
, ,
, .).
- (benthos): ,
.
- (bio-geochemical cycles):
- (.. , )
. ..
. ,
.
,
, , ,
. ( ),
, ,
.
- (biogenic substances): , , ,
.
- (bio-degradation):
, (
).

. . ,

- & & -

10

- (bio-dynamic agriculture):
, ..
, ..
- (bioclimate):
. (, ,
) ,
.
- (bioclimatic architecture):
. ,
, , .

(.. , , ,
).
- (bio-community):
. .
- (bio-society): ( )
.
- (biota): .
- (biological product):
. ,
,
, - , .
- (biological agriculture): .
.
. , (,
..) .
.
- (biological cycle):
.
- (biomass, standing crop= ): () (
) (, , ),
. . ,

- & & -

11

. (..
) .
- (bio-conversion): ,
.
- (plants bioforms): .
( , . ), (
, .. , , ), (
), ( ,
.. ) (
, .. , ).
- (biodiversity, biotic diversity):
. , .
3-30 , 2,5
900.000 , 41.000

250.000 ,

, , . ,
, .
.
- & (bio-accumulation & bio-magnification):

, .

.
- (biosphere): .
, , , ,
, .
- (biotic substance or parameters): (
) . , , , ,
.
- (biotic environment): ( ).
- (biotic system): (-).
.
- (biotope): ,
, ,
. . ,

- & & -

12

. , ( - - ). ,
,
.
- (BOD-biochemical oxygene demand): -
, .
( ),
, , , .
,
. , ,
, .
. BOD
(g/m3). BOD , COD ( )
.
- (vegetation): ,
. .

(climax vegetation).
- & (alpine & subalpine vegetation): , ,
1700-2917 , ,
, , , ,.., , ,
, , , , ..
- & (vegetation on steep rocks and gorges):
. , , , ,
, -.
.
- (vegetation of transitional climatic zone):
,
. -, -,
(shiblyak)
.
, , , , , ,
, ..
, , , , , , , ..

. . ,

- & & -

13

- (coastal vegetation):
, , . , ,
, , , .. , ,
, , , , .. (.. ,
, , , , ),
.
- (tropical vegetation):
( ) .
- (pasture or grass-land): (,
) .
- (Botanical garden): ,
.
.
. ""
.
.
,
.
, , Herbarium .
- (bauxite): ,
. .

(Geographical Information Systems):

, , , , , ,
.
- (geothermal energy):
.
- (alpine and meta-alpine period): (250-20
) ( ),
,
. ( 20 ) ,
2 .
- (geological times):
. , (550-280 )
. . ,

- & & -

14

, , , , . (280-65
) , ,
. ( 65 )
, 90.000 Homo sapiens.

(forest): .

: ) (broad-leaved centro-European
deciduous forests), ) (coniferous forests), ) (mixed deciduous forests),
) (mountainous coniferous forests), )
.
- (afforestation or forested area): (..
, ) ,
.
- (dendrochronology or dating trees):
. ,
, .
- (grounds erosion):
, , , , , ..,
(, .), ,
(). (corrosion)
, , ..
- (plants formations):
(.. , , , , ..).
- (transpiration): () , ()
.
- (Natures preservation): (, , )
(
).
- (preservable monuments of nature):
, , ,
, , .

. . ,

- & & -

15

- (diatoms): .
.
. .
- (environmental management):
, , .

.
(
), (, ),
(
),

), (
,
), (
, , , ,
).
- & (International Treaties for protection of
Nature): , )
(1971), ) .. ( CITES)
(1973), ) (1976),
) (1979), ) (1979),
) (1991), )
,
(1992), ), ..,
,
(1992), ),
(1992), ),
), ) ) . :
ENTRI (Environmental Treaties and Resource Indicators)
- (dioxins): 210
-- ( ). 15
, 1.
.
( PVC, , ..), ,
.. .
. . ,

- & & -

16

, , ,
() 5 .
.
.
- (doline): ,
, .
(Polje), ,
, (Mediterranean temporary ponds).
- (dolomite):
15%.
- (built environment):
.

(soil texture or soils mechanical structure):

() .
"" , , , ""
, ,
"" . (..
-, -- .), "" ""
, .
- (soil):
.

. , - .
- (soil production or soil formation): ,
, , , . (
, ),
( ) ( ),
, .
- (National Natural parks): ,
, ,
. . ,

- & & -

17

, ,
. ' , ,
, .
- (National Natural forests): ,
. ,
, ,
, ,
, , , ,
, .
- (species): ,
,
.
- (energys inflows): , , ...
.
- (environmentl impact assessment):
,
.
- (el-Ninio phenomenon): (
= ), (
) ,
, . ,
.
, ,
.
.
, .
,
"" " " .
- (marsh): .
, (swamp)
(bog= & fen= )
.
-S (Eco Management and Audit Scheme) & ISO 14001: EMAS
, S 14001 .
18
. . ,
- & & -


, ,

. EMAS .., ,
ISO 14001, . EMAS
: , , & ,
, , ,
(http:/ec.europa.eu/environment/emas/index_en.htm).
- (living things or beings): , .
- (habitat): - .
(.. ) ,
(niche)
, .
- (endemic species):
.
, .
- (evaporation): (, , ,
, , , .) .
.
- (evapotranspiration):
- -
- .
.
- (potential evapotranspiration):
, , , ,
. Thornthwaite
1948 , .
- (evolution):
. . ..
,
.
- (exothermic reaction): .
. . ,

- & & -

19

- (sewages treatment): (
), , , ,
95%.
, ( )
.
- (pollination): (
), ( )
. "" () ""
() . (,
.. , , ),
( .. ).
- (epilimnion):
- ,
.
- (epiphytes): .
- (desertification): -, ,
.

.
- (heterotrophic organism):
.
.
- (terra rossa):
, .
- (eutrophication):

(.. , , ).

,
.
- (euphotic zone):
.

. . ,

- & & -

20

(faunal community): .

- (zooplankton): .
- (zoobenthos): .

(ethology): .

- (solar energy & plants):


, 3.0-0.1% , , . ,
2-7
. ,
.
- (noise pollution): .

(marine zones from biological aspects):


( ) (
200 ). , (
), ( ) (
, , ).
- (marine zones from geographical aspect):
, .
(
2 ), (
- 200 2000 )
( 2000 6200 ).
- (sea-upwellings):
, .
. ,

. . ,

- & & -

21

, ,
, , .
- (thickets of bushes): , .
- (ammonium sulphate): 21%.
- a (thermal conductivity):
.
- (urban thermal island):
.
- (thermal sink-holes):
.
- (greenhouse phenomenon):
.
( ), (..
, , ). ,
, ,
, .
- (greenhouse gases): ,
( ), ( ,
, ), ( ,
), , , ..
- (thermocline): ()
,
. , ,
10 C, , ,
=d2/d2z=0, ()
(z) .
- : .
- (therophytes): -
.
- (prey): ( ) .
- (predator): , .
.
. . ,

- & & -

22

(silt, mud): 2-63 ,

.
-S 14001:
.
.
-I (trace elements):
.

(....)(Good agricultural practices):

, -,
,
, .
, ,
, , , ,
, , .
, .
. ,
, , ,
. ,
.
- (karst): , , , ..
- (sink-hole, underground drainage):
.
- (katabolism):
.
- (consumers or secondary producers): (
) . - ,
( ), ( ),
( ) .
- (consumer): ,
( ). ,
, ( ), ( ) .
. . ,

- & & -

23

- (atmospheric precipitation):
( , , , , .).
- (preys refuges): ,
, ,
,
.
- (landslide or landslip):
.
- (Babylons gardens):
.
600 .. .

, .
.
- : . ,
, .
,
.

. , .
. , ,
, , ,
.
, , .
. .
, .
, .
. .
- (climate & vegetation): .
, ,
. ,
, (..
4-8 ,
, ).
. . ,

- & & -

24

- (climate & weather):


- , , ,
, , .
. ,
. ,
. , .
. .
- (climatic change):
,
. , ,

. , )
, , , )
( , , ,
)
- (climatic classification of Greece):
, - , (29
Thornthwaite).
.
.
, .
- (vegetation canopy): .
- (compost): .
.
- (underground rhizome or tumber):
. ,
.
- (abiotic criteria): a - ,
, , ..
- & (evaluations criteria for natural and man-made
environment): ( ,
, , , , ,
..) , ,
. . ,

- & & -

25

.. , , ,
& .
- & (socio-economics criteria):
, ,
, , ,
, ..
- (ecological criteria):
, , , ,
, , ..
- (practical criteria):
, , ,
, , , ,
, , ..
- (conglomerate):
(), 2mm, .
.
- (cryosphere): .
, .
- (cryptophytes): ()
, .
- (cycle of carbon & oxygen):

. .

, -, ,
.
, , .
- (cycle of calcium & other elements):
(.. , , ).
,
, ,
.
- (cycle of nitrogen):
. ,
. . ,

- & & -

26

. ,
- ,
, -,
.
.
- (cycle of sulphur):
, . ,
(.. ..).
- (cycle of phosphorus): .
.

(Guano).
- (cellulose): .
. ,
, . , ,
, .

(laterite):

. (terra rossa).
, , , ,
.
- (breccia): ()
2mm, .
( ) .
- ( catchment basin, hydrological basin): ,
, (, , , , ).
- (lithosphere): .
- (lithospheric plates): ,
, , ,
.
- (barrage tank): ( )
().
- (lagoon): ,
.
. . ,

- & & -

27

.
.
- (sewage or waste waters):
. , . ,
.

(magma):

.
-, (maquis, evergreen sclerophyllus scrubs, matorrals, chaparrals):
2 ,
.
. (.. , ,
, , , , ). 700
. , , ,
, , , , , , ,
.. ( ) .
, , ,
, .
- (marl):
.
- (marble): M
.
-.
- (mean sea level): -
.
- (typical Mediterranean environment): )
(65%) , )
, ) 255 - -
900 , ) > 150
C , 00 C () ( 3%
).

. . ,

- & & -

28

- (metabolism):
- .
,
, .
pH . ,
.
- (mutated or genetically modified organisms):

.
. ,
...
, .
,
.
- (migration):
.
-

(mechanical

composition

or

soils

texture-structure):

() .
"" , , , ""
, ,
"" . (..
-, -- .), "" ""
, .
- (Microclimate): ,
, , , , , , . , ,
, ,
().
- (Natures monuments): ,
, ,
, , .
- (infection): ()
( )
.
. . ,

- & & -

29

- (monoculture): , .
- (model): , ( modus= , ),
, , .
(.. ) (.. ) (..
) (..
) ..
-M (mathematical model):
(.. , , ).
- (ecological model):
. ,
.
- (simulation model): ,
,
. (simulation)
, ,
.
- (Monsoons): ,
. .
. ,
. , , .
, .

Natura-2000: Natura-2000 ,

.
,
,
. Natura-2000

(pSCI=proposed Sites of Community Interest) (SPA=Special Protection Areas).


: ,
, , ,
-, Ramsar , , ,
, .
. . ,

- & & -

30

- (water): (
) . ,
, .
- (neuston): (..
).
- (necton):
(.. , , , ).
- (ammonium nitrate): ( ) 33%.
- (nitrification):
.

(host organism): .

- (drought):

. ,

& (tropospheric & stratospheric ozone) :

, "

" . , (0-10 ),

,

. 25-30
. , ,
..
,
( ), ( ).
, "" . ,

, ,
( ) .
-- (eco-cline): -.
- , (..
. . ,

- & & -

31


).
- (ecological niche): ,
. , ,
, ,
...
- (ecology):
. E.Haeckel, 1860, 1895.

, , , , , , ,
, , , , , .
, ,
, , ,
.
.

.
- & (ecological & biological systems):

( ). ( , , , , ,
) ( , , , , , ,
, , .) . ,
.
, .
- (ecologicl efficiency):
.
- (ecological succession):
, ( ,
, , ,
). (

). .
( , ,
, .),

. . ,

- & & -

32

( ), ,
.).
- (ecological disturbance):
.
- (ecological balance):

- (ecological pyramid):
.
- - (eco-Label):
,
, - ,
, .. (ISO)
. : = ,
.

: =

, , - ,
. : =
, ,
, , ..
- (ecological footprint):
(CO2) ,
. ,

(
) ,
(
). ,
2,3 , 1,8
, . ,
25% . ,
, ( WWF, 2006).
- (niche): .
, , , ,
. &
, .

. . ,

- & & -

33

- (ecological relationships): ,
, , ,
. ,
,
.
( -Neutralism), (-Symbiosis
-Commensalism), (Amensalism ),
(-Competition), (-Synergism,
-Mutualism, -Symbiosis),

(,

-Predation -Parasitism).
-

&

(ecological

index

&

indicator):


.
(.. , , ,
). .
, ,
, . ,
, ,
(, , , ).
, ,
.
, ,
(.., , Amoeba proteus,
,
).
, , , .
- (ecosystem):
(, ) (, , )
. (). ,
,
. ,
- ,
. ,
, ( )
. , ,

. . ,

- & & -

34

, , ,
, .
- (ecotone): ,
, , . ,
. .
- (habitat) & (habitat type):
. ,
, & .
(.. ,
, Salix alba, , .).
.
, , , , ,
, , , , , ..
- (eco-tourism): ( )
, , , , , ,
, .. ,
.. ,
, .
- (oligotrophic):
-, .
- (Integrated Products Policy=IPP):
- , ,
. IPP , ,
, . ,
(IPPC) .
- (Integrated Pollution & Prevention Control=IPPC):
.
IPPC ,
, ,

.
- (integrated agriculture):
(..
). ,
.
, , ,
..
. . ,

- & & -

35

- (omiotherm organism):
. .
.
- (homeostasis):
.
, , ,
.
- (organic fertilization):
,
(. ).
- (organic substance):
, -.
- (organism): ,
, .
- (organisms indices):
.

, ,

, .

, Euglena
, Amoeba proteus () ,
, 900 ,
600 , ,
, ,
,
.
- (proper agricultural & environmental activities) ():
() .
, .
10%,
. , , ,
, , .- 20%, ,
.
, .
- . ,
-. - . ,
,
, .
. . ,

- & & -

36

- (mining fuels):
, , ..
- (bank): .

(paleoclimatology):

.
.
- (tide): ()
() , ,
.
- (fauna): .
- & (production & productivity):
, .
- (producers):
( .
) .
.
- (traditional agriculture): ,
.
- (coastal): ,
.
(.. ),
.
- (beach, seashore): ( )
. .
- (parasite): ( )
.
- (parasiticide): ,
, . , .
.
- (pedosphere): .
. ,
.
. . ,

- & & -

37

- (pelagic): ,
.
.
- (environment): (-) , ,
, ,
, . '
.

. , ,
, , . , , , ,
, .
- (environmental impacts):
, , ,
. ,
, , .

, , , ,
, .
- & (environmental management & environmentals
management systems): , ,
.
.
.
, ,
.
. , ,
.
- (environmental):
. ,
.
- (limited factors, restrictive factors):
,
. -
(- , , -), ,
, , ,
. . ,

- & & -

38

, ( ) , .
,
( ) ( Liebig ). ,
(.. , ,
), , . ,
, (- -
, - - ,
- - , - -
).
- (regions of absolute protection of Nature):
,
, ,
.
- (regions of Nature protection) :
.
- (periphyton):
.
- , & (sedimentary, metamorphic & igneous rocks) :
, .
: (
, .. , , , .. ,
, .. ), (
, .. , )
( , ..
, .. , ).
- & (neogenous & pleistocoenic rocks):
23 2 .
- pH (pH): pH (pondus Hydrogenii)
. , pH=7 10-7 .
(pH) 0
14. , 7 14 ,
7 0, 7 . , ,
.
. . ,

- & & -

39

- pH (soils pH): (
) . ,
. 5 9
. pH ,
, .
pH
. , pH ,
, .
- (mud-clay): --
0.002 0.05 . ,
(Al2O32SiO32H2O).
- (certification): (, .) ,
.
-, & ( plankton, planktic & planktology): (
)
( , , ) ,
.
( ) , , .
- (population): .
- (variety of cultivate plants): (.. )
,
.
- (poikilothermic organism):
.
.
- (diversity):
, . ,
, , .
- (cultural heritage): ( ,
, , ..) ( ,
, ..) , , ,
, .
. . ,

- & & -

40

- (cultural environment):
.
- (riparian or riverine forest):
.
- (green supplies) :
. ,
, . ,
, [
/
, , ,
..
- (green chemistry):

. ,
.

.
.
- (probiotics & prebiotics): Ta ta
, . ,
(.. Lactobacillus GG, Bio-K+, Lactobacillus

casei, Bifidobacterium animalis) ,


.
.
, , ..
,
. , ,
, ..

- ()(

product of protected name of origin):

,
( 510/2006 & 1898/2006).

. . ,

- & & -

41

- ()(product of protected geographic label ):


,
. , ( 510/2006 &
1898/2006).
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,
( 509/2006 & 1216/2007)..
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.
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( ),
, , . ,
/ . , ,
/ ,
. -

, .

, .
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( ),
, ,
, , .
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, .
, , , ,
, .
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, , ,
.
.

. . ,

- & & -

42

- (protective forests):
, .
, , , , , ..
- (silting or embankment): - ,
.
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(radioactive wastes): .

- (Gulf stream): .
, ,
. ,
.
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.
, . , , , . ,
,
.
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, , ..) ,
, ,
. ,
. , .
, .
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.
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.

. . ,

- & & -

43

- (non-biodegradable pollutant): .

(detritivorus, saprophage, saprobore):

.
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- (hardness):

, ..

,
.
(dH), (fH), (eH) , : 10dH=1.790fH=1.250eH=17.9
ppm CaCO3 .
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, .
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15 50 ( ).
20 40 .

.
- (litter or stacked on the ground dead leaves and branches): , ,
.
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.
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,
.
- (symbiosis or commensalism): .
- (naturals resources conservation) : ,
.
. . ,

- & & -

44

- (behavior): , ,
.
- (slate or shalestone):
, .

(artificial lake or reservoir or tank):

, .
-, (roof gardens, eco-roofs): H ,
, ,
. .
, ( )
. .

- (bog or fen):
. (marsh) (swamp)
.
- (artificial environment): ,
.
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,
.
, .
-

(remote

sensing):

(..

, ).
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.
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.
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chain, trophic chain): .
, () ,
. . ,

- & & -

45

, . ,
. ,
.
- , (ozone layer depletion):
,
- .
(peat): .

(health): , ,

.
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, ,
, . (
),
, ,

.
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, ,
. , ,
, , , , ,
, , ,
.
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.
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, .


, ,
. ,
, ,
, - . ,
(,
. . ,

- & & -

46

, , , , .). ,
, , .
, , . ,
.
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.
, .
, ,
, ,
.
, , , .

, .
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, ,
,
. , , ,
, ,
.
,
.
. ,
,
. , .
,
.
, , , ,
, .
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rivers, torrents, river mouths, delta):
, .
.

. ,
, ,
. .
. . ,

- & & -

47


, .

( , ,
, ..) (, ,
, , .).
.
- (aquatic ecosystems - coastal ecosystems):
, , ,
, . ,
:- , - , , - ,
- , - , - .

, , .
, , ,

. , ,
( ), . ,
, , , (,
) (). ,
, , , ,
. ,
.
- (aquatic ecosystems - wetlands): ,
, , ,
, , , , , ,
.
,
,
, , , , , , ..
,
:- , ,

.- .-
, , .-
.- .-
..
- (aquatic & aqueous): .
, .
. . ,

- & & -

48

, , , ,
, (= ).
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.
- (hydrocarbons): . ,
, , .
- (hydrographic network): , , ,
,
, .
- (hydro-electricity):
(.. ).
- (watershed): -
.
- .
.
- (catchment basin, hydrological basin):
, , (, , ,
, ).
- (water cycle):
, , ,
, , , ,
, ...
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.
- (hydrosphere): ,
.
- (aquifer, water table):
.
- (water bearing):
( ).
- (groundwater table):
. .
. . ,

- & & -

49

- (timber felling): , .
- (over-grazing): .
- (ultra-violet radiation): , ,
.
- (infra-red radiation):
700m.
- (degradation):
, ,
, .
- (hypolimnion): ,
.
- (salinization).
( . .

).
- (continental shelf):
200 .

(phenols): - , .

,
. -

( ,

, , , , .). ,
.
.
- (phanerophyta): () .
, (..
).
- (carrying capacity or environmental capacity):
()
. ,
( , ,
. . ,

- & & -

50

, , ). ,
, .
.
: -, - -.
() .

.
.

.
,

. ,
.
- (friendly to the environment technologies):
,
.
.
, -
.
- ( ,
), - (
, ), (
, .)
.
- (flysch):
(, .) .
.
- (nutrients loading):
(.. , ,
), .
, ,
, , ,
.
- (dam):
(- ).

. . ,

- & & -

51

- (phreatic watertable):
.
.
.
- (phrygana, brushwood, temperate heath and scrub):
12,5% .

( ).

, ,
- . ,
, , , , , , , , , ,
.. , ,
, ..
- (deciduous): .

.
- (nature): . .
- (natural agriculture): , M.
Fukuoka, ..
. .. ,
, ...,
, .
- (natural selection): . ..
,
. ..
, .
- (natural heritage): (
), - (
),
, , .
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, . (, , , )
(, ).

. . ,

- & & -

52

- (natural environment in Greece):


( ),
, , ,
, , , , , ,
. ,
, , , ,
.
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, , .
, , , , , , ,
, ..
.
- : .
.
,
. (.. , , , ,
, , , , , , , ), (.. ,
, , , , , , , , ), (.. ,
), (.. , , ), (.. , , , , ,
, , , , , , , , , , ,
, , , , , , , , , , , ,
, ), (.. , , , ), (.. ,
, , , , , , , , , , , ,
, , , , , , , , , , , , ,
, , ).
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. , , , , . , ,
. , , , ,
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, , . , , ,
, .
,
. . ,

- & & -

53

, . ,
. ,
- .
, , , ,
.

.
. , , , , , .
. , , , .
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. ,
. ,
.
, . , ,
.
. , , .
"" (, ..)

. , ,
, , , , .
, , , , , , , , , , .

:
. . ,
.

, , , , , , , ,

, , , , , , , , , , , , .
, , , , , , ,
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, , , , , , , , , , .
- :
,
. .
, , , ,
, , , , , , , , ,
, , , , , .
. . ,

- & & -

54

- (vegetative ecosystems): ,
, (, , ,
, , , ,
, ), (
), (, ,
, , , , .). .
- & (phytogeography & zoogeography):
, -
.
-- (phyto-remediation):
, -
. ,
, , .
,
(-) (-), (-),
(-), (-).
, -,
- .
- (plantcommunity): .
- (phytoplankton): .
- (herbivorous): .
- (fotovoltaic systems):
.
-- (foto-catalytic materials): , ,
.
- (photosynthesis):
,
( ) . ,
, , , , .
(- ), , ,
( )
.
- (photochemical reaction):
.
. . ,
- & & -

55

- (sunlight):
, .

(chamephyta): ()

.
- (chartographic profile):
.
- (terrestrial ecosystems):
, ,
, ,

& , &
. (,, ,
.), (, , .), ,
- (, , , ,
, ) , & -
(, , , ) ,
,
- (

&

, ).
- (COD-chemical oxygene demand): (.. ,
, , , ..) ,
(.. , ..) ,
. COD

,
. COD
- . COD
BOD. COD-BOD -
.
- (green fertilizer): ,
, .

. . ,

- & & -

56

- (flora):
.
- (chlorination): ,
. ,
, .
,
, .
, . ,
, -
, ,
.
- (chloro-fluoro-carbons):
.
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. ,
.
- (loss of plant color):
.
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.
. , ,
" ".
- (sanitary disposal site for waste residues):
.
.
- (sanitary land-fills): ,
.
.

(sandstone):

. . ,

- & & -

57

- (legumes): , , ,
, , , ... , , ...
,
.
- (cool materials):
( ).
.
- (psichrophilous organism):
.
_____________

, ,
http://glossary.eea.eu.int


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Benjamin /

Cummings Publ.
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-, ., , ., , .,2001. . .
. . ., .
-, ., , ., 2003. . ., .
-Hinkley, A., 1976. Applied ecology. McMillan Publ., Co.
-Hutchinson, G.E., 1957. A treatise on limnology. Wiley, N.Y.
-Krebs, C.J., 2001. Ecology. Benjamin / Cummings Publ.
-, ., 1998. , , .
, 1, . .
-, ., 1996. . . ., .
-Odum, E.P., 1971. Fundamentals of ecology. W.B.Saunders & Co, Philad.
-Odum, E.P., 1983. Basic ecology. Saunders College Publ., N.Y.
-Pianka, E.R., 2000. Evolutionary ecology. Pearson Ed., Inc.
-Simmons, I.G., 1974. The ecology of natural resources. Edward Arnold.
-Smith, R.L., 1996. Ecology and field biology. Harper Collins College Publ.
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.. , 2011

(tkouss@gmail.com &

. . ,

http://www.perivallon.com)

- & & -

58