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MEENAKSHI YADAV ELECTRONICS AND COMM ENG YMCA UNIVERSITY ABSTRACT
In this paper we describe the development of Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD) i.e., a next generation storage disc offering theoretical storage capacity of 3.9 Terabytes of data -- that's 800 times more than a single-sided DVD and 80 times more than a current double-sided Blu-ray, with a whopping 1Gbps read/write speed. Holography is a method of recording patterns of light to produce a three-dimensional object. The recorded patterns of light are called a hologram. The process of creating a hologram begins with a focused beam of light -- a laser beam. This laser beam is split into two separate beams: a reference beam, which remains unchanged throughout much of the process, and an information beam, which passes through an image. When light encounters an image, its composition changes. In a sense, once the information beam encounters an image, it carries that image in its waveforms. When these two beams intersect, it creates a pattern of light interference. If we record this pattern of light interference we are essentially recording the light pattern of the image. To retrieve the information stored in a hologram, we shine the reference beam directly onto the hologram. When it reflects off the hologram, it holds the light pattern of
conventional CD/DVD(s).Current optical storage saves one bit per pulse, and the HVD alliance hopes to improve this efficiency with capabilities of around 60,000 bits per pulse in an inverted, truncated cone shape that has a 200 micrometer diameter at the bottom and a 500 micrometer diameter at the top. High densities are possible by moving these closer on the tracks: 100 GB at 18 micrometers separation, 200 GB at 13 micrometers, 500 GB at 8 micrometers, and most
the image stored there. In this paper we also concentrate on the servo mechanism which is the key mechanism in storage of data in the HVD.Besides having high storage capacity & data transfer rate HVDs offers advantage over a conventional DVD that stores bits of information side-by-side in a thin layer, while HVDs use a thicker recording layer & stores information in almost the entire volume of the disc. An HVD stores and retrieves an entire page of data, approximately 60,000 bits of information, in one pulse of light, while a DVD stores and retrieves one bit of data in one pulse of light. The full paper will discuss the various aspects of HVD in detail. Keywords:- Holographic Versatile Disc, Holography, light interference, servo mechanism
Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD) is a next generation optical storage solution that promises the theoretical storage capacity of 3.9 Terabytes of data -- that's 850 times more than a current single-sided DVD and 80 times more than a current double-sided Blu-ray Disc, with a whopping 1Gbps read/write speed. HVD stores the data in overlapping holographic patterns instead of storing bits side-by-side as in
demonstrated of 5 TB for 3 micrometers on a 10 cm disc.
Basics of Holography
Holography is a method of recording patterns of light to produce a three-dimensional object. The recorded patterns of light are called as a hologram. The process of creating a hologram begins with a focused beam of light -- a laser beam. This laser beam is split into two separate beams: a reference beam, which remains
unchanged throughout much of the process, and an information beam, which passes through an image. When light encounters an image, its composition changes. In a sense, once the information beam encounters an image, it carries that image in its waveforms. When these two beams intersect, it creates a pattern of light interference. If you record this pattern of light interference in a photosensitive polymer layer of a disc, you are essentially recording the light pattern of the image.
digital information in holographic memory by encoding the information into binary data to be stored in the SLM (Spatial Light Modulator). This data is now turned into ones and zeroes represented as opaque or translucent areas on a "page”; this page acts as the image that the information beam is going to pass through.
Holographic Versatile Disc structure
1. Green writing/reading laser (532 nm) 2. Red positioning/addressing laser (650 nm) 3. Hologram (data)(shown here as brown) 4. Polycarbonate layer 5. Photopolymeric layer (data-containing layer) 6. Distance layers 7. Dichroic layer (reflecting green light) 8. Aluminum reflective layer (reflecting red light) 9. Transparent base P. Pit pattern
(Ones & Zeros represented by translucent or opaque areas)
Volumetric Recording: Conventional CD/DVD(s) store the data bits on a planar surface i.e. on a thin surface of recording layer. As a result, bits are stored side by side & it limits the capacity of the disc to the available surface area. However, HVD uses a thicker recording layer & stores the information in entire volume of the disc, instead of just in a single layer. This allows it to store upto 3.9 terabytes of data.
It can be shown that if the hologram is illuminated by the original reference beam, a light field is diffracted by the reference beam which is identical to the light field which was scattered by the object or objects. Thus, if you look into the hologram you 'see' the objects even though it may no longer be present.
(Viewing object in the hologram)
Just as in a hologram, we store analog information in terms of images; we can store the
High data transfer rate: The high storage capacity of the HVD demands the higher data transfer rate so that whole disc could be read/write quickly & it has the ability to meet the
future needs. The conventional optical devices read 1 bit at each light pulse, thus it limits the transfer rate to the frequency and width of light pulse. However, in HVD data is read/written in terms of one page of 60,000 bits instead of single bit. Thus, at each light pulse we get the 60,000 bits. This allows HVD to support 1Gbps data transfer rate. Servo data: Servo information is used to monitor the position of the read head over the disc, similar to the head, track, and sector information on a conventional hard disk drive. On a CD or DVD this servo information is interspersed amongst the data. The servo beam in the HVD system is at a wavelength that does not photosensitize the polymer recording medium. In the HVD test system, the servo data is carried in a separate red laser at 650nm wavelength. The structure of the disc places a thick recording layer between two substrates and incorporates a dichroic mirror that reflects the blue-green light carrying the holography data but allows the red light to pass through in order to gather servo information.
prototype of HVD system. HVD system developed by OPTWARE Corp. is fully compatible with CD/DVD technology. The size & thickness of HVD is also compatible with CD/DVD/HD-DVD disc.
The block diagram shows the various components and the processing of the HVD.
The major components of HVD system are: • Blue or green laser: The laser beam is highly focused coherent source at 532nm wavelength in test system. This beam is splitted to obtain two identical coherent beams. • Beam splitter/merger: It separates the laser beam into two identical beams called as reference beam & information beam. Both of them carry same energy & are in phase with each other. • Mirrors: It is used to deflect & guide the beams along the desired path. • Spatial light modulator (SLM) : An SLM is a liquid crystal display (LCD) that shows pages of raw binary data as clear and dark boxes. When the information beam is passed through SLM, it gets modulated in accordance with the digital bit pattern.
This prevents interference from refraction of the green laser off the servo data pits and is an advance over past holographic storage media, which either experienced too much interference, or lacked the servo data entirely, making them incompatible with current CD and DVD drive technology.OPTWARE Corporation is the first to overcome technical difficulties to produce first
CMOS sensor : It is used to detect the diffracted/reflected light from the photopolymer. Photopolymer recording medium
The HVD System: Writing Data
The process of writing information onto an HVD begins with encoding the information into binary data to be stored in the SLM. These data are encoded into ones and zeroes represented as opaque or translucent areas on a "page" of SLM. This page is the image that the information beam is going to pass through. Once the page of data is created, the next step is to fire a laser beam into a beam splitter to produce two identical beams. One of the beams is directed away from the SLM -- this beam becomes the reference beam. The other beam is directed toward the SLM and becomes the information beam. When the information beam passes through the SLM, portions of the light are blocked by the opaque areas of the page, and portions pass through the translucent areas. In this way, the information beam carries the image once it passes through the SLM. When the reference beam and the information beam rejoin on the same axis, they create a pattern of light interference called as holography data. This joint beam carries the interference pattern to the photopolymer disc and stores it there as a hologram. There is a separate servo laser at 650nm wavelength, which keeps track of servo information.
(Read System 2) In the HVD read system, the laser projects a light beam onto the hologram, a light beam that is identical to the reference beam (Read System 1). The hologram diffracts this beam according to the specific pattern of light interference it's storing. The resulting light recreates the image of the page data that established the lightinterference pattern in the first place. When this beam of light called as the reconstruction beam, bounces back off the disc (Read System 2), it travels to the CMOS sensor. The CMOS sensor then reproduces the image of the data. Each page of data is stored in a different area of the crystal, based on the angle at which the reference beam strikes it. During reconstruction, the beam will be diffracted by the crystal to allow the recreation of the original page that was stored. The key component of any holographic data storage system is the angle at which the second reference beam is fired at the crystal to retrieve a page of data. It must match the original reference beam angle exactly. A difference of just a thousandth of a millimeter will result in failure to retrieve that page of data.
The HVD System: Reading Data
To read the data from an HVD, we need to retrieve the light pattern stored in the hologram.
While HVD is attempting to revolutionize data storage, other discs are trying to improve upon current systems. Two such discs are Blu-ray and HD-DVD, deemed the next-generation of digital storage. Both build upon current DVD technology to increase storage capacity. All three of these technologies are aiming for the highdefinition video market, where speed and capacity count. BLURAY Approx. $18 HDDVD Approx. $10 HVD Approx. $120
Initial cost for recordable disc (Read System 1)
Initial cost for recorder/player Initial storage capacity Read/write speed
Approx. $2,000 54 GB 36.5 Mbps
Approx. $2,000 30 GB 36.5 Mbps
Approx. $3,000 300 GB 1 Gbps
HVD is not the only technology in highcapacity, optical storage media. InPhase Technologies were developing a rival holographic format called Tapestry Media, which they claim will eventually store 1.6 TB with a data transfer rate of 120 MB/s, and several companies are developing TBlevel discs based on 3D optical data storage technology. Such large optical storage capacities compete favorably with the Bluray Disc format. However, holographic drives are projected to initially cost around US$15,000, and a single disc around US$120–180, although prices are expected to fall steadily.
HVD is still in the late stages of development & may not hit the consumer market before 2010. An initial price tag of $120 per disc will be an obstacle, but the prices would come down with mass production. This paper concludes that biggest challenge for HVD will be in establishing itself in the commercial market, which as of now seems to be a distant dream due to its higher cost margins. It is anticipated that a single HVD, when commercially available, may cost anywhere between $100-120 (by 2012 year's end), and the reader will be priced anywhere in the range of $10,000 to $15,000. However, like anything else associated with technology, the price will soon fall as R&D costs are recouped and competitions lowers profit margins.
• • • Large amount of data storage for big corporations. High-Definition Video recording Ultra High-Definition Video for Super High Vision TV of future. Large data backups & restore operations.
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