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SCHOOL SECTOR REFORM
Core Document: Policies and Strategies
Government of Nepal
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SPORTS
SSR CD September 07
FOREWORD Development of education is very much a dynamic process. Any significant development in the national scene obliges educational providers to think of its impact on the education delivery system in its entirety. Nepal is no exception to this universal process. The education sector in Nepal has to respond in a timely fashion to the challenges brought on by the turn of events in the political arena since the popular movement 2005. People’s expectations have risen so high that the Interim Constitution 2006 has affirmed free education up to the secondary level as a right of every citizen of Nepal. This is the first time that a Constitution in Nepal has established such a right for its citizens. The Ministry of Education and Sports is rising to the occasion by putting in motion a dynamic and inclusive process for setting the direction and scope of the School Sector Reform. This version documents the first stage of this process and is primarily meant to generate active public debate and get feedback on the issues. The preparation of this draft has engaged stakeholders, individually and in groups, in active dialogues, at national, subnational and grassroots levels. School visits and sharing with community stakeholders have enriched the process by including ground level insights. The preparation of the Core Document has been a national initiative and a product of local efforts. To feed into the preparation process, Thematic Groups consisting of professionals with backgrounds and experiences as educational practitioners were formed and District Teams were mobilized to provide field based inputs. These teams have put considerable time and energy into this exercise and therefore deserve full credit and appreciation for their efforts. Planned sharing and debate on this document in wider forums and with different stakeholders, including the donor community, will further contribute to the refinement of the document. Such a strategy will gradually bring this document closer to resolving the central issues confronting
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school education and will enhance the prospects of effective implementation by ensuring the support of all the relevant stakeholders.
......................1........ 1..........6.16 Decentralising Educational Management ...11 Educational Context .........................15 Rising expectations...................................................... 1............................ 1......................................... 1...1..7...............................................................................18 Basic Education.16 Ensuring Inclusive Participation........................................................7.................................................. 1....................................................................... Introduction ......19 1....................3..5............................... 2......4..1............ 1........6........1...........2 Table of Contents ............................ Governance and Management..... Rationale.....................2...................1............................8..........................................6.........6............... The Vision.....7 1................................7 Political Context.......20 Policies and Strategies .......................................17 1...................................................2..................................................................................................................................................12 Issues and challenges ..............19 Secondary Education ..........................................................2.........................................................27 4 2..........................................................5.................17 Financing......................SSR CD September 07 TABLE OF CONTENTS Foreword.................................1.................23 2....4............................3........6............................................................7................................................................ Background ...... 2..............4 1.....15 Improving Quality and Relevance..................6........6.............................................10 Socio-Cultural Context................................................................. 1...................................................................... 1......6...................2 ....................... 1. 1.................15 Integrating Basic and Secondary Education .8 Economic Context . 1.....................................................................................23 Structure of school system ............1....................23 Institutional/Private Schools ............................................. 1.............. 1.........
....44 2...28 Accountability .2............3.............................................................55 3..............1.................................... 3.........Management and Development .......................... 3.....................................................4..1....................................................................46 Entitlement .61 Framework of Capacity Building .............................50 Education Expenditure...61 Well Functioning Organizations .....................38 Teacher Management and Development .........................3......62 5 3..................2.................................... ..... 2..........2......................................................................SSR CD September 07 2...1................... Decentralisation ..........1.....1..3...............2......35 Enabling Conditions....2..................1..........3..............................37 Instructional Processes ....................... 3..............51 Allocation Within the Education Budget..........................5................................4...........................4...........................53 Funding: Modalities and Flow ..........3......... Financing.....46 Social Inclusion ............43 Certification and Examinations .......1..............................................................................3........................53 Financial Management and Reporting ...1................. 3...32 Quality ................................................... Implementation Strategies ...........................3........... 2....36 Curriculum and Textbooks............................ 2.............. 2..... 2.....................2............3........... 2................3...................................... 2....2........................ 2...................2...............40 Head-teacher ........................................................................... 2.......................................................54 2..........................55 Monitoring and Evaluation Functions and Mechanisms ...............................6............57 Capacity Development ............ 2........ 2......................................3..........4.. Equitable Access .............................61 Supportive Policy Environment ......... Institutional Arrangements .......2.5................4............. 2..............2......................2........................... 2..................2............4..................4......................31 Technical Functions ................................47 2.........................4..... 2...... 3....3.....
.................................1....63 Costing of SSR ..................................................................................70 6 ......................68 1.................4................................. Capable Human Resources...........................1.. Physical Infrastructure .............67 4...............3.........................................................4....................68 4....................... Textbooks ........64 4....................................67 4....... Teachers.....................5...................... 4.......... Operating Expenses........................3.....................................................................2. Scholarships ............................................................................... Summary of Estimates ...................SSR CD September 07 3...................................64 4..............................................
2001-2015) emphasises the need for harmonising school education by integrating grades 1 to 12 into a school system. The Plan also articulates the need for adopting a holistic approach to the school sector. Nepal’s education sector has witnessed a gradual shift from project to programme to sector-wide approaches. The need for structural adjustment to the integrated school system was further emphasised by the Basic and Primary Education Master Plan (1997). the process of developing and implementing this school system was initiated as early as 1989 with the enactment of the Higher Secondary Education Act. These processes take into account everything that has been learned from implementing various projects and programmes. Since the 1990s. INTRODUCTION 1. The Education for All National Plan of Action (EFA/NPA. Inspired by the Popular Movement of 2006.1. The Tenth Plan (2002-07) recognises the centrality of schools in developing human potential and reducing poverty. people voiced their aspirations for change in the education system. the Government of Nepal has demonstrated its commitment to embark on School Sector Reform (SSR) with grades 1-12 as an integrated school system in a phased manner from 2009/2010 onwards. BACKGROUND The concept of an integrated grades 1 to 12 school system has been under consideration in Nepal for at least a decade. Encouraged by the gains Nepal has made in implementing the EFA sub-sector approach and the Secondary Education Support Programme (SESP).SSR CD September 07 1. Alongside this shift in the funding modalities is a shift in the role of the MoES in initiating and seeing through to their conclusions significant new policies. including a shift in funding modalities from bilateral to pooled to budgetary support. The people 7 .
An interim constitution was drafted by a commission and approved by the Parliament. Parliament was restored.SSR CD September 07 demonstrated their concerns about education with particular reference to equity and quality. POLITICAL CONTEXT The country saw an unprecedented political revolution in April 2006.2. The country is presently run by the government with representation of the eight political parties. Two hundred and forty delegates to the CA will be 8 . a comprehensive peace treaty was signed amongst the Seven Party Alliance and the CPN (Maoists). The Concept Paper provided general directions for policy changes and served as the basis for preparation of this Core Document. As a preparation for an integrated School Sector Reform (SSR). 1. The final Core Document will guide both the school sector development beginning in 2009 and preparatory activities beginning in 2007. among other things. provide a framework for the restructuring of the State. this draft Core Document presents policy and strategic options for SSR implementation. As a result of the popular movement. The preparation activities will be guided by an accelerated implementation plan. Election of a Constituent Assembly (CA) is the main agenda of the present government: the election is scheduled to be held on 22 November 2007. a Concept Paper on School Sector Reform (SSR) was endorsed by the Education Policy Committee. The CA will draft a new Constitution which will. The Government responded by initiating an education sector reform that also addresses the demand for economic and social development such as expanding science and technology as well as sharing the benefits of development more equitably. In February 2007. illustrating the activities to generate knowledge and develop district and local level planning capacity for systemic readiness and resilience. Subsequently.
the decade-long insurgency also damaged the educational infrastructure. Approval of a federal structure will entail a complete change in the country’s governance system (particularly with respect to the relationship between the centre and sub-national governments). One of the possible options for CA consideration is the adoption of a federal structure for the government. The Interim Constitution contains provisions pertinent to School Education. The main strategy for achieving this goal is proportional representation in decision making groups at all levels of government and management. The coverage of services and facilities in Free Education at Basic Education level and at Secondary Education level has to be defined by an Act of Parliament. Each Citizen will have right to get free education up to secondary level as provided by the law. Social inclusion is high on the government’s reform agenda. 9 . It disrupted the delivery of education services. Along with a general loss of peace and security. namely: Each community will have right to receive basic education in mother language as provided by the law. The educational governance system will need to be aligned with changes in the overall government structure. Nepal witnessed a loss of life and faced consequences of psychological damage to students. The restoration of peace has created an atmosphere more conducive to education reconstruction and development.SSR CD September 07 directly elected. Despite the robustness of the public school system across the country. two hundred and forty will be nominated by the political parties on the basis of proportional representation. teachers and parents during ten years of conflict.
appropriate training opportunities for this population becomes one of the areas to be addressed under the reform process in education.3% in 2005/06) at constant prices.6% of 10 . will have to respond to these emerging challenges by improving their services. with 34. The educational management systems at various levels. 2006). although the most recent Nepal Living Standards Survey (NLSS) showed a marked improvement (30. There will be greater demand from the people for the equitable delivery of good quality education.46bn in 2005/06. remittances have become one of the major income sources of the country and the inflow reached Rs53. the per capita income (per capita GNP) is estimated to have increased from Rs. Widespread poverty is still a striking feature of the country’s economic life. The NLSS survey also showed that poverty in Nepal is largely a rural phenomenon.8% for by nonagricultural sector (Economic Survey.23. recent political changes in the country have raised people’s expectations and demands with respect to public services. a more diverse labour market. Also.501 ($302) in 2004/05 to Rs. The economic growth rate in recent years is low (2. largely due to the internal conflict and insurgency.SSR CD September 07 Further. while about 61. Income from remittances has evidently helped large numbers of people to come out of poverty and improve their living standards.3.8% of the population living below the poverty line in 2003/04 as compared to 42% in 1995/96).21.7% in 2004/05 and 2. as well as higher paying jobs. ECONOMIC CONTEXT A significant portion of the GDP (38.2% in 2004/05) is accounted for by the Agricultural Sector. As an increasing number of people are seeking employment abroad. restoration of peace in the country in the past year is expected to stimulate economic activities. In recent years.032 ($322) in 2005/06. 1. including schools. The non-agricultural sector is being gradually diversified and is creating more jobs. However.
households and communities are spending a substantial proportion of their resources on their children’s education. Gender equity in society. social. Minority groups and ethnic communities have been facing marginalisation. In addition to public expenditure. 1. in general. With nearly 60 ethnic and over 90 language families Nepal is one of the most diverse countries on earth and thus has a responsibility to conserve a rich cultural heritage. the value of education in terms of quality and relevance is now a matter of general concern. remains an important goal. Currently about 17% of the government budget is allocated to the Education Sector. Given the proportion of public and private spending. some communities have not benefited equally from development and their active participation has remained limited in economic. SOCIO-CULTURAL CONTEXT Cultural diversity is one of Nepal’s national treasures. Progress has been made in increasing the participation of girls in school education. Dalits and ethnic minorities) have low levels of participation in education. A Poverty Alleviation Fund (PAF) has been established as an autonomous institution to implement programmes to improve the life of lower strata of people. Disadvantaged groups (such as women. The government is committed to providing all children with free basic education of high quality and relevance.SSR CD September 07 population in rural areas as against 9. Completion of basic education by all children will bring long term benefits to the country.5% of population in urban areas surviving under the poverty line.4. Raising the participation of these groups is a key challenge for the government. Historically. and educational activities. the 11 . and in education in particular.
SSR CD September 07 proportion of girls’ total enrolment in school levels is above 45% (at each level) at present. HSEB has gradually obtained mandate (in 1996) to provide affiliations to private schools and institutions to run +2 educations and has also 12 . SMC members. has been instrumental in expanding access to +2 educations in all 75 districts through community support. At present. However. phasing-out proficiency certificate level education from the university system remains to be resolved. 2006). Over the years. established in 1994 under the Higher Education Act. However. Nevertheless. and GER of 71% at lower secondary. locating schools closer to communities. 1992. The Higher Secondary Education Board (HSEB). several efforts are under way for improving educational access and quality at primary and secondary levels under Education for All (EFA) and the Secondary Education Support Programme (SESP).5. students. community mobilizers and administrators to its welfare. parents. 1. girl students still experience problems in successfully completing their schooling. and involving more female professionals in the educational management system. appointing more female teachers. Various studies have recommended strategies for promoting female education including: reducing the direct and indirect costs of girls schooling. EDUCATIONAL CONTEXT Despite the hardships people faced during the insurgency in Nepal. the vast majority of public schools remained open across the country. and 57% at secondary level (Flash. providing separate toilets for girls. assuring all aspects of quality of education to all children has remained a major challenge. Significant progress has been attained in increasing the access of children to primary and secondary education. This is indicated by attainment of NER of 87% at primary level. demonstrating both the robustness of Nepal’s public school system and the commitment of teachers. Efforts made under BPEP I and BPEP II have contributed to attaining these targets.
reducing adult illiteracy. 13 .SSR CD September 07 demonstrated its capacity in curriculum development and examination functions The EFA programme for 2004-2009 is based on the EFA National Plan of Action 2001-2015 and supports all six of the EFA goals: expanding early childhood development. meeting the learning needs of all children (including the indigenous peoples and minorities). and improving all aspects of quality education. ensuring access to all children. eliminating gender disparity.
The institutional base at the school level has been strengthened through school based management. people and civil society. Likewise. The proactive roles of local communities in taking full responsibility for school management have been a remarkable move towards recognizing the centrality of schools and ensuring school’s autonomy. Despite difficulties in the past. The efforts being made to enhance the quality of curricular materials and improving the delivery system by encouraging partnerships with private sector for textbook production and distribution. the MOES has made visible gains in providing a foundation for moving from the EFA sub-sector to the School Sector Reform Programme. The innovative work done during the EFA implementation has been instrumental in raising children’s participation in schools and ensuring the provisions for quality imperatives (see NDHS. Similarly. The focus of the EFA programme has been on the marginalized and excluded groups. Acknowledging the dedication of parents. the programme has succeeded in creating a robust institutional base at policy. the achievement of the EFA is noteworthy for developing a rolling-plan process of Annual Strategic Implementation Plan (ASIP) to reflect the ground realities and make strategic choices for programme implementation. 2006). In this regard. the enthusiasm shown by local communities to regain the ownership of their schools and to manage them is very encouraging. The support from the line agencies and central level institutions has been extremely crucial in securing an enabling environment for the EFA programme. The main components of the SESP are: learning environment. ASIP has also encouraged schools and districts to implement their prioritized programmes based on strategic interventions through School Improvement Plans (SIPs) and District Education Plans (DEPs). management and service delivery levels. the creation of the EFA Joint Financing Arrangement (JFA) is a remarkable gain in harmonising resources and developing a culture of partnership in good faith. It has been an opportunity for the entire system to learn from the past and build on the experiences we have gained. Another gain of EFA is to underscore the national agenda for inclusion. Equally. The Secondary Education Support Programme (SESP) is the major programme under way at the secondary level. These achievements call for further work to consolidate the governance and management of schools. for example. Similarly. are exemplary in the South Asia context. the MOES wishes to express its gratitude to the communities. local governments and stakeholders for their profound support for EFA implementation. One of the remarkable achievements of EFA is the momentum created for establishing EFA as a movement and as a priority programme for the nation.SSR CD September 07 Box 1-1: Building on EFA and Moving Beyond The implementation of EFA 2004-09 has been a remarkable experience for the Ministry of Education and Sports (MOES). The JFA arrangement has contributed to strengthening the systemic capacity with greater reliance on the regular procedures. 14 . Encouraged by these achievements the Government has decided to enter into a new Box 1-1 describes some of the major accomplishments made through the EFA. and to transform them into the centres of excellence. the contributions made to education by all development partners have been vital to the Government’s efforts in attaining Nepal’s EFA goals.
and alternative education modalities equivalent • Decentralising school system management • Decentralising the public examinations system • Mobilising sufficient finance for an integrated system. managerial. Parents and students expect education to be a gateway to skills. social groups and the state.1. ISSUES AND CHALLENGES 1. 15 . the state expects education to help reduce poverty and stimulate economic growth.6.6. vocational and technical. Social groups expect education to affirm their language and respect their cultural identity. 1. knowledge and attitudes that will prepare young people for better quality of life and better job prospects. To achieve the goal of an integrated school system.6. and institutional capacity and management.SSR CD September 07 curriculum and textbooks. Also. The government has an opportunity to demonstrate its commitment to meeting the rising expectations of the people by improving equitable access to schools of improved quality.2. The state expects education to inculcate democratic norms and values among children to exercise rights and responsibilities for the wellbeing of the society and the people. 1. and financial and technical issues and challenges need to be addressed such as: • Integrating and harmonising education policies • Coordinating technical functions • Combining systems for teacher management and development • Making formal. regulatory. teacher development. RISING EXPECTATIONS There are high and rising expectations for education system on the part of parents and students. INTEGRATING BASIC AND SECONDARY EDUCATION One striking feature of the SSR is its holistic view of schooling from grade 1 though 12.
and a heightened sense of exclusion. teacher qualifications.3. IMPROVING QUALITY AND RELEVANCE School infrastructure (including physical facilities. the education system must be proactive in removing barriers and building bridges to equitable participation. Issues and challenges pertaining to quality and relevance include: • Defining and enforcing norms and standards for service management and service delivery. • Lack of sanitary facilities appropriate for girls.SSR CD September 07 1. widening income gaps. • Discriminatory practices persist in the teaching and learning process. there continues to be a marked disparity in education access that causes social tensions. Issues and challenges include: • Attitudes that attach low value to girls’ education and require more household chores for girls. mother tongue instruction.6. minimum “enabling conditions” need to be defined.4. However. teacher management and development and achievement evaluation. and materials) varies widely across and within districts. • Opportunity costs of education are greater for poor people.6. 16 . In order to raise the level of schools to a common threshold. Quality improvement includes interventions in: instructional process. continuous assessment and national assessments 1. To create an environment that affirms the government’s commitment to social justice and equity. and multi-grade teaching • Measuring achievement through public examinations. ENSURING I NCLUSIVE PARTICIPATION The education system has encouraged the participation of girls in general and children from disadvantaged groups in particular. • Harmonising and coordinating teacher development with teacher management • Building leadership at the school level • Improving instructional process including curriculum and materials.
Several studies and field level consultations have revealed that inadequate and delayed disbursements of grant to schools. Appropriate policy interventions will allow for mobilisation of resources from local governments. • Under-representation of females and disadvantaged groups in the teaching profession. unclear guidelines and lack of skills to use the grant. communities.SSR CD September 07 • Under-representation of females and disadvantaged groups in governance and management positions. are some of the burning issues in financing. More importantly. enables more realistic problem identification. FINANCING Financing in education has remained as a major challenge at all times.6. and increases the efficiency of governance and management. leading to high quality returns in schools and community. NGOs.6. schools will gain autonomy to deliver services for meeting local needs. This principle of subsidiarity raises the participation of stakeholders. As a result.5.6. 1. it will make the school system responsive to change in particular to emerging needs by meeting the needs of children and local people. Likewise. civil society organizations and the private sector. and lack of capacity in schools to manage the grant. recognizing ownership of local people to yield management results. DECENTRALISING EDUCATION MANAGEMENT Decisions in education should be taken as close to the beneficiary as possible. Issues and challenges to sustainable financing include: 17 . Main issues with respect to decentralization: • Clear reallocation of functions to bodies at all levels • Capacity to fulfil new functions 1. Sustainable financing for the education system requires commitment from central to local levels of government. the accountability framework adopted in the SSR will contribute to enhancing management capability.
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• Adequate resource mobilisation for meeting the cost of free education • Exploring sources for additional revenue for education • Effective allocation and management of expenditures • Improving the flow of funds • Improving funding modality for better school performance • More transparent mechanisms for school finance • Compliance with financial management and reporting requirements, particularly at the school level
The SSR has visible management benefits in terms of enhancing schools’ systemic capabilities to use human and material resources more efficiently. The SSR also instigates institutional and individual accountability at all levels of education for both learning and inclusion. By adopting an autonomous and flexible approach to school education, local communities will benefit from SSR implementation. It will magnify the roles of local community in governance, management, resourcing, and quality assurance in school education in their community. SSR harmonizes educational choices in terms of relevance, appropriateness, and value orientations. With a view to meeting the demands of development, the SSR will provide children with greater opportunities to attain desired knowledge, skills and values. Education is both a basic human right and a development tool. The rationale for grades 1 to 8, 9 to 12 system is grounded in education’s intrinsic worth as well as its instrumental value. In addition, there are managerial and pedagogic advantages to planning, operating, and financing a 1 to 12 system. The reform programme is equally important for the transformation of schools into knowledge centres, and for developing a culture of learning across the continuum. The present ten years of schooling, including five years of primary education, is inadequate to keep
SSR CD September 07
abreast of emerging, new knowledge and skills needed in the contemporary context of a global society. The rationale for basic education (1 to 8) and secondary education (9 to 12) is discussed in the following paragraphs. 1.7.1. BASIC EDUCATION
The rights-based rationale: The GoN has long taken the position that every child has the right to receive quality, basic education. The proposed policy direction defines grade 8 as the end of basic education. The development rationale: Five years of schooling is not sufficient given the global and regional norms as well as rising national expectations. Eight years of schooling is considered the minimum time required to diligently perform civic duties and also to engage productively in an occupation. Under the principles and guidelines of good governance, the Government believes that citizens receive at least eight years of schooling in order to fully express their voice and dutifully exercise their civic responsibilities. The technical rationale: Expanding primary facilities to grade 8 results in a more efficient use of expensive resources such as qualified teachers, head-teachers, libraries, and laboratories. The quality improvement rationale: The structural integration of 1 to 5 with 6 to 8 schools improves students’ performance by easing curricular integration and consolidating the competency-based learning programme. Consolidation also helps make teacher, head-teacher, and School Management Committee (SMC) training more efficient. A 1 to 8 basic education structure will additionally have a positive impact on teacher management and development. 1.7.2. SECONDARY EDUCATION
The development rationale: Secondary education with integrated grades 9 to 12 not only helps prepare eligible candidates for the current job market as skilled workers but it also enhances their
SSR CD September 07
level of learning and develops their technical know-how, making them competitive in the national and international contexts. The efficiency rationale: School system with 9 to 12 grades increases management efficiency by integrating a fragmented school structure into a coherent system. The system also lowers the unit costs and eases out school planning, resourcing, supervision, and monitoring functions. It also makes extra-curricular activities—such as sports, cultural activities, music, and civic development programmes—available to students. The quality improvement rationale: The structural integration of grades 9 to 12 improves students’ performance and creates a better learning environment. As with basic education, structural integration eases curricular integration and consolidation. The new structure will have a positive impact on the supply of competent, qualified, and trained secondary school teachers. The integrated 9 to 12 school system provides a foundation for tertiary education. In terms of the learning environment, the 9 to 12 structure provides more effective use of expensive inputs such as laboratories, libraries, computers, and extra curricular activities. The access rationale: The 9 to 12 structure will provide more students with the opportunity to complete twelve years of schooling rather than ten. The new structure will allow more students to continue beyond secondary education. It also opens the channels for secondary students to enter into non-formal, vocational, and open learning streams. By providing opportunities to secondary students in remote locations, the new structure addresses MOES’s equity agenda. 1.8. THE VISION
By 2015, the reforms in school education aim to contribute to the attainment of the following outcomes: A CHILD/STUDENT • A child enjoys learning and engages herself in creative work in school and community, utilizing her full potentials • A child has high self-esteems
identity and individuality • A teacher appreciates and applies children’s culture and language A SCHOOL • A school becomes a centre of knowledge and a forum for community interaction and learning • A school becomes inclusive and child friendly. and contributes to the culture of living together. • A child has developed critical understanding about conventional wisdom • A child understands and appreciates bio-diversity. communication and technological (ICT) skills to live an independent life. and firmly stands in support of democracy and human rights A TEACHER • A teacher enables a child to enjoy learning and engages her in creative work utilizing her full potentials • A teacher has a pursuit of learning. and updates her knowledge and skills • A teacher delivers lessons in creative and lively ways to ensure children’s learning • A teacher becomes a role model to her students • A teacher is regular in school and punctual in her class • A teacher never applies corporal punishment • A teacher respects children’s integrity. • A child understands the importance of sustainable development. cultural diversity and linguistic diversity at local and wider levels. and makes efforts to harmonize them. • A child respects labour and appreciates work and occupations. and respects children’s rights to education 21 . • A child has survival. life skills to co-exist in the competitive contemporary. economic and social inequality. global society • A child challenges political.SSR CD September 07 • A child understands and appreciates the culture of her family and community. • A child has basic information.
• A school has its SIP and meets its educational targets set against national standards.SSR CD September 07 • A school through its own management system that provides enabling environment and holds Head-teacher and teachers accountable to ensure children’s learning. • A school is transparent and shares information with stakeholders. 22 . • A school appreciates and applies local language and culture • A school has its code of conduct to work in good faith. • A school ensures basic services such as teacher. textbook. classroom and learning environment.
Alternative and formal schooling will be made compatible to permit students to complete their education through either system. At the school level.1. Parliament governs while line Ministries execute.1. the local government will be the governance body and the SMC the management body. Technical agencies provide advisory functions to the managing bodies.SSR CD September 07 2. as local governments form. (ii) senior technical for four years beyond grade 8. Governing bodies set policy directions and clarify the strategic intentions. POLICIES AND STRATEGIES 2. The vocational education stream will begin at grade 9 and have two levels: (i) junior technical for two years beyond grade 8. and secondary from nine to twelve. Non-formal students can be mainstreamed through school tests. 2. STRUCTURE OF SCHOOL SYSTEM POLICY The structure of school education will comprise grades one to twelve. for example. GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT Governance and management functions are best performed when clearly demarcated. At the national level. Managing bodies report to governing bodies.1. basic education running between grades one and eight. there will likely be similar relationships between governance and management bodies. The term “local government” refers to current local bodies as well as any future restructuring of local governments. Managing bodies interpret the strategic intentions by setting programme objectives and targets. At the sub-national levels. and by making and executing implementation plans. 23 .
6-8. curriculum implementation. These schools will operate under an integrated technical support system of basic education such as. 1-3. These schools will operate under an integrated technical support system. Stand-along schools with grades 9-10 only or 1112 only will be discouraged to operate. and examination. At the secondary level. Primary with grades 1-5.SSR CD September 07 In view of the contributions of ECD in access and quality of basic education. 24 . there will be three stages: Foundation with grades 1-3. At the basic education level. STRATEGIC OPTIONS Current fragmentation of schools with arbitrary grades such as grade 1 only. 1-4. there will be two stages of schooling: Secondary with grades 1-10 and Higher Secondary with grades 1-12. grades 1-2. classroom delivery. assessment. and Upper Primary with grades 1-8. the ECD programme will be expanded both in schools and communities in collaboration with community-based NGOs. 1-5. 11-12 and so forth will be integrated into fixed structure of basic education with grades 1-8 and secondary education with grades 1-12. 6-10. Government will continue to support and encourage ECD programmes and implement them through community-based systems and through the schools. 8-10.
The TEVT program will also include the core curriculum of the general stream so that the technical graduates will have easy access to join general streams. In villages with 100 households and/or a population of 500 there will be at least one school with Primary grades 1-5. settlement(s) consisting of 30-40 households and/or 150200 population will have at least one school with Foundation grades (1-3). b) For secondary education: local government will give priority to establishing or formalizing at least one Secondary School (grade 1-10) at the VDC level and at least one Higher Secondary School (grade 1-12) in each tit H i t d l l l t ill National norms and standards will be developed to help determine the level and grades of schools. entry from formal education to TEVT program will be eligible at designated grades such as at the beginning of 25 . for determining schools and its grades. and short courses as offered by private providers or local governments and certified by CTEVT arrangements. There are three possible modes of TEVT programme that are currently in operation: technical schools for running long-term certification courses. In villages with 200 households and/or a population of 1000 there will be at least one Upper Primary school with grades 1-8. local government will be encouraged to formulate its own criteria. based on national norms and standards. There will be at least one school based TEVT programme in every constituency according to the informed choice made by the DDC. However.SSR CD September 07 Box 2-1 Indicative Guidelines for School Provision a) For basic education. At the basic education level. Decisions will be based on at least two criteria: minimum population to be served and physical distance (proximity to school). vocational component built into schools (either as an annex or as curricular streams). Box 2-1 provides a reference for school provision. This will allow students to join the labour market as junior technician with 2 year training courses or senior technician with 4 year course. TEVT program will be integrated as Junior Technician and Senior Technician beginning at grade 9 and certification at the end of grades 10 and grade 12. In secondary level. schools with grades 1-3 or 1-5 will operate as satellite schools. These modes of technical and vocational education will be continued.
Madrasas. Traditional systems of education such as: Gumbas. beginning at grade 6. The existing Sanskrit schools will continue to operate within the national framework. To facilitate the transition from one stream to another. Gurukuls will continued to operate as now. however. Formal schooling includes educational services delivered through structured and formal institutional arrangements like schools. CTEVT will make an inside plan and MOES will prepare examination and accreditation system. Such curriculum will provide job-orientation by giving reference to various occupations and also the trends in the job market. Similarly. The AES includes open. Gurukuls will be mainstreamed into the formal system of education. there will be opportunity for graduates from alternative and flexible classes to join the formal mode of education and vice versa. teaching and learning in these schools will be institutionalized to meet the national norms and standards. will formally introduce concepts of vocational and technical education. flexible (including mobile) schooling. To meet diverse needs and interest of the population. Graduates of these schools qualify to enter any mode of education. Education received in one system or the other will carry equivalent status. Basic education curriculum.SSR CD September 07 grade 11. In order to allow access from vocational to general stream of education. Madarasas. 26 . and non-formal modes of education delivery. Certification and accreditation will be granted based on the level of education being offered by these schools. This will prepare graduates to be able to select streams of their interest upon completion of grade 8 examination. Gumbas. Exchange from one system to another will be allowed at prescribed grades and levels. delivery of education will adopt both Formal Schooling System (FSS) and Alternative Education System (AES). CTEVT will consolidate and prepare appropriate curriculum and course design integrating its current curriculum.
National Curriculum Framework (NCF) All institutional/ private schools will follow the National Curriculum Framework to meet the quality standards for the pedagogical choices and examinations. quality and financing functions of institutional/ private schools. However. management. Provision for Free Education In institutional basic schools with a number of students up to 200. In an institutional/private school where the number of students is more 27 .1.2 INSTITUTIONAL (PRIVATE) SCHOOLS POLICY Basic education provisions will be the responsibility of the state. The Regulatory Framework will set the standards and provide guidelines for the management. a regulatory framework will define the governance. it will be mandatory to provide free education to 15% of students from disadvantaged groups defined by law. Provisions will be made to maximise partnerships of private and public sector in secondary education. STRATEGIC OPTIONS The following measures will be taken as mandatory to mobilize private providers in basic education: Regulatory Framework The Government will introduce a regulatory framework for the operation of institutional schools.SSR CD September 07 2. Textbooks will be selected based on the NCF guidelines as per the prescribed list issued by the competent authority at the centre and/or provincial levels. The service conditions of the personnel including teachers will be defined in the framework. ensuring adequate access to disadvantaged populations. quality and finance functions of institutional (private) schools.
STRATEGIC OPTIONS Central Government .1. and monitoring progress towards national policy goals and strategic objectives. DECENTRALISATION POLICY Education governance will be the shared responsibility of the central and local governments. coordination. MOES will develop strategies together with the private providers and business community to workout partnerships to support cost free education in secondary level. The current scheme for community management of schools will be encouraged. as stated in the interim constitution. The emphasis will be placed on school-based management accountable to parents and children. planning and budgeting. In secondary education. the allocation of free education to such students will be 20%.3.Governance and Management The MOES will retain responsibility for policy formulation. The relationships of authority and accountability between the national. and local levels will be fully aligned with any future changes in overall government structure. arrangements will be made to provide cost-free education gradually. 2. School management functions will remain with SMC. The MOES will be assisted by an Education Policy Committee for policy 28 .SSR CD September 07 than 200. The local government will coordinate the allocation of seats for students who meet the criteria for free education based on the guidelines issued by MOES. A monitoring mechanism will be established at the centre and local level to ensure the compliance of this provision. sub-national. The percentage of students for free education in secondary and higher secondary schools will not be less than 20%.
In view of the fundamental differences in objectives between basic and secondary education. Review Office. To maintain focus and direction at the institutional level. Local Government – Education Governance and Management Local government will prepare evidence-based. standard setting. One strategy for providing support to local governments is to use the existing technical structures at the district level (such as Technical Schools. and Education Training Centres. NCF will be a guiding document for preparing school level curricula and syllabi at secondary and higher secondary stages. and information from other sources. situational analysis. The Department of Education will be responsible for the management and administration of school education. School establishment. schools will be encouraged to operate as separate entities for basic and secondary education. and the plan will be implemented in a phased manner. Alternative education 29 . Technical functions such as curricular provisions. MOES will prepare a plan for the integration of relevant technical functions of school education in a phased manner. and other professional forums) for the planning and delivery of educational services Local government will take the initiative for the establishment of new schools. periodic plans for providing all school-age children with basic and secondary education through formal and alternative modalities. Local government will also identify potential barriers that may inhibit children from attending school. Strategies for formulating such plans include: school mapping. the tertiary education programs will not be encouraged from sharing school's facilities and resources. merging and relocation will be planned based on the evidence. HSEB and Examination Board. NCED. teacher development and examination functions will be carried out by technical institutions such as CDC. upgrading. Local government will be responsible for both alternative and vocational education and training.SSR CD September 07 development.
Options for decentralized governance and management of schools include: (i) entrusting the VDC/municipality with the responsibility for basic education (ii) entrusting only those VDCs that have adequate capacity and readiness to manage basic education. . Short term vocational training could be offered by either public or private providers. and (iii) demand for alternative forms of schooling. involvement of NGOs /CBOs or private parties School based or community based. Table 2-1: Governance and Management Authorities by Types of Education Service Governance A. the government will work towards developing VDC capacity. Alternative Education Management (SMC) (VDC / municipality) Municipality or DDC VDC / municipality C. (ii) language and religion of the community. In the second case. Formal Education a) Basic Education b) Secondary Education B. meanwhile entrusting the DDC with these tasks. involvement of NGOs /CBOs and private providers. Local governments could encourage private providers to deliver such services through subsidies. etc. or any other appropriate measures. scholarships.SSR CD September 07 programs could be based on: (i) settlement patterns (seasonal migration. Table 2-1 illustrates options for allocating governance and management functions according to the type of education delivery service. small hamlets.). Technical and Vocational Education Municipality or DDC VDCs may initiate for job oriented short courses 30 (SMC) (headteacher) SMC and headteacher School based or community based.
Decisions regarding school curriculum (including local content). managing non-teaching staff. Central Accountability 31 . Parents and guardians will be accountable for their students’ regular attendance. STRATEGIC OPTIONS Accountability Model An agreement between schools and the government will be drawn up wherein the schools are obliged to meet agreed learning outcomes and the government is obliged to provide the minimum enabling conditions . and the government will be accountable for providing the minimum enabling conditions. 2. appropriate classrooms. performance targets. Statutory provisions will be made to legitimize these obligations. maintaining records.). In order to ensure autonomy of schools. The SMC will have an important role in making performance contracts with the school Head-teacher.including an environment for equitable participation. classroom organization. and use performance appraisals for feedback. etc. They will also be given authority to set standards. appraise teacher performance. and qualified teachers. the authority of the SMC will not be curtailed. and instructional methods will be made at the school level. ACCOUNTABILITY POLICY Schools will be accountable for the students’ learning. Head-teachers will have greater roles in academic aspects (such as teacher assignment and professional supervision) and administrative aspects (such as maintaining teacher schedules. the school calendar. instructional materials.4.SSR CD September 07 School Governance and Management School-based management will continue through a SMC which will report to the parents for school performance and to the local government for compliance with regulatory requirements including social inclusion.1.
and the school sector reform in particular.1. etc. time on task. 2. etc. Finally. the local government will report the performance of the SMC and the Head-teacher to the public. additional grade raises. SMC will be responsible for providing enabling environment. Head-teachers will be made accountable to the SMCs for the technical processes and results. Periodic reviews will be conducted. regularity. and the available resources. School Accountability Schools will develop strategies for encouraging regular attendance of students such as: incentives tied to regular attendance. This will form a basis for assessing the performance of the SMC and the headteacher.5. Teachers achieving those targets will be provided with incentives such as: appreciation certificates. the local government will define performance targets in consultation with the SMC. the NPC. existing educational status. HT will be responsible for smooth functioning of school. TECHNICAL FUNCTIONS 32 . etc. Central level technical agencies and advisory boards are accountable to MOES for the success or failure of their programmes. The SMC and PTA will develop a system for reporting to parents/guardians whose children do not attend regularly or are at the risk of dropping out. special support for at-risk children. teachers will be responsible for ensuring student’s learning. and reports on progress and impact will be made to Parliament. Local Government Accountability Considering the national standards. and stakeholder groups at the national level. The SMC in consultation with the Head-teacher and teachers will agree on teacher performance targets including: learning outcomes.SSR CD September 07 The MOES and DOE are accountable for implementing national strategies and meeting national goals for education in general. remedial programs for children with low levels of achievement.
examination and certification. both vertical and horizontal linkage between and among these institutions is very much indispensible. Public examinations will be decentralized in a phased manner. harmony. and capacity development in respective technical functions. higher education. student assessment and examinations. With this in view. and certification and accreditation.SSR CD September 07 Technical functions under the jurisdictions of the MOES include national curriculum framework. technical and vocational education. MOES will prepare a capacity development and integration plan for core technical functions. and standard setting will operate independently under one integrated umbrella of Technical Board. Such functions are currently being addressed through different arrangements with autonomous bodies such as. OCE and NFEC. these technical functions are mutually supporting to one another. STRATEGIC OPTIONS 33 . NCED. teacher development. Hence. CDC. While these technical functions require institutional arrangements that are more focused and specialised in their respective expertise. the SSR intends to strengthen capacity of these technical institutions by providing more autonomy. teacher development. POLICY Core Technical functions such as curriculum (including competency standards and textbooks). HSEB and CTEVT and semi-autonomous bodies such as.
will continue to develop frameworks in their respective areas such as: national curriculum framework. The board will also develop a framework for certification of learners completing cycles through technical/vocational education. NCED. HSEB and OCE). non-formal and alternative modalities. All existing technical institutions will work under the supervision of the Technical Board. technical vocational education. teacher development. The interim committee will also make necessary legal and institutional arrangements for the constitution of the Technical Board including the roles and functions of the Board and its members. Preparation for decentralization of district level examination at grade 8 and regional level examination at grade 10 will be started at the beginning of the academic year 2007/08. NCED. an interim technical committee will be formed which will be chaired by the secretary and represented by the heads of respective technical institutions. CTEVT. supervise and to coordinate) all technical functions. and HSEB etc. The board will also be responsible for analysing and reporting on the results of examinations to bodies responsible for raising the quality of education such as CDC. Central level agencies (such as CDC. Until such independent board is formed. under the coordination and guidance of the interim technical committee. student assessment and examinations. Lessons learned from grade 8 and grade 10 examination will be fed into the preparation and development of plan for national level examination at grade 12. Review Office. CTEVT will continue to conduct all short-term and more technical and vocational type of examination and certification under the framework and guidelines provided by the board. The interim technical committee will develop a phased implementation plan to integrate all technical functions including examination function.SSR CD September 07 The MOES will constitute an integrated and independent Technical Board to oversee (regulate. 34 .
the local government will report the performance of the schools to the public. teacher qualifications and teacher competencies under the NCED framework. and professionals to define the targets within the national standards frameworks.1 For quality improvement. Both these aspects of quality require setting national standards and measures. For quality control.2. reputed and retired teachers. targets and strategies for achieving those standards can vary between localities. 2. Under SSR the following are considered key elements of quality management: enabling conditions. instructional process. or control. but the strategies for reaching and maintaining those standards may vary. SMCs. or minimums. etc. national standards and targets are set centrally. QUALITY Quality management has two main functions: quality improvement and quality assurance. these describe the “enabling conditions for learning” that the government is obliged to provide. One aspect of quality control is setting the lower limits. teacher management and development. The strategy for providing support to local government is to use the existing technical structures at the district level (such as Trade Schools and Education Training Centres. curriculum and textbooks.SSR CD September 07 A Review Office will be formed as an independent body accountable to the Education Policy Committee for setting and monitoring standards in technical areas such as: learning competencies under the CDC framework. 1 The accumulated sets of standards provide an operational definition of quality under SSR 35 . under each set of standards. PTAs. certification standards for basic and secondary cycles. and other professional forums) for the planning and delivery of educational services. These standards and targets will form a basis for assessing the performance of the school. Finally. Local governments will work in collaboration with teacher unions.
SSR CD September 07 head-teacher management and development. (iii) Schools will be well roofed. 2. adequate instructional process and materials. well furnished. local government will ensure that the minimum conditions are met before granting permission to the community to run new schools. The government will develop a mechanism for defining minimum enabling conditions and for assuring that they are met. there will be a separate classroom for each grade. ENABLING CONDITIONS POLICY The government will define minimum enabling conditions and ensure they are met in public schools. The Government will develop a national framework of norms and standards for enabling conditions. properly ventilated with a writing board. The school community will. (ii) Class size will be maintained at 40 students per class and minimum space per student in the class will be 1 square meter for basic education and 1. within the national framework. 36 . Options for enabling conditions include: (i) Teacher student ratio of 1:40 will be maintained across all geographical regions and provision of grade-wide teacher in schools.1. and sufficient number of qualified teachers. appropriate facilities.5 square meters for secondary education. The responsibility for providing the enabling conditions will be shared between levels of government. certification and examinations. In case of new schools.2. Likewise. and book corner. define its own targets for quality improvement addressing the local needs and conditions. desk and benches. STRATEGIC OPTIONS Minimum enabling conditions include: an environment for equitable participation. have a compound wall.
(ii) The school. content and materials will be developed within the NCF guidelines. Only approved and prescribed textbooks in core subjects will be used in the schools. 2. instructional and infrastructural provision. The NCF will determine core and elective subjects and content for general. CURRICULUM AND TEXTBOOKS POLICY The National Curriculum Framework (NCF) will provide the basis for a core curriculum and will guide the development of a local curriculum. (iii) The SIP will reflect the needs of a school to provide the enabling environment. 37 .2. vocational and alternative education. library. community and parents will ensure an environment for equitable participation.SSR CD September 07 toilets (minimum one unit). NFEC and CTEVT for grades 1-12 for general.2. drinking water. vocational and alternative education. office room. The Department of Education will develop model basic education schools with adequate educational. STRATEGIC OPTIONS Competency standards for formal and alternative modes of education will be set by the Curriculum Development Centre (CDC) in consultation with HSEB. Technical and vocational subjects will reflect job market demands. Options for sharing responsibility on enabling conditions are: (i) Local government will ensure that the minimum conditions are met before granting permission to run new school in its community. playground. Local curriculum. and laboratory. Multi-textbook policy will be adopted to promote independent learning by students being educated under diverse situations. Local level capacity will be developed for implementation of the local curriculum.
such as grade and multi-grade teaching. ICT-assisted teaching/learning and child-friendly teaching/learning will be encouraged in all schools. and inclusive. MGT and Grade Teaching will be practised at the basic level. Varieties of teaching methods will be used to cater to the diverse educational needs of children resulting in higher level of learning achievement. In addition. Instructional materials will also be child friendly. STRATEGIC OPTIONS Flexible instructional arrangements will be developed and employed. In secondary education the medium of instruction will either be in Nepali or English as determined by the SMC in consultation with the local government.SSR CD September 07 The private sector will be encouraged to develop. 2. gender friendly. Appropriate learning facilities will be provided to the identified multi-grade schools. English will be taught as a subject from grade one onwards.3. will be determined by the school management in consultation with local government and within the nationally defined standards. produce and distribute textbooks in order to broaden students’ textbook choice. A child’s mother tongue will be employed as the medium of instruction up to grade three. Multi-grade teaching (MGT) will be introduced as pedagogical choice in selected schools meeting the nationally defined criteria. 38 . INSTRUCTIONAL PROCESSES POLICY Instructional processes. special needs classes. enhance textbook quality. and distribute books on time. training for multi-grade teaching will be provided.2. No child shall be subject to physical punishment in any form in school. The local government will select schools qualifying to operate MGT in consultation with the technical body/DEO.
000 contact hours) in an academic year. if necessary. Motivational schemes will be introduced to boost teachers’ timeon-task and students’ learning achievements. and local interest groups will build consensus at the school level regarding the medium of instruction to be used at the school. SMCs and the local level government will be responsible for raising the level of school performance based on standards set by the Review Office. Teacher preparation programmes will be developed to enable them to use mother tongue as a medium of instruction at the foundational grades of basic education. Local government will provide schools with technical and financial resources for bi-lingual instruction. Local government. Government will take responsibility of managing technical. Remedial programs. Locally available human resources will be used extensively for the delivery of education as a mother tongue at the foundation grades of basic education. 39 . a rigorous remedial support system will be introduced to ensure minimum level of learning at each grade level and a letter grading system will be gradually implemented. PTAs. At the school level.SSR CD September 07 A Continuous Assessment System (CAS) will be adopted in a phased manner with no holdbacks in basic education. Guidelines for the CAS will be developed by the CDC in consultation with the examination board. Parents will be regularly informed about their children's performance through direct contact and also through progress report cards. Madarsas and Gurkuls. Core instructional materials for lower grades will be made available in the mother tongue through central government. will be provided to learners whose performance is significantly below expectations. financial and human resources required for mother tongue/ bilingual teaching. SMCs. The formal schools will operate at least for 220 school days (1. Local languages will be employed as the medium of instruction in Gumbas.
Ed. STRATEGIC OPTIONS 40 . teachers with B. Provisions will be made to prepare separate cadres of teachers who specialize in multigrade teaching.4. However. or Bachelor level qualifications with teacher preparation courses will also be eligible to teach at the secondary level (grades 9-10). Teacher professional development will be linked to career development and available through both long and short term means.SSR CD September 07 2. bi-lingual and special education.Ed or Masters degree qualifications with relevant teacher preparation course for secondary level. The responsibility for implementing the teacher management guidelines will be at the level of teacher selection and recruitment. and other disadvantaged groups when filling teacher positions. Priority will be given to recruiting females. or higher secondary education certificate with relevant teacher preparation course for basic education. secondary.2. (ii) M. Teachers with additional academic qualifications will gain eligibility for fast-track career progression at basic. The guidelines for teacher management will be provided by the central level. The minimum qualifications for teachers will be: (i) I.Ed. higher secondary stages. Dalits. TEACHER MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT POLICY Teacher selection and recruitment process will be decentralized to the School/local level. Two separate professional career paths will be offered: one for basic and one for secondary teachers.
experienced. intermediate and district level to select and recruit teachers. training and students' achievement in their respective career path. Specific terms and conditions of these teachers will be developed. A special Teacher Preparation Course will be made compulsory as an independent professional degree on the top of the minimum academic qualification to enter the teaching profession. qualification.SSR CD September 07 Teachers will be recruited from among the licensees in a transparent and competitive manner using guidelines provided by the central level. seniority. Options for decentralized teacher selection and recruitment are: (i) SMC selects and recruits (ii) an independent authority at the local level selects and local government or SMC recruits. Provisions will be made to upgrade teachers based on indicators such as time on task. Provisions will be made to prepare separate cadre of teachers with specialisation in multi-grade teaching. Two separate professional career paths will be offered to basic and secondary teachers. In order to keep abreast of new developments in teaching and learning practices. The options for SSR include: (i) continuing licensing through the TSC or (ii) licensing through the sub-national (provincial) government. The current practice for teacher licensing is through the Teachers Service Commission (TSC) which has decentralized some of its functions to the regional level. master and expert) for both basic and secondary level teachers. There will be four stages (beginner. teacher must acquire one month in-service 41 . Section on Social Inclusion suggests strategies for increasing the proportion of teachers and head-teachers from disadvantaged groups. and (iii) a Teachers Selection Commission is formed at the national. and special education.
etc. will be developed in close collaboration with teacher union and civil society. supervisors. Professional support and mentoring to teachers will be provided by: headteachers. The teacher career path will have rungs such as: beginner. supervisors. Such trainings should be linked with teacher career development.SSR CD September 07 training in at least every five years. Options for teacher management are illustrated in table 2-2 42 . master/expert teacher.) will work intensively with a whole school for a set period of time providing “clinical” supervision. etc. experienced headteachers. liaison with Training opportunities will be provided to allow teachers to meet the new requirements within a specified period. Teachers’ qualifications and performance will be linked with their career development including their salary structure. resource persons. experienced. teacher trainers. online courses. The team will observe and diagnose strengths and capacity development needs regarding instruction and will develop a “treatment plan” for improving the quality of teaching unique to that school. tutorials. resource persons. For those teachers who opt to obtain higher degree. a group of experienced and retired teachers will be nominated by the VDC and trained to provide instructional support. self-learning materials. academics. Additional support for professional development will be made available through various schemes such as: in-service training. peer training. The team will then implement the plan through methods such as: demonstration teaching. Independent Supervision: Under this model a professional supervisor will be contracted from among the regular teachers and trained to provide instructional and academic support to teachers both at the Resource Centres as well as at the school and classroom level on an intermittent basis. Incentive packages will be provided for teachers who opt for voluntary retirement. Standards for teacher behaviour. including codes of conduct. mentoring and coaching in the schools to less experienced teachers. study leave will be granted. etc. micro teaching. Box 2-2 Options for Technical Supervision under SSR Expert Teacher Pool –School Based: Under this model. master teachers. Team Approach: Under the Team Approach subject-wise and level-wise academic support will be provided to teachers by a team of experts (ex-teachers. master teachers.
Head-teachers will be selected by an independent head-teacher recruitment committee with representatives from experts.5. Central level or Provincial level Selection SMC Independent authority at the subnational level Management School. or equivalent with teacher preparation course. Headteacher Local government (VDC/ municipality for basic and municipality / DDC for secondary education. leadership capacity. and for the Secondary Education M. Central level (TSC) 2.2. STRATEGIC OPTIONS Head-teachers minimum qualification for Basic Education will be B.MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT POLICY There will be a separate position for head-teachers in fully-fledged schools. Central level or Provincial level Independent authority at the subnational level 2. For the position of head-teachers. (requires advertisement for the specific local govt.Ed. SMC. and experience. SMC (requires advertisement for the specific school) 3. 43 .Ed. preference will be given to female candidates and candidates from marginalized groups. HEAD-TEACHER . the selection criteria will include teaching performance.) School. Head-teachers will be selected from among serving teachers. or equivalent with teacher preparation course.SSR CD September 07 Table 2-2: Roles of different levels/agencies in teacher selection and recruitment Policy Licensing/ Options certification 1.
2. Head-teachers will be given sufficient authority to set standards and appraise teacher performance based on these standards.SSR CD September 07 including teacher’s union representatives. proposal evaluation will be a key factor in Head-teacher selection. regional and district. The head-teacher will be appointed on a contractual basis for a specified period. The teaching workload for the headteacher will be reduced to enable them to carry out their management tasks. Head-teachers will have greater roles and authority in technical aspects of school management.6. Regional level examinations will be conducted at the end of grade 10 and will be administered by the Regional Education Directorate under the authority of the board.2. National level examination for School Level Certification (SLC) will be conducted at the end of grade 12 and will be administered by an independent examination board. CERTIFICATION AND EXAMINATIONS POLICY National. STRATEGIC OPTIONS Public examinations will be held at three levels: national. Candidates for head-teacher positions will have to prepare a proposal for school development. An independent board will be formed to set the examinations and. local authorities will administer them. Selected head-teachers will be provided with management training prior to assuming the role of head-teacher. They will be accountable to the SMC for their performance. For 1 to 12 schools there will be separate level-in-charge for 1 to 8 and 9 to 12 to assist the head-teacher. depending on the level. The SMC will appraise the head-teacher’s performance in terms of his or her school development proposal annually. District level 44 . regional and district public examinations will be used for certification at end of levels.
10. A combination of formative and summative evaluation will be used to assess students' performance. and 12. and b) Higher Secondary Level Certificate (HSLC) or Technical Higher Secondary Level Certificate (THSLC). 8 and 10. Students who have studied privately (self-study) will have to go through a qualifying test at the district level in order to be eligible for the regional examination at grade 10. At the end of grade 8 a basic education certificate will be provided. Schools will develop student evaluation measures based on the framework that are appropriate to their respective contexts. The board will develop a National Examination Policy Framework which will be the basis for student examinations and evaluation in: formal. alternative. Graduates of regional examinations will be qualified in two years of self-study for the grade 12 examination. two certificates will be provided: a) Secondary Level Certificate (SLC) or Technical Secondary Level Certificate (TSLC). Under the national examination frameworks provided by the board. vocational and technical education. and will be administered by the District Education Office (DEO). Head-teacher will be made accountable to raise the level of performance on external examinations. Certificates will be awarded at grades 8.SSR CD September 07 examinations will be conducted at the end of grade eight. technical and traditional skills schemes. Special attention will be given to behavioural and attitudinal change in evaluating students. The Council for Technical Education and Vocational Training (CTEVT) will set the certification examinations (including skills testing) for students in the short-term vocational. At the secondary level. 45 . National assessments of student achievement will be conducted periodically for students enrolled in grades 5.
Children of any age enrolled in basic education programmes until the 2009/2010 academic year will continue to receive the entitlement until they complete the cycle. 46 . and developing strategies for the attainment of parity. service delivery and student levels. Beginning in 2009/2010 academic year only children of correct age will be encouraged to enrol in schools.1. The centre will ensure availability of adequate resources. ECD services will be expanded to accommodate under aged children. ENTITLEMENT POLICY The Interim Constitution of Nepal guarantees children the right to basic education. To protect children’s rights. recommending statutory frameworks.3. the SSR is committed to ensure inclusion both at institutional and individual levels. equity and equality in participation. Dalits. intermediate and the local governments. It will be the responsibility of the local government to ensure universal enrolment and completion of basic education. STRATEGIC OPTIONS Fulfilment of the entitlement will be a shared responsibility between central. MOES will be responsible for providing policy directions. basic and primary education. EQUITABLE A CCESS Equitable access goals include parity. ethnic minorities. the government will make necessary statutory provisions at the central and local government levels.SSR CD September 07 2. Beyond access and success in schools. achievement and authority for girls and marginalized groups.3. 2. The SSR envisages that all marginalized groups including girls. Free basic education will apply to children between 5-13 years of age. and differently abled populations should have equitable access to quality. equity and equality for girls and marginalized groups at management.
Affirmative action will be taken to increase the number of female teachers. As an incentive. tuition. Secondary education will be provided on a cost sharing basis. Children denied basic education will have the right to seek legal remedy through a court or any appropriate judicial unit.3. school feeding and so on.SSR CD September 07 Free alternative programs (such as condensed courses) will be provided to allow students who cannot attend formal school to catch up with their cohort group or complete the cycle. However. These strategies will help compensate for opportunity costs for sending children to schools. Local governments will be encouraged to adopt a compulsory education policy in their respective jurisdictions in consultation with local stakeholders. The Government will increase representation of disadvantaged groups across all levels of governance and management. Free basic education will include cost-free services for: admission.2. and examinations. As an option. central government will provide additional support to local governments that opt for implementing compulsory education policy. teachers from disadvantaged groups in schools. adequate arrangements will be made to ensure free secondary education to children from economically disadvantaged communities and differently able children. local governments may develop strategies to provide additional support to encourage disadvantaged parents to send children to schools (such as providing oil to mothers in return of sending children to schools. The policy for social inclusion will be an overarching framework for equitable access to quality education for all. SOCIAL I NCLUSION POLICY The government will ensure the inclusion of children from socially disadvantaged groups in education. 47 . textbooks. 2.
SSR CD September 07 Responsibility for meeting goals on social inclusion will be shared between levels of government. marginalized populations and so on. Inclusive Schooling For basic education. flexible schooling (morning and evening shifts) will be provided to children who cannot join schools at regular hours. At the district level. Scholarships The present scholarship scheme will be continued at the basic and secondary level. Scholarship management will be decentralized. The local government in collaboration with SMCs will determine which schools should offer flexible shifts and will mobilize funds for this purpose. differently abled people. STRATEGIC OPTIONS Disadvantaged groups are defined to include: girls and women. a committee will be formed to develop guidelines for scholarship distribution and management. At the village level a scholarship selection committee will be formed. ethnic minorities. in this committee at least 50 per cent of the members will be from disadvantaged groups. Options for scholarship distribution will be left to the selection committee and will include: (i) directly to the students by opening a scholarship account in the name of each recipient (ii) directly to the schools who then distribute scholarships to the students. 48 . The code of conduct for teachers will support social inclusion. Dalits. National standards for inclusion will be set and local governments will be responsible for meeting national goals for inclusion within a specific period of time.
and provision for substitute teachers (ii) eligibility period for promotion for qualified female. Options for affirmative action in governance and management include: (i) proportional representation of women and people from disadvantaged groups on governance and management committees at all levels (ii) EMIS. by gender and ethnic groups. and Janajati teachers will be reduced. Dalit and Janajati teachers will be given leave with pay to upgrade their qualification. teacher training. (iii) Female. personal safety. special schools will be developed at the district level (ii) for those who can be mainstreamed. Dalit. 49 . Within this framework. local governments will set strategies and targets for attaining national goals within a set timeframe. (iii) criteria for teacher selection weighted in favour of candidates from these groups. infant feeding breaks. teacher preparation. Options include: (i) special provisions for maternity and paternity leave. Allocation of Responsibility between levels of government Central government will develop a framework for attaining parity between mainstream and disadvantaged groups.SSR CD September 07 Options for differently abled children include: (i) for those who cannot be mainstreamed. Such factors include: sanitary facilities. Affirmative Action Options for affirmative action at the school level for increasing proportion of women and people from disadvantaged include: (i) incentives for schools recruiting head-teachers from these groups (ii) a quota system for recruiting teachers and headteachers from these groups. technical assistance and teacher training will be provided at the local level. Teacher service conditions will be pro-inclusion. The local government will be responsible for assuring that factors affecting girls’ school attendance are addressed by SMCs. The central level will assure that all policies. (iv) licensing requirement for these groups can be waived for a specified period of time. and other data disaggregated. and sexual harassment.
Capacity building at all levels will be provided to support these functions. regional and local) and the school community. targets. 50 . 2. Mobilizing resources locally is not only necessary for fund raising but also to ensure that accountability and responsibility is rested upon the local government. Reporting requirements at every level will include a section on social inclusion. Strengthening capacity of local governments in financial management and reporting and institutionalizing social auditing are other important considerations under the SSR. At the local level. and resources required for achieving parity goals throughout their jurisdictions. An increasing share of the government budget will need to be matched by increasing efficiency and effectiveness of public education expenditure.4. the SMC will design community level strategies for supporting children from the disadvantaged groups in their school. text-books and examination content support the principles of social inclusion. SSR intends to establish financing in education as a shared responsibility between and among the governments (national. Within the national framework. local governments will prepare a plan that will include strategies. Based on the overall plans developed by the local government. These plans will give priority to upgrading schools serving disadvantaged groups and to establishing ECDs that serve disadvantaged and vulnerable communities. capacity building efforts will mobilize locally available human resources. FINANCING Fulfilling people’s expectations for free and good quality basic education will strain the government’s financial resources. Preparation and implementation of the plans will be a collaborative effort between parents and community based organizations (CBOs).SSR CD September 07 curriculum. Local governments will be responsible for ensuring national goals on social inclusion are met within timeframes appropriate to their context.
Multiple financing modalities include: block grants.SSR CD September 07 In the same manner. Periodic development plans.4. The Government’s Foreign Aid policy will guide the framework for external support in education. performance based grants. A minimum of 20% of the national budget will be for education. ensuring adequate access to disadvantaged populations. EDUCATION EXPENDITURE Options for local government spending on education: (i) District governments will allocate certain percentage of its budget on district education. per capita funding. STRATEGIC OPTIONS Options for determining the share of the education budget will include: (i) (ii) Statutory provisions. Provisions will be made to maximize partnerships of private and public sector in secondary education. Ratio of education budget to GDP will be raised to 6%.1. 51 . due to the complex nature of financing. 2. etc. The aim of school financing is to promote school autonomy with flexibility and accountability. the SSR intends to initiate a departure from the existing system by adopting multiple financing modalities. and (ii) Village/municipal governments will allocate certain percentage of its budget on local education. ear-marked grants. POLICY Public expenditure on education will be shared by both the central and local governments.
direct funding. For basic and secondary schools with students in excess of the norms. Public-private partnerships will be focused on secondary and tertiary levels of education. The Ministry will conduct a study on TA/Direct Fund facilities in the education sector and develop a concrete plan for aligning and coordinating them within the MOES framework. technical assistance. A Code of Conduct will be agreed upon by the partners to coordinate and harmonize assistance across the sector. schools with fewer students than the norms will be treated as multi-grade schools. a funding formula based on ratios of pupils to classrooms. and in-kind support will be guided by government priorities. Options for foreign assistance include: (i) Donor assistance through budgetary support. The external supports to education sector will increase from current level of funding to meet the funding gap. and teachers to classrooms. Resource sharing with I/NGOs and CBOs will be further strengthened. (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) 52 . For basic education. For secondary education (9-12) a funding formula based on subjects offered. Basic education provision will be the responsibility of the government. Current JFA arrangements will be continued. earmarked funding. a per child formula will be used.SSR CD September 07 Options for school financing include: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) For basic education. A single Steering Committee will be used for all TA and direct funding. pupils to teachers.
At the school level. Recurrent funds to schools will flow directly from the central level through the DEOs. FUNDING: MODALITIES AND FLOW POLICY Schools will be funded through multiple modalities.2. local government will be responsible for capital cost expenditure. and (iii) reflected in the local government budget. Options for classroom construction include: (i) government grant to local governments based on local education development plans.SSR CD September 07 2. STRATEGIC OPTIONS Options for assuring proportion of salary and non-salary budgets will include: (i) government decree (ii) earmarked at central level. 2. the proportion of salary and non-salary cost in basic level will be scaled-up by raising the non-salary costs in both basic and secondary levels. ALLOCATION WITHIN THE EDUCATION BUDGET POLICY 90 per cent of the education budget will go to schools and the balance will cover the cost of management and technical support at central. STRATEGIC OPTIONS 53 .3. Schools will receive funds for classroom construction on the basis of technical norms and standards. regional and district level. (ii) government grants to schools based on SIP.4.4. Development funds will flow from local governments.
4. (ii) ear-marked grants. and (iv) needsbased grants. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT AND REPORTING (ii) (iii) (iv) 2. Salary and non-salary recurrent costs as per set criteria will be provided to schools by the central government through DEOs. compliance with financial rules and regulation will be monitored on an on-going basis.SSR CD September 07 Options for school funding modalities include: (i) block grants.4. a separate position will be created for managing financial transactions. The proposed funds flow mechanism will be as follows: (i) ECD and non-formal education budget will be provided to the local government as an earmarked grant which can be reallocated by the local government. At all levels. Present arrangements for channelling block grants. STRATEGIC OPTIONS In order to ensure transparency. For fully fledged and secondary schools. (iii) performance-based grants. earmarked grants and performance grants will be continued including per capita funding. the provisions of audits both the social and financial will be made mandatory. Development budgets will be channelled through local government. POLICY Transparency and accountability for financial transactions at all levels will be ensured. 54 .
Local Government. Restructuring of secondary education will complete at the end of year 2015. management. INSTITUTIONAL A RRANGEMENTS Implementation of School Sector Reform will adopt a four step process: a) model building for basic education. National Centre for Educational Development.formal Education Centre. The EPC will draw on representatives from the key Ministries and institutions involved in policy-planning. will develop strategies for implementing the programme targeting the needs of 55 .1. Controller of Examinations. resourcing and service delivery of school education. Council for Technical and Vocational Education and other relevant institutions will provide the enabling environment to deliver services in line with the statutory provisions for social inclusion across the country. The model building process in three districts will start in 2007 and will continue through 2009. Restructuring of basic education (grades 1-8) will begin with the academic session that starts in 2010 in a phased manner throughout the country which will be completed by 2012. IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES 3.SSR CD September 07 3. The central level agencies such as the Department of Education. Curriculum Development Centre. Model building for secondary education will start in 2009/10 and will continue through 2012/13 and beyond. b) restructuring of basic education. c) model building for secondary education and d) restructuring of secondary education. The overall responsibility for providing policy directions and guidelines to Ministry of Education and Sports will lie with the Education Policy Committee (EPC) headed by the Minister for Education and Sports for effective implementation of the SSR. Non. The Ministry of Education and Sports will be responsible for coordinating education related statutory as well as governance functions. supported by DEO and RCs. Restructuring of secondary education will start with the academic session that starts in 2012 in a phased manner throughout the country. Higher Secondary Education Board.
) should be chaired by the Secretary. OPTION 2 2 This proposed board will not include CTEVT 56 . The Steering Committee will be chaired by the Secretary. The EC will include technical agency heads and will be chaired by the Joint Secretary. The committee will include representatives from: NPC and other relevant ministries and technical agency heads. chaired by the Joint Secretary. Table 3-1 SSR Implementation Options for SSR Implementation OPTION 1 Central Level The EPC may decide to form a Technical Advisory Board to provide long term strategic and policy inputs for school sector reform. Under the EPC an SSR Steering Committee will be created for intersectoral coordination among the central level organisation and commissions in school sector reform process. evaluation and reporting on SSR progress. OR All current policy level councils will be transformed into one technical board chaired by either the Secretary or a professional. and will take on the responsibility of overall programme management.SSR CD September 07 the socially excluded and marginalized populations in their respective areas. HSEB. Planning Division. or a professional. The Technical Secretariat of the EPC will be responsible for monitoring. Planning Division. Two Options for SSR Implementation are presented in Table 3-1. CTEVT etc. The Executive Committee. will be formed with representations from relevant Ministries and Departments. The SSR will also have an Executive Committee will ensure that Steering Committee guidelines and decisions are followed. 2 The committee or boards will be accountable to the EPC. Current policy level councils (such as CDC. NFE. EPC composition will be broadened by including chairperson of the Social Committee of Parliament and key stakeholders such as Teachers Union. NCED. monitoring and coordination within the programme.
teacher management. Its main purpose is to link strategy for service management (such as planning. etc. Because each plan is 57 . examinations.) at every level. and so on). and teachers).) with results by tracking achievements against SSR targets. A Programme Implementation Team will play a supportive and facilitative role in overall programme management. implementation. instructional materials. OPTION 2 Local government or DEC will form a district level committee to plan. financing. village and municipality and school levels. equity. The Committee will include relevant local government offices. labour market stimulation. a Technical Advisory Board will asses and analyze issues relevant to the implementation and overall progress of the reform. at the 3. education for all. and report on SSR activities at the local level. etc. The Team will be chaired by the DEO and will have members from relevant local government offices. civil society organizations (representing women’s. objectives and goals (such as learning. regional. M&E is conducted at the national. monitoring and coordination. The information provided by the M&E system can be used to improve the planning and implementation processes and to appraise whether the SSR is helping achieve national development goals (such as poverty reduction. oversee. DEO will provide technical support to this committee Village and Municipality Level Corresponding committee village or municipal level.) and service delivery (such as instructional process. etc. community participation.2. monitor.SSR CD September 07 OPTION 1 District Level At the district level. At each level. monitoring functions are built into the annual planning and review cycle and are carried out “in-house” by managers. MONITORING AND EVALUATION FUNCTIONS AND MECHANISMS The Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) system is an integral part of the SSR. This committee will be chaired by DDC Chairperson and will include key stakeholders. district. Dalits.
three major M&E functions will be undertaken: (i) assessing compliance with acts and regulations. Technical supervision. management. Between levels. 58 . qualifications for grades and subjects taught. Monitoring and reporting teachers have required requirements. and.SSR CD September 07 unique. M&E functions are carried out by specialists. each unit will monitor different milestones and targets. sometimes called the “audit” function. compliance and impact. (ii) measuring progress against milestones and targets. indictors and measures. As such. higher levels monitor and evaluate lower ones using a common set of objectives. The SSR M&E system will monitor and evaluate financial. Monitoring milestones and outputs. enrolment and progress of marginalized students Learning and equity Impact Accuracy and results Evaluation timeliness of planning and financial management systems Central Level The EPC is the apex body for policy formulation and evaluation. Under the SSR. M&E indicators will include those required by EFA. Table 3-2 Indicative M&E in Service Management and Delivery Service Management Service Delivery Compliance Financial management Schools open required minimum number of days. including SSR. Progress Budgeted expenditures. it is the principal client for M&E information on SSR progress. (iii) evaluating the impact of policies and strategies on sector goals and objectives. and technical matters for service management and service delivery as illustrated by table 3-2.
the SSR will have a Steering Committee (chaired by the Secretary of Education) that will assume responsibility for monitoring the progress of SSR against the annual workplan and budget. will commission independent evaluations on the success of strategies in achieving policy goals (such district variations in the impact of scholarships on completion rates of excluded groups between and within districts) and on the impact of policies on development goals (such as vocational education graduates’ impact on labour markets). The NPC will continue to monitor and evaluate progress towards achieving the goals and objectives of the periodic development plans Compliance Reporting: The Steering Committee will be informed by the reports from the FCGO on compliance with financial monitoring and reporting requirements and may commission independent monitoring to verify the degree to which policies are followed at the school and sub-national levels (i.e. The DoE and central level agencies will continue to monitor progress towards their respective milestones and will provide periodic reports to the Steering Committee on activities pertinent to the SSR. The EPC will prepare a report for Parliament on the state of the SSR. compliance. In terms of financial management and reporting. The Review Office will prepare an annual report to the Minister on progress in terms of several sets of standards. 59 . Impact Evaluation: The Steering Committee. the Ministry will adhere to the requirement stipulated in the Joint Financing Arrangement between GoN and development partners.SSR CD September 07 Progress Monitoring: Under the EPC. Independent Monitoring: The Steering Committee may contract for independent monitoring services as required by international agreements. under instruction from the EPC. Reporting Requirements: The Steering Committee will provide the EPC with an annual report covering progress. proportion of schools and communities conducting social audits as stipulated in the regulatory framework). and impact.
village and municipality level. School Level The SMC is the apex body at the school level for SSR M&E. 60 . Copies of this report will be sent to the Steering Committee at the central level. including those relevant to SSR. Reporting Requirements: The education committee will prepare an annual report on the state of education in the area for the local government. Progress Monitoring: The SMC monitors progress against the SIP and reports to the PTA. regulations and policies (such as proportion of schools open for the statutory number of teaching days or the proportion of schools with teacher codes of conduct).SSR CD September 07 District. M&E is the responsibility of the local government. in their respective areas of jurisdiction. local government is the principal client for information on the state of SSR in the area under their jurisdiction. including education. Progress Monitoring: At the sub-national level. A district education committee (chaired by the head of the local government) will use the education development plan’s in-built monitoring plan to track progress against milestones and targets. As such. Village and Municipality Level At the district. the local government is responsible for monitoring progress towards local development plan targets. Head-teacher monitor’s progress on students’ learning against school level targets. Compliance Reporting: The education committee will conduct or commission reviews of how schools are implementing reforms stipulated in acts. Impact Evaluation: The Education Committee or the local government can conduct or commission assessments of the impact of strategies on education indicators in their area (such as the impact of ECD on grade 1 NER and repetition rates).
SSR CD September 07 Impact Evaluation: SMC will review: the learning achievements as indicated by external examinations and internal assessment of student learning. 3. and human resources develop.3. space. capacity building will develop the policy. SSR implementation will begin by using existing capacities and will improve and expand as policy environment. organisational capacity. At the national level. the EPC will be expanded and upgraded with representation of high-level experts and key stakeholders.3.3. CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK OF CAPACITY BUILDING Capacity building under SSR is focused on measurable results (such as. etc. organizational and human resource infrastructure needed to achieve and sustain goals.1. etc.) At the local levels. SUPPORTIVE POLICY ENVIRONMENT The SSR will build capacity in education policy making and impact assessment. Under SSR. 3. Activities will be planned and carried out at the central.2. The secretariat for the committee will be strengthened at the MOES with adequate numbers of professional staff and appropriate physical infrastructure (equipment. so long as they are consistent with and supportive of central policies and guidelines. 3. policy making bodies within local government and SMCs at the school level may set education policies that apply within their jurisdiction. participation of marginalized groups in school management. improved learning in classrooms) rather than inputs (such as numbers of training programmes) or outputs (such as numbers of people trained) and is an integral and continuous part of every SSR strategy. sub-national and local levels. Sub-national and local governments will receive orientation and training on 61 .
To support local planning and monitoring.3. standard setting and accreditation.SSR CD September 07 national educational governance. Individual schools will be provided with technical support to develop institution development plans aligned with the plans developed at various levels for building capacity of management and governance. assessment and student evaluation. Critical areas of capacity building envisaged at 62 . policy and their role in education WELL FUNCTIONING ORGANIZATIONS At local levels. SSR capacity development includes organizational development. priorities include strengthening the EMIS database. documentation and research centres will be created within individual agencies of the local government. Well functioning organizations have a clear purpose and welldefined descriptions for their personnel and teams. needed equipment and physical facilities will be provided by the central government in a phased manner. 3. Over time.3. monitoring and administration of schools and alternative education providers will be optimized to support SSR goals and strategic objectives. The absence of a wellfunctioning organisation inhibits capable people from fulfilling their tasks and accomplishing their objectives. infrastructure necessary to support communication and egovernance will be provided to the sub-national levels. For management. continuous teacher support and development. establishing systems for performance audits and social audits. Attention will be given to develop special planning circles comprising promising staff for better preparation of DEPs. In technical areas emphasis will be given to build capacity for different functions such as: curriculum development. Administrative systems are streamlined and processes for decision-making and communications are clear and consistent. on the basis of comprehensive assessment. Systems for planning. Regarding physical infrastructure. the capacity of local government to implement programmes and policies will be strengthened. SIPs and ASIPs.
reporting and communication with parents. resource mobilization. The managerial and technical capacity of DDC and VDC/Municipalities’ members will be developed through training courses on strategic decisions. Schools are the central point for education service delivery.4. 63 . Human Resources Development Plan 2002 will be utilized as foundation for capacity building for individuals at the national and local level. leadership development. 3. instructional planning. curriculum development. teacher development.3. CAPABLE HUMAN RESOURCES Current staff development programs at the sub-national and national level will be reviewed and revised to align with SSR requirements. action research. design of development structure. The schools will be developed to enable them act as self-governing independent institutions.SSR CD September 07 the school level comprise teacher mobilization. social auditing etc. Major focus will be given to low performing and marginalized community schools while prioritising the capacity building interventions. collaboration and networking. leading school education development etc. With regard to staff development.
of teachers 3 3 SLC Sub-total Salary Non. a proper teacher management plan might significantly reduce the number of required teachers by eliminating temporary requirements for teaching staff in schools.28. Some of the major and obvious costs inherent in the SSR include: teachers.27. scholarships and infrastructure. With entitlement extended through basic education. COSTING OF SSR Costing for the SSR has two dimensions: a) the cost of on-going programs under the EFA. and b) the cost of restructuring – structural and functional adjustments across the system.188 4.000 teachers for the school system.1. The estimate of teacher costs is based on the following: Table 4-1 Estimates of unit cost per teacher: salary and non-salary Unit cost Cost category Unit Total cost/ Tch teacher Basic school (1-3) 99. operating expenses. textbooks.294 The ratio of salary and non-salary cost is 70:30 Basic school (1-5) 64 .702 3 Total cost Remarks No.salary 2. While the need for additional teachers is well demonstrated. TEACHERS The Department of Education has estimated a shortage of about 60. this figure may be an under-estimate.99. The cost estimates are based on the following assumptions: 4. Restructuring the current school system into an integrated 1-8 basic and 9-12 secondary school system will inevitably have cost implications.106 1.SSR CD September 07 4. the cost of on-going programme under the EFA also constitutes one of the major cost considerations. While reform by its nature demands new and additional programs and strategies.
54.472 2.17.08. Sub-total Salary The ratio of salary and non-salary cost is 70:30 99.702 1.29.702 teachers 11 4.77.62. of 2.35.736 3 3 SLC 7.736 1.157 3 4 1 2.17.15 3 1-10 school (1-8 basic and 9-10 secondary) The ratio of Salary No.70. Ed 1 B.157 1.77.628 cost is 65:35 1.345 Sub-total 25. Ed Salary 188.8.131.52.Phil Non salary 6.58 6 1-12 school (1-8 basic and 9-12 secondary) The ratio of Salary No.628 cost is 65:35 1.99. Ed 1 M. of 184.108.40.2066 Sub-total 13. Ed 3.750 Sub-total 21.702 teachers 13 3.944 1.106 2.77. Ed 1.99. of teachers 5 3 SLC 2 I.683 Non salary Basic school (1-8) No.99.77.SSR CD September 07 No.05.106 salary and 3 99.77. Ed.220.127.116.116 3 3 SLC 7.52.208 non-salary 1. Ed 1.157 4 3 I. Ed Non salary 4.157 The ratio of salary and non-salary cost is 70:30 4.157 2 4 B.702 1.736 - 3 2 - 2.314 1.75 8 9-12 school Non salary - - 65 .105 7.63.157 1.53.08.106 salary and 3 99.157 4 3 I.77.77. of teachers 8 3 SLC 4 I.944 non-salary 1.70. Ed 1 M.157 1 2 M.106 4.157 1 4 B.
77.SSR CD September 07 No.34. Ed 3 M. a separate headteacher position in all full-fledged basic (1-8) and secondary (9-12) is planned.157 - 3 3 1 - 5. Ed 1 M.Phil Sub-total Salary The ratio of salary and non-salary cost is 65:35 1.035 16.77.77. and a pupilclassroom ratio of 40:1.31.157 4. In addition to the above teacher positions.77.471 5. a pupil-teacher ratio of 40:1.74. estimates of teachers also includes subject teachers. Table 4-2 Teacher Norms per Pupil Types of Number Number of pupils schools of teachers Grade 1-3 3 120 school Grade 1-5 5 200 school Grade 1–8 8 320 school Grade 1-10 10 400 school Grade 1-12 12 480 school Grade 9-12 8 160 school In secondary level (grade 9-12 school).31.157 1. of teachers 7 3 B.13 4 Non salary The norms used to estimate school teachers include a teacherclassroom ratio of 1:1.157 1. 66 .471 1.
the remaining teachers will be required to upgrade their education and trainings. textbooks and materials will be provided free to those receiving basic education through alternative modes of education. Once the government decides on free secondary education.3. and 8 and also the costs for continuing free textbooks for grades 1-5. Although the constitution has declared that education will be free up to secondary level. TEXTBOOKS Costing free set of textbooks include estimate of textbooks required for grades 6. However. current costing does not include grades beyond basic level. Moreover. schools will receive block grants directly through their respective local governments. Similarly. For these purposes. 7.SSR CD September 07 Teachers’ minimum qualifications and training requirements have been raised to meet the curricular and/or pedagogical expectations. OPERATING EXPENSES 67 . the costs of qualification upgrade and training including the costs for those who opt for voluntary retirement is included in the estimate. Similarly. Due to higher qualifications required. 4. each school will receive 10 sets of textbooks including curriculum and teacher guides every five years. While all new teachers will be required to have higher level of education and trainings. Such costs are also included in this estimate. salaries have been also adjusted accordingly. current estimates also include students from disadvantaged families and disabled students enrolled in grades 9-12 who will also receive free textbooks.2. the costs for textbooks will be included. 4.
0. 100 per cent of Dalits. 4. discussed in detail in a separate section. Block grant. the prescribed levels and grades in basic and secondary education have been used to filter the needs for additional classrooms. merging and downsizing schools with fragmented grades. Construction of additional classrooms and meeting the minimum conditions as specified here in the Core Document constitute major cost considerations. A 40:1 class-size norm is used to estimate the number of classrooms required. SCHOLARSHIPS Scholarships are another major cost item in education. 68 . scholarships will be distributed to 50 per cent of girls. 10 per cent of the total number of children (of which two-thirds will be girls and remaining will be for poor and gifted children will receive scholarships.75 per cent are severely disabled and 0. 1 per cent have moderate disability. school administration and operation. In 9 to 12 schools.25 per cent have highly severe disability.5. 2 per cent have mild disability.and SIP-based funding and per capita funding are some of the schemes devised as funding modalities. 15 per cent gifted children. and other overhead costs such as stationery and supplies are estimated to compensate schools. 4. The costs estimated for scholarships include the following considerations: in Grade 1 to 8 schools. PHYSICAL I NFRASTRUCTURE Restructuring schools into prescribed levels and grades will incur costs for upgrading.SSR CD September 07 Recurrent teacher salaries.4. Similarly. Scholarships for all differently abled students are estimated assuming that they constitute about 4 per cent of the total school population and of which. and 30 per cent for poverty.
1-12. and 9-12 69 .SSR CD September 07 The following levels grades of schools as envisaged under the SSR have been used to estimate classrooms and infrastructure support: Basic Education Secondary Education . 1-5.Grades 1-3. and 1-8 .Grades 1-10.
330.319.544.194 34189410 34873763 32628707 32392855 32709188 33234928 200028850 2. SUMMARY OF ESTIMATES School Sector Reform Summary of the Cost Programme Area 2010 Teacher Textbooks Salary + 2011 Budget (NRs in 000) 2012 2013 2014 2015 Total cost in NRs Total cost in US$ 26.545.000 1.542.000 1.688.651.1.523.610 450.1.735 125.000 11.231.971 125.000 197.549.807 687.495 27.047 50.370 694.802 2.000 191.412 2.985.888.000 134.214 7.615 109.728 3.859 26.013 490.000 125.178.040.152 3.330 240.250 1.000 750.244 14.386.227.541 Teacher Development Physical Infrastructure Scholarship Program cost Operating/Administration Cost Per capita funding for un-served children Total 125.204 979.019 162.472.000 1.500 9.363 2.706.394 582.128 16.846.000 125.479 534.601.686 2.541.410 138.332 2.771.533 2.725 27.278 26.505 .939 3.286 635.367 185.268.421.033 125.750 1.236 27.000 125.640 128.544.400 140.612 2.667.000 125.000 125.500 1.083.
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