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In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by

Yahia Ahmed Qaid

In-service Training for Teachers


of English in Yemen
An Agenda

By
Yahia Ahmed Qaid
A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the
requirement for the degree of Master of Education[ELT] to
the Department of English Faculty of Education
Hodeidah university
Hodeidah

Supervisor
Prof.B.Krishnamurthy
Faculty of Arts
Hodeidah university
Hodeidah

December,2003
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

Certificate of the Supervisor

This is to certify that the thesis In-service Training for


Teachers of English in Yemen : An Agenda is a research

work done by Mr. Yahia Ahmed Qaid, during 2002-2003 at the


Department of English , faculty of Education; that the thesis has not
previously formed the basis for the award to the candidate of any
degree, diploma, associateship , fellowship or any other similar title ;
and that the thesis represents entirely an independent work on the
part of the candidate.

Prof.B.Krishnamurthy Prof. Chhanda Roy


Supervisor Head
Professor of English Department of English
Faculty of Arts Faculty of Education
Hodeidah university Hodeidah university
Hodeidah Hodeidah
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

Dedication
TO MY PARENTS

TO MY WIFE AND CHILDREN

I DEDICATE MY WORK

YAHIA
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

Acknowledgments

I am deeply grateful to Prof.B. Krishnamurthy who supervised this


work. His comments and continuous encouragement supported my
working on this research.
I thank Dr. C.N.Sirnivasan. for his guidance, encouragement and
valuable help.
I thank Prof. Chhanda Roy ,who has been a source of inspiration for
the project.
I wish to express my gratitude to Ms. Amtulrahman Al-Sa’afany,
headmistress of 26 th Sept. School for girls, for her help during my
Master program.
I record my thanks to Hussein Jazem Al-Selway who helped me a lot
while working on this research.

Table of contents
Page
Dedication iii
Acknowledgement iv
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

Table of contents v
Abstract vi
Chapter one
1.0.Introduction 1
1.1.Teacher education 3
1.2.Kinds of Teacher Education 8
Chapter two
2.1.In-service teacher training 16
2.2.Teachers’ awareness of teaching 29
2.3.Reflective Practice 37
2.4.In-service teacher training in Yemen 42
2.5.Conclusion 46
Chapter three
Methodology of the research
3.1.The questionnaire 47
3.2.The reasons for the selection of questions to the 49
teachers
3.3. The reasons for the selection of questions to the 70
inspectors
Chapter four
Findings
The analysis of the questionnaire 77
Chapter five
Discussion, suggestion , conclusion and recommendation
5.1.Introduction 126
5.2. Discussion 127
5.3. Suggestion 128
5.4.Conclusion 137
5.5.Recommendation 138
References 142
Appendices 147

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to investigate the nature and scope of in-

service training in Yemen and to identify an agenda for training teachers of


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

English. In-service education for practicing teachers in the western

world has developed in a big way during the past three decades and

contributes vitally towards the professional development of teachers. This is

sorely neglected in the Yemeni context.

In the present study, questionnaires were administered on teachers of

English and inspectors to identify their beliefs and concepts of education and

their awareness of in-service programs. The response s were quantitatively

analyzed to identify areas of English Language Teaching (ELT) , that

teachers desire to improve , to design in-service programs according to their

needs.

The analysis records that in the Yemeni context , there is very limited

awareness among teachers and inspectors about pre-service and in-service

training . It is suggested that people concerned with education officials,

administrators and teachers should give s serious impetus to in-service

training / education , as the professional development of teachers is a vital

aspect of educational planning of a country .The study also highlights the

areas where practicing teachers are urgently in need of guidance and

training.
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

Chapter 1

1.0.Introduction

A teacher is an essential resource for a successful learning. The teacher’s

proficiency in the subject, his teaching skills, his ability to select the

appropriate method to teach subjects, his ways of managing the class and his

dealing with slow learners and large classes are important for every teacher. The

teaching of English as a foreign language is very much dependent upon the

teachers in order to be successful. A well-trained and skilled teacher of English

will be able to enhance not only the quality of his/her teaching but competence and

performance of the students.

In equipping him towards these, pre-service training and in-service training are

vitally important. As part of my M.Ed. course, I carried out a small-scale study to

investigate the nature and scope of in- service training in Yemen to suggest an

agenda for training English Teachers, and to identify the role of Faculties of

Education in Yemen in contributing towards these.

To teach effectively a teacher of English should have refresher courses

from time to time to..

a) introduce him/her to techniques and procedures for investigating


classroom process;
b) provide him/her with the opportunity of applying techniques to
their own teaching;
c) assist him/her in identifying and examining their own attitudes
and beliefs about language and learning;
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

d) provide him/her with the opportunity of identifying areas for further

investigation within their own classroom.

Towards achieving these ends, teachers should have in-service training to

enable them to teach and deal with slow learners and large classes.

A background study of Teacher Education with reference to pre-service and

in-service situation in Yemen has been done. Two questionnaires were

administered; one to some teachers of English in Hodeidah and Zabid schools, the

other to some inspectors of English Language in Hodeidah. Through the first

questionnaire, I collected some information about teachers’ experiences, their

methods of teaching the new course i.e. Crescent English Course for Yemen, and

the problems they faced during their teaching.

The questionnaire intends to collect teachers’ opinions on pre-service and in-

service training and area study they want to be covered in in-service training

programme.

The second questionnaire, collected the information about the teachers from

the point of view of inspectors, how they evaluate teachers, the topics they discuss

with them and their opinions of the pre-service and in-service training

programmes. An agenda for in-service training of English Teachers to help them

improve their performance of teaching is also suggested.


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

1.1-Teacher Education

1.1.1.An overview

English language teaching takes place as there is a great demand for English

world-wide and as professional awareness develops. English Language Teaching is

only a dimension of teacher education, and so the development of teacher

education is studied here.

Richard Rossner (1988) points out that Teacher Education is used to include skills-

or techniques-focused programmes with mainly practical orientation (teacher

training) and programmes that aim to develop the confidence, awareness, self-

reliance and self-esteem of practising teachers (teacher development).

All Teacher Education programmes include variable quantities of general

education, methods, foundation, and practice teaching. The arrangement of these

basic components changes from time to time and constitutes the basic thrust of

program change.

Teacher training is characterized by approaches that view teacher preparation

as familiarizing student teachers with techniques and skills to apply in the

classroom, while teacher education is characterized by approaches that involve

teachers in developing theories of teaching, understanding the nature of teacher

decision making and strategies for critical self-awareness and self-evaluation.

So the term teacher education than teacher training reflects better what we

should be doing. The latter will probably continue to be used (Larsen-freeman,

1983;quoted in Bose, 1997). But the distinction is significant.


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

Teacher Education prepares the teachers for any teaching situation by enabling

them to make informed choices whereas training prepares them for a specific

teaching situation.

1.1.2-History of teacher training and education:

Teaching is necessary to all the people of the society so there will be schools

everywhere and these schools should have teachers. The teachers should attend /

have a course to be prepared to face the need of these schools.

In some countries, they concentrate on preparing teachers before joining the

field of education and neglect them during their teaching. Teachers need to be

improved from time to time, and for this improvement, there should be some

authorities responsible for that.

In England, it was begun to resolve the shortage of teachers by using pupils as

teachers. Dr. Andrew Bell and Joseph Lancaster brought this idea.

Joseph Lancaster’s idea:

In 1805 he began planning an institution for training lads and young men as

schoolmasters. In the next year he invented the teachers certificate and he

established the first training college for teachers in UK.in 1807.

In 1810 a new school, the Barrington school was opened which acted as the center

for training monitors as superintendents.

In 1814,Lancaster resigned from the institution and it became `the British and

foreign school society`. Therefore a major shift in emphasis was brought about in

teacher training. Teachers must be able to speak and write in their own language

with correctness and propriety.


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

On the other hand, Dr. Andrew Bell outlined his idea based around the Madras

(schools in India for soldiers’ children) in 1808 in a pamphlet called ‘a sketch of a

National institution for training up the children of the poor’.

As a result of Bell’s pamphlet, the national society for promoting the education of

the poor was established through out England and Wales in 1811.

The society declared that a period of probation and teaching and a final

examination were necessary before the award of the teachers’ certificate.

The board of education issued its first regulation for the training of teachers for

secondary schools in 1908.

In 1951 the teachers’ associations opposed proposals for any unqualified assistants

to move up to qualified teachers.

In 1950 a three-year training course was introduced for student teachers.

In 1963 the government agreed to the proposal of a three-year course leading to a

teacher’s certificate and also the award of a B.Ed. degree.

While the first public school was opened in America in the 1630s,the first formal

training for teachers would not be initiated until almost 200 years later. Essentially

to face the shortage of teachers, anyone who attended school and could pass as

literate, was allowed to teach. It would be another hundred years before teaching

was looked on as an honorable and skilled profession, thanks in part to the

improved training and quality of the teacher trainees.

Teacher training became available in the latter 1820s.Private schools created

solely for the purpose of administering a two year course of instruction for

teachers, was opened in 1823 by Samuel R.Hall.in 1839 a public normal school

was opened. Then many normal schools were re-structured into four-year, degree
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

granting programs, although the first graduate program in education was

implemented at New York university in 1887.In the following year, teachers’

college, Columbia university, which still operates today, was established.

1.1.3.Teacher Education in Yemen:

Teacher Education in Yemen started only after 26th Sept.1962.

Prior to this, the ruler of Yemen (Imam) did not want to spread education

and he wanted Yemen to be isolated from the other parts of the world. He

encouraged Religious Education and established no regular schools for learning.

The Religious Education was carried out in rooms adjacent to the mosques and

there were no qualified teachers to teach the learners.

In 1938,the Imam (monarch) of Yemen, who was the ruler of the country, founded

the Ministry of Education for the first time, and made the primary Education

compulsory. (Ba’abad 1994).

The educational ladder in Yemen before the Revolution had three stages i.e.

primary stage, which was six years, preparatory stage, which was four years, and

secondary stage, which was four years in Sana’a and two years in Taiz and

Hodeidah.

In 1950s,the study of English language was added to the subjects, which were

taught in the secondary schools.

There were three Teachers Houses in Sana’a, Hodeidah and Taiz and the students

studied two years in these places to be prepared to become teachers in the primary

schools.
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

1.1.4.The level and situation of the teacher before the Revolution (1962):

The most honored assignment for the graduate from any educational

establishment was teaching and the social status of the teacher was high because

beside teaching he would be responsible for helping people of the village in

solving their problems.(Ba’abad 94).

There was no norm for selecting teachers. Everyone, who memorized

The Holy Qura’an and was able to teach the Alphabets of the Arabic Language and

the Holy Qura’an, was accepted as a teacher, because of the shortage of teachers.

After the Revolution, the Ministry of Education revised the qualifications of the

teachers as it found them to have the following qualifications (ibid).

No. Kinds of the qualifications Percent


1 Primary certificate 8%
2 Preparatory certificate 0.5%
3 Secondary certificate 7.4%
4 Teachers Houses certificate 12.5%
5 Religious certificate 6.1%
6 Different certificate 0.2%
7 University certificate None
8 without qualifications 65.3%

From the above table, we notice that most of the teachers were without

qualifications and the Ministry of Education carried out short in-service training

programmes for all the unqualified teachers to raise their competence and

performance in teaching.
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

1.1.5.The situation of English Language in Yemen:

English is an international language and it is the native language of many

countries of the world like Britain, America etc., it is the second language in a

number of other countries such as India, Pakistan..etc.and it is the foreign language

taught in several countries all over the world.

In Yemen teaching of English language began in 1950s.After the Revolution of

26th Sept. 1962,the Ministry of Education was supported by Educational delegation

from Egypt to manage the education. The first course of English which was taught

in Yemeni school was Egyptian course called The Nile Course of English,(Al-

Mekhlafy 1999). By 1970 The Egyptian course was given up for another course,

which was taught in the Gulf countries, namely The Progressive Living English for

the Arab World. (ibid)

In 1980s the course got changed with the help of the British Council in Yemen and

the course was named English for Yemen, and this course was designed to suit the

convention, culture and tradition of the Yemenis.

In 1995 the course was replaced by another course called Crescent English Course

For Yemen.

1.2.Kinds of Teacher Education:

Teacher Education can be divided into two parts, Pre-service and in-service

training and these two programmes are very important for any person who wants to

be a good teacher.
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

1 .2.1.Pre-service:

1.2.1.1.Definition:

It is a programme presented by Faculties of Education for the students who

register their names in those faculties to be prepared and trained to become

qualified teachers to work in schools teaching different subjects.

Pre-service teacher education must provide student teachers with the basic

knowledge they need to begin their professional activity. Teacher education

institutions need to make sure that student teachers acquire an adequate preparation

both in the subject they will teach and in its teaching methods. New teachers need

to know about pupils’ learning processes, recognise the influences of sociocultural

backgrounds, be aware of key educational issues such as exclusion, know the

critical features of the English curriculum, and know how to go about preparing

and conducting a lesson and evaluating pupils. Also, an important dimension of

their future professional activity is their insertion in the school, participating in its

projects, working alongside other teachers in all kinds of activities, including

activities related to the community.

Young teachers must start their professional life knowing that they will still

have much to learn during their careers and that they will have to search for

opportunities of professional development according to their needs and objectives.

A pre-service teacher education program needs to take into account all these

dimensions of professional knowledge and has to consider the way student

teachers may develop them. The strong criticism suggesting the inefficacy of pre-

service teacher education programs shows that this is not an easy task. These

programs are criticised, for example, for not taking into account student teachers’
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

previous knowledge and beliefs, for not paying attention to schools’ realities, for

being too “theoretical”, for predominantly providing “academic” learning

experiences, and for preparing teachers to fit in the existing schools and not act as

agents of change.

To be a teacher it is not enough to know how to carry out professional activities. It

is necessary to assume a teacher’s point of view, to internalise the teacher’s role. It

is necessary to regard oneself as a member of the teaching community and to be

able to use the specific resources of the profession. In short, it is necessary to

assume a teacher’s professional identity, that is, to identify with the teacher’s

professional group. A professional identity requires, of course, the mastery of

knowledge and abilities essential to professional performances, but it also involves

assuming essential norms and values of the profession and an attitude of

commitment to improving education. Its construction poses complex problems to

teacher education programs.

Pre-service teacher education must induct young teacher candidates in the

ways of talking and thinking necessary to the teacher who wants to reflect upon

and investigate practice. The role of the instructor, then, is to establish with student

teachers a suitable environment where they can start having access, in a natural

way, to this discourse and making it gradually their own.

1.2.1.2-The differences between student teacher and teacher trainees

Student teacher is a person who joins the faculties of education to study different

topics to be a professional teacher and be able to deal with the learners inside the

classroom after graduation from the faculties.


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

A student who is studying to be a teacher and who, as part of the training, observes

classroom instruction or does closely supervised teaching in an elementary or

secondary school.

The student teachers are not employees and their joining the pre-service program is

not compulsory but he will not be chosen as a teacher if he does not attend this

program.

The student teacher should attend four years with eight semesters to have a

certificate as an Education Bachelor degree in the subject concerned .In every

semester s/he should have between 18 to 20 credit hours to attend in the faculty. In

these four years s/he must study three different topics to be prepared as a

professional teacher .S/he must have topics about the culture, methodology and

academic to help them know what they will do when they become teachers.

They should have courses in teaching practice to learn how to teach the subject

;one course should be held in the faculties as peer teaching while the other should

be held in the school to learn something about the real situation of schools.

On the other hand, the teacher trainees are teachers graduated from faculties

but they need to improve their performance in teaching. Their attending in-service

training is not compulsory but optional to gain some new information about the

new ways of teaching and solving their problems that they face during their

teaching in schools.

Their joining in training program help them raise their performance, improve their

language competence and to acquire new knowledge about ELT to become more

aware about teaching.


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

1.2.1.3.Pre-service training in Yemen:

Because of the shortage of qualified Yemeni teachers, the government of

Yemen began opening the first faculty of Education in 1970 to prepare qualified

teachers to teach in schools.

Until mid-eighties of the last century, there was one Faculty of Education in

Sana’a. Then the University of Sana’a decided to open branches of the Faculty of

Education. So the first faculty was opened in Taiz, followed by another faculty in

Hodeidah in 1987.Now (2003) there are seven public universities in Yemen and

more than twenty Faculties of Education. All these faculties are opened to face the

shortage of qualified teachers.

There are different departments in these faculties such as The Holy Qura’an,

Islamic, Arabic, English...etc.In these departments the trainees are prepared and

trained to be teachers for those subjects.

English Department is opened to prepare qualified teachers to teach English

Language in Yemeni schools.

1.2.1.4-Objectives of the Faculties of Education (Hodeidah and Zabid)

The objectives of the faculty is as a place where the pre-service training is held

are...

1) preparing teachers for preparatory and secondary schools academic,


professional and cultural through the philosophy of Yemeni community and
its characteristic and educational policy;
2) studying the educational situations of the community and solving its
problems;
3) collaborating with the Ministry of Education in the fields of
preparing and training for the educational posts;
4) preparing specialized researchers in the different educational fields;
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

5) making educational studies and researches.


( Hodeidah University Guide 2000/2001)

1.2.1.5.Duration of pre-service training

In Yemen all the faculties of Education present four-year training with three

courses, academic, professional and cultural. The four-year training is enough for

the trainees to be teachers, but the professional material should be extended to

meet the requirements of the trainees.

1.2.1.6.Selecting the trainees:

From seventies until the mid of nineties of the last century, there was no norm to

select the trainees, just if the trainees had a desire to work as a teacher, he would

be accepted to study at the faculty of Education.

In that time, all the students who registered their names in the faculties of

education had signed a contract between them and the Ministry of Education.

Accordingly, the students would work compulsorily for four years after their

graduation from the faculty in the field of education, and the latter will give them

free residence, tuition fees, nutriment fees and postponement or exemption of the

national defence.(Ba’abad 1994)

These encouragements resulted in a large number of students registering their

names with additional prospect of getting employment after graduation. Faculties

of Education concentrated on the quantity instead of the quality and most of the

teachers were not qualified well.


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

1.2.1.7.The syllabus of the pre-service training in Yemen:

All the students who register their names in the Faculties of Education should

have to study three kinds of courses to be qualified to teach in the Yemeni

schools i.e. academic course, professional course and cultural course. All these

three courses are taught theoretically.

The objectives of these courses should be clear for the tutors who are going to

teach those courses.

If we look at the syllabuses of the Faculties of Education (Sana’a, Hajja, Amran,

Sa’adah, Khwlan and Al-Mahweet) University of Sana’a, we will find that the

objectives of the syllabuses are identified,(Faculties of Education Guide, Sana’a

university,2000/2001).The objectives of the syllabuses of faculties of education

(Hodeidah and Zabid) Hodeidah University, are not specified

Again in Yemen, the syllabuses of the Faculties of Education are not prepared by

any high committee. There should be an authority to be established to take care of

the courses of the faculties and revise them according to the needs of trainees and

the demand of Yemeni situation.

Sometimes the courses are prepared by qualified teachers and when these teachers

leave the faculty, their prepared courses will not be accepted by the others even if

the courses are suitable for the trainees.

So the Higher Council of the Yemeni Universities should found a center for

studying the needs of the Yemeni trainees, preparing the courses and revising them

from time to time according to the needs of the trainees, demands of Yemeni

situation and according to the latest concepts theories and methods.


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

1.2.1.8.Teaching Practice:

Teaching practice is a practical course presented by the Faculties of Education

for the trainees of the third and fourth levels of those faculties. It is also the

practical test of the student teachers’ training.

In teaching practice the trainees have a chance to apply knowledge and skills

gained from the theoretical studies or to develop strategies for handling the

different dimensions of a lesson.

In pre-service the trainees will get two training courses, one in the third level and

another one in the fourth level. The first one is held in the faculty classroom with

the help of tutors and student teachers. This course will enable the trainees to

acquire teaching skills without being worried about making mistakes in front of

students or being troubled by discipline problems. It will give them confidence.

The second one is held in the school, and this allows the trainees to apply their new

knowledge and develop their skills further. They will be teaching in a real situation

and will be learning how to use what they have learnt at the faculty, in a real

classroom with real students.

Through my observation and active involvement in teaching practice in ELT, I

found the student teachers did not have the ability to teach language skills,

(listening, speaking, reading, writing). They did not have an adequate competence

to use language inside the classroom. The aim of teaching practice is not to

examine the trainees but to train them on the best way to teach in the real situation,

schools, but some of the trainees look at the teaching practice as an exam for

scoring marks.
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

Chapter 2

2.1. In-service teacher training:

2.1.1.Introduction:

Learning is the corner stone of life and the teacher is the important member in

the learning process. There can be learning without books but very rarely if ever

without a teacher. Also a fundamental requirement for the success of any new

school textbook is the teachers who put the book effectively into use.

So a teacher should go through two stages of training to become a successful

teacher, the first stage, he should attend the faculty of education to be prepared to

become a teacher, to be able to teach in a school. The second stage, during his

teaching, he should be given in-service training to improve his professional

performance.

2.1.2.The beginning:

The beginning of in-service training should be synonymous with the

beginning of any form of teacher training and most of the countries of the world

look at the in-service training as an essential part of education.

In the United States, there is the teachers ' institute which started its functioning in

the mid nineteenth century. (Henderson 1978)

In Western Europe, an international survey of in-service training for primary

school teachers was presented in the twenty-fifth international conference on

public education.(IBE &UNESCO 1962,quoted in Henderson 1978)


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

2.1.3.Teacher training and teacher education and their definition

Before we define the term in-service training or education we should know the

differences between these two terms and which one is better in use.

Although teacher education is sometimes used interchangeably with teacher

training, teacher education is far more than teacher training. Teacher education

includes teaching students not only to teach within the four walls of the classroom,

but how to base this teaching on sound theoretical knowledge, which enables

teachers to guide the pupils’ learning experiences, contribute to the growth and

development of people who get into contact with them, and contribute to the

development of society at large. Teacher education, whether formal or informal,

consists of programmed activities and experiences developed by an institution

responsible for preparing people to work as professional teachers.

Brain Cane (1981) wrote about teachers’ in-service training rather than

education. Some educationalists today stress the concept of training in preference

to that of education. But some recent educational literature shows a preference for

the phrase “in-service Education of teachers” rather than "in-service training of

teachers”. The goals of education are diffuse and long term and thus difficult to

bring within a systematic framework.

Henderson (1981) uses the term in service training, defining the latter as

"structural activities designed exclusively or primarily to improve professional

performance”. He justifies his choice on the basis that training implies a more

direct link between learning and action and is therefore easier to measure, the

results of training being more readily usable in bringing about practical


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

improvement. Training is concerned with the acquisition of skills and techniques

using standardized learning procedures and sequences.

In contrast, the broader concept of “in-service education” is bound up with the

notion of bringing about teachers' professional academic and personal

development through the provision of a whole series of study experiences and

activities of which training should be rated but one aspect.

Hence, in-service training should not be considered as an alternative to in-service

education but as a part of the total framework of in-service education. So the

portmanteau phrase "in-service education and training “often abbreviated to

(INSET) is now commonly used.

In service training may be taken to include everything that happens to a

teacher from the day he takes up his first appointment to the day he retires which

contributes, directly or indirectly, to the way in which he executes his professional

duties.

In the United Kingdom, the department of education and science (1970) has

defined in-service training as: "Any activity which a teacher undertakes after he

has begun to teach which is concerned with his professional

work".(Henderson1978)

While the United States department of Health, Education and Welfare (1965) has

described in-service training as: ’ A program of systematized activities promoted

or directed by the school system, or approved by the school system, that

contributes to the profession or occupational growth and competence of staff

members during the time of their service to the school system’. (ibid)
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

Brain Cane (1981) defines in-service training as follows,’ In-service training is

taken to include all those courses and activities in which a serving teacher may

participate for the purpose of extending his professional knowledge, interest or

skill, preparation for a degree, diploma or other qualification subsequent to initial

training is included within this definition’.(Morant 1981)

So we can define in-service training as personification of educational situation and

working on solving and treating the necessities for that and insuring the necessary

needs for training. Also in-service training means requalifying the teachers by

giving them some practical work and lectures in the latest theory in ELT and

solving their problems to be able to deal with classes, books and give the learners

the real teaching.

2.1.4.The relationship between applied linguistics, language teacher training

and teacher education

The program of teacher education should be designed to meet the requirements

of the trainees to be able to enter the field of education with solid foundation. So

the student teacher should have some information about applied linguistics to be

able to know what to teach inside the class. Richards et al (1987) define the term

applied linguistics as the study of second and foreign language learning and

teaching.

‘The study of language and linguistics in relation to practical problems’.

Applied linguistics uses information from sociology, psychology, anthropology,

and information theory as well as from linguistics in order to develop its own

theoretical models of language and language use. Language teacher training


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

prepares teachers to face a particular teaching situation while teacher education

equips teachers to face classroom crises effectively.

So we could not train or educate teachers without applied linguistics. By the latter

the teachers should know the language and get competence to impart it to the

learners.

So the role of applied linguistics and teacher education is to help teachers to:

a-improve their knowledge of English grammar, vocabulary and


pronunciation;
b-build a good foundation of classroom management skills;
c-acquire and practise a range of effective teaching techniques;
d-become familiar with a range of current EFL textbooks and other
teaching materials;
e-develop a self-critical and reflective approach to their own teaching;
f-evolve an effective personal teaching-style ;and
g-obtain appropriate employment as EFL teacher.
2.1.5.The objectives of in-service training:

The aim of in-service training is to widen and deepen teachers’ knowledge,

understanding and expertise (including skills, techniques and powers of judgment)

in respect of their professional work by means of activities designed primarily to

attain this purpose. This aim needs to be elaborated in terms of some more specific

objectives, which were provided by the Advisory Committee on the Supply and

Training of Teachers (1981), to enable teachers to

i) evaluate their own work and attitudes in conjunction with their


professional colleagues in other parts of the education service ;
ii) develop their professional competence, confidence and relevant
knowledge ;
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

iii) develop criteria which would help them to assess their own
teaching roles in relation to a changing society for which the school must equip
their pupils;
iv) advance their careers .
And from my experience as a teacher of English, I can add some objectives of in –

service training for teachers to

a) examine their level of performance;


b) identify their weakness to help them get rid of them;
c) explore their needs /problems and present the solution;and
d) improve the quality of school and education of the learners.

2.1.6.The different kinds of in-service training programmes:

The programmes of in-service training are varied and there are three kinds of

teachers who need these programmes.

The first programme is for the newly appointed teachers to cultivate not only

practical abilities and a firm sense of mission but also an extensive knowledge

about school education.

The second teacher-training course is for teachers after five years teaching

experience to deepen the understanding of basic problems on school education,

enhance their insight in order to solve those problems and to improve teaching

abilities.

The third teacher-training course is for teachers after ten years teaching experience

to look into the causes of the problems on school education and to enhance

teaching abilities as experts on school education getting a broad view of it.

There is another set of training programmes, which will be very important for

every teacher who teaches any subject in a school.


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

The first one is training programmes on general subjects to help teachers deepen

their understanding and pedagogical methods of each subject and improve their

professional abilities in teaching each subject.

The second one is training programmes on school education and teachers’ abilities

to cope with various educational matters and to deepen the understanding of

school education.

The third one is training programmes in school management to enhance

professional abilities of school management.

2.1.7.The duration of in-service training:

The duration of in-service training varies from one country to another. As The

James Committee in 1972 suggested, it can cover a wide spectrum ranging from

evening meetings and discussions to weekend conferences and other short-term

activities.(Morant 1981)

In the former USSR, the fresh teacher must attend forty to sixty hours at his local

institute immediately following initial training, to improve his knowledge of his

own subject .All teachers follow a course of one full day per week for a year at an

institute after their first three years of teaching and again every five years after

that.(Henderson 1978)

UK provides different durations of in-service training; it provides short and full

term courses and part time courses. (ibid)

In some states of America, "the teacher is required by law to continue his formal

education after taking up his first appointment". (ibid)


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

In Eastern Europe "All teachers follow a course of one full day per week for a year

at an institute after their first three years of teaching, and again every five years

after that".(ibid)

In developing countries, this programme is not held because of the shortage of

financial support. In some countries the duration of in-service training

programmes varies from time to time according to the content of the programme.

2.1.8.The selection of the teachers:

Newly graduated teachers who have applied for appointment in schools under

the Ministry of Education take a basic education, preparatory education and

practical teacher training programme, the duration of which varies between three

and ten months. During their practical training, they teach under the guidance of

an experienced teacher. Achievement on the completion of the training is

evaluated by the experienced teacher and the school management. Those who have

been successful after this training period are then appointed as permanent teachers.

Those who are not successful are entitled to repeat the same training once more.

2.1.9.The role of teacher

Teacher can be defined as someone who graduates from a college after

attending a course for preparing him to be a professional and be able to deal with

the learners inside the classroom.

Teachers’ role may change from one activity to another or from one stage to

another stage.

According to G.L.Arora , a school teacher in India is expected to perform the role

of a manager of classroom instruction; facilitator of learning; mobiliser and

manager of resources; designer and organizer of pupil evaluation; researcher and


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

innovator; planner and organizer of co-curricular activities; mentor and counselor

of children; service provider for the community and parents; and curriculum

developer.

If the teacher wants to perform the role of a manager of classroom instruction, he

shall require competence to undertake pedagogical analysis of the content to be

taught, to match the content with the level of students’ cognitive development, to

communicate effectively, to mobilize and appropriately use the necessary teaching

learning material and to create and sustain students’ interest in learning. If, also, he

wants to perform the role of a learning facilitator, he shall require the competence

to create the situations conducive for self-learning through dialogue, discussion,

problem solving and investigation individually or in groups.

Harmer (2002) mentions eight kinds of roles of a teacher. They are controller,

organizer, assessor, prompter, participant, resource, tutor and observer.

1-Controller: when the class works, as a whole in groups the role of teacher is

how to control the class and how to keep the learners’ work without noise.

2-Organizer: when the teacher wants his learners to work in group work or pair

work, he should organize the class to get advantages of making the learners work

as groups or pairs. The learners will benefit a lot from group or pair work activity

if they are organized well inside the classroom. They also will finish their work

easily and on time.

3-Assessor: during the teaching, the learners should be assessed to know their

performance in each subject, so the teachers should act as an assessor offering

feedback on the learners’ performance, handing out grades, saying whether the

learners can pass to the next level.


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

4-Prompter: when the teacher involves the learners in a role-play activity, the

learners will be unable to proceed productively for lack of vocabulary, so the

teacher will offer words or phrases, suggest that the learners say something or

suggest what could come next in a paragraph a learner is writing.

5-Participant: the learners enjoy having teacher with them and for the teacher,

participating is often more instantly enjoyable than acting as a resource. So when

teacher wants to take part in discussion, it means that the teacher can enliven

things from the inside instead of always having to prompt or organise from outside

the group.

6-Resource: when the learners have a piece of group writing, there is no need for

the teacher to be a controller or prompter, the learners may have need of their

teacher as a resource to help them finishing their work by giving them any new

words or information the learners do not have.

No teacher knows everything about the language but the teacher can encourage the

learners to use resource material for themselves and to become more independent

in their learning generally. Thus instead of answering every question about what a

word or phrase means, the teacher can instead direct them to a good monolingual

dictionary. So the teacher, who acts as a resource, should be helpful and available.

7-Tutor: when the learners are working in small groups or in pairs, the teacher can

go round the class and staying briefly with a particular group or individuals or

small groups, pointing out a direction they have not yet thought of taking. In this

situation the teacher is combining the roles of prompter and resource, acting as a

tutor.
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

8-Observer: When observing learners, the teacher should be careful not to be too

disturbing by hanging on their every word, by getting too close to them, or by

officiously writing things down all the time. Teachers should avoid drawing

attention to others since to do so may well absorb them from the task they are

involved in.

Teachers need to be able to work and observe simultaneously, listening, watching

and absorbing so that they can create the best kind of rapport between themselves

and their learners. They should observe not only for giving feedback but also for

judging the success of the different materials and activities that they take into

lessons so that they can make changes in the future.

9- Facilitator: the teacher provides material and guidance to enable the learners to

work on their own.

Thus, the teacher who uses one or more roles or uses the suitable role according to

the situation, his performance will be high and he could do his job easily, and the

learners will improve and acquire language more effectively.

2.1.10.the role of inspector:

If we want to improve our teaching, there should be qualified teachers and

inspectors.

The role of inspector is to guide teacher’s teaching and evaluate him according to

some specific criteria .He is responsible for the performance of teachers. He

should write reports about teachers from time to time mentioning the level of the

teachers and the situation of the schools. He should advise the teacher to help him

improve the performance inside the class.


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

If the teacher is weak and could not teach well, the inspectors will be responsible

for the weakness of the learners. He should instruct the teacher and guide him to

do his job properly.

But the real situation of the role of the inspectors is far from the ideal. Some of

them could not evaluate the teachers. They need to be evaluated and have training

to become good inspectors. They could not do what they should have to do

because most of them do not have enough experience as teachers. So how the

inspectors can evaluate teachers when they lack the criteria of evaluating. Most of

the inspectors were chosen not according to their experience.

As an English teacher, I have been visited by different inspectors. They did not

have the same criteria to evaluate teachers but every one has his own criteria of

teaching.

The inspector should be a highly qualified person with high competence of

language and these will help him do his role in evaluating teachers well.

2.1.11.The role of teacher educator

Teacher educator should have competence in teaching how to teach language,

which may be called methodological competence. He should have pedagogico-

linguistic awareness to exploit knowledge of pedagogico-linguistic theory.

Andrew L. Thomas (1987) mentions that the teacher educator should have

three competences to do his job as a teacher educator to prepare teachers to be

more competent in their language. The teacher educator should have the

methodological competence to be able to teach language properly. He should have

the pedagogic competence, which contains four components i.e. (management,


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

teaching, preparation, and assessment). When the teacher educator has the ability

to manage the classroom, the learning process will be carried on smoothly.

The teacher educator should have the ability to teach well and be able to impart the

language to the learner. He should have preparation component, which concern

skills involved in preparing for teaching. This component will help the teacher

educator identify and organize the activities that are provided by the materials

writers. Finally the teacher educator should use the assessment component to help

him assess his own performance of teaching. The competent teacher will be able to

monitor his performance and be able to use and react profitably to such ongoing

monitoring.

The teacher educator should have the language competence, which the native

speaker has but the non-native speaker needs to develop.

When the teacher educator has this competence, he will be able to use the

language perfectly and know the system of the language.

So when the teacher educator has the language, pedagogic, and methodological

competences, he will impart the competence to the teacher who is going to impart

the competence to the learners and this will show us that the teacher educator

should be competent to be influential on the teacher of the class.


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

2.2. Teachers’ awareness of teaching:

Jerry G. Gebhard (1993) mention four ways teachers can use to gain awareness of

their teaching;

i-observation of other teachers’ teaching;


ii-self-observation;
iii-action research; and
iv-teacher journals.

2.2.1-Observation of other teachers’ teaching

Observation of experienced teacher has always played an important role in

teacher education. Through observing how teachers conduct their lessons, solve

problems of classroom management, and interact with learners, novice teachers

can develop a repertoire of strategies and techniques that they can apply in their

own teaching. It is to identify strengths and weaknesses, in order to help improve

teaching quality.

Richard R. Day (1990) points out that observation can assist the teacher in:

i-developing a terminology for understanding and discussing the


teaching process;
ii-developing an awareness of other principles and decision making that
underlie effective teaching;
iii-distinguishing between effective and ineffective classroom practices
;and
iv-identifying techniques and practices teachers can apply to their own
teaching.

So the observation usually helps teachers, who are inexperienced,


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

observing an experienced teacher teach class, solve problems and see their own

teaching in the teaching of others.

Aims of observation

a-to identify teachers' strength and areas of development;


b-to develop teacher awareness of the classroom processes;
c-to share our positive and negative experiences of observing lessons;
d-to discuss the objects of observation; and
e-to reflect what the observation means to the trainer and the trainee.

Fanselow (1993) points out, teacher can see their own teaching in the teaching

of others, and when teachers observe others to gain self-knowledge, they have to

enhance to construct and reconstruct their own knowledge.

The observer can use this way to observe the others to take continuous notes of

observed events. In this way the observer should have a list of the main points or

items that he should see in the teacher and during observing he can add some new

items to the list.

The observers can video or audiotape a class and then use the tape to review what

went on in the class.

2.2.2.Self-observation

If the teachers could not observe the other teachers, they can video or

audiotape their own teaching and review the tape while taking description note or

making short transcript of the classroom interaction to study.

Self-observation is easier than observing other teachers. Teachers can move freely

around the classroom and they have more freedom to choose the aspect of teaching

to be evaluated by themselves.
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

2.2.3.Action Research

2.2.3.1.Definition:

Action research is an investigation or research in the situation of paying

attention efforts to improve the quality of an organization and its performance. It

typically is designed and conducted by practitioners who analyze the data to

improve their own practice. Action research can be done by individuals or by

teams of colleagues. The team approach is called collaborative inquiry.

It is a process in which teachers investigate teaching and learning so as to improve

their own and their students' learning.

It has the potential to generate genuine and sustained improvements in schools. It

gives educators new opportunities to reflect on and assess their teaching; to

explore and test new ideas, methods, and materials; to assess how effective the

new approaches were; to share feedback with fellow team members; and to make

decisions about which new approaches to include in the team's curriculum,

instruction, and assessment plans.

Gebhard (1997) defines this term as self-reflective inquiry initiated by teachers for

the purpose of improving their classroom practices. While Johnson (1993) defines

it as a deliberate, solution-oriented investigation that is group or personally owned

and conducted. It is characterized by spiraling cycles of problem identification,

systematic data collection, reflection analysis, data-driven action taken, and

finally, problem redefinition. It was first introduced to the educational community

in 1949 by Stephen Corey at teachers college of Columbia University and

he(1953) defines it as the process through which practitioners study their own

practice to solve their personal practical problems.


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

Emily Calthoun (1994) mentions that action research is a fancy way of saying

let’s study what’s happening at our school and decide how to make it a better

place.

Action research allows the teacher "as researcher” to reflect and inquire into

classroom experiences to develop new knowledge that leads to action. Throughout

this process, the teacher will seek understanding of particular individuals, actions,

policies, and events in classroom interactions.

The process begins with "wondering" and "posing questions" about a problematic

situation. The teacher will take on the active role of thinker, learner, practitioner,

and leader. It is concerned with everyday practical problems experienced by

teachers rather than the theoretical problems defined by pure researchers within a

discipline of knowledge. Teachers could advise each other and comment on the

progress of individual efforts. Engaging in collaborative action research helps

eliminate the isolation that has long characterized teaching.

2.2.3.2.The role of action research

Action research will show what is working in education and what needs to be

done in the way of improvement to make our educational system better. Action

research will help us create new ways of assessing students’ learning, and will help

create student centered learning programs that will keep students engaged in

education.

2.2.3.3.Why should teachers do action research?

1-To help them notice what they and their students really do, rather than

what they think they do.


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

2-To get feedback as to the success or failure of what they are doing.

3-To help them tailor teaching and learning to their learners and their settings.

So that they are able to justify the teaching and learning choices they make.

4-To increase their knowledge of learning and teaching and become authorities on

teaching.

5-To become less dependent on decisions made by people who are far away from

their learning and teaching sites, people like textbook writers and school

administrators.

6-To ensure that they don't become bored with teaching.

2.2.3.4.The purpose of action research:

The purpose of action research is to help teachers continually improve their

teaching styles. It reflects on what has been done in the past and where that can be

improved. All teachers should embrace action research as a tool that will help

them teach their students better. It will help teacher continually look for new ways

to teach the students, which will make learning more meaningful to the students

and hopefully increase the quality of education they receive.

Action research should be done:

a-For school-based ccurriculum development;


b-As a professional development strategy;
c-In pre-service and graduate courses in education; and
d-In system planning and policy development.
And action research has the potential to generate genuine and sustained

improvements in schools. It gives teachers new opportunities;

a-To reflect on and assess their teaching


b-To explore and test new ideas, methods and materials;
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

c-To assess how effective the new approaches are;


d-To share feedback with fellow team members and
e-To make decisions about which new approaches to include in the team’s
curriculum instruction and assessment plans.

Strickland (1988/1997) provides the following steps to carry out an action

research:

• identify an issue;
• seek knowledge;
• plan an action ;
• implement the action;
• observe the action;
• reflect on your observation ;and
• revise the plan.

While Sue Davidoff and Owen van den Berg (1990) suggest four steps: plan, teach

/ act, observe and reflect.

Plan

• Identify the problem area.


• Narrow it down so that it is manageable.
• Investigate the problem. When does it happen? Who does it affect?
Where does it happen?
• Think about what might be causing the problem. Talk to other
teachers and/or read to get more ideas about this.
• Think about a solution and how to implement it.
• Think about what evidence you will collect to decide whether your
action is successful or not. How will you collect it? How will you
analyze it?
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Teach / Act

Implement your solution.

Observe

Gather evidence, which you will analyze, to decide whether your solution was

successful or not.

Reflect

Analyze the evidence you gathered. Has the problem been solved? If not, what

step will you try next? If yes, what problem will you try to solve now?

So the teacher s should use action research to improve their way of teaching

and this way can help teachers identify the weakness and strengths of their

teaching

2.2.4.Teacher journals

2.2.4.1. An overview:

This is to provide another way for teachers to gain awareness of their teaching.

When the experienced teachers write about their own teaching, the less

experienced teachers will read to feel free to reflect/criticize, doubt, express

frustration, and raise questions in the journal.

Writing in journals will use the following process:

i-to provide an account of personal learning and teaching history;

ii-to ,systematically, record events, details and feeling about current teaching

experiences in the journal.

To raise teachers’ level of performance, educators and inspectors should write

about the main problem they found in teachers teaching. This will help teachers
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read about the main problem and they will think how they can solve them and

teach well.

Teacher educators are positive about the use of journals. Reporting on the use

of journals as a feedback mechanism in teacher training course, Murphy

O‘dwye writes (1997) it enables receptive teachers to discover the importance of

relating their own experience of learning to that of the pupils they teach. The

insight is achieved through awareness of the importance of group dynamics the

role of teacher as director, facilitator or guide; learners’ desire for positive

feedback; reactions to different teaching styles. The variety of effective factors

which influence learners’ attitudes to learning and the processes and strategies

used in classroom and how these affect learners attitude to learning.

2.2.4.2.The objective of the journal:

Brok ,Yu, and Wong (1997) mention the benefits of the journal writing

activities in teacher education:

i- they provide an effective means of identifying variables that are


important to individual teachers and learners;
ii- they serve as a means of generating questions and hypotheses about
teaching and learning processes;
iii- they enhance awareness about the way a teacher teaches and a student learns ;
iv- they are excellent tool for reflection;
v- they are simple to conduct;
vi-they provide an ongoing record of classroom events and teacher and
learner reflection;
vii-they enable the research to relate classroom events and to examine trends
emerging from the diaries;
viii-they promote the development of reflective teaching.
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

2.3.Reflective practice

2.3.1.Introduction:

'Reflective practice' entered the literature of professional education (and of

teacher education in particular) soon after Donald Schön published The Reflective

Practitioner in 1983 (Basic Books). This book was followed by Educating the

Reflective Practitioner in 1987.

Reflective practice involves, among other things, teachers attending to their

practices in ways that consider what they are learning from their teaching

experiences.

Reflective practice is an important element in teachers coming to recognize the

authority of their own teaching experiences (including their students' responses to

their teaching).

2.3.2. Definition

The definition of reflective practice includes four related processes:

description, analysis, explanation, and reflection.

1-Teacher description of the teaching/learning process can include videotapes,

audiotapes, and written description of teaching and learning.

2-Analysis involves a kind of problem solving where the teacher examines what

was effective and ineffective with students.

3-Explanation requires the teacher to communicate orally or in writing regarding

the effectiveness of the teaching/learning process. And

4-reflection requires the teacher to identify personal meaning or significance.

Johns & Freshwater (1998) define reflective practice as a way of looking at

teacher’s day-to-day clinical experience with an open mind. It involves the use of
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teacher’s experience and his intuitive grasp of the situation alongside a systematic

examination and understanding of current research

evidence-based information.

Reflective practice is also intended to lead to teacher empowerment and an

increase in the professional status accorded to classroom teachers.

It is concerned with the content of one’s thought processes, the experiences one

attends to and the scope of those reflections.

Schon (1983) describes his concept of reflective practice as problem setting,

making moves, analyzing the results of the moves, and reframing. He also includes

an important concept called the practitioner's role frame. This is the way the

practitioner defines his or her own identify, situating himself/herself in context.

Van Manen (1977) defines reflective practice as the systemic inquiry into one’s

teaching practice and the deliberate attention to one’s experience.

While Dewey (1910) defines it as the persistent, and careful consideration of any

belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the grounds that support it

and the further conclusions to which it tends.

Reflective practice has also been described as a form of self-awareness and as

a means for changing instructional practices.

Osterman & Kottkamp (1993) offered a definition that describes two separate

aspects of reflective practice;

a) self-awareness, the capacity of the teacher to discover what they

already understand and know how to do, and

b) change, the process of discovering new and better ways to do things.


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Other definitions of reflective practice imply a particular attitude or stance the

reflective teacher should assume or imitate. Carini (1979) stated that reflective

practice shares with these modes of thought [reflection], an attitude of

concentration, focus and openness. This definition refers to the concept of

reflective practice being a stance a teacher assumes, rather than something that a

teacher does. Reflective practice is described as a different way of looking at

teaching and learning, requiring teachers to analyze their beliefs and assume a

more reflective and meditative stance towards one’s classroom practice.

In addition to the attitude advocated by Carini, Dewey (1910) describes three

attitudes that a teacher must suppose in order to teach reflectively;

a) open-mindedness, one’s ability to suspend judgment and be open to new


possibilities,
b) whole heartedness, the capacity to enter into the teaching event with all of one’s
heart and attention and
c) responsibility, the moral and ethical implications inherent in the educational
process.
In summary, reflective practice is a conscious, systematic, deliberate process of

framing and re-framing classroom practice, in the light of the consequences of our

actions, democratic principles, educational beliefs, values and preferred visions

teachers bring to the teaching-learning event. This definition is offered as a

constructed synthesis of the various definitions and ideas found in the literature on

reflective practice. It includes the link between reflection and action, the

proposition that problems are framed, not discovered, and that the focus of

reflective practice needs to include the social, political and cultural considerations

inherent in educational decisions.


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2.3.3.The Purpose of Reflective Practice

The purposes of reflective practice are:

1-to achieve technical competence or proficiency;

2-to provide the opportunity for teachers to become aware of beliefs and

assumptions underlying their habits of practice;

3-to change teacher’s classroom practice or actions, and their process of

arriving at the decisions they make concerning curriculum and instruction;

4-to concern with the actions taken by the teacher, the process of arriving at these

decisions and the various consequences and outcomes of those decisions; and

5-to include the development of a greater sense of self-awareness about the nature

and impact of one’s teaching and classroom practices.

According to Dorene Ross (1990) reflective practice normally introduces the

practitioner to action research. Action research is a mode of research that focuses

on the qualitative extent of practice:

The aim of action research, as opposed to much traditional or fundamental

research, is to solve the immediate and day-to-day problems of practitioners.

However, McMahon (1999) suggests that there are important differences between

action research and reflective practice:

Action research is distinguished by a deliberate and planned intent to solve a

particular problem (or set of problems). By its nature, action research involves

strategic action. Such strategic action is not integral to the reflective practitioner

model of learning and teaching (though, of course, it may result).

Therefore, while reflective practice may mirror some of the methodologies of

action research, it may not include the more systematic and precise techniques
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associated with action research. Specifically, reflective practice in teaching may

not have as its starting point the identification of a specified problem. More

generally, as Emberson suggests certain attributes are required of the teacher to

undertake reflective practice. These are:

i) seeing teaching as problematic;


ii) seeing the theory/practice relationship as problematic;
iii) realising that personal experience of teaching is individualistic;
iv) having a will to learn; and
v) having an ability to 'notice' (that is, learn from observation of practice).
Van Manen (1977) has suggested that the focus of reflective practice falls into one

of the following four categories:

1) pedagogy; how we teach,


2) curriculum; what we teach,
3) political; the ethics of teaching, and
4) social / critical, who is served by the models of teaching .
Tabachnick and Zeichner (1991) have suggested the following categories

concerning the focus of reflective practice;

1) the academic tradition, concerned with pedagogical content knowledge or what

teachers need to know to be effective,

2) the social efficiency tradition, concerned with the skills and techniques teachers

need to be effective,

3) the developmentalist tradition, concerned with the natural development of the

learner and how this should determine the actions of the teacher, and

4) the social re-constructionist tradition, concerned with the school as a social

institution, that helps reproduce a society based on unjust class, race and gender

relations.
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2.3.4The benefits of reflective practice

i) allows teacher an objective look at his/her practice;


ii) helps him/her recognize what they do well;
iii) allows him/her to resolve uncertainty;
iv) helps him/her understand how they thought during an event ;
v) improves his/her professional judgment;
vi) allows him /her to learn from their successes and mistakes to
enhance development; and
vii) helps him/her plan for future situations and therefore respond to
change more positively.
It can help teacher to recognize trends or patterns in our behavior / actions.

Individually these events may not be particularly significant but when viewed as a

whole may highlight development needs.

2.4.In-service teacher training in Yemen:

2.4.1.Introduction

In-service training programme in Yemen began after the 26th Sept. Revolution.

The Ministry of Education began training unqualified teachers in 1971/1972 to

teach in the primary schools and in 1972,it carried out the first successful

experiment for preparing teachers for the countryside schools through training and

this programme continued sequentially along the year from 1972 to 1976 under the

supervision of high committee for training .In 1976 the first center for training

under the name of In-service Training Center was founded with the help of

UNICEF.(Ba’abad,1994)

Until the mid-nineties of the last century, most of the teachers in Yemen

were not Yemenis, they were from Arab countries like Egypt ,Syria ,Iraq, Sudan

etc. and the government of Yemen tried gradually to replace all these teachers
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

by Yemenis. So it accepted to employ all the university graduates while most of

them were not qualified teachers. For that, the Ministry of Education carried out

short courses to prepare them to be teachers in schools.

For teaching in the first six classes, the Ministry of Education accepted to employ

the secondary graduates to be teachers in the primary schools, and for those

teachers, it carried out some courses from time to time to qualify them by giving

some information about teaching methods, using the blackboard, preparing lesson

plan, achieving the objectives of the courses, how to manage the classes, how to

deal with slow learners and how to deal with crowded classes…etc.

While the teachers of preparatory and secondary schools did not have any in-

service training programmes at all.

2. 4.2.The necessity of in-service trainings Yemen:

Now most of the teachers who are working in schools need in-service training

for the following reasons:

a) all the curriculums from first level to eleventh level were changed
into new courses and the teachers did not get any training about the new
courses and how they deal with them;
b) most of these new curriculums present the subjects in a new way
while the teachers do not know this way;
c) some teachers lack the ability to control the classes;
d) some teachers are not prepared well to face the problems inside the
classes;
e) some teachers lack the ability of preparing teaching aids to help them
present the items of the lessons.

So, in-service training programmes are necessary for teachers to:


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

i) show them what they can do in the classrooms with the new courses by

means of demonstration lessons and

ii) soothe them over any doubts about their own ability to use the new

courses in the same way as demonstrated.

In the school year ( 2000/2001)the Ministry of Education changed the course of

the first six classes completely, and in that year it carried out a short training

course for the teachers of the primary schools to be prepared to use the new books.

In the following year, it changed the courses of the preparatory classes and in the

school year (2002/2003) it changed the courses of the first secondary class. In this

school year (2003/2004) the courses of second class of the secondary stage has

been changed. All these changes happened without any in-service training courses

for the teachers who are going to teach those new courses with a lot of new

information presented for the first time. So the teachers need to be equipped to

meet these changes. The courses for the third secondary classes will be changed

next school year.

2.4.3.In-service training of English Language Teachers in Yemen:

I am an English Teacher and I have been working as a teacher since

1992,until now I did not have the opportunity to attend any in-service training for

English teachers even after the old course English for Yemen has been changed

into Crescent English Course for Yemen, not because I do not like to attend but

there is no formal in-service training programme for teachers of English.

Nevertheless, the differences between the two courses are clear. From my point of

view, the old course was easy to be taught by teachers without any retraining while
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

the new course warrants fresh orientation for teaching to meet the changes. It is

almost impossible to teach without a retraining.

As I have mentioned in the first chapter, the new course began to be taught in the

school year (1995/1996), the author of the course came to Yemen, in Sept.1996 to

meet the teachers and inspectors of English to hold meetings with them. The

author of the course came to Hodeidah at the end of Sept.1996, and held a meeting

for two days with the teachers and inspectors of English. However, the total

number of teachers who attended the meeting was not more than thirty.

The office of Education and the English Technical Board should prepare well for

the meeting to achieve the objectives of such contact programmes if teachers are to

benefit from this meeting in recognizing about the new course, but nothing

happened for teachers. The second visit of the author was in the school year (1997)

and it made no impact.

The English Technical Board, however, carries out some training from time to

time with very few teachers attending these programmes. In 1999,it carried out

meeting with teachers of English for five regions i.e. Zabid, Al- Zeidia, Al-Luhia,

Bajel and Haiss.This meeting lasted for five days, each day in one region. The

topics proposed for the meeting, were nine while only seven were discussed with

the teachers. The topics were (planning blackboard, blackboard drawing, the

communicative approach to language teaching, dealing with large classes, dealing

with weak classes, presenting vocabulary, correcting errors, lesson planning and

using English in the class). These topics were discussed very sketchily.
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

2.5.Conclusion:

From the first part of this chapter we notice that some countries of the world look

at the in-service training as an essential programme to help teachers improve their

performance in teaching subjects. They make it obligatory for teachers to attend

the training because they know that every thing changes and the teachers should be

trained to meet these changes and these teachers should update their knowledge,

methods and techniques. In Yemen till date, in-service training remains a far cry as

it is not given its due importance in terms of financial allocation by the

government. As a result, education of young children suffers a serious setback in

the hands of partially and/or ill equipped teachers.


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

Chapter 3

Methodology of the Research:

Questionnaire was used to collect information from the teachers and

inspectors about their experiences, methods of teaching, the techniques that they

use to simplify the subject, the test that they use to evaluate their work, their

learners or the course and some information about pre- and in-service training in

Yemen.

3.1.The questionnaire:

I have administered a questionnaire to teachers in Hodeidah City and Zabid

and inspectors in Hodeidah city to collect information about them to help me write

about in-service training in Yemen and how teachers can benefit from it to

improve themselves in teaching.

3.1.1.The objectives of the questionnaire:

The objectives of the questionnaire are to investigate:

a- the level of the performance of the teacher;


b- teachers’ use of teaching aids;
c- the problems teachers face during their teaching;
d- teachers’ opinion about the old and new courses of English ;
e- inspectors’ opinion about teachers’ level of performance;
f- teachers’ attitude towards attending in-service training program;
g- the topics that teachers and inspectors prefer to be covered/discussed in
such a program;
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

3.1.2.The construction of the questionnaire:

The questionnaire was constructed carefully to meet the objectives of the

research and to help the researcher get the real information from the samples. The

first step in questionnaire design must be formulating the precise problems. This

questionnaire was prepared to meet the requirement of the researcher regarding

information about the teachers, their experience, and their methods of teaching to

help him prepare a programme of in-service training for them to improve their

performance in teaching of English. The first step was to prepare some questions,

then order them according to logical sequence beginning with, material,

methodology, technique, and testing. Two kinds of questionnaires were prepared,

one for teachers and the other for inspectors. These questionnaires passed through

different stages:

1-The draft of the questionnaire was prepared keeping in view the objectives of

these questions.

2-the questions extended to include all the topics that the researcher needs to

examine in his research. The language of the questionnaire was revised to meet the

need of the respondent and the questions were reformed again to get rid of any

misunderstanding by the respondents.

3- the questions were collected together to be used for different sections of the

questionnaire like, material, methodology.etc.

4-The questionnaires were shown to a specialist for assessment and suitability

revised in the light of his suggestions.


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

5-Finally, the questionnaires were typed and administered to the respondents.

The questionnaire was administered to the teachers and inspectors; they were given

time to read carefully and were persuaded to provide as detailed information as

they could.

There were some problems in eliciting information. Some teachers refused to

respond to the questionnaire from the beginning, while some others took it at first,

then refused to fill it in because, according to them, it was too long and difficult to

be answered. A few others could not respond within the time limit.

The reasons for selection of questions to the teachers:

Q.1- when did you graduate? From which faculty?

Q.2-How long have you been teaching?

These questions were asked to know the length of service of teachers from the

time they graduated from the faculties.

The teachers were asked to mention in which faculty they studied, and the answer

of this question will give us very important information regarding their pre-service

training whether they have experience to ELT methodology.

Graduates from education faculties will have an advantage over others from Arts

faculties.
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

Q.3-a) Indicate the degree of your satisfaction/dissatisfaction as a teacher by


ticking off the appropriate alternative given below:

a) very satisfied b)satisfied c)indifferent

d) dissatisfied e) very dissatisfied f)don't know

b) Please give the reasons behind your choice.

This question was prepared to know the teachers’ satisfaction or dissatisfaction

with teaching as a profession and the reasons behind their choice. The learners will

benefit from the teachers who love to teach, while those who teach without

satisfaction in the profession will render the learning process difficult for the

students.

Q.4-What classes do you teach?

Q.5-Which course books do you teach?

These questions were prepared to know the level of classes that the teacher handles

and what kind of course books s /he teaches.

Q.6-a) Is the Crescent English Course suitable for learners?

b) If yes, how?

c) If no, why?

In these questions we would like to have the teachers’ opinions about the new

course and if it is suitable for Yemeni learners, they will show how it is suitable,

while if it is not suitable, they will write why it is not suitable. Teachers’ opinions

will lead to evaluate the course according to the suitability for the Yemeni situation

and needs of learners.


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

Q.7-In about 75-100 words, describe how you attempt to teach Crescent

English Course. (please give the reasons behind your choice).

There are no general methods to teach any subject, rather, teachers themselves

should develop an approach to teaching that allows them to be and do what they

feel is best. Teacher decision making is an essential competency in this approach,

because a good teacher is seen as one who analyze a situation, realizes that a variety

of opinion is on hand based on the particular class situation, and then selects an

alternative that is likely to be the most successful for the situation. So this question

will show/ clarify the methods that teachers use to teach the new course. Every

teacher will choose his or her own way to teach. After the previous question about

the method that they use, the following question will show why they used that

method.

Q.8-Do you follow specific methods in your teaching?

I have asked this question to know whether they follow specific methods and I

have mentioned some reasons for the teachers to choose. The teachers’ choice of

the reason behind their choice of the appropriate method will give us their opinions

of teaching English and the method they follow to teach.

Q.9-What differences do you notice between the old course, English for

Yemen and the new course Crescent English course ?

This question will give us teachers' opinion about the old course and the new

course and which one is suitable for Yemeni learners according to their point of

view, and which one they prefer and they will give reason behind their choice.
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

Q.10- a-Do you use pair work in your teaching?

Peter Hubbard et al (1986) define pair work as an independent work by pairs of

students working simultaneously on a task or practice activity. I have chosen this

question because of its advantages. Harmer (2002) points out the advantages of

pair work:

i) it increases the amount of speaking time ;

ii) it allows students to work and interact independently without the


necessary guidance of the teacher :

iii) it allows teachers’ time to work with one or two pairs while the other
students continue working;

iv) it helps the classroom become a more relaxed and friendly place; and

v) it is relatively quick and easy to organize.

For these reasons I have chosen this question to be asked to the teachers to have

their responses and know how many of them use this technique to raise the level of

their learners, and improve the performance of learners in learning the subject. If so

how often they use this technique and when and why. When teachers know when

and why they use this technique, they aid the learning process of their students.

b-If ,No, why don't you use it ?

In this question I have mentioned some reasons that will face teachers during

their use of the technique of pair work. These reasons will show the ability of

teachers in using it.


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

i- it is too noisy;
ii- it takes too much time;
iii- Ss don't work during it;
iv- Ss don't want to work in pairs;
v- Ss don't want to listen to each other;
vi- Weaker Ss can not do it;
vii- T.has lost control of his class during it ;
viii- T.can not monitor all the students in his class;
ix- the classroom is too crowded for pairs;
x- teacher has never done pair work before.

These reasons really affect using pair work but teacher can solve these problems

and adopt pair work for effective teaching.

Q.11-a-Do you use group work?

b-When?

c-Why?

This is another important technique that should be used inside the class to raise

the level of the learner. Hubbard et al (1986) define group work as an independent

work carried out simultaneously by groups of three or more students on a task or

tasks. So these questions were put to investigate the use of this technique in

teaching English .As pair work has some advantages this technique has advantages

like:

i-increasing the amount of talking for individual student;

ii-there is a greater chance of different opinions and varied contribution;

iii-allowing ss to make their own decisions in the group without being told
what to do by the teacher.
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

If the teachers use this technique, they should say when, and why they use it. This

will help them with a rationale for using it.

b-If no ,why don't you use it?

If they don’t use it, they should say why they couldn't use it to help solve their

problems facing them in using this technique.

Q.12-a-Do you use wall charts?

Flashcards?

magazine pictures?

realia?

b-When do you use them?

c-Why?

d-Do you prepare them yourself or you share the work of preparing
them with the class ?

e-Does the school help you prepare them?

f-If yes, what kind of help ?

Hubbard et al. define flash card as small pieces of card with pictures or words

on them used as teaching aids. While Willis (1985) defines the realia as real objects,

real things that teacher can bring into the classroom to illustrate the meaning more

clearly or to use as aids to make a situation more meaningful and therefore more

memorable. They are good for role-play. They make the acting easier and more

real. So these questions were about some useful techniques, easy to be prepared and

used to help learners get information easily. These four aids are very important for

every teacher to present the items of language easily and they are easily available.
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

They can be carried easily to the class. If the teachers use these aids, they will say

when and why. If they prepare them alone or they involve learners in preparing.

This will help them acquire the ability to prepare aids and to know the advantages

of these aids.

Q.13-a-How often do you use the blackboard?

This question was to know the times the teacher used the blackboard, because it

is the most useful of visual aids and the majority of teachers would feel hampered

in a classroom that does not have one. This question will show us the necessity of

this aid, without which teachers could not teach.

b-In which stage do you use it?

This question will show the importance of the blackboard and in which stage

the teacher uses it. The lesson should pass through different stages to be explained

well to the learners, i.e; Revision, Presentation, Practice, Production. In my opinion,

the board will be used in all these stages but for some stages board work is

indispensable.

c-How often do you use blackboard for drawing?

Drawing pictures on the blackboard the simplest way to present some items of

language to the learners and for this reason, this question was prepared to know

how often teachers use it for drawing .On the other hand, drawing will not cost the

teacher anything; he can do it during his explaining the lesson and help the learners

understand the lesson carefully and quickly.


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

Q.14-a-Do you use cassette in your teaching?

This question will clarify how many times teachers use cassette. It will help

teacher present for the learners the new vocabulary and stress pattern of sentences.

It can be useful; if it is used carefully and in an appropriate time.

b-If yes, How often do you use it ?

c-When do you use it ?

d-Why do you use it ?

The teacher, who knows when and why he uses the cassette, will not waste time

because he will prepare the cassette earlier.

e-If ,No ,Why don't you use it ?

This question will show the obstacles that face teachers using cassette and

whether these obstacles are temporary or permanent and how they can get rid of

these obstacles to be able to use this important technique in teaching.

Q .15-a-Do you make your own test?

This question will show whether the teachers have the ability to prepare their

own test or they get help from others in preparing it. Testing learner is very

important from time to time to check his level of understanding.

b-Were you trained in testing?

Teachers were asked this question to ascertain whether they have studied testing

in college or not .If they did not study testing in college, they should study now to
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

be able to use this very important instrument to examine the learners’ performance

in each subject.

c-How often do you test ?

This question will show how many times the teacher uses test, monthly or

otherwise. It should be given monthly to check the learners' ability of learning.

So the regular informal tests are useful to:

a-tell the teachers what the learners can or can not do;

b-tell the teachers how successful their teaching has been;

c-tell the learners how well they are progressing; and

d-give the learners definite goals in their learning .

d-How do you reach the result to students?

When the learners know their marks in any test, they will recognize their ability

in learning and understand whether they have done well in the test or not. This will

help them study more and more to get more marks. From the answer of this

question we will know how teachers reach the results to their students or they keep

them with them and don't inform the learners about their performance in test.

Q.16-a-What, in your view, are the purposes of testing?

I have asked this question and I have given nine purposes of testing to let the

teachers rank them in order to show the correct order of the purposes according to

their point of view and according to their use of testing inside the class. The

objectives of the testing vary from one teacher to another and this question will
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

show the order of the objectives according to every teacher and show us what their

opinions are about testing and what they want from learners.

b-Which purpose do you consider the most useful and which the least

useful ?

Not all the objectives will have the same weightage but some objectives will be

more useful than others so this question will show the most useful purpose and the

least one according to the opinion of teachers.

c-Give reason for your choice .

This question will show the reason behind teachers' choice of the most useful

purpose and the least one. This will also show teachers' opinion about the objectives

of testing.

Q.17-a-In examination, do you take a passage for testing direct from the

course or passage students are not familiar with?

Some teachers write the items of the test directly from the course and this

will lead the learners to memorize the book while English is a skill subject not

meant for memorizing .So the items of the test should be slightly different from

those in the book. Student responses will reveal the learners’ level of understanding

.The vocabulary of the passage should be familiar for the learner to comprehend the

passage without much strain.


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

b-What are the advantages of choosing an unknown passage for learners?

This question was prepared to let the teacher mention the advantages of

choosing an unknown passage .If the teachers are convinced of the advantages of

choosing unknown passages; they will successfully give a suitable exam for the

learners.

Q.18- How many students are there in your classes?

This question will clarify the size of each class that the teacher handles and will

let us know whether the classes are crowded because the crowded class will not

help teacher function well and it will be a big obstacle towards achieving the

objectives of teaching.

Q19-a-How many teachers of English are there in your school?

This question will show us how many teachers there are in each school .If there

are many teachers in a school, they may be helpful to each other and they will

acquire from each other some experience in teaching. While if there are a few

teachers only, may be there will be no helpful co-operation among them.

b-Have you formed an English teachers’ association in your school?

This question will show us whether the teachers of English form Association in

their schools or not. Because there are many advantages of forming such

association like.

1-they can discuss their own problems between them;

2-they can discuss how they can prepare teaching aids;


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

3-they can exchange the opinion about the suitable way to raise the level of the
learners;

4-they can discuss the advantages of using pair/group work;

5-they can invite an expert in English Language Teaching to present lectures on the
latest theory of teaching.

c- If you have formed English Teachers' Association ,Do you have

regular meetings?

This question will explain whether they have regular meetings or not to benefit

from this association to discuss some topics they have.

d-If you have a regular meeting ,how often do you hold it ?

This question will show whether they hold regular meeting or they have formed

association but they do not have any meeting.

e-If you have regular meetings ,What topics do you discuss in these

meetings ?

In this question the teachers will mention the topics that they discuss and their

importance to be discussed in the meeting.

f-Do you use Arabic/English language in your meeting?

This question will show whether they use English language or they use their native

language in the meeting .As they are English teachers it is better for them to use

English Language.

Q20-Do you think your language competence is adequate for teaching English?
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

This question was prepared because the language competence is very important for

every English teacher.

Andrew Thomas (1984) mentions three kinds of competence:

a) language learner competence (LLC);

b) language teacher competence (LTC);

c) language educator competence(LEC).

-Learners should be competent in the system and use of language to a level to be


defined in the particular learning situation.

-Teachers should have language competence to impart it to learners. They should


also be competent in teaching language.

-Educators need competence to impart it to the teacher and the latter will impart it
to learners.

So this question will give us whether the teachers have or don’t have competence

and how they can rate their competence. From their rating their competence, they

should say if they feel that they need competence or not. Teachers should have

language competence to a greater degree than that expected of their learner. They

need competence to impart it to learners. However, if they don’t have competence,

they could not impart it to learners.

Q21-Do you feel that you need to be improved?

This question was prepared to get the teachers’ response whether they feel that

they need competence and why they think they have to improve it. I have

mentioned 10 reasons behind their need to be improved and let them choose the
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

suitable reason for their competence to be improved, when they choose the

reason/reasons, they will show the main problem they face during their teaching.

Q22-a) Does any inspector of English visit you in your school?

The inspector of English is a person who evaluates the performance of the

teacher of English in schools. So this question will give us whether the inspectors

visit schools or not because their visit to schools is very important to help teachers

solve their problems they face in the class, course etc. If the teachers need to know

or ask something about the course, the inspectors, who should have more

experience than teachers, will discuss such problems with them.

If the Inspector visits schools,

b) How often does s/he visit?

This question will clarify whether they do their work properly or neglect evaluating

teachers. The latter should be evaluated from time to time to improve their

performance.

c)Do they hold meeting with teachers?

Gebhard(1990)points out some roles of inspector. He says the inspector is to

i) direct or guide the teacher’s teaching;

ii) offer suggestions on the best way to teach;

iii) model teaching;

iv) advise teachers; and

v) evaluate the teacher’s teaching.


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

This question will show the role of inspectors during their visit to school.

d) Are the meetings with teachers held individually or with all of them?

When inspectors visit schools, they should hold meetings with the teachers; some of

these meetings should be individual and some with all teachers together. In the

individual meeting .the inspectors will discuss some individual problems that

happened in the class and give him suggestion to improve his teaching or how to

solve such problems; while in the meetings with all teachers, the inspectors will

discuss general problems that usually happen in classroom situation, or the

problems of the new course, preparing teaching aids, etc.

In question 23 I have mentioned some topics that should be discussed and let the

teachers choose the topics that the inspectors discuss with them during their visit.

In question 24 the teachers should list all the problems that they face during their

teaching. When each teacher will reveal his problems, this will help the researcher

prepare a program for in-service training for them to improve their level of

performance and to solve their problems.

Q25-Do these problems affect your performance?

The teachers were asked whether these problems affect their performance and

if so, how they can overcome these problems.

So the next question (26) presents some solutions of the problems and let the

teachers choose the appropriate one that they use to overcome their problems.
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

Q27-Do you give your learners a chance to speak or do you do all the

talking in the class?

This question will investigate the role of the teachers inside the classroom and

what they do for learners, because the aim of the new course, i.e. Crescent English

Course, is to make the learners use English, so the teachers should try to talk as

little as possible and encourage their learners to talk as much as possible.

Teachers in communicative classrooms will find themselves talking less and

listening more and becoming active facilitators of their students' learning (Larsen-

Freeman, 1986). The teacher sets up the exercise, but because the students'

performance is the goal, the teacher must step back and observe, sometimes acting

as referee or monitor. A classroom during a communicative activity is far from

quiet, however. The students do most of the speaking, and frequently the scene of a

classroom during a communicative exercise is active, with students leaving their

seats to complete a task. Because of the increased responsibility to participate,

students may find they gain confidence in using the target language in general.

Students are more responsible managers of their own learning (Larsen-Freeman,

1986 quoted in Ann Galloway 1993).

So the answer to this question, will reveal whether the teacher gives the

learners chance to speak and which language the learners use inside the class. So

the role of the teachers inside the class is how to make the learners use the

language properly and correctly, because if there is not enough practice, the

learners will not learn well.


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

Q28-a) Do you observe your colleagues’ classes?

Observation of experienced teacher has always played an important role in

teacher education. Through observing how teachers conduct their lessons, solve

problems of classroom management and interact with students, novice teachers can

develop a repertoire of strategies and techniques that they can apply in their

teaching.

Richard R.Day(1990) points out that observation can assist the teacher in:

i) developing a terminology for understanding and discussing the teaching


process;

ii) developing an awareness of other principles and decision making that


underlie effective teaching;
iii) distinguishing between effective and ineffective classroom practices and
iv) identifying practices teachers apply to their own teaching.

Fanselow (1988) points out, teachers can see their own teaching in the teaching of

others, and when teachers observe others to gain self-knowledge, they have the

chance to construct and reconstruct their own knowledge. So for these reasons, I

have mentioned this question to investigate whether teachers use observation. They

can improve their performance if they observe each other to encourage the good

points and get rid of bad points in teaching.

b)Do you invite your colleagues to observe your teaching?

Some teachers refuse to be observed by any teacher even by the inspectors. These

teachers may lack confidence or they don’t have knowledge and they teach without

knowing. While some teachers have the confidence to invite any one to observe
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

them, because they will know their strength and weakness from the observation of

others. So this question was asked to know the teachers who invite others to

observe and the teachers who don’t invite teachers, and help the researcher to

prepare a program for improving them to become professional teachers.

c)What are the advantages of exchanging such visits with your

colleagues?

Exchanging visiting among teachers give them the ability

i) to get to know their colleagues better and to realize their strengths,

ii) it will help them to become more thoughtful about their teaching;

iii) it will give them more confidence;

iv) they will discover their own mistakes;

v) they will learn the value of evaluating themselves .

The teacher should mention the advantages of exchanging such visit from their

experience to promote better awareness about the importance of observation.

Q29-a) Are there any in-service programs in Yemen?

b) If Yes, Are you invited to one of these programs?

The necessity of opening in-service institute is very important to

• assist teachers to learn new teaching skills, such as those needed to


introduce cooperative learning;
• organize time for teachers to undertake resource development;
• support teachers to undertake further professional study;
• fund teachers to attend courses or conferences;
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

• provide access to professional reading materials to help teachers learn


about new theories and teaching strategies;
• access the help of external facilitators to help develop new knowledge and
skills and to provide challenges and support;
• provide time for groups of teachers to reflect on and discuss their work;
• arrange for teachers to visit colleagues' classrooms or observe programmes
in other schools; and
• provide support for teachers to plan together.

The researcher has prepared these questions to investigate the situation of the

program of in-service training in Yemen and whether this program is available in

Yemen and whether the teachers were invited to participate in this program. The

teachers’ response will help the researcher to know the status of this program.

Q30-Can you define the term In-service Training?

By this question, the researcher would like to get the definition of this term

according to the teachers’ knowledge of this term.

Q31-In your opinion; what are the differences between Pre-service and In-

service training?

There are two programs; each teacher should know what they are and how they

can differentiate between these two programs so this question was asked to know

the differences between the two programs according to their knowledge. If they

could mention the difference between these two programs they will have awareness

of teaching.
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

Q32-a) what are the goals of Pre-service training?

b) What are the goals of In-service training?

For each program, there should be goals for conducting it, so these questions were

asked to let the teachers mention the goals of these programs according to their

information

Q33-Who should be responsible for conducting this program?

The in-service training is very necessary for improving the level of teachers’

performance in teaching, so it should be conducted regularly to achieve its

objectives in raising teachers’ performance.

In-service teacher training is the ongoing training of practising teachers, which

should be arranged by the Ministry of Education that employs them. I have

mentioned three authorities to conduct this program and I have asked the teachers

to mention who should be responsible for conducting this program.

Q34-What will be the rationale of such program?

For providing any program, there will be some rationale of doing that, so this

question was asked to know the rationale of providing in-service teacher training

according to the opinion of the teachers.


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

Q35-If there is an in-service training program, would you like to attend

it?

This question was prepared to let the teachers mention whether they would like

to attend in-service training. In this program the teacher will have more topics that

will be discussed and will solve his inquiries.

Q36-What topics would you want to be discussed?

The teachers will benefit from program of in-service training if this program

presents the topics that teachers need, so this question was asked to let the teachers

mention the topics that they want to be discussed in this program. When the

teachers mention the topics, which will be discussed in the program of in-service

training, the program will be successful and the teachers will benefit a lot to raise

themselves in teaching.

37-Why do you choose these topics?

The teachers should mention the reason behind their choice of the topics that

should be discussed in this program. This will help the programmers to prioritize

the topics for discussion on the basis of the merits of the teachers’ need.

Q38-What is the suitable time for conducting this program?

The program of in-service training should be held in a suitable time for all

teachers to give them a chance to attend it and to benefit from the discussion about

the teaching, so the teachers should mention the suitable time for attending such

program.
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

The reasons for selection of questions to the inspectors:

Q1-When did you graduate? From which faculty?

Q2- How long have you been teaching as a teacher?

an inspector?

These questions tell us how long the inspectors have been teaching as teachers

and how long they have been working as inspectors. Webster (1966) defines

experience as: knowledge, skill, or practice derived from direct observation of or

participation in events: practical wisdom resulting from what one has encountered,

undergone, or lived through. (Webster 1966,quoted in Joseph Russell Codde 1997)

Thus, experience includes participation in the event and the wisdom gained from

that participation. Dewey (1938) posits that experience is an interaction between the

individual and his or her environment and that, in a certain sense; every experience

should do something to prepare a person for later experiences of a deeper and more

expansive quality. That is the very meaning of growth, continuity, reconstruction of

experience (Dewey, 1938 quoted in Joseph 1997).

The experience is necessary for all teachers and inspectors but it is more necessary

for the inspector .If they have a long period of experience, they will help teachers

solve their problems in teaching.

Inspectors with less than three years of experience are typically less effective than

more senior inspectors; the benefits of experience appear to level off after about

five years, especially in non-collegiate work settings. A possible cause of this

curvilinear trend in experience effects is that older inspectors do not always


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

continue to grow and learn and may grow tired in their jobs. Furthermore, their

experience may interact with educational opportunities.

Q3-What are your criteria for evaluation of teachers of English?

For each inspector, they have some criteria to evaluate the teachers, so this

question was asked to collect the criteria that they use in evaluating the

performance of English teachers.

Q4-Do you use one or more of these observation categories?


i- classroom procedure;
ii- teaching aids;
iii- pupils’ involvement;
iv- teachers’ personality; and
v- command of English.
In this question the researcher has mentioned five categories for observation of

teachers inside the class. The inspectors should mention/choose from them the

ones that they use in their observing of the teachers.

Q5-How often do you visit schools?

This question was asked because they are responsible for evaluating teachers.

They should have a regular visit to the schools to help teachers overcome their

problems with the course or with the learners.

Q6-Do you hold meeting with the teachers?

Q7-Do you meet the teachers individually or all of them together?

These questions were asked to know whether they hold meetings with teachers

because the meeting is very important for teachers to discuss the problems they

face inside the class with the course, with learners or large classes. Then they will

mention whether they meet the teachers individually or all of them together.
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

Q8-a) What topics do you discuss with them?

The inspectors were asked to mention the topics they discuss with the teachers.

This question will show the main topics that should be discussed with the teachers.

These topics will help teachers improve their performance.

B) Do you use (Arabic/English) language in your meeting with the

teachers?

This item of the questionnaire will clarify which language the inspectors use

during the meetings .As they are English teachers, they should use English

language for discussing the problems of the classes. Also using English language

with others will help them improve their own language.

Q9-a) List the problems that you find in the teachers’ teaching?

This question was asked to let the inspectors mention the problems they find in

the teachers’ teaching. This question will explore the main problems the teachers

face. By this, the inspectors will be able to help teachers overcome these problems

and improve their performance. Also this question will help the researcher identify

a program for in-service training to help teachers improve their teaching.

b) What are the reasons of these problems?

c) How can you help teachers overcome their problems?

The inspectors were asked to mention the reasons behind these problems, and

whether these problems affect teachers’ performance.

All these problems can be identified during inspectors’ visit to the teachers inside

the class and the inspectors will know the teachers’ performance and whether the

problems affect teachers’ performance and how they can help teachers overcome

their problems.
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

Q10-Do you think language teacher competence (LTC) is adequate for

teaching English?

As I have mentioned before that language teacher competence is necessary for

teaching English, so this question will show the teachers’ competence from the

inspector’s point of view.

The latter is responsible for evaluating teachers so they can identify the

competence of the teachers and know whether they need to be improved. The

inspectors can help them overcome the problems and raise their competence by

advising them to read more or by asking them to attend meetings with other

teachers to discuss and try to find out solution for their problems.

Q11-a) Do you feel that teachers need to be improved?

b) If yes. Why do you think they need improvement?

In these questions the inspectors clarify whether the teachers need to be

improved. This clarification is from inspectors’ evaluation and observation of the

teachers and they can identify the teachers’ need for improvement.

The researcher has mentioned ten reasons for the improvement of teachers and let

the inspectors choose the suitable reasons for teachers’ improvement. Inspectors’

choice of the reasons will be according to their observation. This will help the

researcher to identify a good program for in-service training of the teachers to help

them improve their performance/overcome their problems.

Q12- Do you insist on lesson plan or let the teachers do what they want?

A lesson plan is a framework for a lesson. If the teacher imagines a lesson is

like a journey, then the lesson plan is the map. It shows them where they start,

where they finish and the route to take to get there.


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

Essentially the lesson plan sets out what the teacher hopes to achieve over the

course of the lesson and how he or she hopes to achieve it. Usually they are in

written form but they don't have to be. New or inexperienced teachers may want to

or be required to produce very detailed plans showing clearly what is happening at

any particular time in the lesson. However in a realistic teaching environment it is

perhaps impractical to consider this detailed planning on a daily basis. As teachers

gain experience and confidence they develop the ability to plan more quickly and

very experienced teachers may go into class with just a short list of notes or even

with the plan in their heads.

Whatever be the level of experience of the teachers, it is important that they take

time to think through their lessons before they enter the classroom.

One of the most important reasons to plan is that the teacher needs to identify his

or her aims for the lesson. Teachers need to know what it is they want their

students to be able to do at the end of the lesson that they couldn't do before. Here

are some more reasons why planning is important:-

1-gives the teacher the opportunity to predict possible problems and therefore
consider solutions;
2-makes sure that lesson is balanced and appropriate for class;
3-gives teacher confidence; and
4-planning is generally good practice and a sign of professionalism.
So lesson plan is one tool that is necessary for teachers to prepare themselves to

teach well. The necessity of lesson plan is to let the teachers know what they are

going to teach .so this question was prepared to show whether the inspectors

concentrate on it during their visit of the teachers and evaluating the latter

according to what they have written in their lesson plan or let the teachers teach
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

and they will evaluate according to what they do to achieve the objectives of the

lesson.

Q13- Do you assess teachers using the black board?

This question will show teachers’ use of the black board from the

inspector’s point of view .The teachers can use it without the full awareness of the

advantage of it .So the inspector will study their use of it and guide them the right

way of using it. It is very necessary for each class and without it the teaching

/learning will be impossible.

Q14-a) Do you find them using one or more of these aids?

a-wall charts; b-flash cards; c-magazine pictures; and d-realia.

b) In which stage do they use these aids?

During inspectors’ visit to school and their meeting with teachers, their roles

are to evaluate teachers whether they teach, using teaching aids properly. So this

question will show whether they use teaching aids or not. And in which stage they

use them. The inspectors will identify the correct use of these aids and help them

present the items of the lesson easily.

The inspectors do their job well if they do the following:

a- visit the school regularly ;


b- help the teachers overcome their problems;
c- help them use the teaching aids well;
d- guide them to present the items well;
d- help them deal with the slow learners; and
e- help them deal with the mixed ability classes.
There will be no need for in-service training for teachers, if the inspectors do

their job well.


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

The rest of inspectors’ questionnaire is to investigate the situation of the two

programs i.e. pre-service training program and in-service training program. The

former exists and is provided by the faculties of education but the latter does not

exist formally.

So these questions will investigate whether there is any in-service training in

Yemen. They will give their definition of this program according to their point of

view. Then they should try to mention the differences between the two programs.

As they’re inspectors, they know the shortcomings of teachers so they can mention

some important topics to be discussed in in-service training program to help the

teachers raise their competence and performance in teaching.

The inspectors will mention who will be responsible for conducting such

program; this will help the researcher present his recommendations to competent

authority.

The inspectors were asked to list the procedures and methods that should be

taken in conducting such program. This will help the researcher identify an agenda

for in-service training.

The inspectors are responsible for helping teachers perform well, so they

should be involved in conducting this a program. They know the weaknesses and

strength of teachers, so they will identify people who need the programme and the

topics that should go into it.


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

Chapter4

The findings

The analysis of the questionnaire

This chapter quantitatively analyses the answers to the questionnaires. The

questionnaires focus on investigating the teachers’ knowledge of teaching English

through using the best methods, techniques and teaching aids that help them

present the language subject in a simple way and the analysis reveals their level of

awareness of pre-service training and in-service training.

The analysis also identifies the areas they need to improve and help evolve an

agenda for in-service training for English teachers to help them improve their

performance in teaching.

Analyzing teachers questionnaire:

Teachers’ questionnaire can be divided into groups:

1-some information about teachers;

2-methodology; 3-curriculum; 4-techniques;

5-teaching aids; 6-role of inspectors; 7-role of observation;

8-teachers’knowledge of in-service training.

I have administered 90 questionnaire paper for teachers and 20 questionnaire paper

for inspectors. I could collect 54 responses from teachers and 6 from inspectors.

This table shows the percentage of the teachers and inspectors who participated in

the questionnaire:
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

Table (1)

No. of teachers No. of Inspectors

Total number of the


90 20
sample

No. of the respondent 54 6

Percentage of the
60% 30%
respondents

So there was a greater response from the teachers than from inspectors.

The results of question 1 and 2:

The first and second items of the questionnaire were about the experience of the

teachers. The experience of teachers in teaching help them explore more problems

of the real situation and give them more competence to deal with the learners .

Long experience in teaching helps a teacher to solve the problems facing him/her.

The answer of the first item of the question reveals that all teachers have graduated

from the faculties of education .So they have some professional training before

they began their careers.

The result of question 3:

The teachers were asked about their satisfaction or dissatisfaction about

their jobs .The answer to this question reveals whether they like or dislike teaching

.If they like teaching, they will succeed in creating a good learning environment to

learners.

The answer of this question shows that the teachers vary in their satisfaction and

dissatisfaction.
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

Table (2)

The situation No. of teachers The percentage


Very satisfied 6 11.1%

Satisfied 22 40.7%

Indifferent 4 7.7%

Dissatisfied 8 14.8%

Very dissatisfied 2 3.7%

Don’t know 3 5.5%


Don’t reply 9 16.6%

The table shows that the percentage of teachers satisfied with their job is the

highest one, which was 40.7%out of the sample while the percentage of the

teachers who responded to the item very dissatisfied is the lowest one-ie.3.7%.

When the teachers were asked to mention the reason for their satisfaction or

otherwise, 29 teachers of the sample didn’t mention any reasons, while 25

mentioned the reasons behind their choice.17 teachers out of 25 who gave reasons

for their choice mentioned that they are satisfied with the job because:

a-the language is very important to have contact with other parts of the
world;
b-the learners’ desire to learn the language;
c-interaction of the learners with the teacher makes the latter become very
happy with his job; and
d-the teachers themselves like the teaching.

While 8 teachers who gave reasons behind their dissatisfaction mentioned that:

a-they could not communicate with other people;


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

b-they take less than they do;


c-they were not trained well in pre-service program ;
d-some learners don’t have the desire to learn the language and this
frustrated the teachers; and
e-there are no incentive for teachers and this leads them to be dissatisfied
with their work.
The result of question 4 and 5:

The results of the items 4&5 of the questionnaire reveal that 14 teachers of the

sample teach in the preparatory stage while 33 teachers teach in the secondary

stage. However, 7 teachers of the sample teach in both stages.

Table (3)

Preparatory Secondary stage Both stages


stage
No. of teachers 14 33 7
The percentage 25.9% 61.1% 12.9%

The table shows us that the sample of the study teaches in different stages and

they have to vary methods in dealing with each course.

The result of question 6:

The item 6 of the questionnaire was about the suitability of the course for

Yemeni learners and the answer reveals that 42 teachers of the sample mentioned

the course suitable for the Yemeni learners and their reasons are:

a-it is simple and full of pictures;


b-it uses the latest approach of teaching i.e., communicative language
teaching;
c-it gives the learners chance to talk;
d-it is very interesting for them;
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

e-it includes a lot of everyday language ;


f-it is attractive, useful and easy to be studied;
g-students understand the book has language items they can use in real life
situation;
h-the language is easy-not difficult-,there are color pictures and that make
learners more interested;
i-the course has cassettes which help learners raise the level of their
pronunciation;
j-the lessons are graded from easy to difficult and the more difficult;
k-it has plenty of vocabulary items;
l-it has the communicative approach which is the best one for
teaching a foreign language;
m-it includes many simplified and interesting methods;
n-the learners could learn English without difficulty;
o-it has real and interesting topics.
While 8 teachers said that the course is not suitable for the following reasons:

i-the lessons are not connected with each other;


ii-it is above their level;
iii-it is rich in vocabulary and the learners face difficulty in learning all
this vocabulary;
iv-it is designed for pupil who already know English;
v-it depends on vocabulary which need dictionary knowledge; and
vi-there are many difficult grammar items which do not suit the
Skills of the pupils;
So the answers to this item reveal that the majority of teachers agree upon the

suitability of the course.

The result of question 7:

Question 7 reveals the teachers’ ability to describe how they attempt to teach

the course. So 42 teachers mentioned their method of teaching the new course.
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

As Peter Hubbard et.al (1986) define the method as a set of techniques or

procedures.

Jack Richards et al (1987) define the same term as a way of teaching a language

that is based on systematic principles and procedures.

On the other hand, Jermy Harmer (2002) defines the method as the practical

realization of an approach and it includes various procedures and techniques

41 teachers wrote about their way of teaching and they can be divided into six

groups according to their way of teaching.

The first group of teachers consisted of 6 teachers who mentioned in their

answers that they used the communicative approach to teach the new course

because the new course is designed to be taught in this new approach, which

emphasizes that the goal of language learning is communicative competence. In

this approach the role of learner will be more active.

The second group which consisted of 3 teachers who mentioned that they used

some techniques and teaching aids to present /teach the course. They sometimes

used pair work and sometimes group work according to the situation.

The third group consisting 9 teachers mentioned that they didn’t attempt any

new way to teach but they followed /concentrated on the teachers’ book.

According to their view, teachers’ book helped them present the course properly.

The fourth group, who mentioned that they used discussion with the learner to

present/teach the course, consisted of four teachers. In this way they gave the

learners chance to talk and participate


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

The fifth group, which consisted of 13 teachers, said that they tried to explain

the lessons according to the skills that it contained and may lead to integrate the

four skills of language in one lesson to let the learners be more active.

The sixth group of 6 teachers mentioned that they used drawing /realia/ flash

cards/wall charts according to the situation and according to the lesson.

However there were 13 teachers who didn’t write anything about their way of

teaching.

Thus from the different answers of teachers, it was obvious that teachers varied in

their way, every one presents the course according to his knowledge /information

and ability, but they use the new approach which let the learners be more active

and share /participate inside the class.

The researcher provided a table of reasons to choose from for explaining the

choice of methods.

Table (4)

No. The reasons Teachers


response
1- Teachers find it useful for the learners. 43
2- Teachers find it easier to follow than other methods. 13
3- Teachers were taught only this method in the college. 6
4- The inspector forces teachers to use this method. 1
5- Teachers just use this method without any strong reason for 1
doing so.

This table shows that the item (teachers find it useful for the learners) was

chosen by 43 teachers, so the teachers concentrated on the learners and tried to find

the best way according to the suitability of the method to the learners.
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

While thirteen teachers chose the second reason for their choosing the method

of teaching and concentrated their using of the method as the easiest one to be

followed and to be used inside the class to achieve the objectives of the course.

Six teachers chose the third reason because they were taught this method in the

college so these teachers did not create anything new for presenting their course

and they followed only what they were taught in pre-service program.

On the other hand, one teacher for each chose the fourth and fifth reasons. This

means that there was no effective guidance for the teachers.

The result of question 8 & 9:

This question is to get the differences between the two courses of English

From the teachers and get the teachers’ opinions about the two-courses.42 teachers

mentioned the differences between the two courses:

The old course has the following aspects:

1-it has more grammar rules;


2-it contains more information about Islam;
3-its knowledge is limited;
4-it concentrates on teachers centered approach;
5-its topics were not interesting and attractive;
6-it has no colored pictures;
7-it was easy to be explained by teachers;
8-it was function-notion syllabus;
9-it used classical method and grammatical method.
10-it has story line format.
The new course has the following aspects:

1-it has more information about countries, and some sights;


2-it is more interesting and it has a lot of vocabulary;
3-it is students’ centered;
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

4-it has a lot of colored pictures;


5-it is difficult to be explained by teachers;
6-it focuses on communication;
7-it develops all the four skills;
8-it is topical format and authentic;
9-it uses modular syllabus;
10-it presents the grammar rules in a new way;
11- it is attractive and interesting.
Five teachers prefer to teach the old course for the following reasons:

1-it helps learners talk correctly;


2-it deals with our own culture and environment;
3-it has more information;
4-it is very easy to be taught.
While thirty seven teachers prefer the new course for the following reasons:

1-it has a lot of vocabulary;


2-it seems as a magazine, which people like to read;
3-it gives learners more chance to speak;
4-it is suitable for learners to improve language;
5-it is flexible and authentic syllabus;
6-it encourages teachers to be more creative and imaginative;
7-it helps learners understand well.

The results of question 10:

The respondents to question 10 can be divided into two groups. The first group

who said that they used pair work and the second group who said that they did not

use this technique. The answers of the teachers who used this technique reveal the

following fact about this technique and when it was used and why. There were 47

teachers who said that they used this technique in their teaching .The answer of

teachers shows that 12 teachers used this technique sometimes, 8 teachers used it
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

always, 6 teachers used it often, while 5 teachers used it rarely and 3 teachers used

it usually.

This technique should be used always to give the learners chance to talk more

during the teaching but the answers of the teachers give a hint that the teachers

didn’t have the ability to use this technique always. This technique will increase

the performance of the learners.

The answers reveal that the teachers used this technique when they have

conversation/discussion or asking and answering questions and the percentage of

teachers who used it for conversations was 42.5%, the percentage of the teachers

who used it for asking and answering was 17% and the percentage of the teachers

who used it for discussion was 14.89%.

The teachers gave reasons behind their using this technique. The reasons were:

a-to motivate the weaker learners;


b-to enable learners to exchange their knowledge;
c-to make learners understand quickly and easily;
d-to make the class participatory;
e-to improve the learners ability of reading skill;
f-to develop the learners confidence to use language outside the classroom;
g-to encourage the learners to speak English;
h-to make lazy learners be active;
i-to make learners communicate with each other;
j-to promote communication inside the class; and
k-to give the learners chance to speak/practise the language.

The answer of the second group of teachers reveals that seven teachers of the

sample didn’t use this technique. They chose their reasons form the reasons that
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

were provided by the researcher to help them choose the one that make difficult the

progress of presenting the language.

Table (5)

No. The reasons/obstacles No .of The


teachers percentage
a- It is too noisy. 3 42.85%
b- It takes too much time. 5 71.42%
c- Students don’t work during pair work. 3 42.85%
d- Students don’t want to work in pairs. 3 42.85%
e- Students don’t want to listen to each other. 2 28.57%
f- Weaker students cannot do pair work. 3 42.85%
g- Teacher has lost control of his class during 1 14.28%
pair work.
h- Teacher cannot monitor all the students in his 3 42.85%
class.
i- The classroom is too crowded for pairs. 5 71.42%
j- Teacher has never done pair work before 1 14.28%

The items (b &i) got the highest percentage of the obstacles in using pair work

inside the class. While the items (g &j) got the least percentage of the obstacles in

using this technique.

However the items (a, c, d, f &h) got the medium percentage.

So the teachers, who could not manage /control the class during this technique,

will lose the time in nothing. On the other hand, the crowded classes play an

important role in hindering/deterring teachers from using this technique in

teaching.
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

The result of question 11:

The answer of this question reveals that 29 teachers i.e.53.70% of the

respondent teachers used the technique of group work in teaching for the following

reasons:

i-to let the learners be more co-operative than working individually;


ii-to promote communication in classroom;
iii-to give the learners chance oral practice;
iv-to improve the performance of the weaker learners;
v-to let the learners exchange information;
vi-to encourage the learners to think and write ;
vii-to improve the learners’ pronunciation;
viii-to make the learners be more active;
ix-to make the learners participate in the discussion; and
x-to fulfill the objectives of the course.
The teachers mentioned that they used this technique when they had to teach:

a- songs or puzzles;
b- to write a paragraph or a summary;
c- to describe some pictures;
d- to discuss some items in grammar; and
e- sometimes according to the need of the lesson.
Answer to this question reveals that some teachers have the ability to teach but

they could not find encouragement to continue with the method. So 22 teachers

(40.74% of the sample) did not use this technique and they mentioned the reasons

as follows:

i-the crowded classes prevented them to use this technique;


ii-students don’t work during group work;
iii-there is no much time to use it;
iv-the class becomes noisy during group work; and
v-some teachers could not control the class.
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

3 teachers of the sample did not respond to this item of the questionnaire.

The result of question 12:

The answer of this question reveals that

Table (6)

No. Name of the technique No. of teachers The percentage of


using the technique teachers
1- Wall charts 21 38.8%
2- Flash cards 19 35.1%
3- Magazine pictures 25 46.2%
4- Realia 30 55.5%

The above table shows us that using the realia got the highest percentage of the

sample, that means 30 teachers used this aid to explain /present the items of the

lesson. While using flash cards got the lowest percentage of the samples.

The realia enjoys the first preference among teachers because it is available in

society and no need to prepare it. It is real object.

Magazine pictures come in the second place because they are also accessible

and can be taken into the class any time to be used.

Wall charts came in the third order because they are to be prepared earlier and they

cost money.

Flash cards come at the end of the choice of teaching aids. Wall charts and

flash cards need to be prepared earlier, so they are not widely used.

There were 8 teachers who did not respond to this item of questionnaire.

When the teachers were asked to mention when and why they used the aids. 42

teachers out of the sample clarified their choice of using teaching aids. They said
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

that they used these aids according to the requirements of lessons, when there were

new words to be taught, and when they needed to present the time/letters of the

alphabet or numbers.

They mentioned that they used these aids to:

a-fit information together;


b-help learners understand quickly and easily;
c-make the class more active;
d-attract the learners’ attention;
e-let the lesson become easy and interesting;
f-achieve the aim of the lesson;
g-save time; and
h-avoid translation
However, 12 teachers didn’t respond to this item of the questionnaire.

26 teachers mentioned that they asked the learners to participate in making these

aids and this helped them to be familiar in the content of them. While 12 teachers

prepared these aids themselves.

But the school authorities did not contribute in any way in the preparation of these

aids; however 12 teachers mentioned that the school authorities provided them

with the required stationery items.


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

The result of question 13:

Table( 7 )

The choice No .of teachers The


using blackboard percentage
Always 40 74%
Usually 8 14.8%
Often 3 5.5%
Sometimes 3 5.5%
Never 0 0

The above table shows that almost all teachers use the blackboard and this

highest percentage shows the importance of this aid. The next table shows in

which stage the teachers use the blackboard:

Table (8)

No. The stages No .of The


teachers percentage
1 Presentation &practice 11 20.3%
2 Presentation 10 18.5%
3 Revision, presentation & production 8 14.8%
4 Practice 5 9.2%
5 Revision & presentation 5 9.2%
6 Revision, presentation, practice 5 9.2%
&production
7 Revision, practice &production 3 5.5%
8 Revision & production 2 3.7%
9 Revision & practice 2 3.7%
10 Presentation, practice & production 2 3.7%
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

From the above table it was obvious that 11 teachers used the blackboard in the

two stages presentation and practice, while 10 teachers used it in the presentation

stage and 8 teachers used this aid in the revision, presentation and production. On

the other hand, 5 teachers mentioned that they used this aid only in the practice

stage.5 teachers mentioned that they used the black board in the revision and

presentation and 5 teachers mentioned that they used the aid in the four stages i.e.

(revision, presentation, practice and production) while 3 teachers said that they

used the black board in three stages i.e. (revision, practice and production) and 2

teachers used the black board in revision and production .The black board was

used in the revision and practice stages by two teachers ,while two teachers used

this aid in presentation ,practice and production stages. So from this table all

teachers used the blackboard in different stages but they should use the blackboard

in the presentation stage more than other stages because in this stage the items of

the language should be presented carefully and completely

Table (9): teachers using blackboard for drawing:

The choice No. of teachers The percentage


Always 5 9.2%
Usually 9 16.6%
Often 7 12.9%
Sometimes 30 55.5%
Never 3 5.5%

This table shows that teachers used the blackboard sometimes for drawing and

the percentage of this choice was the highest one .The drawing will help teachers

present the language easily and the learners will understand quickly, so the
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

teachers should try to draw on the black board always to present the different items

of the language.

3 teachers said that they n ever used the blackboard for drawing because they

could not draw on the blackboard.

The result of question 14:

This item of the question was about using the cassette and how often, when and

why.

Table (10)

No. of teachers who No. of teachers who didn’t Total


used the cassette use the cassette
No. of teachers 28 26 54
The percentages 51.8% 48.2% 100%

This table shows that nearly 50% of teachers of English used the cassette to

help learners learn the pronunciation of new words sentence stress tone,etc.

The reasons why the other half couldn’t use it were:

a- they could not get it ;


b- there was no recorder in school to be used;
c- the learners couldn’t understand the voice of the cassette;
d- there were no plug points in the classroom;
e- the crowded classes hinder using the cassette; and
f- some teachers said that it was not important.
So a large number of teachers requires to be familiarized with this aid in

teaching pronunciation and presenting the new words and sentences.

On the other hand, the teachers ,who used the cassette, did not use it regularly ,they

were varied in their use .The following table shows us how often they used it .
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

Table (11)

The choice No .of teachers The percentage


Always 3 10.71%
Usually 6 21.41%
Often 5 17.85%
Sometimes 14 55

From this table, half of the group used the cassette sometimes and 3 teachers

used it always,. However 6 teachers used the cassette usually and 5 teachers used it

often.

The result of question 15:

Question 15 is to investigate the teachers’ use of the test, because it is very

important to know the performance of the learners from time to time and the result

of this question shows that all the teachers made their own tests.

Table (12)

No .of teachers. The percentage

Teachers had training. 29 53.70%

Teachers had no training. 17 31.48%

Teachers didn’t respond. 8 14.8%

This table shows us that 29 teachers has prior training in testing and the

percentage of this group is 53.70%. While 17 of them had no training and the

percentage of this group was 31.48%. The last group who did not respond to this

question was 8 teachers of 14.8%.


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

The result of the third item of this question that 31 teachers used the test

monthly to test the learners, while 9 teachers did not specify. 5 teachers said that

they had a test after each unit to help them revise the previous unit before going to

explain the new unit.5 teachers did not respond to this item of the questionnaire.

The learners should know their result with their paper to help them avoid the

mistakes they had made. So the result of this item of the questionnaire shows that

29 teachers reached the result by giving the paper of the test to the learners to help

them know their marks and avoid the mistakes they had made.

20 teachers did not clarify how they reached the result and 5 teachers did not

respond to this item.

The result of question 16:

This question is to investigate the purpose of the test and the result of it shows

that 19 teachers could order the purpose of the test.

1-the item (vii) was chosen by seven teachers to be the first purpose of the
testing;
2-the items (i, iii, v, vii) were chosen by three teachers to be the second
purposes of the testing;
3-the items (I, iii, ix) were chosen by four teachers to be the third purpose of
the testing;
4-the items (ii, iii, vii) were chosen by three teachers to be the fourth purpose
of the testing;
5-the item (v) was chosen by five teachers to be the fifth purpose of the
testing;
6-the item (vi) was chosen by five teachers to be the six purpose;
7-thes (I, iv) were chosen by five teachers to be the seventh purpose;
8- the item (vii) was chosen by five teachers to be the eighth purpose;
9-the items (v, viii) were chosen by two teachers to be the ninth purpose.
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

On the other hand 35 teachers did not respond to this item of the questionnaire.

When the teachers were asked to choose the most useful and the least useful. The

item (measuring what a student knows) was the most widely acknowledged use of

the test. This is according to eighteen teachers who chose this item.

The least item was (giving each student a course grade). Nine teachers chose this

item.

So the sample of the teachers agrees upon the most important purpose of testing

which is to measure what a student knows.

The result of the third item of this question shows that 30 teachers did not respond

to this item when they were asked to mention the reason behind their choice of the

most and least useful purpose of testing. Whereas 22 teachers gave their reasons

behind their choice.

The reasons behind the teachers’ choice of the most useful purpose of testing

were according to the opinions of teachers to help them:

i- know the performance of the learners;


ii- encourage the learners;
iii- know the weaker learners;
iv- know what the learners need; and
v- discover the adequacy of the teaching.
2 teachers did not identify reasons behind their choice.

The result of question 17:

The question is to investigate whether the teachers chose known passages from

the course for comprehension test or unknown passages. The result of the answers

shows that 28 teachers chose unknown passages for the following reasons:

a- to help the learners improve their knowledge ;


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

b- to make learners read;


c- to help them think more to answer;
d- to help them avoid cheating and memorizing;
e- to help them guess new vocabulary items;
f- to check their ability to understand;
g- to know their level of understanding ;
h- to encourage them to read; and
i- to avoid repeating information in the book.
While 12 teachers who used to take the known passage from the course mentioned

that a familiar passage:

i-help learner answer the questions easily;

ii-avoid the difficult words to save the time of the test.

On the other hand 6 teachers did not respond to this item of the questionnaire.4

teachers said that they sometimes take the passage from the course and sometimes

from outside the course. Two teachers mentioned that choosing such passages

would be according to the level of the learners and two teachers did not clarify

their stand.

The result of question 18:

This question is to investigate the state of affairs of the school, whether it is

crowded because crowded classrooms make the teacher’s role difficult. The

answers show that most of the schools of Hodeidah city are crowded with class

strength of 50 to 75 students while four schools are very crowded having between

80 to105 students in each class.

On the other hand, 23 teachers mentioned that their classes are between20-45

students and these teachers are not from Hodeidah but from Zabid and Bait
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

Al-faqeeh. This shows that the crowded classes are in the main cities.3 teachers

did not respond to this item of the questionnaire.

The result of question 19:

This question shows that the three cites, where the questionnaire was

administered, did not suffer from the shortage of teachers of English.

When there are many teachers, there should be an association to gather all the

teachers in one group to help each other.

The second item of this question tells us that 27 teachers mentioned that they

formed an association while 23 teachers did not form such an association and four

teachers did not respond to this item.

16 teachers out of 27 mentioned that they had regular meetings to be held but this

meeting varies in getting together.

The result of the third item of this question was about the topics the teachers

discussed in their meeting. All the sixteen teachers said that they discussed the

following points:

1- using visual aids;


2- shortage of books;
3- preparing teaching aid;
4- method of teaching;
5- preparing the final term test;
6- preparing lesson plan;
7- discussing level of the learners;
8- dealing with slow learners; and
9- improving the performance of the learners.
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

The result of the fourth item of this question was about the language that

they used in such meeting

Table (13)

The language No. of teachers The percentage


Arabic 6 37.5%
English 3 18.75%
Both 6 37.5%
Did not respond 1 6.25%

The table shows that 6 teachers out of sixteen used Arabic in their discussion

so they did not use English even in their meetings with colleagues while 6 teachers

mentioned that they used both languages, but 3 teachers used only English in their

meetings. Using English for discussion will help them to improve their own

language proficiency ;one teacher did not respond to this item.

Thus, the teachers can improve their language performance in teaching by

forming such associations, holding regular meetings and using English language in

the discussion. But 24 teachers out of the sample of the study didn’t form any

association. These teachers mentioned their problems in forming such associations:

1- some teachers didn’t have the desire to form it;


2- some teachers didn’t have time to hold the meeting;
3- some teachers didn’t know anything about it;
4- some schools refused to permit the formation of such associations;
5- there was no co-operation between teachers; and
6- the inspectors didn’t visit some schools.
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

The result of question 20:

Language competence (LC) is very necessary for all the teachers of English to

help them teach well, so the answer of this item of questionnaire shows that 39

teachers mentioned that their language competence is adequate for teaching

English while5 teachers mentioned that their LC is not adequate for teaching and

10 teachers didn’t respond to this item.

Table (14)

high Medium low Did not respond


9 37 ----- 8

This table clarifies the teachers’ competence and 9 teachers mentioned that

their LC is high and 37 teachers said that their LC is medium while 8 teachers

didn’t respond to this item.

Table(15)

Teachers need to No need to Didn’t respond


improve improve
42 7 5

This table shows that forty-two teachers said that they need to improve their

competence to teach better, while seven teachers said that they felt no necessity to

improve and five teachers did not respond to this item.

When they were asked to choose the reasons behind their need to improve, 37

teachers chose the reasons from the reasons that were provided by the researcher.

The sixth item of the reasons i.e., (teachers had no idea about dealing with slow
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

learners) was chosen by twenty teachers .The first item i.e., (they face difficulty in

making the learners understand some complex ideas) was chosen by 19 teachers.

Then the ninth item i.e., (they had no idea about the techniques to be used to teach

effectively) was chosen by 12 teachers. The fifth item i.e., (they had no idea about

communicative approach) was chosen by 9 teachers.

The researcher noticed that the four reasons were very important and these

reasons obstruct the learners from learning. So the teachers should have topics

about dealing with slow learners, helping teachers by some new ways to make

learners understand some complex ideas and they should have some information

about the communicative approach.

On the other hand, very few teachers chose the other reasons.

The result of question 21:

Table (16) :Inspections:

No. of teachers The percentage


Teachers were visited 50 92.59%
Teachers were not visited 1 1.85%
Teachers did not respond 3 5.55%

The result of this question shows that 50 teachers out of the sample mentioned

that the inspectors visited school to evaluate the teachers, while one teacher said

that the inspector did not visit his school.3 teachers did not respond to this item.

Table (17)

Monthly Terminal Annual


Once 15 5 7
Twice 1 11 11
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

This table shows how often the inspectors visit schools and their visit varies

between once and twice in every month or term or a year.

So the inspectors visit the schools to evaluate the teachers and to discuss the main

problem they face during their teaching.

40 teachers said that the inspectors held meetings with them, 10 teachers said that

the inspectors did not hold meeting with them and 4 teachers did not respond to

this item.

Nine teachers out of forty teachers mentioned that the inspectors held meeting

with them individually while sixteen teachers said that the inspectors held the

meeting with all of them. However fifteen teachers said that the inspectors held the

meeting individually then with all of them.

In the individual meeting the inspectors will discuss the problems that they find

in the teacher’s teaching or the points that can be found in each teacher, but in the

meeting with all the teachers, the inspectors will discuss the general problems of

teaching, the latest theories of teaching, preparing and using teaching aids…etc.

The result of question 22:

The researcher provided 11 topics and asked the teachers to choose the topics

that the inspectors discussed with them, they chose the fourth item as the most

discussed item by the inspectors and the seventh item as the least one. The rest of

the items come in between.

The following table will present the topics as they were chosen by the teachers

and ordered from the most important to the least one.


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

Table (18)

No. The order of the topics No. of Teachers.


1- The level of the learners. 38
2- Preparing lesson plan. 28
3- Achieving the objectives of the course. 19
4- Preparing teaching aids. 16
5- Dealing with slow learners. 15
6- Dealing with new course. 14
7- Controlling the classes. 13
8- Setting questions. 10
9- Discussing the advantages of using pair/group work. 9
10- Dealing with the mixed ability classes. 7
11- Discussing the latest theories of ELT. 3

The level of the learners is a very important topic so it was the first topic that

the teachers chose. So the teachers and inspectors should concentrate on the level

of the learners and work together to raise it by solving the problems before the

learners.

The second item, which was chosen by teachers, was preparing lesson plan.

Preparing lesson plan is necessary for teachers to be able to present the lesson well

without any hesitation.

The third item was achieving the objectives of the course and nineteen teachers

chose this item. The role of the teachers is to teach the learners and achieve the

objectives of the course. The objective of the English course are to let the learners

use the language properly outside the class, so how teachers help the learners learn

this language and use it without any difficulty.


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

The fourth item should be taken into account, because teaching aids are necessary

for helping learners understand the items of the language and they should be a part

of the teaching process. So the teachers should know how they could prepare these

aids to help them present the language well.

The fifth item of the topic was about dealing with slow learner. The latter plays a

very important role inside the class. When the teachers could not deal with them,

the teaching process will be not active because the slow learners are more than the

others. So the teachers should learn how to deal with these learners and how they

can help them.

The teachers chose the other reasons for their importance for them and the learners.

The result of question 23:

When the teachers were asked to mention the problems they faced, they

mentioned the following problems:

1-the classes are very crowded.


2-the low level of the learners.
3-shortage of books of English
4-shortage of teaching aids.
5-the learners lack of interest in study.
6-some teachers lack the ability to deal with slow learners.
7-the cassettes are not available.
As I am a teacher, I have found such problems during my own teaching. The

most important problem, I have found, are the crowded classes and the learners do

not have a desire to learn English and some learners were not conceived they

should study this language.


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

When solutions for these problems arte not found, learners suffer. This is revealed

in the results of the tests every month or at the end of every term. A lot of learners

failed in English .

The result of question 24:

The teachers were asked whether these problems affect their performance. The

following table will show the number of teachers who responded to this item.

Table (19)

The effect of the problems on the performance of teachers.

No. of teachers The percentage


Teachers who said yes 29 54%
Teachers who said no 11 20.37%
Teachers who did not respond 14 25.92%

The table shows that the percentage of the teachers who subscribed to the view of

the effect of the problems on the performance of teachers is high, so these

problems should be resolved to let the teachers do their work.

The result of question 25:

This question will investigate how the teachers overcome their problems. The

following table will show the ways that teachers use to overcome their problem.
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

Table (20)

No. The way No. of The percentage


teachers
1- By reading about techniques of teaching 21 77.77%
English.
2- Discussion with and guidance from senior 11 40.7%
colleagues.
3- By modeling teaching on the teaching style 9 33.3%
of experienced teachers.
4- Through trial and error. 7 25.92%
5- Watching senior colleagues at work. 4 14.81%

From this table we can notice that the teachers try to solve their problem by

reading about techniques of teaching English and this solution got the highest

percentage, while watching senior colleagues at work was chosen by very few

teachers as a solution to their problem and this got the lowest percentage.

The result of question 26:

When they were asked whether they gave a chance for learners to actively

participate in the learning process or they did every thing.

Table (21)

Active student Teachers centred. The teacher


participation . who didn’t
respond.
No. of teacher. 34 6 14
The percentage 62.96% 11.11% 25.92%
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

So from this table, it is obvious that thirty-four teachers tried to make learners

talk, i.e. student time talk (STT) than teacher time talk (TTT).

According to Larsen-Freeman,(1986) teachers in communicative classrooms will

find themselves talking less and listening more and becoming active facilitators of

their students' learning (Larsen-Freeman, 1986 quoted in Ann Galloway 1993).

This trial is to give the learners chance to improve the language and help them

participate inside the class and be positive. The new English course requires the

learners to do a lot of exercise by themselves, so the student time talking should be

more than the teacher time talking. In this situation the role of teacher is evident by

that of a guide and facilitator.

Six teachers did not give the learners any chance to speak but they did every thing

and the role of the learners was reduced to be passive listeners. Fourteen teachers

did not respond to this item of the questionnaire. The teachers who gave the

learners chance to speak, said that they gave the learners the chance in different

stages. They let the learners make conversation, describe the pictures, ask and

answer the question about the passage during reading lessons, and talk about

themselves.

The result of question 27:

The result of this item shows the number of teachers who used to observe the other

teachers’ teaching to learn from them.


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

Table(22)

No. of The
teachers percentage
Teachers who observe the teaching of other teachers. 18 33.33%
Teachers who didn’t observe the teaching of other 31 54.40%
teachers.
Teachers who did not respond to this item. 5 9.25%

If the teachers want to improve their teaching, they should observe their colleagues

teaching to know what they do in their teaching. This table shows that only

eighteen teachers out of the sample of the study observe the teaching of other

teachers. So the percentage of the teachers who did not observe their colleagues

teaching was more than the teachers who observe the others.

The teachers should learn /know the advantages of observation to help them in

their teaching. By observation, teachers will discover new techniques to solve

problems of teaching. They can raise their performance of teaching if they co-

operate with their colleagues.

When the teachers were asked whether they invited their colleagues to observe

their teaching, their answers were varied.

Table (23)

No. of teachers. The percentage


Teacher who invited their colleagues. 22 40.74%
Teachers didn’t invite their colleagues. 27 50%
Teachers didn’t respond. 5 9.25%

This table shows that only twenty-two teachers out of the sample invited their

colleagues to observe their teaching while the other half did not invite their
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

colleagues .So the percentage of this group of teachers clarifies that they lack the

knowledge about the advantages of exchanging observation to improve

themselves.

The inspectors should explain to teachers the importance of observation and

encourage them to observe their colleagues.

When the teachers were asked to mention the advantages of exchanging visiting

between themselves, 29 teachers mentioned the following advantages:

1- knowledge of the weakness of oneself and get rid of it;


2- rich information content of the colleague;
3- improving using teaching techniques;
4- acquiring experience from the experienced teachers;
5- recognizing the role of teachers inside the class;
6- investigating of teachers’ own teaching;
7- watching colleagues style of teaching;
8- discovering own faults;
9- exchanging opinions about some problems of the class;
10-avoiding the mistakes of others;
11-giving teachers encouragement to continue teaching; and
12-helping new teachers acquire experience from senior teachers.
The result of question 28:

When they were asked whether there’s any in-service training program in

Yemen, 32 teachers out of the sample said that there was not any in-service

training while 4 teachers said that there was and 5 teachers said they did not know

anything about this program. On the other hand, 13 teachers did not respond to this

item.
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

Table (24)

Yes No Did not know Did not


respond
No.of teachers 4 32 5 13
The percentage 7.40% 59.25% 9.25% 24.07%

The highest percentage of teachers said that there was no in-service training in

Yemen and this leads to the necessity of founding such programs to help teachers

improve their level of teaching. The teachers should have some program from time

to time to refresh their information about teaching.

The result of question 29:

When the teachers were asked to define the term in-service training

11 teachers succeeded in defining it and 12 teachers could not get the right

definition while 31 teachers did not respond to this item.

Table (25)

Define the term, Could not define Did not respond to


In-service training. it. this item.
No. of teachers . 11 12 31
The percentage 20.37% 22.22% 57.40%

So this table shows that the teacher, who couldn’t define this term, need to

know the advantages of it and be more aware of its necessity to help them get more

experience in teaching.

All the teachers who defined this term agreed upon that, this term means a

program given to teachers while they are working in schools to improve their

performance in teaching and acquire experience from the qualified inspectors


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

,supervisors or experts. This program, according to them, help them solve their

problems inside the class and gives them solid foundation to face the problems and

deal with mixed ability classes and slow learners.

The result of question 30:

This question is to get the differences between the two programs that the

teacher should attend .The first one should be before joining the education field,

while the other will be while working as a teacher.

The first program is the per-service training program that is provided by the

faculties of education and the second program is the in-service training program

that is necessary to be held with the co-operation of the Ministry of Education and

Faculties of education

Table (26)

No. of The
teachers percentage
Teachers who gave the differences. 13 24.07%
Teachers who didn’t know the differences. 9 16.66%
Teachers didn’t respond to this item. 32 59.25%

So this table clarifies that only 13 teachers know the differences between these

two program and 9 teachers did not know any thing about the difference between

these programs. On the other hand, the percentage of teachers who did not respond

to this item was very high and that means they neglected this item or they did not

have any information about these two programs.

The teachers who differentiated between these programs uniformly maintained

that the per-service training is a program held in a faculty of education to prepare


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

students to be teachers while the in-service training is held for teachers working as

teachers in schools and give them some new information about methods, techniques,

preparing teaching aids and dealing with slow learners and crowded classes,etc…

The result of question31:

When they were asked to mention the goals of pre-service training, 24 teachers

tried to mention the goals and they agreed upon these goals:

1-preparing teacher for real teaching;


2-preparing them to use teaching aids;
3-preparing teachers to know how they can teach and behave with the
students;
4-providing them with some essential information for teaching inside the
class;
5-acqiring the confidence to stand before the students;
6-creating new ability on teachers’ skills; and
7-preparing them to use teaching techniques.
When the teachers were asked to mention the goals of in-service training program,

twenty-three teachers mentioned the following goals:

1- to improve teachers’ ability to teach;


2- to be given the latest theory of teaching and methods;
3- to be trained to solve their own problems;
4- to update the ways the teachers use;
5- to cope with the new changes;
6- to evaluate performance;
7- to refresh the information and methods of teaching;
8- to help teachers modify their techniques;
9- to help teachers develop the style of teaching; and
10- to improve teachers’ performance.
Thirty-one teachers out of the sample didn’t respond to this item either they did

not know the goals of this program or they neglected this item of the questionnaire.
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

The result of question 32:

When the teachers were asked to mention who should be responsible for

conducting in-service training program, 27 teachers mentioned that ministry of

education should be responsible for that while six teachers said that faculty of

education should do that but one teacher said that high institute should be

responsible for that. Two teachers agreed upon that the faculty of education and

high institute should be responsible and one teacher said that ministry of education,

high institute and faculty of education should do that. There should actually be a

concerted effort by all the three bodies. Expertise from the Faculty, planning by the

High Institute and policy and financial backing by the Ministry of Education.

The result of question 33:

When they were asked to mention the rationale of such program, 7 teachers said

that the rationale of this program is:

1- to improve the level of teacher performance;

2- to provide the new approaches for teaching;

3- to recognize the new strategies and skills;

On the other hand, 47 teachers did not respond to this item of the questionnaire.

The result of question 34:

When they were asked if they would like to attend such programmes, thirty

teachers, who participated in this item, mentioned that they would like to attend it

to improve their performance, while twenty-four teachers did not respond to this

item.
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

The result of question 35:

When they were asked to mention the topics to be covered, they mentioned the

following:

1-how to deal with slow learners;


2-how to make learners speak well;
3-how to deal with crowded classes;
4-the way of designing the tasks;
5-how to deal with mixed ability classes;
6-how to make the learners active;
7-how to minimize the use of Arabic inside the English class;
8-how to prepare teaching aids and use them;
9-how to use the techniques well;
10-the advantages of testing;
11-how to prepare the test;

The result of question36:

When the teachers were asked to mention the reasons behind their choice to

the topics that should be covered in the program of in-service training of English

teachers, they mentioned the following reasons:

1-some teachers lack experience in these topics;


2-some teachers did not study some of these topics;
3-they are very important for every teacher;
4-some of these topics are not included in the syllabus of Faculties of
Education;

The result of question 37:

The answer of this question shows that 17 teachers mentioned that the suitable

time for conducting such program is the end of school year and before the new
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

school year begins. While 8 teachers vary in their answers from once every week,

every month, every term and during the school day at afternoon time.

On the other hand 29 teachers did not respond to this item.

The analysis of inspectors’ questionnaire

The result of questions 1and 2:

The experience is a prerequisite even for an inspector. The inspector could not

evaluate teachers well if he lacks the experience .so the answer of the first question

shows that the inspectors have varied range of experience. Six inspectors

participated in this questionnaire. The following table will identify their

experiences as teachers and inspectors:

Table (27)

The experience of the respondent:

No. As teacher As inspector


1- 5 12
2- 9 9
3- 8 8
4- 9 1
5- 10 2
6- 4 10

Four inspectors had long experience working as a teacher while two inspectors

did not have long experience. Three inspectors had long experience working as

inspectors. The experience as a teacher will help the inspector discover the

shortcoming of teachers’ performance during their visit and the experience as an

inspector help him evaluate the teachers well.


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

The result of question 3:

In answer to this question, three inspectors mentioned the criteria for evaluation

of teachers of English.

Table (28)

1 st inspector 2nd inspector 3rd inspector


Appearance Efficiency How to explain lesson
Information Classroom management How to deal with slow
learners
Controlling the class performance How to control the
classroom
Pupils’ involvement Teachers’ personality

This table clarifies that the inspectors have different criteria for evaluating

teachers, but they should have specific criteria to eliminate the weakness of

teachers’ performance.

The result of question 4:

When the inspectors visit teachers in their schools they should have some

observation categories to be used to judge the teachers’ performance, so the result

of the fourth question shows that the inspectors vary in their using of these

observation categories.

1-one inspector uses all the five observation categories in order to observe the
teachers’ teaching;
2-the second inspector uses the first four of these observations and neglects the
fifth one.
3-the third inspector of the sample uses the first , third and the fourth of the
observation categories to do his job in evaluating teachers;
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

4-Another inspector uses the first, the second, and the fifth one while he neglects
the third and the fourth;
5- the fifth inspector uses the first and third while he neglects the other observation
categories; and
6-the sixth inspector concentrates on the fourth observation category to do his job
of evaluating the teachers.

Table (29)

No. Observation categories No. of teacher The percentage


1- Classroom procedure 5 83.3%
2- Teaching aids 3 50%
3- Pupils involvement 4 66.6%
4- Teacher’s personality 4 66.6%
5- Command of English 2 33.3%

This table shows that 5 inspectors use the first observation category to observe

the teachers inside the class while four of the sample use the third and fourth of the

observation categories .on the other hand three inspectors concentrate on the

teaching aids during their evaluation of teachers, but two of the sample concentrate

on the teacher’s command of English .so the difference in categories gives us that

the inspectors do not have a specific criteria for evaluating teachers .

The result of question 5:

The result of this question shows that the inspectors did not visit to schools

regularly. Their visits will help teachers to solve their problems.

One inspector said that he paid the visit to school twice a week while another one

paid a visit three times in a month and the third one said that he paid the visit twice

or three times in a year.


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

On the other hand two inspectors did not mention any specific time for their visit

to schools and they said that they visited school according to the exigencies of the

time.

The result of question 6:

The answer of this question shows that the sample of the study held a meeting

with teachers during their visit to their schools while one inspector mentioned that

he sometimes held the meeting and sometimes did not hold it.

For the best results, their meeting should be with individual teachers as well as

with all the teachers.

The result of question 7:

This item shows that the inspectors held the meeting individually and with all

teachers because there is some private observations the teacher should know while

when the inspectors want to discuss general information, s/he should meet them

together.

The result of question 8:

When the inspectors were asked to mention the topics that they discuss with

teachers during their visit to schools, they mentioned the following topics:

1-lesson plan;
2-language skills;
3-teaching aids;
4-use of blackboard;
5-using teaching techniques;
6-using production;
7-preparing test;
8-dealing with slow learners; and
9-using cassette.
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

All the inspectors do not discuss these topics but every one has his own

preferences. They agreed upon the importance of all these topics.

When they were asked about languages they used with the teachers during their

meeting with the teachers, all the sample of the study revealed that they used both

the language i.e., Arabic and English in their discussion.

The result of question 9:

When the inspectors were asked to mention the problems they found in the

teachers’ teaching, they mentioned the following problems:

1-most teachers are not trained well;


2-most teachers are frustrated;
3-school administrations are to develop good contact with the parents;
4-the learners don’t have the desire to learn;
5-some teachers speak all the time inside the class;
6-some teachers use Arabic language in their teaching;
7- the crowded classes;
8-some teachers don’t know how to plan the lessons;
9-schools lack teaching aids;
10-teachers could not deal with slow learners; and
11-some teachers do not use the cassette;
The reasons behind these problems from the point of view of the inspectors:

1-some teachers have another work;


2-difficult life conditions;
3-teachers lack the desire to improve themselves;
4-the lack of relationship between teachers and learners;
While three inspectors did not respond to this item of the questionnaire.

When they were asked whether these problems affect teachers’ performance, their

response was positive. They also maintained that most of the teachers did not pay
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

any attention to the weakness of the learners; they came to class, explained their

lessons and left the class without any interaction between them and learners.

When they were asked how they could help teachers overcome their problems

One inspector said that; he guided them

1- how they could use teaching aids;


2- how to teach language skills;
3- how to deal with large classes;
4- how to use cassettes and how to deal with individual differences among the
learners.
Two inspectors said that the teachers overcame their problems by constant

discussion with the inspectors.

One inspector said he held meeting to discuss the problems that teachers faced

during their teaching and he held model lessons before them, showing how to

teach well and how to overcome problems.

While two inspectors did not mention how they helped teachers overcome these

problems.

The result of question 10:

When they were asked whether they thought language teacher competence

(LTC) of teachers was adequate for teaching English, all the inspectors said no.

The result of question 11:

When they were asked whether the teachers needed to be improved, the sample

of the study mentioned that all teachers needed to be improved to face their

problems and to raise their level of performance of teaching.

The inspectors prioritized in the list of things to be attended to during in-service

training:
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

a- make the learners understand some complex ideas;


b- t communicative approach;
c- effective techniques;
d- dealing with slow learners ;
e- classroom control and management;
f- dealing with large classes;
g- organizing group/pair work;
h- lesson planning ;
i- self confidence;
j- setting questions.
All the items, actually require serious attention for effective teacher

performance

The result of question 12:

When the inspectors were asked whether they concentrated on lesson plan

or let the teachers do what they want; four inspectors said they concentrated on

lesson plan while one inspector said he did not concentrate on it and the last

one said he concentrated on how the aims of the lesson should be achieved in

the class.

The result of question 13:

When the inspectors were asked to mention how they found teachers using

the blackboard, they said they found them using it sometimes appropriately and

sometimes not so useful.

The result of question 14:

This question was asked to know the teachers’ use of the teaching aids i.e.

wall charts, falsh cards, magazine pictures, and realia.so

1-two inspectors found teachers using only wall charts and flash cards ;
2-one inspector found them using flash cards, magazine pictures and
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

realia;
3-one inspector found teachers using magazine pictures;
4-one inspector found them using wall charts; and
5- one inspector did not find them using any teaching aids.
When they were asked to mention in which stage they used these aids,

three inspectors said that teachers used these aids in presentation stage while

one inspector said that teachers should use these aids in all stages but one

inspector said he found them using these aids in practice and one inspector did

not respond to this item of the questionnaire.

The result of question 15:

When they were asked to mention whether there is any in-service training

program in Yemen, all the inspectors said that there is no formal in-service

training program in Yemen until now. While one inspector mentioned that

there was a workshop held in Sana’a at the beginning of introducing the new

course and this workshop was only for inspectors. The aims of this workshop

were to present some information about the course and how it can be taught.

The result of question 16:

The inspectors could not provide a suitable definition of in-service

training. But four inspectors tried to give the definition of this term as:

1- training teachers who are teaching English for


updating ideas and improving their performance.
2- Giving teachers some experiences and teaching them
the new techniques.
3- Making teachers in contact with new ideas, new
techniques and improve their level.
4- Providing help in any way to the teachers.
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

While one inspector said that it means training while teachers work in school

and one inspector did not respond to this item.

The result of question17:

When they were asked to mention the differences between the two

programs, i.e. pre- and in-service training, they mentioned the following

differences:

Table (30)

Pre-service In-service
Information had given to teachers New information is given to
before joining the field of education. teachers
Academic study before joining the Study while working as a teacher
field of education.
Before service During service
While one inspector did not respond to this item.

The result of question 18:

The answer of this question shows the reasons for in-service training in

Yemen and 5 inspectors mentioned the following reasons:

1-to improve teaching and learning processes;


2-to sensitize teachers to new techniques in teaching;
3-to update their information.
One inspector did not respond to this item.

The result of question 19:

The inspectors were asked to identify the agency responsible for in-service

training program. Three inspectors said that the Ministry of education should

be responsible for conducting this program, while one inspector said all the
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

authorities (ministry of education, faculty of education and high institute)

should be responsible for doing this program.

On the other hand, another inspector mentioned that ministry of education

and high institute should be responsible for that and one inspector mentioned

the ministry of education and faculty of education should do that

The entire sample agreed upon the responsibility of Ministry of education for

conducting such program because it is the apex body for promoting all

educational activity in the country..

The result of question 20:

When the inspectors were asked to mention the rationale of such program;

no one of the inspectors could mention the rationale.

The result of question 21:

When they were asked to mention the procedures and methods that should

be taken in conducting this program, they could not mention any procedures or

methods. They mentioned topics instead of procedure and this means that

either they misunderstood the item or they did not read it carefully.

The result of question 22:

When they were asked to mention topics that should be covered /discussed

in such programs; one inspector mentioned these topics and the reason behind

his choice is they are very related to the problems of our situation:

1- Effective teaching;
2- Classroom management;
3- Planning /analyzing materials;
4- Using teaching aids;
5- Planning lessons;
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

6- Using cassette;
7- Dealing with slow learners;
8- Using techniques;
9- Lack of confidence.
While one inspector mentioned the topics that should be discussed and he said

all the items that were mentioned in question 11 should be necessary to be

discussed in such programs because they are what teachers need to be helped

with.

The result of the question 23:

When they were asked to mention the suitable time for conducting such

program, four inspectors mentioned that it should be essentially a part time

engagement. The reasons for the time frame are as follow:

1- Some teachers don’t have enough time to attend such program;


2- Most of the trainers are not free all the time;
3- Teachers can attend such program without creating vacancy in
schools.
While one inspector mentioned that it should be full time in order to be taken

seriously on the part of the trainees ,the other inspector did not respond to this

item.
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

Chapter 5

Discussion, suggestion, conclusion and recommendations

5.1-Introduction:

This study aims at investigating the nature and scope of in-service training

in Yemen. By the two questionnaires that were administered to teachers and

inspectors, the researcher identified the level of performance of teachers and

how they present English to the learners.

There are many ways to present the language to the learners and the teachers

’response to the items of the questionnaire revealed what the teachers use, how

they use and when they use the aids or techniques to enable the learning

process.

To be a teacher it is not enough to know how to carry out professional

activities. It is necessary to assume a teacher’s point of view, to internalise the

teacher’s role. It is necessary to regard oneself as a member of the teaching

community and to be able to use the specific resources of the profession. In

short, it is necessary to assume a teacher’s professional identity, that is, to

identify with the teacher’s professional group. A professional identity requires,

of course, the mastery of knowledge and abilities essential to professional

performances, but it also involves assuming essential norms and values of the

profession and an attitude of commitment to improving education. Its

construction poses complex problems to teacher education programs.


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

The inspectors’ questionnaire helped to identify the level of the performance of

English teachers from the inspectors’ point of view. They identified the

shortcomings of teachers and how to raise the performance of teachers.

5.2.Discussion

The aim of this study is to identify an agenda for in-service training of

teachers of English. From the instrument that was used in collecting data and

information about the teachers of English, I noticed that some teachers have the

awareness of the necessity to improve ways of teaching but they felt constrained

by the indifference of education office and school. The latter did not encourage

teachers to improve the ways of teaching.

While some teachers mentioned that the curricula of the faculties of education

should be updated according to the latest theories of teaching.

This study revealed the importance of techniques and teaching aids in raising

the level of learners and helping teachers in presenting the items of the language

.Not all teachers use them for want of information and commitment.

From analyzing the questionnaire, it was clear that teachers did not have

adequate information about pre-service and in-service training in spite of their

attending the pre-service program during their study at the faculty of education.

They did not know that studying at the faculties of education constitute the pre-

service program to prepare them to teach after finishing their study .

This study revealed the shortcomings of teachers in teaching. People

responsible for education of the country should find solution for those by

sponsoring in-service training for teachers from time to time to update their

information and technique.


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

This study also revealed the role of inspectors in evaluating teachers and in

solving problems.

If the inspectors do their job properly to raise the level of teaching in Yemen

and the teachers would be guided in solving their problems.

5.3.Suggestions:

The Ministry of Education with the help of the High Institutes and Faculties of

Education should conduct programs of in-service training for teachers to update

their information about teaching. These programs can be held annually at the

beginning of every school year.

According to the inspectors’ reports about the performance of teachers, these

programs can discuss the main problems teachers face during their work in

schools. The following topics are mentioned by teachers and inspectors:

1-dealing with slow learners,

2-making learners speak well,

3-dealing with crowded classes,

4-ways of designing the tasks ,

5-dealing with mixed ability classes,

6-making the learners active,

7-using the techniques ,

8-preparing testing,

9-classroom management,

10-preparing and using teaching aids,

11-planning lessons,

12- planning blackboard ,and blackboard drawing,


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

13- presenting vocabulary ,and correcting errors,

14- using English in the class.

These topics should be elaborated by the educator and trainer to be discussed with

the teacher trainees during the program of in-service training.

Teachers’ attendance should be compulsory at least once in a year to help them

gain more knowledge and this will help them revise their ways of teaching of the

previous school year and help them be more confident in their work.

According to Adrian Doff (1989) there are three main kinds of activity in such a

program:

1-demonstration,

2-discussion , and

3-pair and group work activities

Demonstration is to allow participants to witness a procedure or an act. This

demonstration can then be practiced by participants and supervised by the trainer.

It brings to life some information that has been presented in a lecture, discussion,

or explanation. For example, a discussion of a particular training technique may

not be as effective as a direct demonstration of that technique that participants can

both experience and/or apply themselves.

Process of the demonstration:

a. Trainer explains the purpose of the demonstration.

b. Trainer demonstrates procedure or new behavior.

c. Participants ask questions, engage in discussion.

d. Participants practice with trainer/peer supervision.


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

The teacher trainees should involve themselves, participate and contribute their

own ideas, their own experience to bear on the topic under discussion. Discussion

also helps the trainer see how well the teacher trainees understand the new ideas

being presented.

Pair and group work are two activities that should be used with some topics to be

elaborated and these activities allow more teacher trainees to be involved in the

activity and give a chance for them to help each other and develop ideas together.

Grouping is an essential part of training and can be used by the trainer to either

bring people together randomly, to have teachers of the same school or school

district solve problems together, or to discuss opposing views or methods with

colleagues. The trainer may ask the participants to choose partners or assign

partners according to the criteria suggested above. The trainer can use this

technique to promote participation or to establish working groups for outside

training assignments. Possible tasks might be writing objectives and lesson plans,

curriculum design, analyzing situations or reporting.

The program has great potential to provide in promotion techniques to raise the

performance of the teacher trainees.

i- Brainstorming

Brainstorming is a useful technique to elicit a wide range of ideas and

information from participants to tap the experience and expertise of the

participants.

All ideas and experiences generated by participants are collected and recorded

without the threat of judgment or criticism. Brainstorming is used to help focus or

clarify activities or a content area. This technique also promotes creativity and
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

finding solutions to problems. Brainstorming is particularly effective in opening

sessions to establish goals, objectives, expectations and norms (rules) for the

training program

The process of brainstorming:

a. The trainer tells the group that the purpose of the exercise is to elicit as many

ideas as possible about a particular topic.

b. Participants are invited to call out as many ideas as they can possibly generate

about the topic being investigated. They are asked to draw upon personal

experience and opinion, be creative and imaginative. (At this point no ideas are

rejected or analyzed - everything offered is accepted and encouraged).

c. Trainer writes all ideas down on newsprint, board etc. for all to see

d. After ideas are generated, the group discusses and analyzes the information

collected. At this time, the trainer can ask each person to clarify points they have

made that are unclear to the group.

e. The trainer then helps to group and prioritize ideas. This can be done by

consensus, vote, or compromise.

f. Through this process of prioritization, the trainer helps the group identify key

ideas for the group to pursue or further investigate.

ii-Lecture

To provide participants with specific information and/or set the stage for an

experiential activity.

Lectures are used to highlight key points of content. They differ from traditional

lectures in that they often incorporate participant interaction and, at times, give the

impression of a discussion.
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

Process of the lecture:

a. Trainer prepares outline of lecture and supporting instructional materials.

b.Key information is presented to participants.

c. Trainer solicits information and/or questions from participants.

d. Trainer allows discussion of unclear points.

e. Trainer summarizes, concludes and proceeds to next part of the session.

iii-Role play:

To allow participants to practice learned behavior in new situations, act out

real-life situations, and experience new perspectives.

Roles may be set up by the trainer or participants may make up their own roles.

Participants can thus explore solutions to situations or problems under discussion.

Since this is a role play, discussion can center around the role and characterization

presented by the participant and thus avoid criticism of the participants themselves.

Role plays can be used in the large group or in smaller groups if appropriate.

Process of the role play:

a. Description of role play given orally or as a handout (developed by trainer or

participants).

b. Participants of role play are given a time limit to prepare.

c. Participants act out role play as the characters that they are portraying.

d. Trainer facilitates discussion/analysis of behavior portrayed or felt by

participants.

e. Participants offer suggestions for changing their own behavior/attitudes.


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

iv-Case studies:

To allow participants to analyze and discuss a real or hypothetical situation they

might encounter.

By reading a detailed case study participants are able to identify alternative

behaviors and solutions to situations and problems they might experience in the

classroom. Case studies should be provided by the trainer and be appropriate and

applicable for teachers. Topics such as classroom management make ideal subjects

for case study analysis. The trainer should design the case study activity so that it

is presented with interim reflection periods and discussed in small logical

components.

Process of the case study:

a. Trainer writes or obtains appropriate case study focusing on the topic, which is

to be addressed.

b. Participants either break up into groups or work together in a seminar type

discussion.

c. Analysis and solutions to problems in case study are presented by participants.

d. Trainer facilitates questioning and approaches to alternative solutions.

v-Micro-teaching:

To allow participants to practice classroom behavior, receive feedback and

modify their behavior or perfect their techniques while still in training.

Teachers can practice a particular skill (e.g. introducing lessons, using a particular

game, activity, or structured experience), a new behavior (e.g. using open

questioning, facilitating a discussion - as opposed to leading a discussion, assisting

students in generating objectives, or integrating curriculum), or improvement on


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

his/her teaching style in a simulated classroom. The advantage in micro-teaching is

that participants have the opportunity to receive feedback and then restructure their

delivery and reteach. For many teachers, this will be the first time that they have an

opportunity for peer-evaluation. For this reason, micro-teaching can be a very

effective and useful training technique.

Process of the micro-teaching:

a. The trainer prepares the training environment to serve as a simulated classroom

(identifying real students or preparing fellow participants to play the role of

particular types of students, adjusting the training sight to approximate a local

classroom, etc.)

b. Participants are asked to present an outline or lesson plan for the micro-teaching

session.

c. A time limit is given for the length of the actual presentation.

d. An actual lesson is taught or skill or behavior practiced by each participant

while a few individuals or the rest of the group evaluates the performance.

e. The trainer can specify particular behaviors to be evaluated or they can be

requested beforehand by the participant.

f. Feedback is then given to each participant by his/her peers and the trainer. Peer

evaluation can be oral and/or written.

g. When available and appropriate, videotape or cassette recorders can be used to

allow participants to actually witness their own performance. Personal evaluation

and feedback can then precede peer and trainer feedback. Participants allowed to

view or hear their own presentation may be better able to identify weak points

and/or accept constructive criticism from others.


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

h. Upon receiving evaluations, participants restructure their presentations and do a

second micro-teaching presentation with altered behavior to improve performance.

i. Re-evaluation is carried out as described in steps f and g.

j. Participant gives a presentation on what they have learned and how it will help

them. Feedback by all is encouraged.

vi- Peer training:

To allow participants with expertise in a certain field to help in the training

process and add to both content areas covered and styles being modeled.

Peer training can help participants to network for future cooperation, collaboration

and support in teaching. It takes the role of trainer away from the trainer and gives

the authority and control of learning back to the participants. Though rewarding,

the preparation for peer training activities can be extensive and involved and the

trainer should be ready to commit a great deal of time to this activity.

Process of the peer training:

a. Trainer solicits participant assistance in training in a particular field of study,

asks for areas of expertise from participants, or assigns participants topics to be

researched, prepared and presented.

b. Participants who wish to (or are assigned to) help with the training work with

the trainer to establish a session training design.

c. Other participants are encouraged to ask questions and participate in discussions

about the topic area to be presented.


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

Listed here are some of the techniques that may be found useful when training

teachers. As stated above, these are only suggestions and can be tailored to fit a

particular situation and training style.

The primary challenge for the teacher trainer is to design and implement a training

program that is coherent, comprehensive and, above all, appropriate to the cultural

context of the country.

No technique will benefit participants if it is poorly administered or inappropriate

for the training. Continually check to ensure that participants are learning what

they need to know. Time allocated for training programs is invariably shorter than

what is needed; so wasted training time is often lost forever.

Some considerations for conducting training program:

These considerations are crucial for any program that lasts for several days or

weeks. The key to a successful design is the ability to balance a variety of

variables. So the authority that is responsible for conducting such program should

consider the following points:

1-Each day has its high energy and low energy times. High-energy times are when

participants are refreshed and energetic; low energy times are when the trainers are

trying to keep everyone awake. Mornings tend to be high energy while afternoons

low. So the training program should be conducted in the morning time to help the

trainees gain more knowledge and benefit from the program.

2- People learn best not by hearing, but by doing. While it is important for the

trainees to learn specific or technical content, be sure to also include activities that

involve them in the use of this content. Vary techniques so that they address each

part of the learning cycle .


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

3- Large group and small group sessions have advantages. Large group sessions

are good for lectures or demonstrations when the trainers want everyone to get the

same information. Small groups are best for discussions and individual

participation. Many participants who would never speak in front of a large group

of people are very willing to share their experiences or questions with only six or

seven others.

4- While the trainers want the training program to be taken seriously by

participants, this does not mean that it cannot be fun. There can be celebrations in

the design, especially at the opening and closing of the program.

5.4.Conclusion

In our country, till recent times, research in teacher training remains a far cry.

Evaluation and training of teachers are important to meet the changing scenario of

education. The teachers should be trained to overcome their difficulties. I have

noticed the following about the education and training in Yemen:

1-A majority of students selected for pre-service program do not have the desire to

adopt teaching as their vocation;

2- the objectives of the pre-service curriculum do not reflect the present and future

needs of the trainees;

3-the evaluation of student teachers does not match with the objectives of

the program;

4-the faculties of education concentrate on the quantity instead of quality;

5-during teaching practice, the student teachers were not provided by

activities or skills that can help them teach well;


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

6-the curriculum of the faculties of education has to be improved to meet

the educational requirements;

7- there should be a proper integration of theory and practice in every one of the

courses, with a greater emphasis on practice.

5.5.The Recommendations:

5.5.1- Recommendations to teachers of English:

1-teachers should co-operate among them to solve their problems;

2-teachers should found association to help them hold meetings to discuss the

problems they face;

3-teachers should exchange visits among them to recognize the weaknesses

and strengths of their teaching;

4-teachers should try to use suitable techniques to help the learners improve their

performance;

5-teachers should update their knowledge and teaching methods in light of the

latest developments.

6-teachers should use teaching aids to facilitate the learning process.

5.5.2-Recommendations to inspectors of English:

1-inspectors should visit schools regularly to evaluate teachers;

2-they should hold meetings regularly with teachers to discuss the problems they

confront during teaching;

3-they should encourage teachers to form associations to promote mutual co-

operation among teachers in teaching;

4-they should sensitize teachers to the latest theory of teaching and try to discuss

with them the advantages of using techniques and teaching aids; and
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

5-they should develop a holistic evaluation procedure to assess teachers and

encourage the better teachers and try to raise the level of performance of the

weaker teachers.

5.5.3-Recommendations to the Ministry of Education:

1-Ministry of Education should found in-service training institutes to improve the

level of English teachers;

2-it should provide these institutes with experts in specialist areas to be responsible

for training the teachers;

3-it should evaluate the ground realities of schools and find out solutions for the

crowded classes;

4-it should try to provide the schools with the necessary infrastructure to help

teachers function effectively;

5-it should hold annual meeting of inspectors and provide them with the new

theories of English teaching and the best way of evaluating teachers to raise the

performance of practicing teachers;

6- the offices of education should hold meetings for all the English teachers to

equip them with knowledge and techniques of their profession.

5.5.4-Recommendation to faculties of education:

1-faculties of education should add topics about teacher education to the

curriculum to help student teachers gain more knowledge about teaching;

2-they should select the students according to their aptitude for teaching ;

3-offer integrated course of theory and practice of teaching;

4-they should choose qualified tutors to be responsible for conducting teaching

practice;
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

5-there should be co-operation between the ministry of education and the faculties

of education to improve the level of teachers during their in-service program.

To sum up, teacher training in Yemen is a phenomenon of forty years. Begun in

the 1970s as a short-term program to meet the sudden demand for large number of

teachers, for the new created primary, preparatory and secondary schools; by

1980s,the faculty of education has started offering four-year program in education

to become a ladder for educational career. The faculties of education, thus, play a

responsible role in the educational program of the country. However, their

curriculum has not been constantly revised to meet the changing environment of

education in Yemen.

But, the faculties of education and the Ministry of Education cannot stop just

with pre-service training. They should make concerted efforts to update the

knowledge and techniques of the practicing teachers by running in-service training

programs for all the teachers on a periodical basis. In the chapter two of this

project, there is an outline of what has been happening in recent decades in the

western countries in in-service training. The sad fact is that in the Yemen context,

people concerned with education.. officials, administrators and teachers .. have not

given a serious thought to in-service training. If the system of education is not to

degenerate into a well-organized farce, the situation cries out for immediate

attention to remedy it by starting in-service training courses to all teachers. The

present study confines itself to teachers of English, as the project is undertaken in

the department of English. It highlights the areas where practicing teachers of

English are urgently in need of guidance and training. There is scope for

undertaking another study on in-service education, as it would include a sound


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

theoretical knowledge linked to learning experience and professional development

of teachers.

Faculties of education must redesign their programs to focus directly on

developing the beginner's knowledge base for effective teaching and the

knowledge base for changing the conditions that affect teaching.


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

References

Al-Mekhlafy, M. 1999 .Investigating English Question Formation vis-à-vis

Yemeni TEFL. An unpublished Doctor of Philosophy Thesis. Hyderabad

.CIEFL

Arora,G.L._______. School Experience Programme and Quality in Teacher

Education. Retrieved from http//:www.ncte.in.org.glarora.htm.

Ba’abad ,A.H.1994. System of Education in Yemen. Its past ,present, future

,Comprehensive study. Dar.Alfeker.Syria.

Bose. M. N .K. 1997.Language teacher education ,Problems and

practices. Madras.India:New century Book House.

Codde ,J. R. 1997.The Role of Experience in Education: How Life and

Educational Experiences Influence Non-Traditional Student Persistence At

Lansing Community College. An unpublished Doctor of Philosophy

Dissertation. Department of Educational Administration. Michigan State

University.

Day, Richard, R.1990.Teacher Observation. In Second Language Teacher

Education. Edited by J.C.Richards and D.Nunan.New York: Cambridge University

Press.

Doff,Adrian.1989 .Teach English ,A training course for teachers ,

Cambridge University Press.

Galloway, Ann. 1993. Communicative Language Teaching: An Introduction And

Sample Activities. Retrieved from

http//:www.sal.org/ericcll/digest/gallow01.htm.
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

(ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics Washington DC.)

Gebhard, Jerry, G. 1997. Awareness of Teaching, Approaches, Benefits, Tasks .In

Teacher Development. Making the right moves. Edited by Thomas Kral. English

Language Programs Division .United States Information Agency. Washington, D.

C.

Harmer,J.2002.The Practice Of English Language Teaching .Pearson Education

Limited.

Henderson,Euan,S.1978.The Evaluation of In-service Teacher Training

London. Billing and Sons Limited.

Hubbard, P.; Jones , H.; Thornton , B.; and Wheeler, R . 1986.

A training Course for TEFL. Oxford (English Language Book Society) Oxford

University Press.

Johnson, Beverly, 1993. Teacher-As-Researcher. ERIC Digest

Retrieved from http://www.ericfacility.net/databases/ERIC_Digests/index

Morant,Roland.W.1981.In-service Education Within the School. London.

George Allen & Unwin .

O’Toole,Rory.2002. Using Information & Communication Technology to Support

Reflective Practice and Self-Evaluation in Teaching:

Towards the Development of a Digital Portfolio Aid. Retrieved from

http://www.homepage.eircom.net/~mite2000rory/final-t/thesis.htm

Painter, D. Rigsby , L .2003 .Teacher Research. Action Research.

Retrieved from, http://www.gse.gmu.edu/research/tr/Traction . shtml


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

Richards,J.C .Ho ,Belinda, 1997 .Reflective thinking through journal writing. In

Beyond Training , perspectives on Language Teacher Education. Edited by

Jack.C.Richards.Cambridge University Press.

Richards , Platt ,J. and Weber, H.1987. Longman Dictionary of Applied linguistics.

Longman

Rossner R. 1988. Selecting Teacher Educators-establishing criteria .in

Explorations in Teacher Training. edited by Tony Duff Longman

Thomas,Andrw,L.1987.Language teacher Competence and Language Teacher

Education. In Language Teacher Education, an integrated program for ELT

Teacher Training. Edited by Roger Bowers, ELT. Docoument125. British

Council.

Verster, Cheron. ___________, Action research , Retrieved from

http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/methodology/action_research

shtml

Willis,Jane.1985. Teaching English through English ,A course in classroom

language and Techniques. English Language Book Soiety/Longman.

__________,2003 .Action Research .Retrieved from

http// www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/envrnmnt/drug free/sa3act.htm.

________,_______,Definition of Action Research. Retrieved from

http://www.coe.fac.edu/sfcel/define .htm

______. _____ .Dimensions of Reflective Practice: A Synthesis of Perspectives

Retrieved from
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

http:// www.serafini.nevada.edu/webArticle…

_____________,2003,Faculties of Education Guide,2000/2001 .University of

Sana’a.

___________,2001,Hodeidah University Guide 2000/2001.Al-Nebras Press.

______. _____. Incorporating program evaluation Retrieved from

http;//www.mng.unix1.marasconewton.com/peacecrops/Documents/

T0045/t0045e/too45e04/htm

______,2002. Reflective practice .Retrieved from

www.utmb.edu/dci/JRAGON /ssjargon.htm

_____ . ______ . Reflective Practice. Retrieved from

http://www.educ.queensu.ca/~russellt/howteach/reflect.htm

_________, _____. Reflection & Reflective Practice . Retrieved from

www.londonpharmacy.nhs.uk/EducationAndTraining/download/

cpd%20reflective%20practice%20handout.doc

____________,______,Teacher training. History of Teacher Training .1800-

1970s.Retrieved from http//www.newman.ac.uk/students/~shabina.bi/History.htm.

______. 2000. What is Action Research? Retrieved from

,http://www.bamaed.ua.ed/~Kstaples/Action Rec.HTM
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

Appendices

The questionnaire

Dear Sir /Madam;

I am Yahia Ahmed Qaid ,a II M.Ed. Student in the Department of English

,Faculity of Education ,Hodeidah ,Hodeidah University. As part of my

M.Ed.course ,I am attempting to carry out a small scale study [a ’mini-research ’if

you will ].The purpose of my research is to investigate the nature and scope of in-

service training in Yemen ,one that is urgently necessary ,and to try to suggest an

agenda for training English Teachers and how faculties of education in Yemen can

contribute to this .

I hope you will help me filling in this questionnaire ,please write down as

much information as you would.

The utility and pragmatic relevance of the findings of this research depends

heavily on your objective and considered response.

The information you provide is only for research purposes and will not be

revealed or shared.

Thanks.

Yahia Ahmed Qaid .II. M.Ed.

Teacher of English ,26th Sept. School for girls, Hodeidah.


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

‫ﺑﺴﻢ ﷲ اﻟﺮﺣﻤﻦ اﻟﺮﺣﯿﻢ‬

Questionnaire for Teachers of English Language


1-When did you graduate? From which faculty?
…………………………………………………………………………………
2-How long have you been teaching?
…………………………………………………………………………………
3-a) Indicate the degree of your satisfaction/dissatisfaction as a teacher by
ticking off the appropriate alternative given below:-

a) very satisfied [ ]
b) satisfied [ ]
c) indifferent [ ]
d) dissatisfied [ ]
e) very dissatisfied [ ]
f) don’t know [ ]

b) Please give the reasons behind your choice.


…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
4- What classes do you teach?
a) Preparatory classes ( ) b)secondary classes ( ) c)Both ( )
5- Which course books do you teach? Circle the appropriate number.
Book ( 1 /2 /3 /4 /5 /6 )
6- a) Is the Crescent English Course suitable for learners?
Yes [ ], No [ ].
b) If yes , how?
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
c) If no , why?
………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

7- In about 75-100 words, describe how you attempt to teach Crescent English
course . ( please give the reasons behind your choice)

………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………........................................
8- Do you follow specific methods in your teaching ?
Because…
a) you were taught only this method in the college. [ ]
b) you find it useful for the learners. [ ]
c) you find it easier to follow that than other methods. [ ]
d ) your inspector forces you to use this method. [ ]
e) you just use this method without any strong reason for doing so. [ ]

9-a)What differences do you notice between the old course English for Yemen
and the new course Crescent English Course for Yemen ?
............................................…………………………………………………………
……………….............................................................................................................
.……….……………………..………………………………………………………
……………………………...............................................…………………………
b) Which one do you prefer ? Why?
.....……………………………………………………………………………………
……………….............................................................................................
10-a) Do you use pair work in your teaching?
Yes [ ], No [ ]
If Yes. a) How often do you use it ?
………………………………………………………………………………..
b) When do you use it ?
………………………………………………………………………………..

c) Why do you use it ?


………………………………………………………………………………..
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

b) If No, Why don’t you use it ?


Because …
a) it is too noisy . [ ]
b) it takes too much time. [ ]
c) students do not work during pair work . [ ]
d) students do not want to work in pairs. [ ]
e) students do not want to listen to each other. [ ]
f) weaker students can not do pair work. [ ]
g) teacher has lost control of his class during pair work. [ ]
h) teacher can not monitor all the students in his class. [ ]
i) the classroom is too crowded for pairs. [ ]
j) teacher has never done pair work before. [ ]
11-a) Do you use group work?
Yes [ ], No [ ]
If Yes .a) When do you use it ?
………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………..….
b) Why do you use it ?
………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
b) If No ,Why don’t you use it?
..................................................……………………………………………………
…………………………………..............………………………………
12-a) Do you use …
a) wallcharts ? [ ]
b) flashcards ? [ ]
c) magazine pictures? [ ]
d) realia ? [ ]
-If Yes
b) When do you use these aids?
………………………………………………………………………………
c) Why do you use them?
………………………………………………………………………………..
d) Do you prepare these aids yourself or you share your class with you?
……………………………………………………………………………
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

e) Does your school help you prepare these aids?


Yes [ ], No [ ]
If Yes, What kind of help do you have?
………………………………………………………………………………………
………..…………………………………………………………………
13-a) How often do you use the black board?
[ always /usually /often /sometimes /never]
b) In which stage do you use it ?
[Revision /Presentation /Practice /Production]
c) How often do you use blackboard for drawing ?
[always /usually /often /sometimes /never]
14-a) Do you use cassette in your teaching?
Yes [ ], No [ ]
b) If Yes. a) How often do you use it ?
[always /usually /often /sometimes /never]
c) When do you use it ?
…………………………………………………………………….. …
d) Why do you use it ?
…….. …….……………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
e) If No,Why don’t you use it? .
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
15- a) Do you make your own tests?
Yes [ ] ,No [ ]
b) Were you trained in testing ?
Yes [ ] , No [ ]
c) How often do you test?
……………………..…………………………………………………………
d) How do you reach the results to students?
……………………..…………………………………………………………
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

16-a) What in your view are the purposes of testing?


[ Please Rank Order the following sentences]
i) Identification of problem areas for remedial attention. [ ]
ii) Giving each student a course grade . [ ]
iii) Assessment of your own effectness as a teacher. [ ]
iv) Checking on general progress and obtaining feedback. [ ]
v) Course or syllabus evaluation. [ ]
vi) Preparation for public examination. [ ]
vii) Measuring what a student knows. [ ]
viii) Identification of levels for later group work. [ ]
ix) Reinforcement of learning and student motivation. [ ]

b) Which purpose do you consider the most useful and the least useful?
………………………………………..………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
c) Give reason for your choice.
………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………
17-a) In examination ,do you take a passage for testing direct
from the course or a passage students are not familiar with?
……...........................………………………………………………………………
………………….........………………...........................………………….

b) What are the advantages of choosing an unknown passage for learners?


..……………………………………………………………..………………………
………………….……............................……………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
18-How many students are there in your classes?
...................................………………………………………………………………
19-a) How many teachers are there in your school?
…………………………………………………………………………………….
b) Have you formed an English Teachers’ Association in your school?
Yes [ ],No [ ]
c) If Yes. Do you have a regular meeting?
…………………………………………………………………………………….
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

d) If you have a regular meeting ,how often do you hold it?


Monthly [ ],terminal [ ] ,annual [ ]
e) What topics do you discuss in your meeting?
........................………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
f) Do you use [ Arabic/English] language in your meeting?
Arabic [ ], English [ ]
g) Refer back to question(34),If you don’t form English
Teachers’ Association , Why?
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
20- a)Do you think your language competence is adequate for teaching
English?
Yes [ ], No [ ]
b)How would you rate your competence in English?
High [ ],Medium [ ], Low [ ]
21-a)Do you feel that you need to be improved?
Yes [ ] ,No [ ]
b) If Yes ,Why do you think you need to be improved?
Because…
a)you face difficulty in making the learners understand some
complex ideas. [ ]
b) you face difficulty in planning lessons. [ ]
c) you lack of self-confidence. [ ]
d) you face difficulty in classroom control and management. [ ]
e) had no idea about communication approach. [ ]
f) had no idea about dealing with slow learners. [ ]
g) had no idea about dealing with large classes. [ ]
h) had no idea about organizing group /pair work. [ ]
i) had no idea about the techniques to be used to teach effectively. [ ]
j) had no idea about setting questions. [ ]

22-a) Does any Inspector of English visit you in your school?


Yes [ ], No [ ]
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

b) If Yes, a) How often does s/he visit you?


Once in a [ month/semester/ year]
Twice in a[month/ semester/ year]
c) Does s/he hold a meeting with all the English Teachers in your
school ?
Yes [ ], No [ ]
d) If Yes. Are the meetings with teachers held individually or with all of
them?
………………………………………………………………………….………

23-What topics does s/he discuss with you?


i) preparing lesson plan. [ ]
ii) dealing with the new course. [ ]
iii) setting questions. [ ]
iv) the level of the learners. [ ]
v) dealing with the mixed ability classes. [ ]
vi) dealing with the slow learners. [ ]
vii) discussing the latest theories of ELT. [ ]
viii) discussing the advantages of using pair/group work [ ]
ix) preparing teaching aids. [ ]
x) achieving the objectives of the course. [ ]
xi)controlling the classes. [ ]
24-List the problems you face during your teaching?
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
25-Do these problems affect your performance?
Yes [ ], No [ ]
26-If Yes, How do you overcome those problems?
a)by modeling your teaching on the teaching style of your own
teachers. [ ]
b) through trial and error. [ ]
c) discussion with and guidance from senior colleagues. [ ]
d) watching senior colleagues at work . [ ]
e) by reading about techniques of teaching English. [ ]
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

27-a) Do you give your learners a chance to speak or do you do all the talking in
the class?
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
b) If Yes, When and which language?
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………….……
………………………………….…………………………………………………..
28-a) Do you observe your colleagues’ classes?
Yes [ ], No [ ]
b) Do you invite your colleagues to observe your teaching?
Yes [ ], No [ ]
c) What are the advantages of exchanging such visits with your colleagues?
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
29-a) Are there any in-service programmes in Yemen?
Yes [ ] No [ ]
b) If Yes. Are you invited to one of these programmes?
Yes [ ] ,No [ ]

If you please ,use your own words,


30-Can you define the term In-service Training?
………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………..………….
31-In your opinion,What are the differences between Pre-service and In-service
Training?
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

32-a) What are the goals of Pre-service Training?


………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
b) What are the goals of In-service Training?
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
33-Who should be responsible for conducting this programme?
a)Ministry of Education [ ]
b)High Institute [ ]
c)Faculty of Education [ ]
34-What will be the rationale of such programme?
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
35-If there is an in-service training programme,Would you like to attend it?
Yes [ ] ,No [ ]
36-What topics would you want to be covered?
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
37-Why do you choose these topics?
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
38-What is the suitable time for conducting this programme?
..........………………………………………………………………………………
…………………….....................................................................................................
......................................…………………………………...................………………

Thanks for your kind cooperation:


In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

‫ﺑﺴﻢ ﷲ اﻟﺮﺣﻤﻦ اﻟﺮﺣﯿﻢ‬

Questionnaire for Inspectors of English Language

1-When did you graduate ?From which faculty?


………………………………………………………………………………………
2-How long have you been working as …
a) a teacher ? ………………………….…………….
b) an inspector?……………………………………..
3-What are your criteria for evaluation teachers of English?
…………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
4-Do you use one or more of these observation categories?
i) Classroom procedure
ii) Teaching aids
iii) Pupils involvement
iv) Teacher’s personality
v) Command of English
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………...
5-How often do you visit schools?
……………………………………………………………………………………….
6-Do you hold a meeting with the teachers?
Yes [ ] ,No [ ]
7-Do you meet the teachers individually or all of them together?
………………………………………………………………………………………
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

8- a) What topics do you discuss with them?


………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
b)Do you use (Arabic/English) language in your meeting with the teachers?
……………………………………………………………………………………
….……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………..……………………….
9-a) List the problems that you find in the teachers’ teaching?
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
b) What are the reasons of these problems?
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
…..……………………………………………………………………………..……
c)How can you help teachers overcome their problems
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………..
10-Do you think Language Teacher Competence is adequate for teaching
English? Yes [ ] , No [ ]
11-a) Do you feel that teachers need to be improved ?
Yes [ ] , No [ ]
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

b) If Yes.
Why do you think they need improvement?

Because …
i) they face difficulty in making the learners understand some complex
ideas. [ ]
ii) they face difficulty in planning lessons. [ ]
iii) they face difficulty in classroom control and management. [ ]
iv) they lack of confidence. [ ]
v) had no idea about dealing with slow learners. [ ]
vi) had no idea about communication approach. [ ]
vii) had no idea about dealing with large classes. [ ]
viii) had no idea about organizing group /pair work. [ ]
ix) had no idea about the techniques to be used to teach effectively. [ ]
x) had no idea about setting questions. [ ]

12-Do you insist on lesson plan or let the teachers do what they want?
…….…………………………………………………………………………………
13-Do you assess teachers using the blackboard?
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
14-a) Do you find them using one or more of these aids?
a) Wallcharts [ ]
b) Flashcards, [ ]
c) Magazine pictures, [ ]
d) Realia [ ]
b) In which stage do they use these aids?
Revision/Presentation/Practice/Production
15-a)Are there any in-service training programme in Yemen?
…………………………………………………………………………………
….………………………………………………………………………………
b) If Yes. Do you participate in these programme?
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

c) If Yes. What topics are discussed in such programme?


………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………..………………………………………..……………………………
16-What does the term In-service training mean?
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
17-What are the differences between Pre-service training and In-service training?
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………….
18-Why should there be In-service training in Yemen?
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
19-Who should be responsible for conducting this programme?
a)Ministry of Education. [ ]
b)Faculty of Education ; [ ]
c)High Institute. [ ]

20-What will be the rationale of such programme?


………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
21-List the procedures and methods that should be taken in conducting this
programme?
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid

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22-a)What topics should be discussed /covered in this programme?
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b)Why do you choose these topics to be discussed/covered?
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23-What time do you prefer for conducting this programme?
Full time [ ] ,Part time [ ]
Give reasons for your choice.
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Thanks for your kind cooperation:

Yahia Ahmed Qaid, M.Ed. in ELT, Ph.D. Candidate


Department of Linguistics
University of Mysore
Mysore 570 006
Karnataka, India.

Also Faculty Member, Department of English


Hajjah University
Hajjah
Yemen
qaid555@yahoo.com
In-service Training for Teachers of English in Yemen by
Yahia Ahmed Qaid