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A Report on

TRANSMISSION LINE CONSTRUCTION

By
RITESH M. PANCHAL Diploma Trainee [Electrical] Emp.No:20759

POWER GRID CORPORATION OF INDIA LTD. (A Government of India Enterprise)

POWER GRID CORPORATION OF INDIA LTD. (A Government of India Enterprise)

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project report entitled ´Transmission line Constructionµ, is the work done by Mr. Ritesh M. Panchal (Emp.No: 20759) and submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the training process at Parbhani TLC Office.(Maharashtra).

Ritesh I. Mendhe Engineer (TLC), Parbhani

Sushant G. Parhate Manager, Ambajogai

Atul Srivastava Chief Manager. Ambajogai

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to express my sincere thanks to Shri Atul Srivastava,

Chief Manager, Ambajogai for his
encouragement.

valuable suggestions and

My special gratitude extends to Shri.S.G. Parhate Manager, & Shri

R.I.Mendhe, Engineer (TLC) for their cooperation and support during
my training period.

I would like to thank all my friends, batchmates for their constant help and support during my training period.

RITESH M. PANCHAL

CONTENTS
Sr. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Description About POWERGRID Introduction About PARLI Project Surveying Foundation Tower Erection Stringing Compensation Forest Case Conclusion Page No. 1 2 7 12 24 30 33 35 39

operate. POWERGRID has consistently maintained the transmission system availabil ity at 99. wholly owned by government of India which is entrusted with the task to install. POWERGRID wheels about 45% of the total power generated in the country on its transmission network. and maintain regional/national transmission network across the length and breadth of the country. is one of the largest transmission utilities in the world. .65% which is at par with the International Utilities. During the Financial Year 2007-08 POWERGRID achieved another milestone in its quest for excellence in quality m anagement and got certified to Social Accountability Standards SA 8000:2001 POWERGRID. a Navratna Public Sector Enterprise. POWERGRID has also diversified into Telecom business and established a telecom network of more than 19. ISO 14001:2004 (Environment) & OHSAS 18001:1999 (Occupational Health & Safety Management System) after extensive audit.ABOUT POWERGRID POWERGRID ± EMPOWERING THE NATION THROUGH NATIONAL GRID POWERGRID is a central transmission utility. POWERGRID has a pan India presence with around 69480 Circuit Kms of Transmission network and 116 nos. own.000 Kms across the country. PAS 99:2006 integrating requirements of ISO 9001:2000 (Quality). POWERGRID achieved unique distinction of being First Power Utility and Second Company in the world to get certificate with Integrated Management System (IMS) as per Publicly Available Specification. It is one of the largest and best managed transmission utility in the world which is consistently profit making. of EHVAC & HVDC sub-stations with a total transformation capacity of 77217 MVA. With 17000MW Inter-regional Power transfers capacity.

a.B. Substation planned for two incoming lines. WRI/C&M/AB/BW/Parli/LOA/2008/41/413 dated 06/06/2008.V. village Shepwadi (Ambajogai). SUBSTATION LOCATION: New 400/220KV Substation is located on Parli-Beed State highway.Work for Site leveling is started in February-2008. The project is sanctioned by Ministry Of Power (Govt. R. associated 400KV bays.30mtr above MSL. three outgoing lines. 400 KV H. . 400 KV H. Total construction cost is 10. Fire fighting Pump house. A. c. 12/07/2004 ²PG dated July. has granted administrative approval and expenditure sanction for Transmission lines and Sub-station under WRSS-II scheme as per Electricity Act.2003. 400KV double circuit Transmission line to Pune (PGCIL) Substation.Jain (Parli) through LOA no. 3. etc. Work of construction of boundary wall is in progress and 80% of the construction work is completed.958.Double circuit. This project is planned for System Strengthening as well as supply power to Southern Maharashtra. Residential building. Office.: Beed. Community Hall. Substation site is situated 653.  400/220KV SUBSTATION: 1. LT switchyard. SITE LEVELING: Contract for Site leveling is given to M/s Nath Construction (Parli). BOUNDRYWALL: Contract for construction of Boundary wall was awarded to M/s. Parli Substation has following three 400KV double circuit Outgoing lines. 400KV double circuit Transmission line to Solapur (PGCIL) substation. and completed in May-2008.INR. Of India) vide letter Dt. Bhadravati-Parli Transmission line. Double Circuit.V. Site leveling is completed in five step of one meter height difference due to slope of land. Total 15.79 hector land is acquired for Substation construction.ABOUT PARLI PROJECT A new 400/220KV Sub-station and associated lines are under construction at Ambajogai (Parli) Dist. Wardha-Parli Transmission Line B. 400KV double circuit Transmission line to MSEB Substation.Girwali b.517/. Future Extension(220KV). There are two incoming lines.2006. 2. Dist: Beed.

ABB Ltd. LT SUPPLY: Temporary Supply from nearest 11KV line & Commissioning of 11/0. 5. Aanand Engineers. of Angle tower.Sanap. Supply & Service Contract is also awarded to M/s Jyoti Structure Ltd. CVTs. are arrived at site. Equipment supply & Erection. Total forest area: 2. Work is completed in January-2009.WRTS:B:DHQ:C&M:146/344 dated 15/07/2008. Temporary LT supply work is completed. 250KVA is received from Wardha Substation.440 Kv substation with Max. SITE OFFICE: Construction of Site Office is awarded to M/s. SWITCHYARD: Construction. System Strengthening in Southern Maharashtra. Ambajogai through L. .4. 8.9 'RXEOH &LUFXLW :DUGKD3DUOL 7UDQVPLVVLRQ /LQH: As per WRSS-II.O. APPROACH ROAD: Construction work of Approach road with Culvert from main road (Parli-Ambajogai state highway) to Substation is awarded to M/s. B. Construction work is started from 10 TH December.A.D.879 Km No. Supply of Sub-station equipment has also started and some of the CTs. 2008 and is under progress. Brief Details of Wardha-Parli Tr. Mumbai. Aurangabad. RESIDENTIAL QUARTERS: Construction work of Residential Quarters is awarded to M/s. Transformer of 11000/440 v. Pratibha Electrical Engineers. Commissioning of 400KV switchyard is awarded to M/s. Mumbai. INCOMING LINES: A.714 hector forest in Parbhani division (D -2 package) . Foundation work for Gantry is started. A 400KV double circuit Quad Conductor Transmission line is constructed to connect Parli Substation with Wardha Substation. Line is given below: y y y Total line length. Rudrani Infrastructures Ltd. 7. 6.168No. Work is started from 4 TH May 2009 and is under progress. Parli. and BPIs etc.345. Demand of 100KVA with associated metering & switching arrangement is awarded to M/s. Preliminary Survey & Detail Survey is done by M/s Jyoti Structure Ltd.

Three railway crossing in D-3 package.50 no.  Railway Crossing. & stringing work is under progress. span-485mtr) y Purna river. span-485mtr)  National Highway Crossing: NH 222.Two river crossing in D-3 package.  River Crossing. Silvassa.294 No.23 to AP-24 y Parbhani.AP.. D-1 package: y From Wardha to Arni y From Angle tower 110 to 168 y Package length. of tower with Insulator hoisting.115 Km  Check survey Approved. AP-34 to AP-35. Brief Details of Construction work in D-3 package is given below:  Check survey completed.113 Km y Work supervised by Bhadravati Substation c.C-33014-L175-1/NOA/2606 dated 08/08/2008.Akola (Non Electrified) track.AP.7. y Parbhani-Gangakhed (Non Electrified) Track. Foundation. AP-51 to AP-52.  No.Nanded (Non Electrified) Track.  No. of Tower erection completed. y Basmat. & Specification . AP.A.O. Tower Erection.Parbhani-Nanded (AP/47 to AP 48)  CONDUCTOR: Supply of 2790Km of ACSR Moose conductor for D-3 package is awarded to M/s Hiren Aluminium Limited. of foundation completed.40. y Godavari river.39 to AP.100 Km  Total Towers in D-3 package. D-3 package: y From Basmat to Parli (Ambajogai) y From dead end tower (AP-0) to Angle tower 52 y Package length-115 km y Work supervised by Parli substation.910 hector forest in Pusad division (D -2 package) Total project is divided in three parts: a.19 to AP-20 (DB +6 tower.152no. (DB +6 tower. D-2 package: y From Arni to Basmat y From Angle Tower 52 to 110 y Package length.  No.12 No.119 Km y Work is supervised by Wardha Substation b. Through N.

00 11. Disc Insulator Diameter b. of 120KN disc insulator & 128570 Nos.0 .00 5. No.          Aluminum Stranding/Diameter: Steel Stranding/ Diameter: Overall Diameter: Cross Sectional Area: Ultimate Tensile Strength: Final module of Elasticity: Designed load Tension: Co.00 170. 1 160KN 2 3 4 5 mm ±mm mm ± mm mm KVrms KVrms KVrms KV rms microV 255.0 315. Alpasso Ind..00 78. RIV at 1MHz and 10KV rms Sr.Wire Stranding/ Diameter: Overall Diameter: Unit mass: Designed load Tension: - 7/3.00 75.dry b. Pvt. mm.I.98mm 583 Kg/Km 2560-3086 Kg  INSULATOR : Award for Supply of 120KN & 160KN disc insulator to M/s.53 mm 31. Tolerance of diameter c.00 50.C-33014-L175-1. Total 428 drums of 1800+_5% mtrs are received at site till the date. China through Indian Agent M/s. Ltd.0 330. New Delhi.00 18.00 45.00 125.00 18. Standard Specification of ACSR moose conductor is given below. Creepage distance a. Wide Supply NOA. Standard Specification of Earth wire is given below.00 48.66 mm 10.No. 16428 Kg 7034 Kg/ mm2 6214.0 280. Ball to ball spacing between disc. POWERGRID has been awarded Total 102228 Nos.05 400 mtr. Limited. Standard Specification for Insulator is given below: Description Unit 120KN DIMENSION a.wet Power Frequency Puncture Voltage Min. Power frequency flashover voltage . d.00 4.9 E.C-33013L179-1/NOA-I/2646.7414 Kg 1.C-33025-L079-1/NOA-II/2647 Dated 22 ND September 2008. Power frequency flashover voltage . min.00 13. Visible discharge Voltage ² dry Max.53 mm 7/3. of 160KN Disc Insulator supply in period of 16 month from the date of NOA. Nanjing Electric (Group) Co.efficient of liner expansion: Normal ruling Span: - 54/3.00 50. & Service NOA.77 mm 597 Sq.00 120.00 145.     G. Tolerance of spacing e.

Mumbai. y Suspension tower: 380no y Tension Tower: 132 no.191 Km y No. y Transposition Tower: 02 no y Work is supervised by Bhadravati Substation G-2 package: y From Umarkhed to Parli [Ambajogai] y From Angle Tower 66 to 136 y Package length.380. of Tower erection completed.6 7 Min. of Towers: 509 no.27 Km y Total line length. Line is given below: y BEE line length.136 No. mass of Zinc Coating Unit Price B. of foundation completed.175no.513 no.  No. .494 Km y Total Nos. of Angle tower.189.16 no.170Km  Total Towers in G-2 package. y Total forest area: 3. of Towers: 513no. System Strengthening in Southern Maharashtra. A 400KV double circuit twin Conductor Transmission line is constructed to connecting Parli Substation with Bhadravati Substation. & Tower Erection. y Suspension tower: 415 no y Tension Tower: 92 no.190. Mahagaon Tehs il Total project is divided in two part: G-1 package: y From Bhadravati to Umarkhed y From Angle tower 01 to 66 y Package length. work is under progress.328. Supply & Service Contract is awarded to M/s L&T ECC division.9 Brief Details of Construction work in G-2 package is given below:  Total Section length.50 600 7.70 hector forest in Pusad division.  No. .697Km y Total Nos. Brief Details of Bhadravati-Parli Tr. Gm/sqm Euro 600 3.01 'RXEOH &LUFXLW %KDGUDYDWL 3DUOL 7UDQVPLVVLRQ/LQH: As per WRSS-II. Preliminary Survey & Detail Survey is done by M/s Shyama Powers India Pvt.190. y Transposition Tower: 01 no y Work supervised by Ambajogai Substation Foundation.Limited.697 Km  Check survey completed.

Bee line (shortest distance) is identified between the two stations and survey is carried on to obtain the shortest possible route between the points. Angle points should be selected such that shifting of the point within 100 mtrs radius is possible at the time of construction. State Highway. SURVEYING Surveying is the most important activity in the transmission line construction and it broadly consists of preliminary survey. river beds and earth slip zones should be avoided to minimize risk to the foundation. Profile plotting & Tower spotting. The route should have minimum crossing of Major River. y Parbhani-Gangakhed (Non Electrified) Track. Routing of transmission line through forest (PF/RF) area should be avoided. and Communication lines.Two railway crossing in G-2 package. The Contractor shall identify and examine three alternative route alignments and suggest to the owner the optimal route alignment. detailed survey. AP.110 to AP-111 y Parbhani. REQUIREMENT OF TRANSMISSION LINE ROUTE ALIGNMENT: The alignment of the transmission line shall be most economical from the point of view of construction and maintenance. (c) Check Survey: .Nanded (Non Electrified) Track.  PRELIMINARY SURVEY [ROUTE ALIGNMENT] : Route Alignment shall be done using satellite imageries of NRSA ( PAN and LISS III merged product of minimum resolution corresponding to 1:25000 scale) and Survey of India topographical maps (scale 1:50000). National highway.Actual tower spotting on the ground. (a) Preliminary Survey: . The following should be avoided in the line route as far as possible to avoid excessive cost of the project:  Forest areas  Rivers and dams  Highways and railway crossings etc. Check survey. Railway line. Areas subjected to flooding which require special foundation shall be avoided. In case it is not possible to avoid forest. Marshy and low lying areas. AP-107 to AP-108. . Railway Crossing. The Route should be shortest possible consistent with the terrain encountered. minimum tree cutting alignment should be selected. (b) Detail survey: .To finalize the Route alignment. Over head EHV power lines. Preferably utilize level ground for alignment.Route marking. The number of Angle points should be kept minimum.

oil pipe line. reserve coal belt areas. Restricted areas such as Civil & Military airfield shall be avoided. Detail Survey involves following activities: A. A. Route Marking B. teak wood peg of size 50X50X650mm shall be driven projecting 100mm above GL. Forest. long range scanners etc. Buildings. All alignment should be easily accessible both in dry and rainy seasons to enable the line maintenance throughout the year. Shall be recorded using GPS for easy relocating. Parallelism shall be eliminated to avoid danger of induction to them. ROUTE MAKING The route of the transmission line shall be recorded using GPS of positional accuracy less than 3 mtr. tobacco and saffron fields and rich plantations. From the field book entries the route plan with complete details and profile shall be plotted and prepared to scale 1:2000 horizontal and 1:200 vertical on 1. and underground inflammable pipelines. B. Total Stations. land marks etc. Certain areas such as quarry sites.ordinates of all the angle points as well as other important crossings. and nurseries should be avoided. At starting point an Angle Spike of size 65X65X6 mm. Reference levels at every 20mtr along the route are to be indicated on the profile. Tower Spotting. Soil resistivity to be measured by four electrode method along the route.Crossing of Power lines shall be minimum and alignment should be kept at a distance of 300 mtr from Power line to avoid induction problems on LT lines. Digital Theodolite. gardens. 1000mm long to be driven firmly into the ground to project 150mm above ground level. PROFILE PLOTTING The complete profiling along the route shall be carried out using modern surveying equipments viz. At an interval of 750 mtr along the route. Care should also be taken to avoid aircraft landing approaches. GPS. tea. etc. Stone/ Concrete pilla rs minimum 150X150X300mm with POWERGRID marked on them shall be put on the ground.1 DETAILED SURVEY The detailed survey shall be carried out using GPS. Trees. densely populated areas. 1. and D. The co. Along the approved route alignment. Total station. 10mm squared paper. animal/ bird sanctuaries. Digital theodolite etc. At Angle Points. Crossing of communication line shall be minimized and should be near to right angle.0. The line routing should avoid large habitations. Clearance from ground. . Profile Plotting C.

the following shall be borne in mind. Weight span is there. Wind span. it shall be overcome by adding extension or using tension tower designed for uplift. In case ground clearance is not available with normal supports. 1. D. type of foundations. If the levels of the pit centers be in sharp contrast with the level of the tower centre (say beyond a slope of 1:4). the standard body/ leg extension is provided. SAG TEMPLATE AND TOWER SPOTTING DATA Sag template prepared based on the supplied sag template curve drawing shall only be used for tower spotting on the profiles. The profile sheets duly spotted along with the preliminary schedules indicating type of towers.6 SPAN AND CLEARANCES: The normal ruling span of the line is 400m (a)Normal span: The wind span is the sum of the two half spans adjacent (b)Wind span: to the support under consideration for normal horizontal spans this equals to normal ruling span. angle of deviation. tower locations shall be marked on the profiles. (b) Extension/ Truncation: An individual span shall be as near to the normal design span as possible. (a) Span: The numbers of consecutive spans between the section points shall not exceed 15 spans or 5 Km in plain terrain and 10 spans or 3 Km in hilly terrain. Sag template curves shall be prepared by the contractor. There shall be not be any upward force on the (c) Loading: suspension towers under normal working conditions and min. the truncated tower can be used. The levels. The Sag-tension characteristics of the conductor and tower spotting data shall be furnished by the Owner.Optimization of Tower Location: It shall be done using Computer Aided tower spotting Data. While locating the towers on the profile sheet. up or down of each pit center with respect to the centre of the tower location shall be noted and recorded for determining the amount of earthwork required to meet the approved design parameters. river and road crossing details shall be submitted for the approval of POWERGRID. In case uplift is unavoidable. weight span. . CHECK SURVEY FOR TOWER LOCATION: The check survey shall be conducted to locate and peg-mark the tower positions on ground confirming to the approved profile and tower schedule. The templates shall be on the same scale as that of the profile with the help of supplied sag template and tower spotting data. suitable ´Leg Extensionµ may be deployed as required. C. In case of locations having more ground clearance.

00 64.00 35.60 5.70 Electrical clearances: In case of line crossings. d) Crossing should be done with DD type tower. building.70 4.10 10.50 HVDC 12.00 .40 3.10 765KV 12.00 46.10 3. For spotting of structures.00 4.64 2.87 2.58 400KV 8.1956 LEVEL Ground Phase to Power Clearance Phase Line (min) Clearance Crossing (After Clearance accounting (min) Swing) 66 KV 5.1 220KV 7.90 24. c) The crossing shall normally be at right angle to the railway track.00 22.40 17.84 765KV 15 Railway Crossing Clearance: a) Railway crossing should be finalized as per regulation said by Railway Authority.60 15.50 Right Of Way 18.50 5.12 4.00 4.01 400KV 8.49 6. Normally at the time of construction adequate clearance is provided between lowest conductor and ground.00 27.50 1.The weight span is the horizontal distance between the (c)Weight span: lowest point of the conductors on the two spans adjacent to the tower. Distance of crossing tower from rail track should be Tower height plus 6 mtr.44 110KV 6. e) Min. the span limits are given according to the standards. Ground clearance: Clearance from ground.05 220KV 7. b) The crossing span shall be limited to 300m. Clearances Ground clearance(m) 132KV 6. 1956 as amended up to date. trees and telephone lines shall be provided in conformity with the Indian Electricity Rules.50 10. clearance between lowest conductor of the other line shall be as follows: VOLTAGE AS PER I.00 46. f) The summary of the clearances are given in the following table: Clearances 132KV 220KV 400KV 765KV Railway track clearance(m) 14.10 1. The minimum ground clearance from the bottom conductor shall not be less than 8840mm for 400KV at the maximum sag conditions.50 5. RULES.89 11.07 3.94 500KV conductor of line and top AS PER FCA -1980 Clearance Between Conductor and Tree (min) 3.00 7.75 132KV 6.E. The summary of the clearances are given in the following table.80 6.

49 7. DD type tower with suitable extension shall be used.94 400KV 5. Where EHV line is to cross over POWER LINE CROSSING: another power line of same or Lower Voltage level.00 22.49 5.58 4.94 .00 35.49 5.94 7.58 5.00 15. However deviation to the extent of 30 degree may be permitted under exceptionally difficult situation. No.00 18.49 7.49 7.94 220KV 4. System Voltage 1 132KV 2 220KV 3 400KV 4 800KV 132KV 3.00 RIVER CROSSING: In case of major river crossing.00 64.94 800KV 7. Minimum clearance in meters between line when crossing each other Are as follows.94 7.05 4.00 52.94 7.500KV HVDC & 400KV S/C 800 7.00 46. clearance shall be reckoned with respect to High Flood Level. The minimum clearances between the conductors of power lines and telecommunication lines are summarized as follows (Voltage KV) Clearance(mm) 132 220 400 2745 3050 4880 Right of way: Transmission line Voltage (KV) ROW (Mtrs. Sr.)Maxm 11 33 66 110 132 220 400 +/.58 5.Clearance for Telephone line crossings: The angle of crossing shall be as near to 90 as possible. Clearance required by the navigation authority provided. For non navigable rivers. tower shall be of suspension type and the anchor towers on either side.00 27.

protective measures and lighting necessary for the period the pits remain open. as per IS:4453. etc. Classification mainly depends on soil properties. and 3. Foundation process involves the stages like      Trial pit. consistency and visual classification of the soil. Arrangement shall be made for dewatering if the pit is extended below water table. thickness of soil strata. colours.0M depth and at the termination depth in all the pits. if necessary. permanent features. knowledge of soil structure interaction and settlement analysis of tower foundation.2 CLASSIFICATION: The construction of tower foundation shall be in accordance with IS: 4091:1979 and POWERGRID technical specification. depth. Excavation. Precautions shall be taken to ensure the stability of pit walls including provision of Shoring.DETAIL ENROUTE: All topographical details. 2. Foundation classification Pit marking. stability. A note on the visual examination of soil strata shall be prepared. such as trees. 2. if any.1 TRIAL PIT: Trial pit shall be of minimum 2m X 2m size at the bottom so as to permit easy access for visual examination of walls of the pit and to facilitate sampling and institute testing operations.0 M. bearing capacity and settlement criteria. buildings etc. 2. ground water table. The tower foundation cost approx 10 to 30% of overall cost of tower or 5 to 15% of the transmission line depending on the type of soil. Undisturbed samples shall be collected at 1. Arrangement shall be made for barriers. FOUNDATION The foundations are designed to transfer all types of load s coming from structure to the soil safely. Classification is very important due to any . Foundations are designed to satisfy the criteria like location. Trial pits shall be kept dry and ladder shall be provided for easy access to bottom of the pit. Pits shall be up to 4mtr deep or as per the direction of the engineer. Concreting. 23 mtr for 400 KV and 32 mtr for 765 KV on either side of the alignment shall be detailed on the profile plan. This should include the nature. Precaution shall be taken to prevent surface water draining into the pit. The design of a safe and economical foundation is based on soil properties.0 M. In-situ tests be conducted and undisturbed samples shall be collected immediately on reaching the specified depth so as to avoid substantial changes in moisture content of sub soil. sub soil water level and the presence of surface water.

5 m from ground level. The foundation is designed to resist the forces like uplift force. Normal Dry Wet . c) Where sub-soil water is encountered in the pit beyond 1.failure of the foundation will cause serious disturbance on the line and the restoration cost of the line will be quite high.5 m from ground level. Foundations classified based on soil type and subsoil water levels are listed below: (A)Normal dry (B) Sandy dry (C) Wet (D) Partially submerged (PS) (E) Fully submerged (FS) (F) Black cotton soil (WBC) (G) Dry fissured rock (DFR) (H) Wet fissured rock (WFR) (I) Submerged fissured rock(SFR) (J) Hard rock (HR) Adoption of Foundations in Different types of Soils S N Type of Soil Encountered Type of Foundation 01 a) In Good Soil b) Where black cotton soil does not extent beyond 30% of the depth from top with good soils thereafter c) Silty sand mixed with clayey soil (In all of above cases water table is not encountered in the pit) 02 a) In paddy fields and sugar cane fields b) Where black cotton soil exceeds 30% and extends up to 45% from the ground level and good soil thereafter. d) Where silty sand mixed with clayey soil and water is encountered in the pit beyond 1. down thrust and neutral load caused due to wind pressure.

75 m. b) b) Where fissured rock is predominant in the pit without presence of water. a) Where sub-soil water is encountered in the pit within 0.75 m & 1.03 04 a) Where black cotton soil extends up to 60% of the depth from the ground level and good soil thereafter. Fully Submerged b) Where silty sand mixed with clayey soil and water table in the pit is within 0.5 m depth from ground Submerged level c) Where silty sand mixed with clayey soil and water table in the pit is betn 0.0 m b) Wherever hard rock is encountered with sub-soil water Wet Black Cotton Wet F R SFR Hard Rock Fdn classification as per soil investigation & approval of Engg. DFR (Dry Fissured Rock) 05 a) Where normal soil encountered with fissured rock at the bottom without the presence of water. c) c) Where hard rock thickness at the bottom of the pit is less than 2.5 m from ground level.0 m.5 m depth from ground 08 a) Where Hard Rock is encountered and the thickness of hard rock layer below the bottom of foundation is more than 2.5 m depth from ground level b) Where fissured rock is encountered with sub-soil water within 1. 06 Wherever black cotton soil extends beyond 60% of the depth from ground level 07 a) Where fissured rock is encountered with sub-soil water after 1.75 m from ground level. Adoption of Foundation in Black Cotton Soil with Fissured Rock Combination S N Type of Soil Encountered Type of Fdn . b) Where sub-soil water is encountered in the pit Partially between 0.75 m and 1.

soil water in the pits. Type of Fdn Dry Sandy FS/Wet Sandy FS/Wet Sandy Adoption of Foundation in Clay mixed with Silty Sand . with Wet Chimneys Wet Fissured Rock Foundation Adoption of Foundation in Sand in combination of Sub -Soil Water S N Type of Soil Encountered 01 02 03 Predominantly sand mixed with clay or other soil (without sub-soil water) Predominantly sand mixed with soils encountered with sub.0 m or the thickness of the bottom slab Wet chimneys concrete of dry fissured rock foundation whichever is less.0 m b) If hard rock is encountered at the bottom of the pit with black cotton soil at the top and the thickness of the hard rock layer depth is less than 2.0 meter.01 a) If fissured rock is encountered at the bottom of pit Dry Fissured (with black cotton soil at top) for a depth of not less Rock Fdn with than 1.0 m c) If hard rock is encountered at the bottom with water and black cotton soil at top and hard rock layer depth is less than 2. Pure sand encountered with sub-soil water inside the pit. Wet Fissured b) If fissured rock in combination with water is Rock Fdn to be encountered at the bottom of the pit with black adopted cotton soil at the top. Type of Fdn Hard Rock Foundation with Wet Chimneys Fissured Rock Fdn. Adoption of Foundation in Black Cotton Soil with Hard Rock Combination S N Type of Soil Encountered 01 a) If hard rock is encountered at the bottom of the pit (with black cotton soil at the top) and the thickness of the hard rock layer below foundation is more than 2.

2 P     MARK G For pit marking. et lack ormal Fdn based on ater table to be adopted The proposal for these types of foundations shall be submitted by the contractor based on detailed soil investigation and approval for the same shall be obtained from P I . uad conductor ardha-Parli Tr. 2. B D          1 Pure l y encountered         ithout ter   ¤   )(''& ¦¥¤   $ #! ¦ % £¢ ¡ "!   ountered Type of Fdn ry lack otton otton § ©§ ¨§ C . the following factors are involved Back to Back length Tangent(stub slope angle) Diagonal length Pit si e A 0 Pit marking Details of Line is mentioned below: Double circuit.S Typ Soil Predominantly clay mixed ith ilty and encountered ith ub-soil ater in the pits. Predominantly silty sand mixed ith clay encountered ith sub-soil ater in the pits.

526 14.305 8.37 4..69 14.273 13.108 14.526 14.416 33.108 14.657 25.77 9.944 15.406 19.826 20.944 15.268 31.3 5.69 14.5 M +6.3 5.573 18.944 15.85 5.855 13.5 M +3.888 26.446 17.241 17.3 5.855 13.066 PIT SIZE 2.822 24.5 M +3.92 2.88 4.987 31.896 19.068 34.361 12.230 28.376 20.5 M +6.794 OE 26.320 27.944 15.028 17.494 31.5 M +6.944 .5325 8.0765 9.57 18.855 13.739 21.239 26.108 14.0 M +7.OE 3.5 M OA 7.979 10.988 19.932 9.153 18.700 31.322 20.1*'(7$.855 13.855 13.69 14.0 M +4.0 M +4.5615 9.731 17.724 27.413 33.635 16.5 M +9.206 29.828 31.075 25.567 27.69 14.526 14.843 34.704 9.065 17.157 21.92 2.855 13.067 26.5 M +3.395 27.493 25.855 13.824 20.37 4.273 13.306 26.681 29.108 14.239 9.78 2.8175 8.969 33.314 19.780 30.88 4.910 24.54 19.108 14.526 14.129 33.92 2.408 19.273 13.285 9.122 10.542 32.361 12.85 5.855 13.361 12.2865 9.9925 9.018 23.37 4.255 32.5 M +3.993 22.69 14.067 29.535 19.5 M +3.944 15.557 35.1205 8.273 13.69 14.526 14.913 10.643 18.053 25.944 15.108 14.273 13.855 13.361 12.108 14.71 4.478 18.551 30.281 17.126 33.92 2.2675 9.99 19.7825 9.840 34.69 14.484 26.273 13.155 26.88 4.983 30.944 15.85 M ( PIT CENTER) 12.0 M +4.575 21.85 5./6'$7<3( 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 33 34 35 36 37 38 DRY WET PS FS WBC 2 2 SL NO FDN CL SSIFIC TION TOWER EXTN +0 M +1.3305 9.273 13.188 10.37 4.0965 8.68 5.565 18.244 20.85 5.0 M +4.526 14.69 14.88 4.03 9.0 M +0 M +1.526 14.5 M +9.92 4.70$5.494 9.958 20.855 13.0 M +0 M +1.704 32.0 M +7.0 M +7.273 13.193 16.88 5.361 12.1405 8.117 30.225 25.641 28.5 M +9.361 12.353 29.37 4.108 14.812 28.495 9.0 M +7.69 14.108 14.944 OD 19.141 25.0 M +7.526 14.21 4.123 19.514 8.985 18.06 18.88 4.3 5.5 M +9.361 12.566 20.3 5.355 34.8215 9.3 5.864 18.13 5.657 9.130 30.239 24.782 35.661 18.108 14.648 29.273 13.738 28.61 17.639 32.495 OB 12.699 32.361 12.470 25.723 8.37 4.643 33.689 27.912 10.69 14.902 27.0 M +0 M +1.5 M +6.397 OC 15.5 M +6.526 14.448 9.703 9.0 M +4.410 23.8655 8.273 13.944 15.526 14.92 2.0 M +0 M +1.

45 7.658 15.93 7.0 M +7.271 16.21 15.126 19.108 14.718 8.402 22.596 11.280 34.193 9.848 17.5 M +9.65 6.192 15.97 14.69 14.762 16.221 17.497 36.34 6.86 3.976 OC 19.609 9.658 15.274 11.866 17.772 9.97 14.5665 8.273 13.5 M +6.82 6.65 4.69 14.0 M +0 M +1.171 32.477 31.728 34.658 15.9805 21.692 23.4 17.591 23.018 17.679 23.848 17.212 25.264 PIT SIZE 4.658 15.5 M +3.192 15.5 M +6.697 30.672 27.206 23.418 17.848 17.86 3.921 10.6 4.85 25.0 M +4.0 M +7.608 36.658 15.855 13.145 9.183 16.262 24.259 29.0 M +4.285 17.133 17.658 15.34 6.7 12.89 8.728 38.218 19.8125 8.2775 8.45 7.654 23.678 40.491 33.336 29.051 11.377 24.45 7.386 18.762 16.952 OE 32.192 15.642 23.0 M +0 M +1.0 M WBC .5 M +9.526 14.873 18.5 M +6.5 M +3.21 15.77 2.65 4.000 M ( PIT CENTER) 14.744 16.386 21.0 +7.656 36.555 41.394 20.048 26.70$5.444 10.346 11.361 12.697 37.300 OB 14.6425 8.944 15.34 6.6 17.192 15.504 35.246 29.944 15.273 13.0 M +0 M +1.6 4.6 4.5 M +3.663 37.5 +9.515 31.526 14.301 10.192 15.296 24.176 33.592 40.5 M +6.86 3.098 32.93 6.149 12.701 11.418 17.526 14.361 12.944 15.4 25.361 12.544 19.473 42.34 6.787 22.192 15.888 21.658 15.968 18.400 17.56 4.969 27.658 15.810 29.067 31.998 22.91 2.108 14.650 39..526 14.9 21.944 15.192 23.000 8.866 17.91 3.93 6.402 9.45 7.424 12.498 22.879 12.5 M +3.1355 8.712 37.073 28.548 23.296 16.86 3.872 12.582 35.69 14.595 34.946 21.620 41.775 8.762 16.273 13.296 16.5 M +3.05 22.952 14.0 M +4.6105 8.3 8.648 33.5 M +9.147 34.0 M +0 M +1.796 24.870 34.69 14.39 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 DFR WFR SFR +9.786 37.551 38.5 M +3.31 21.521 28.400 17.854 18.5 M +9.361 12.6 4.69 14.793 38.936 33.952 14.762 16.102 22.361 12.93 6.6055 7.489 39.273 13.043 33.483 19.211 15.704 34.361 29.813 35.984 9.1*'(7$.056 35.509 31.273 13.23 6.29 18.699 32.6 4.804 19.244 23.21 15.473 10.0 M 10.121 31.639 38.0 +4.273 13.0 M +7.86 4.939 32.478 22.108 14.597 11.55 17.0 M +7.000 8.0 M +4.275 31.197 10.34 6.739 11.505 30.555 17.314 16.4 17.832 35.526 14.177 29.589 40.927 9.744 24.603 11.666 26./6'%7<3(  SL NO 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 FS FDN CLASSIFICATION DRY TOWER EXTN +0 M +1.07 11.91 2.744 16.744 16.207 26.5 M +9.855 13.361  3.91 2.775 11.622 11.65 4.108 14.45 10.174 12.000 8.855 13.296 16.85 2.563 9.298 20.0 M M M M M M OA 9.562 42.5 M +6.133 21.549 24.4 17.377 33.45 7.425 12.97 14.354 9.073 15.5 M +6.6 15.65 4.855 13.842 20.755 36.314 16.5 +6.715 21.69 14.327 11.848 17.419 43.848 17.735 39.008 23.348 24.944 15.848 25.0 M +0 M +1.385 32.723 33.952 WET PS +0 M +1.0 M +7.0915 8.160 36.296 16.426 23.148 12.314 16.671 31.670 39.619 32.952 14.848 17.944 15.296 16.55 22.34 7.43 4.418 17.534 41.296 16.526 14.758 24.744 16.97 14.93 6.873 12.5 M +9.417 26.314 16.4 17.5 M +6.21 15.108 14.91 2.509 8.000 8.961 36.5 M +3.65 4.221 31.531 41.436 17.958 30.0 M +4.416 43.025 11.625 29.384 35.5 +3.969 22.93 6.855 13.602 20.321 11.708 19.551 21.658 15.624 28.749 11.155 10.898 12.952 14.194 23.361 38.658 15.362 34.866 17.000 8.298 24.855 13.477 42.91 2.0 M +0 M +1.504 37.630 26.0 M +4.7 3.358 44.542 20.0 M +4.34 6.613 40.465 5.108 14.805 33.746 24.45 7.625 16.844 24.999 11.763 30.935 32.9365 9.86 3.14 22.189 28.0 M +7.0 M +7.418 17.050 29.744 16.361 12.5 M +9.794 25.952 OD 25.744 16.866 17.

5 M +3.247 15.298 21.702 32.471 34.22 7.624 11.5 M +9.991 21.552 28.72 5.418 17.5 M +9.142 10.85 8.531 41.819 13.341 15.5 M +9.0 M +7.22 7.128 16.327 11.218 26.716 38.8955 11.8 21.887 20.348 11.078 35.0475 11.356 37.681 17.799 41.687 31.732 45.575 16.128 16.770 33.75 6.575 16.708 39.5 M +9.842 43.64 4.378 21.3975 11.248 23.788 18.575 16.104 28.947 34.004 15.0 M +7.22 7.388 30.685 23.0 M +7.007 14.109 13.41 42 43 44 45 46 47 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 DFR WFR SFR +0 M +1.545 25.75 6.786 44.0 M +0 M +1.004 15.314 16.625 35.004 15.43 8.799 16.15 24.45 7.439 20.864 43.664 35.83 6.5 M +6.189 10.004 15.004 15.636 26.799 16.627 36.952 25.4 17.284 29.0 M +0 M +1.22 7.247 4.2195 10.5 M +9.235 17.075 12.681 17.005 24.0 M +0 M +1.64 4.379 13.5 M +3.43 8.575 16.466 29.235 17.497 31.592 22.658 15.745 42.128 16.45 5.925 36.97 14.75 6.144 22.83 5.85 7.442 39.74 8.5 M +6.0 M +0 M +1.282 41.656 29.110 34.754 45.0 M +4.284 21.45 5.046 23.889 39.216 19.166 14.633 38.944 31.764 44.235 17.45 5.788 18.5 M +9.5 M +3.455 18.391 30.921 42.235 17.658 15.681 17.0 M +7.341 WET PS FS WBC .291 34.695 34.235 17.681 17.575 16.575 16.2275 12.341 15.978 24.4955 10.575 16.397 39.341 15.131 22.004 15.5 M +3.3235 10.004 33.97 8.788 18.072 11.738 37.676 46.004 15.43 8.557 34.598 24.866 17.674 11.5555 12.649 10.744 24.85 7.0 M +0 M +1.64 5.5 M +6.217 35.788 18.229 37.111 25.561 22.800 38.284 29.5 M +9.834 37.43 8.0 M +4.5 M +3.83 5.0 M +4.1025 13.667 40.799 12.007 14.795 23.039 32.903 17.788 18.487 32.22 7.97 8.952 3.9435 10.836 30.85 7.43 8.031 37.930 41.185 36.0 M +7.448 27.102 37.6555 OC 20.52 10.128 16.504 12.681 17.676 15.791 22.940 31.04 21.340 40.21 15.575 16.314 16.771 23.762 16.608 9.0 M +7.696 23.9505 12.54 4.75 6.034 22.83 5.778 38.191 23.5425 12.681 17.235 17.138 38.620 OB 15.0 M +4.75 6.698 40.658 15.224 42.83 5.128 16.97 8.7715 11.0 M +4.65 7.874 42.341 OD 27.247 15.478 37.742 39.7125 11.549 12.782 38.017 11.2655 12.898 42.97 8.750 28.631 36.143 33.0025 12.658 15.5 M +6.128 16.651 26.832 36.0 M +4.348 23.788 18.418 17.744 16.890 36.626 40.676 15.3425 11.455 18.3855 11.5 M +3.731 29.341 15.97 M ( PIT CENTER) 15.0 M +7.351 16.098 25.43 8.004 15.837 30.848 17.558 25.128 16.85 7.095 22.0 M +4.638 26.0 M +4.872 12.774 37.758 27.0 M +0 M +1.238 23.788 18.75 14.619 11.796 11.64 4.5 M +6.5 M +6.455 38.691 36.8255 13.942 22.901 24.208 28.789 11.665 26.192 15.689 43.858 37.494 23.654 23.21 15.744 16.974 33.70$5.0655 11.004 15.64 4.97 8.45 5.341 15.820 43.235 17.335 38.4 17.0955 11.296 16.8325 13.788 18.425 23.543 22.647 20.995 PIT SIZE 5.192 15.2725 12.611 37.5 M +6.492 32.866 17.971 11./6'&7<3(  SL NO 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 FDN CLASSIFICATION DRY TOWER EXTN +0 M +1.004 15.044 30.977 41.681 17.889 35.5125 10.85 7.670 39.7805 11.723 39.5 M +6.585 38.531 25.575 16.903 17.578 22.279 12.658 34.247 11.681 17.351 16.296 16.21 8.911 39.591 33.915 36.9 10.000 27.128 16.802 33.0 M 9.28 5.008 25.523 11.22 7.341 15.575 16.788 18.0 M +7.855 40.128 16.848 17.45 5.235 17.785 35..085 25.205 26.986 40.788 18.823 35.5 M +3.341 15.341 15.612 38.762 16.525 35.83 5.97 14.311 OE 34.681 17.5 M +3.351 19.1*'(7$.5 M +9.235 17.681 17.0 M OA 10.989 12.025 21.455 25.128 16.64 4.810 44.684 40.235 17.607 12.03 7.64 6.214 24.

341 35.965 19.341 15.2575 14.55 9.92 5.5 M +9.400 21.0 +7.518 18.5 M +3.965 19.0 M +4.876 29.5 M +6.880 51.488 25.5015 13.157 39.128 16.0 M +0 M +1.788 18.548 27.306 19.117 10.2075 12.316 41.495 WET PS FS WBC .257 11.7 6.889 46.5 M +9.275 22.004 15.575 16.664 52.0 M +4.0 M 10.0 M +7.377 21.542 18.788 18.235 17.5 M +3.633 31.5 +6.869 46.5 M +9.6695 16.782 40.836 22.671 20.0 M +7.023 38.5 +9.988 19.77 7.812 22.0 M +4.0 M +0 M +1.582 30.128 16.004 15.892 39.797 37.73 7.5 M +3.999 14.0 M +4.788 18.967 39.842 31.676 46.43 8.722 28.719 31.0 M +7.881 48.0 M +4.43 8.106 21.629 28.671 20.852 47.03 9.086 49.774 41.645 23.186 42.694 20.415 25.414 11.812 22.17 28.767 40.843 48.73 15.543 36.0395 12.306 18.769 11.083 21.788 18.479 43.235 17.492 42.858 24.4925 10.43 30.854 29.6105 14.001 5.427 14.759 13.788 18.308 13.724 29.55 9.306 18.7 7.78 15.282 18.647 53.41 5.137 44.31 8.083 21.92 7.972 27.514 23.03 9.0225 OC 24.671 20.721 14.70$5.616 27.715 15.234 20.130 21.0 M +4.495 OD 32.400 21.004 15.77 8.41 6.448 37.77 7.788 35.071 34.7 6.788 18.032 50.538 22.070 42.966 26.019 42./6''7<3(  SL NO 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 FDN CLASSIFICATION DRY TOWER EXTN +0 M +1.668 35.43 8.495 18.542 18.732 14.235 17.745 38.136 30.297 27.424 21.559 44.718 20.438 14.929 12.266 30.341 15.983 13.5 M +9.0 M +0 M +1.599 11.681 17.751 21.1375 11.518 18.681 17.049 49.73 7.51 7.282 18.5 M +3.5 M +3.486 13.341 27.5 M +3.235 17.789 22.504 44.681 17.495 18.965 19.188 29.144 13.004 15.591 26.828 23.080 36.133 15.7 6.221 29.843 45.03 9.085 14.965 25.812 22.0355 20.681 17.8545 14.377 21.55 9.130 21.5 M +6.366 39.282 18.5205 11.400 21.0 M +7.73 7.299 48.801 42.480 42.789 22.9675 12.55 9.6525 11.518 18.0 M +0 M +1.295 30.41 5.377 21.786 36.43 8.745 38.718 20.5 M +9.518 26.003 27.374 36.41 5.198 42.4825 12.03 9.235 17.789 22.094 47.41 5.256 33.8755 10.709 28.885 25.92 5.671 20.431 39.308 33.341 15.275 38.615 43.1485 13.911 40.791 15.73 7.92 5.5 M +9.068 15.725 43.128 16.861 14.305 23.103 42.0 M +0 M +1.23 5.291 53.77 7.306 19.148 28.5 M +6.962 34.339 32.379 13.56 30.4 21.9 9.575 16.789 22.575 16.962 34.92 5.694 20.291 50.855 33.503 15.1*'(7$.0 M +7.43 8.7 6.549 PIT SIZE 5.515 33.836 22.77 7.812 22.442 52.381 23.341 15.012 19.235 34.424 21.741 30.0 M +7.5 M +6.083 21.610 44.128 16.362 40.004 15.694 20.44 9.6905 11.701 OB 18.106 21.259 18.321 48.288 26.401 30.235 17.0 M M M M OA 12.3165 15.434 46.9635 15.4425 12.857 41.774 13.927 30.377 21.03 9.400 47.968 19.92 5.55 9.2055 12.635 29.079 24.904 43.965 19.702 45.575 16.863 40.675 49.045 OE 41.5 M +9.0 M +7.66 7.749 32.0 M +4.0 M +0 M +1.496 54.083 21.324 45.341 3.7955 13.259 18.7 6.459 51.758 27.514 22.496 51.041 22.821 36.55 M ( PIT CENTER) 18.5 M +6.0 M +4.421 15.254 50.77 7.03 9.518 18.5 M +3.431 44.411 24.41 5.004 15.684 44.793 49.198 23.670 42.515 29.068 40.591 13.302 32.985 21.442 28.106 21.091 22.935 24.575 16.599 40.998 28.709 38.106 21.133 34.282 18.5 M +6.3225 11.655 39..409 33.237 51.5 M +6.848 31.726 41.895 36.681 17.988 19.724 38.43 8.128 16.5 M +3.575 16.73 7.451 39.012 19.464 28.51 6.085 52.0455 11.766 41.82 5.128 16.968 19.182 27.41 42 43 44 45 46 47 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 DFR WFR SFR +0 M +1.765 37.362 14.569 41.757 11.244 12.681 17.074 14.694 20.539 35.

012 14.33 8.306 19.5 meters.5 M +3.400 21.509 41.436 30.482 27.542 18.694 20.33 8. Concrete aggregates shall confirm to IS: 383.106 21.837 49.79 5.036 12.0 M +0 M +1.627 5.204 12.498 13.5 M +9. The water used for mixing concrete shall be fresh.0 M +4.842 14.29 26.656 39.012 19.106 21.39 29.694 20.5 M +6.13 21.667 50.812 22. All the four footings of the tower and their extension shall be similar.26 7.5 M +3.996 27.195 14.492 43.33 8. 2.901 13.452 52.408 25.5 M +6. organic materials and other deleterious substances.306 19. Main thing in Stub setting is Diagonal & Back to back measurement of Template. Stub templates shall be of adjustable type and painted.877 46.205 46.318 28.5:3 nominal mix ratio with 20mm coarse aggregate for chimney portion and 40mm aggregates for slab portion.518 2.988 19.812 22.0 M +7. below the ground level shall not be more than 3 .257 48.5 M +3.73 29.5 M +6.89 5.694 20.718 15. Reinforcement shall confirm to IS: 432 for MS bars Setting of stubs The stubs shall be set correctly and precisely in accordance with approved method at the exact location.259 33.024 28.362 40.836 22. The Portland cement used in concrete shall confirm to 33grade or 43 grade or 53 grade.542 18. the soil is excavated depending upon the type of the tower.718 20.672 44.15 7.518 18.5 M +9.467 43.424 24.846 46.244 37.282 18.812 22.072 24.33 8.0 M +7. Excavation work in a section must not be started until the tower schedule and profile of that section has been approved by POWERGRID.0 M +0 M +1.518 18.618 35.566 36.33 8.632 47.456 26.206 33.89 5.878 25.872 45.851 14.4 CONCRETING: Plain cement concrete/reinforced cement concrete footing shall be used for all type of normal towers.4 21.978 27.324 36.802 26.096 29.287 48.241 13.0 M +4.538 37.012 19.272 26.4 21.365 14.33 18.728 13.736 35.26 7.145 13. clean and free from oil.5 M +9.684 28.912 34. Diagonal & Back to back distance of different tower with .424 21.26 7.130 21.051 47.091 42.282 18.848 41.792 13.247 51. acids & alkalis.068 38.694 20.89 7.702 28.89 5.097 39.106 21.439 12.26 8. The total depth of the foundation except hard rock type.142 30.41 42 43 44 45 46 47 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 DFR WFR SFR +0 M +1.077 39.803 40.659 14.042 50.030 36.584 26.89 5.0 M 12.4 21.082 47.89 5.988 19.988 19. alignment and levels with the help of stub setting templates and levelling instruments.20 8.26 7.282 18.0 M +4.718 20.106 21.462 49.812 22.26 7.136 13.453 44.921 42.071 15.215 41.3 EXCAVATION: According to the pit marking. The reinforcement cement concrete (RCC) used for the foundations shall be nominal mix concrete of grade M-20 having 1:1.548 14.518 32.424 21.658 18.836 22.489 13.0 M +7.988 19.282 18.950 38.

9 22803.150 17628.1 28793.6 11588.9 1.9 0.3 13964.3 21311.0 M 19932.Parli Tr.7 16124.07 22877.5 19654.6 BACK FILLING AND REMOVAL OF STUB TEMPLATES: Back filling shall normally be done with the excavated soil. 2.54 15924. the pit may be back filled.0 M 18751.75 19750.5 CURING: The concrete shall be cured by maintaining the concrete wet for a period of at least 14 days after placing.06 22095.69 14268.9 23802.5 13259.8 16177. Line] SL NO TYPE OF TOWER DIMENSION IN (MM) DIAGONAL 01 DA BACK TO BACK DIAGONAL 02 DB BACK TO BACK DIAGONAL 03 DC BACK TO BACK DIAGONAL 03 DD BACK TO BACK NORMAL 16388.06 20360.9 +4.37 16476.8 12841.1 16830.1 27795.1 18948. the top surface should be finished smooth with a slight slope towards the outer edge for draining rain water. To avoid the possibility of reinforcement rods being exposed due to unevenness of the bottom of the excavated pit.2 18959. Mixing shall be continued until there is uniform distribution of material and mix is uniform in color and consistency. Once the concrete has set for 24 hours.6 15624 26797.09 13716. unless it is a clay type or it consists of large boulders or stones.57 20531.48 +3 M 17570.07 23659. After the pits have been backfilled to full depth.125 16730.The backfilling.04 20531.extension is mentioned below: [Detail of 400KV double ckt.72 22092.5 M 18160.2 13411. a pad of lean concrete 50mm thick and corresponding to a 1:3:6 nominal mix shall be provided at the bottom of the pad. Form boxes shall be used for casting of all types of foundations A mechanical vibrator shall be employed for compacting the concrete.8 18242. After concreting the chimney portion to the required height.06 15372. . placing and compacting of concrete The concrete shall be mixed in the mechanical mixer.05 21313.8 1.41 14820. shall be carried to an elevation of about 75mm above the finished level to drain out water. the stub template can be removed.03 19749. Quad Conductor Wardha. in which the boulders shall be broken to a maximum size of 80mm.3 12006.4 14517.5 15071 25798.63 +1. 2.6 +6.825 14094.2 13677 +9.03 18967.5 M 16979.42 22873.36 +7.7 TEPLATE HEIGHT IN MTR Mixing.4 17536.1 12423.9 24800.5 18189.03 1.5 M 19342.

proper De-watering arrangement is available at site.  Checking of Template Diagonal & Level at regular Intervals.  Removal of form boxes after 24 hour of concreting.t.7 FOUNDATION CHECK LIST:  Alignment of Centre peg & line peg and Distance with respect to previous & next location. (b) Mixer machine should be kept at safe distance from the pit and well tightened. At least up to 14 days after concreting. water level.  Distance of lowest part of stub w.  In case of Sub-soil water. undercutting if any.  All parts of the template should fix properly & fully tightened. 15 cm.  Proper Backfilling & preparing sufficient size platform around each Chimney.  Check for height of the excavated pit and pit size. and Checking of Angle of Deviation. mixing ratio and quality of concrete mix must be checked.  Template is removed after complete back filling. 2. template setting on Bisection. line peg and centre peg. Coarse aggregate.  Earth strip should be fixed in A leg.  Removal of excessive material & soil from the site.  Reinforcement should be equal to the approved drawing. should be checked.  Form boxes should of proper size & should be removed af ter 24 hours of concreting.r.  Proper & sufficient Curing of concreting.  Mechanical Vibrator & Pocking Rod must be used for proper compaction of concrete.2. min.  Template alignment w.r.  Stub cleat & support cleat are as per approved drawing and fitted water tight.  Sufficient Quantity & Quality of Cement.  During Concreting. . base of pit. Fine aggregate.8 SAFETY: Safety should be given due preference in all the activities of the transmission line construction.t. Back to back.  In case of angle tower. Water available at site. The following are the points to be remembered during the foundation work for ensuring safety. as per approved drawing.  Template Diagonal. and template height measurement. (a) Excavated soil should be kept 2m away from the pit edges.

tower shall be fitted with all tower accessories. (f) Jacks for template support should be placed at safe distance. tension-B/DB. 4. Tower erection Tower erection can be started after 14 days of foundation date but it is preferred to start erection after 28 days from the foundation date. Before starting upper section. 2. the threads of bolts projecting outside the nuts shall be punched at their position and tack welded at two diametrically opposite places(10 . Towers are segregated transported to site and shorted out. the bolts position in towers such that heads are outside and nut inside.(suspension-A/DA. 3. for positioning the holes but never strain the members for bringing into position. and D/DD).(c) Persons working inside the pit should wear safety helmets. Notch cutting and bending are to be checked properly before starting erection minor defects in hot dip galvanized members shall be repaired by applying at least two coats of zinc rich primer (90% zinc concentration) During erection ensure the following points 1. All the blank holes shall be fitted up by bolts/nuts. hand gloves and gumboots. the lower section shall be completely braced and all bolts/nuts provided as per drawing and tightened adequat ely. in the gaps with the proper size bolts. 5. The tightening shall be progressively be carried out from the top to downwards and care being taken that all bolts at every level are tightened simultaneously. Use Tommy bars (less than 450mm length. 6. (e) First aid box should be available at the site. (d) Strong Ladder of proper length should be used in the pit. all nuts shall be tightened properly using correct size of spanners and fittings washers/plates etc.C/DC. all plane diagonals for relevant section of the tower shall be placed before starting upper section.

cross arm 2 Cross arm 3 Cage 4 Waist level 5 Bracing 6 Tower body 7 Leg extension. particularly at 400 KV and above. Generally employ horizontal arrangement of conductors. Types of tower according to the structure: 1. B. Horizontal/ wasp waist type tower: 1 Boom 2 Peaks 3 Waist level 4 Tower body 5 Bracing 6 Concrete level 7 Stubs .L.mm each) to avoid theft of tower members. The number of ground wires used on the line depends upon the isoceraunic level (number of thunderstorm days/ hours per year) of the area. Classification according to number of circuits: The majority of high voltage double circuit transmission lines employ a vertical or nearly vertical configuration of conductors and single circuit transmission lines a triangular arrangement of conductor. single circuit lines. after tack welding zinc rich paint (90% zinc content) shall be applied to the welded portion. TYPES OF TOWERS: A. vertical/Barrel type towers: 1 G. W. as the phase to phase spacing of conductors would require an excessively high positioning of ground wire to give adequate coverage. 9 Stubs 2. where it is usually found advantageous to string two ground wires. Single circuit lines using horizontal configuration generally employ two ground wires due to the comparative width of the configuration. Importance of line. whereas lines using vertical and offset arrangements more often utilize one ground wire except on higher voltage lines of 400 KV and above. and the angle of coverage desired. 8 G.

1977 also recommends the above classification. A) Tangent suspension towerSuspension tower are used primarily on tangents but often are designed to withstand angles in the line up to two degrees or higher in addition to the wind. the span may be increased up to an optimum limit by reducing the angle of line deviation and vice versa. If the transmission line traverses relatively flat. they are necessarily heavier than suspension towers. tower designs are generally confined to a few standards types as follows. Theoretically different line angles require different towers. sometimes called semi-anchor towers. ice and broken conductor loads. This number is a function of all the factors which make the total erected cost of the tower line. Classification according to use: Towers are classified according to their use independent of the number of conductors they support.15 to 30 degrees line deviation D type(Heavy Angle/ Dead End). As they must resist a transverse load from the components of the line tension induced by this angle. or influenced by conductor tensions.2 to 15 degrees line deviation. 90 percent of the line may be composed of this type of tower. A tower has to withstand the loading ranging from straight runs up to varying angles and dead ends. As the number of locations at which 60 degree angle tower and dead end towers are . C type (Medium Angle) . featureless terrain. The loading on a tower in the case of a angle condition and dead end condition are almost the same.30 to 60 degrees line deviation (heavy angel and dead end) While the angles of the line deviation are for the span. ice. To simplify the design and ensure an overall economy in first cost and maintenance. Thus the design of tangent tower provides the greatest opportunity for the structural engineer to minimize the total weight of steel required. IS: 802 (Part I) . angle tower should be located so that the axis of the cross arm bisects the angle formed by the conductors.8 Ground level C. and broken conductor loads. Unless restricted by site conditions. are used where the lines makes a horizontal angle greater than two degrees. However experience has shown that the following angle towers are generally suitable for most of the lines: B type (light angel) . in addition to the usual wind. but for economy there is a limiting number of different towers which should be used. B) Angel towersAngel towers.

required are comparatively few. c) C-Type Tower ( Medium Angle Tower) : These towers can be used for deviations ranging from 15 degrees up to 30 degree. These towers can carry only vertical loads and are designed for carrying the weight of the conductor. They are also being used as transposition towers without any angle. These are called suspension or tangent tower. Galvanized hexagonal round head bolts and nuts are used for fastening with necessary spring or plate washers. Normally types of single circuit towers are used as detailed below: a) A. The introduction of a 15 degree tower would bring about sizable economics. y Unequal cross armAnother method to get over the difficulty of higher swing of jumper is to have unequal cross arms. 400KV SINGLE CIRCUIT TOWERS: The bundled conductors are kept in horizontal configuration with the minimum clearance of 11 mtrs. Also these towers can be used for deviations ranging from 30 degree to 60 degree. These towers are also designed for a deviation up to 2 degree.Type Towers ( Suspension Tower) : These towers are used as tangent towers for straight run of the transmission line. d) D-Type Tower ( Heavy Angle Tower) : These towers can be used as Dead end or Anchor Towers without any angle on the towers. b) B ² Type Tower ( Small Angle Tower) : These towers can be used as sectionalizing towers without angle and angle towers from degree up to 15 degree deviation. the latticed parts are fully galvanized. y Pilot suspension insulator stringThis shall be used if found necessary to restrict the jumper swings to design value at both middle and outer phases. It would be uneconomical to use 30 degree angle towers in location where angles higher than 2 degree and smaller than 30 degree are encountered. It is economical to design the heavy angle towers both for the 60 degree angle condition and dead end condition. the upper limit of the angle range is designed for the same basic span as the tangent tower. whichever is more stringent for each individual structural member. For each type of tower. insulator and other accessories. There are limitations to the use of 2 degree angle tower at higher angles with reduced spans and the use of 30 degree angle tower with smaller angles and increased spans. . So that a decreased angle can be accommodated with an increased span or vice versa.

Two earth wires are placed above each circuit in such a way to provide the required shielding angle. aviation authorities etc.) and to minimize expenditure in lying foundations in rivers. 15 to 30 degree. minimum clearance above water. from forest.These towers are normally provided as terminal towers near gantry with slack span on one side or as anchoring tower before major river crossing. DC/R and DD/S towers are used as tension towers with angle of deviation from 2 to 15 degree. DC. these towers are also galvanized. usually the governing specification requires that towers employed for crossing of navigable water ways be designed for heavy loading conditions and utilize larger minimum size members than the remainder of the line. ice and wind loads. major river crossing. and 30 to 60 degrees respectively. and S ( D/C tension towers) or as DA. y River crossing towerThe height and weight of towers vary considerably depending on the span. The double circuit towers are use while crossing reserved forest. earth wire and its accessories. DB type towers are also used as sectionalized towers without angle. Here. As in the single circuit towers. A minimum clearance of 11 mtrs is maintained from one circuit to another. Railway crossing etc. . DC towers are also used as Transposition Tower without any angle. narrow corridors near switch yards etc. the circuits are placed in a vertical configuration. DB. having bundled conductors. A minimum phase to phase clearance of 8 mtrs is maintained. Numbers of unbroken conductors etc. Power line crossing. lattice steel type structures designed to carry the tension and weight of the conductor along with the insulators. in addition to these structural requirements it is often necessary to limit the height of tall crossing towers because of the hazard they present to aircraft. Like single circuit towers. Normally these towers are identified as P ( D/C suspension towers). DA/P towers are used as suspension tower used for 0 to 2 degree deviation. DB/Q.R.Q. and DD respectively. y Railway crossing towerAngel or dead end towers (type B. so as to make provision for future transmission lines since the approval from various authorities can be obtained at one time ( for example. C and D) with suitable extensions and with double tensions insulator strings are employed for railway crossing in conformity with the relevant specification of railway authorities. 400 KV DOUBLE CIRCUIT TOWERS : These towers are designed to carry two circuits consist of 3 phases each.

the . However. Multi circuit towers are used. greatly reduced the need for transposition of high voltage lines at close telecommunication system has ruled that ´the power supply authorities need not provide transposition on power lines for coordination with telecommunication linesµ.y High way crossing towersAngel towers with suitable extension and with double tension strings are employed for high way crossing angle towers are used for high way crossing angle towers are used for national high way crossing to make the crossing span as a section so as to facilitate independent and prompt stringing. It may be mentioned here that a double circuit line is cheaper than two independent single circuit lines and four circuit line cheaper than two independent single circuit lines. The remaining consideration viz. An incidental effect of transposing power line section is the geometric balancing of such circuits between terminals which assumes balanced conditions at every point of the power transmission system. A good practice would be to adopt about 200KM as the permissible length of the line without taking recourse to special transposition structures. Improvements and developments in both the comm unications and power fields have. transposition being confined to substation and switching station only provides they are located at suitable intervals. The imbalance of the three phase voltages due to asymmetry of conductor arrangement is not considered serious in view of the equalizing effect of the three phase transformer bank and synchronous machinery at various points on the system. however. and the residual current to be considered. However. there are the effect of geometric imbalance of the conductor arrangements on the power system itself. y Multi circuit towersTo transmit bulk power at a economical rate. Operating experience has shown that many disturbances on high voltage line occur of transposition towers and statistical records indicate that at least one of the four outages is physically associated with a transposition. y Transposition towerPower transmission lines are transposed primarily to eliminate or reduce disturbances in the neighboring communication circuits produced by the geometric imbalance of pow er lines. Tower type C under 0 degree deviation limit and with suitable modification shall be used for transposition for line maintaining all the required clearances and shielding. when transposition is eliminated. and four circuit line cheaper than two double circuit lines. residual currents due to the elimination of transposition might be important from the point of view of relay settings to prevent causing undesirable tripping of ground current relays.

. uneven ground etc. earth wire to be run out first. Proper shut down and PTW have to be arranged and proper earthing at site before starting stringing.e. Power lines. Care shall be taken that all sub conductors of bundle are from the same batch of conductor so that creep behaviors of sub conductor remain identical. which could causes scratches/damages to the strands. Running blocks are provided at all suspension tower and ground rollers at ground. P & T lines. +6. Stringing INSULATOR HOISTING: Suspension insulators string shall be hoisted after tightening and punching of tower. The sequence of running out shall be from top to downward i. Towers not designed for one side stringing shall be well guyed and all safe steps to be taken to avoid damage. Insulators shall be properly cleaned before installation and IR value should be taken. TOWER EXTENSIONS: All towers are designed in such a way that they can be provided with standard tower extensions are designed as +3. While running out the conductors. Railway lines. Adequate safety precautions to be taken for personnel protection. A balance has therefore to be struck between the two somewhat opposing consideration. Railway lines have to be crossed. undulated.+9 and +25 in mtrs. HANDLING OF CONDUCTOR: There should be no any damage to the tower or conductors during stringing. Further. Derricks or other equivalent methods ensuring that normal services need not be interrupted nor damage damage cause to property shall be used during stringing operations where roads. Adequate safety precautions are to be taking in case of power line crossing/parallelism. these extension can be used along with standard towers to provide sufficient clearance over ground or while crossing power lines. care should be taken that conductors do not touch or rub against the ground or objects.capital lay out involved become heavy and it is not easy to visualize the manner in which the loads build up and the power flow takes place in the long-term prospective. channels. reliability considerations become very important at extra voltages. Highways.

River crossing and main power line crossing.Contractor shall be entirely responsible for damage to any tower. earth wire. All joints (compression type) will be made at least 30 mtrs away from the towers. Sagging in operation: Tensioning/ sagging shall be done in according to the approved stringing chart (initial stringing chart for conductor and final stringing chart for earth wire ) conductor shall be pulled up to the desired sag and left in position for at least one hour after which the sag shall be rechecked and adjusted. leg members and main bra cings shall not be removed without reducing the tension on the tower with proper guying or releasing the conductors. All accessories shall be installed as per the design requirement within 24 hours of clamping. Conductor shall not be hanging in stringing blocks more than 96 hours. Suitable protector for mid span joint to be used to avoid any damage to joints while passing over rollers. Sag will be checked in first and last span of section of 8 spans and for more spans at one intermediate span als o. Not more than one joint per sub conductor per span shall be permitted. If the replacement of cross arms become necessary after stringing. scuff marks etc. TRANSPOSITION OF LINE : y . Repairs of conductor shall be carried out with repair sleeve in case of minor damage. each part of joint shall be cleaned and be properly greased with anticorrosive compound. 14/15 discs-22 kV. y No. y y Replacement: If any replacements are to be effected after stringing and tensioning or during maintenance. No joints shall be allowed in the spans crossing over NH. STRINGING OF CONDUCTOR AND EARTH WIRE: The stringing of conductor shall be done by standard stringing method according to the approved stringing sag tension chart. the conductor shall be suitable tied to the tower at tension points of transferred to suitable roller pulleys at suspension points. Railway crossing. and accessories during stringing/ proper handling at side. Armor rods will be provided at suspension clamps. Clipping of conductor shall be done in accordance with the recommendation of the manufacturer within 36 hours of sagging. of insulators to be installed1 disc/ 11 kV. 45 discs-765 kV. 23 discs-400 kV. Conductors creep to be compensated by over tensioning. conductor. Dynamometer is used for measuring tension and sag board is also fixed at required sag as per sag tension chart.

which may affect the communication circuits as danger to insulation. properly tightened and tack welded. no damage to foundation. All required drawings in original and additional c opies have been submitted for records. Method of reducing interference is the transposition. Proper back filling. All conductor and earth wire accessories properly installed. All tower members are fitted correctly according to the drawing. y Arcing horn: To bypass the spike voltages directly without coming through insulator string. y Final checking: All works to be inspected thoroughly keeping in view the following. danger to person and acoustic shocks. All tower have been properly grounded. y String efficiency: Flashover voltage of string of n units/ n times flashover voltage of one unit. When a Power line and a telecom line run parallel to each other. which nullify the inductive and capacitive coupling. All tower accessories have been installed. All bolts are of proper size. y Corona ring: Equal voltage distribution across the string to give 100% string efficiency.Normally three Transposition towers are provided at 1/3 rd distance.  The insulation of the line as a whole is to be tested (line meggering)  The line is finally tested satisfactorily for commissioning purpose. no extra burden. Proper clearances are available with conductors.         . y Ground wire: Protection of line from lightening and the resulted high voltage surges. voltages may be induced in the two lines due to conductive and inductive coupling between two lines.

12.III. POWERGRID has to power for Power for telegraph authority to place and maintain telegraph lines and posts ² The telegraph authority may. As per Telegraphic Act 1885. across in or upon which the telegraph authority places any telegraph line or post. is authorised to exercise all the Power of Telegraphic Act to Power Grid.COMPENSATION Ministry Of Power India. and c. over. over. or to be so established or maintained. along. the [Central Government] shall not acquire any right other than that of user only in the property under. Part. Section 10. place and maintain a telegraph line under.2003. or across. b. through Gazette notification dated 24. and . and posts in or upon any immovable property: Provided that ² a. without the permission of that authority. the telegraph authority shall not exercise the powers conferred by this section except for the purposes of a telegraph established or maintained by the [Central Government].2003 issued under section 164 of the Electricity Act. from time to time. the telegraph authority shall not exercise those powers in respect of any property vested in or under the control or management of any local authority. along. except as hereinafter provided.

in the exercise of the powers conferred by this section. permission is granted from Forest division.  TREE COMPENSATION: During stringing activity while constructing a transmission line and smooth operation of transmission line after commissioning. As per tree enumeration report. we required tree cutting. A list is prepared and sent to the revenue department (Tahsildar) for the valuation & verification of damage of crop. For Non Fruit bearing trees. And address of land. and for cutting Fruit bearing Trees. Gut no. the line route encounters with trees and agricultural lands which may not be avoided. Trees are divided in two categories viz. the telegraph authority shall do as little damage as possible. notice is issued to the owner of the crop before crop damages. we have to submit case for tree evaluation and get permit for tree cutting. when it has exercised those powers in respect of any property other than that referred to in clause (c). For tree compensation.1885. & Indian Electricity Act. In the transmission line construction. permission is granted from Agriculture Office. on the order of the district collector. Name and address of land owner. As per above Telegraphic Act. After getting valuation from revenue department list is send to finance department for the payment of compensation. and. CCTC shows the details and area of the damaged crop.2003 POWERGRID is not authorized for land acquisition for tower placing. tree cutting is done and the payment of compensation is released by POWERGRID. In Forest Area. We pay the compensation in form of Demand Draft. Tree Enumeration Procedure is done. Crop details. permission is granted from only forest department. . Compensation can be divided into two categories like tree compensation and crop compensation. ROW of Transmission line depends upon voltage level of the line. So compensation is to be given to the owners of the trees and the crop as early as possible to carry on the construction work smoothly without any disturbances. Tehsil and district And CCTC is issued after work completion. shall pay full compensation to all persons interested for any damage sustained by them by reason of the exercise of those powers. we issue CCTC to the tree owner then. As soon as the verification is completed. Fruit bearing & Non fruit bearing trees. In Detail Survey. For 400 kV D/C transmission line ROW is 46 meters.  CROP COMPENSATION: For crop compensation.d. Notice contains. we issue notice to the tree owner and the notice is submitted to the revenue department then joint verification of the tree is done by the revenue department and POWERGRID.

The project covered under notifications issued from time to time under Environment (Protection) Act. Moreover a copy of all these proposals irrespective of area should also be sent to concerned Regional Office of the MOEF> For small development and public utility projects involving diversion of forestland up to 5 hectors. of India. prescribes the procedure for submission of the proposal for seeking prior approval of the Central Govt. 3-4 months to reach the compensation to the owner. section 2. FOREST CASES As per Forest Conservation Act. The form appended to the Rules.forest purpose means use of forest land for any other than re-aforestation. as per procedure laid down by the . there is a restriction on the use of forest land for non-forest purpose without prior approval of Govt. Rule-6 the Forest Conservation Rules-2003. MOEF. But we try to minimize time of compensation process for smooth construction work without any disturbances. or other authority to the Secretary to the Govt. of India. shall require clearance separately from environmental angle. specifies the particulars to be furnished with the proposal All proposal to diversion of forest land up to 40 hectors area and proposals for clearing of naturally grown trees for reforestation shall be sent to the concerned Regional Office of the MOEF by the State/ UT Govt. 1986. Here non. or other authority. under Section 2 of the Act. All other proposals shall be sent by State/ UT govt. MOEF mentioning ´Attention ² FC Divisionµ on the covering letter envelope. the state Govt.1980. may authorised the Nodal Officer to submit the proposal to the Regional Office.The process of the crop compensation takes approx.

Plantation of dwarf species (preferably medical plants) in ROW under the transmission line. User agency to provide fuel wood to the labourers and the staff working at the site. Legal status of forest land to remain unchanged. 3. if required 8. if any 7. A. 9. To be applied simultaneously General Conditions stiputed in Forestry Clearance: 1. 2.Environment Wing of the Ministry of Environment & Forests. Minimum trees to be falled. Notification of such land as RF/PF under the Indian Forest Act-1927 4. Rehabilitation of project affected families. Transfer and mutation of non-forestland in favour of Forest Dept. so as to avoid any damage and preserve on adjacent forest area. The forest land shall not be used for any other purpose than specified. 6. 5. FLOWCHART FOR FOREST CLEARANCE CASES UPTO 5 HECTOR . Compensatory afforestation as per guide lines. Environment Clearance.

FLO 40 H HA T FOR FOR ST TOR L A RAN AS S > U TO 8 7 4 64 6 4 46 43 .6 6 5 B.

FLO CHART FOR FOR ST CL A RANCE CASES MORE THAN 40 HECTOR A A @ 9 .C.

There will be lot of travelling. lot of public dealing.CONCLUSION: As an Di l a Trainee in power gri transmission line construction work is one of the most challenging jobs. requires .

a lot of patience. Initially it seems that no technical knowledge is required in line construction but as we get involved and get deeper with the technical issues we realise that line construction needs require technical knowledge about line design parameters. but the construction experience gives us a lot of field knowledge and the aspects which we cannot know until we go to the construction site. . There will be occasions when we have to become harsh. I have learned a lot form this experience which will help me serve Power Grid efficiently in future.I personally feel that while in a line construction we have to be more sound in Mechanical and Civil engineering aspects. erection and stringing and the various safety factors to be ensured while construction . even we have to argue with the contractors regarding quality of work. quality issues. will power. endurance and most important quick decisions at the site. methods of foundation.