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SOLAS chapter IX is the Management for the safe operation of ships. The purpose of this
chapter is to implementing of ISM Code. International safety management Code means the
ISM Code is to provide safe

Management and operation of ships and for pollution prevention adopted by the organization

by resolution A. 741(18), as amended by MSC.104 (73).

The ISM Code is to take the necessary steps to safeguard the shipmaster in the proper

discharge of his responsibilities with regard to maritime safety and the protection of the

marine environment.


1. General: - Definitions - Objectives - Application - Functional requirements for a safety

management system

2. Safety and environmental protection policy

3. Company responsibilities and authority

4. Designated Person

5. Master’s responsibility and authority

6. Resources and personnel

7. Development of plans for shipboard operations

8. Emergency Preparedness

9. Reports and analysis of non-conformities, accidents and hazardous occurrences

10. Maintenance of the ship and equipment 11. Documentation

12. Company verification, Review and Evaluation

13. Certification and periodical verification

14. Interim Certification

15. Verification

16. Forms of Certificates

ISM Code applies:

1. Passenger ships/passenger high-speed craft, oil/chemical tankers, gas/bulk carrier and

cargo high-speed craft of 500 GT and upwards – 1st Jul 98.

2. Other cargo ships and mobile offshore drilling units (MODU) of 500 GT and upwards – 01
July 2002.

Objective :

1. Safety at sea

2. Prevention of human injury or loss of life

3. Avoidance of damage to the environment

4. Avoidance of damage to the property


The company should clearly define and document the master’s responsibility with regard to:

1. Implementing the safety and environmental-protection policy of the company;

2. Motivating the crew in the observation of that policy;

3. Issuing appropriate orders and instructions in a clear and simple manner;

4. Verifying that specified requirements are observed; and

5. Reviewing the SMS and reporting its deficiencies to the shore-based management.

The company should ensure that the SMS operating on board the ship contains a clear

statement emphasizing the master’s authority. The company should establish in the SMS

that the master has the overriding authority and the responsibility to make decisions with

respect to safety and pollution prevention and to request the company’s assistance as may

be necessary.


1 The company should establish procedures to identify describe and respond to potential
emergency shipboard situations.

2 The company should establish programme for drills and exercises to prepare for
emergency actions.

3 The SMS should provide for measures ensuring that the company’s organization can
respond at any time to hazards, accidents and emergency situations involving its ships.


DOCUMENT OF COMPLIANCE :should be issued by the Administrations to the any Company

complying with the requirements of ISM Code for a period which should not exceed five
years. The validity of a Document of Compliance should be subject to annual verification by
the Administration within three months before or after the anniversary date. The Document
of Compliance should be withdrawn by the Administration if annual verification is not
requested or if there is evidence of major non-conformities with this Code. A copy of the
Document of Compliance should be placed on board with Master for verification by the

SAFETY MANAGEMENT CERTIFICATE should be issued by the Administration to a ship for a

period which should not exceed five years. The SMC should be issued after verifying that the
company and its shipboard management operate in accordance with the approved Safety
Management System. Such a certificate should be accepted as evidence that the ship
complying with the requirement of this Code.

The validity of the Safety Management Certificate should be subject to at least one
intermediate verification by the administration it should take place between the second and
third anniversary dates of the Safety Management Certificate.
The Safety Management Certificate should be withdrawn by the Administration if
intermediate verification is not requested or if there is evidence of major non-conformities
with this Code.


facilitate initial implementation of this Code when:

1. A company is newly established

2. New ship types are to be added to an existing Document of Compliance.

The company has a safety management system and meets full requirements of this Code the
administration should be issued with Interim Document of Compliance for a period not
exceeding 12 months.


1. to new ships on delivery;

2. when a Company takes on responsibility for the operation of a ship which is new to the
Company; or 3.When a ship changes flag. Such an Interim Safety Management certificate
should be issued for a period not exceeding 6 months by the Administration. In special cases
the certificate may be extend for a further period which should not exceed 6 months from
the date of expiry.

An Interim Safety Management certificate may be issued after following verification:

1. Ship have a Document of Compliance, or the Interim Document of Compliance

2.The Safety Management System provided by the Company for the ship concerned.

3.The Company has planned the audit of the ship within three months.

4. the master and officers are familiar with the safety management system and the planned
arrangements for its implementation;

5. instructions, which have been identified as being essential, are provided prior to sailing;
and 6.Relevant information on the safety management system has been given in a working
language understood by the ship’s personnel.


To ensure the safe operation of each ship and to provide a link between the company and
those on board, every company, as appropriate, should designate a person or persons ashore
having direct access to the highest level of management. The responsibility and authority of
the designated person or persons should include monitoring the safety and pollution
prevention aspects of the operation of each ship and ensuring that adequate resources and
shore-based support are applied, as required.


Port State Control (PSC) is the control through inspection of foreign ships by a Coastal State
in its ports. This control is exercised for the purpose of verifying that:

1. The condition of the ship and its equipment comply with the requirements of certain
international maritime conventions and
2. the ship is manned and operated in compliance with applicable international laws. The
Flag State has been given the primary responsibility for ensuring that a ship flying their flag
should be equipped, operated, maintained and manned in accordance with international
maritime conventions.

Port State Control Officer (PSCO ):

A person duly authorized by the competent authority of a party to a relevant convention to

carry out port State control inspections, and responsible exclusively to that party. The
purpose of Flag State Implementation (FSI) document is intended to provide basic guidance
on conduct of Port State Control inspections, the recognisation of deficiencies of a ship, its
equipment, or its crew and the application of control procedures.

The procedures for Port State Control inspections come under the provisions of the:

1. SOLAS 1974 – Regulation 19 of chapter I, Regulation 4 of chapter XI-1 2.

2. LOAD LINES 1966 – article 21

3. MARPOL 73/78 – Regulation 8A of Annex 1, Regulation 15 of Annex II, Regulation 8 of

Annex III and Regulation 8 of Annex V.

4. STCW 95 – Article X

5. TONNAGE MEASUREMENT OF SHIPS, 1969 – article 12


When can PSC Inspection take place?

PSC inspections of ships may be undertaken on the basis of :-

1.a request of, or on the basis of information regarding a ship provided by another

2 information regarding a ship provided by: •a member of the crew •a professional

body •an association•a trade union •any other individual with an interest in the safety
of the ship, its crew and passengers, or the protection of the marine environment
Conduct and result of PSC Inspection .

3.When the ship is visiting for the 1st time to the coastal state or after 12months.

The following steps briefly describe the conduct of inspection by PSCO and possible
result of inspections. 1.Initial Inspection: - PSCO inspects certificates on board as
required by various Conventions and check if they are in order.

2.Report in Form A:- if the above are in order and PSCO’s general impression and
visual observation confirm continued compliance, inspection will end and PSCO will
issue a Report (using Form A) of inspection in which observed deficiencies will be

3.More detailed inspection: An inspection conducted when there are clear grounds for
believing that the condition of the ship, its equipment, or its crew does not correspond
substantially with the particulars of the certificates.
4.Clear Ground : Evidence that the ship, its equipment, or its crew does not
correspond substantially with the requirements of the relevant conventions or that the
master or crew members are not familiar with essential shipboard procedures relation
to the safety of ships or the prevention of pollution.

Some examples of clear grounds are :

(a) Absence of principal equipment or arrangement as per Conventions

(b)Certificates clearly are invalid

(c ) Logs, manuals and other required documentation not on board, not maintained
or falsely maintained

(d) PSCO’s observation that serious hull or structural deficiencies exist

(e) PSCO’s observation that serious deficiencies exist in navigational equipment,

safety and pollution prevention.

(f) Evidence that crew not familiar with essential shipboard functions related to
safety and pollution prevention or are not able to communicate with each other.

5. Detention of Ship:- If the ship presents a safety risk or risk of pollution, the Port State is
empowered to detain the vessel until she is repaired and/or deficiencies rectified. Such
deficiencies are listed in IMO guidelines and are called “Detainable deficiencies”.

6.Action on Detention:- If the ship is detained, PSCO should state the fact in report of
inspection as per Form A. Master must inform company and Classification Society/Flag State
Authorities. The PSCO is also expected to make a report called a “Notification of Detention of
Ship” to the Flag State of the ship or Consulate by e-mail, fax etc. to avoid unnecessary
delay. The inspection report and the Notification are expected to state the detainable
deficiencies found.

After the deficiencies are correct, re-inspection by PSCO may take place and another Report
of Inspection (Form A) is issued. If the Ship is released, the form will mention the fact. Upon
release of the ship a “Notification of Release of Ship” is to be sent by the Port State to the
Flag State/Consulate as necessary.


1. Master can ask for and the PSCO should provide a document giving the result of
inspection, details of any action taken by the PSCO and list of corrective action to be
initiated. Such report is to be made as per form ‘A’. This form merely informs if the ship has
deficiencies or if ship is detained.

2. A document in the form of Form “B” is to be given to ship’s master which gives details of
nature of deficiency, action to be taken etc.

3. if ship is detained, copies of forms A and B to be sent to :

.a. Flag State

b. IMO

c. Recognized organization meaning the classification society issuing certificates on behalf of

the Flag State.
The following inspection are carried out by the PSCO:

1. A PSCO may proceed to the ship and before boarding he should check vessel appearance
in the water, an impression of its standard of maintenance from such items as the condition
of its paintwork, corrosion or pitting or unrepaired damage.

2. PSCO should ascertain the year of build and size of the ship for the purpose of determining
which provisions of the convention are applicable.

3. On boarding and introduction to the master or the responsible ship’s officer, the PSCO
should examine the vessel’s relevant certificates and documents.

As a Master from the following preparation vessel will be ready for PSCO Initial Inspection.

1.International Tonnage Certificate 1969

2. Passenger ship safety Certificate;

3. Cargo ship Safety Construction Certificate;

4. Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate;

5. Cargo Ship Safety Radiography Certificate;

6. Cargo Ship Safety Radiotelephony Certificate;

7. Cargo Ship Safety Radio Certificate;

8. Exemption Certificate;

9. Cargo Ship Safety certificate;

10.Document of Compliance.

11.International Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Liquefied Gases in Bulk;

12.Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Liquefied Gases in bulk.

13.International Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk;

14.Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Dangerous Chemicals in bulk.

15.International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate.

16.International Pollution Prevention Certificate for the carriage of NoxiousLiquid Substances

in Bulk.

17.International Load Line Certificate (1966);

18.International Load Line Exemption Certificate.

19.Oil Record Book Part I & II

20.Cargo Record Book

21.Minimum Safe Manning document;

22.Certificate of Competency of officers

23.Medical Certificates of Seafarers

24.Stability information

25.Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan

26.Certificates as to the ship’s hull strength and machinery installations issued by the
classification society if the ship is classed

27.Survey Report Files(in case of Bulk Carriers and Oil Tankers)

28.Report or previous Port State Control inspections

29.Ro-Ro passenger ships, information on the A/Amax ratio.

4. If the certificates are valid and the PSCO’s general impression and visual observations on
board confirm a good standard of maintenance, the PSCO should generally confine the
inspection to reported or observed deficiencies.

5. If the ship does not carry valid certificates, or if the PSCO from general impressions or
observations on board has clear grounds for believing that the ship, its equipment does not
correspond substantially with the particulars of the certificates or that the master or its crew
is not familiar with essential ship board procedure, the PSCO should proceed to more detailed
inspection :-

a) Structure ; b) Machinery spaces ; c) Conditions of assignment of load lines ; d) Life-

saving appliances ; e) Fire safety ; f) Regulations for preventing collisions at sea ;
g) Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate ; h) Cargo Ship Safety Radio
Certificates ; i)Muster List ; j) Communication ; k) Fire and abandon ship drill l)
DC plan and SOPEP ; m) Fire Control Plan ; n) Bridge operation ; o) Cargo operation ; p)
Operation of machinery q) Manuals, instructions ; r) Oil and oily mixtures from machinery
spaces ; s) Loading, unloading and cleaning procedures for cargo spaces of tankers ; t)
Dangerous goods and harmful substances in packaged form ; u) Garbage Record
Book/Garbage management Plan


Knowledge of details of certificates required on a passenger, bulk, oil, chemical or gas

carrier, the convention to which the certificates belong to. Damage control plans. Provision
and display of maneuvering information on board. Certificates and documents required to be
carried on board ships (all certificates to be carried on board must be originals)

A. All ships :Details of Cert Under which Convention.

1.International Tonnage Certificate (1969) - Tonnage Convention

2.International Load Line Certificate (1966) - Load Line Convention

3.International Load Line Exemption Certificate - Load Line Convention

4.Intact Stability Booklet - SOLAS 1974

5.Damage control booklets - SOLAS 1974

6.Minimum safe manning document - SOLAS 1974

7.Certificates for masters, officers or ratings - STCW 1995

8.International Oil Pollution Certificate - MARPOL 73/78

9.Oil Record Book - MARPOL 73/78

10.Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan - MARPOL 73/78

11.Garbage Management Plan - MARPOL 73/78

12.Garbage Record Book - MARPOL 73/78

13.Cargo Securing Manual - SOLAS 1974

14.Document of Compliance - SOLAS 1974

15.Safety Management Certificate - SOLAS 1974

B. PASSENGER SHIPS : In addition to the certificates listed in section A above, shall

carry :

1.Passenger Ship Safety Certificate - SOLAS 1974

2.Exemption certificate - SOLAS 1974

3.Special Trade Passenger ships - STP Agreement

4.Special Trade Passenger Ships Space Certificate - SSTP 73

5.Search and Rescue co-operation plan - SOLAS 1974

6.List of operational limitations - SOLAS 1974

7.Decision support system for masters - SOLAS 1974

C. CARGO SHIPS : In addition to the certificates listed in section A above, shall

carry :

1.Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate - SOLAS 1974

2.Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate - SOLAS 1974

3.Cargo Ship Safety Radio Certificate - SOLAS 1974

4.Cargo Ship Safety Certificate - SOLAS 1988 Protocol

5. Exemption Certificate

6.Document of Compliance with the special requirements For ships carrying Dangerous
Goods - SOLAS 1974

7.Dangerous Goods Manifest Or Stowage Plan - SOLAS 1974

8.Document of Authorization for the Carriage of Grain- SOLAS 1974

9.Certificate of Insurance or other Financial Security in respect of Civil Liability for Oil
Pollution Damage - CLC 1969

10.Enhanced Survey Report File - MARPOL 73/78

11.Record of Oil Discharge Monitoring and Control System for the last Ballast Voyage -
MARPOL 73/78

12.Bulk Carrier Booklet - SOLAS 1974

D. SHIPS CARRY NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES IN BULK : In addition to the certificates

listed in section A and C above, shall carry

13.International Pollution Prevention certificate for the Carriage of Noxious Liquid Substances
in Bulk (NLS Certificate) - MARPOL 73/78

14.Cargo Record Book - MARPOL 73/78

15.Procedures & Arrangements Manual (P&A Manual) - MARPOL 73/78

16.Shipboard Marine Pollution Emergency Plan for Noxious Liquid Substances - MARPOL

E. CHEMICAL TANKER : In addition to the certificates listed in sec. A and C above,

shall carry

1. Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk - BCH Code

2. International Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk - IBC

F. GAS CARRIER : In addition to the certificates listed in section A and C above, shall

1. Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Liquid Gases in Bulk - GC Code

2. International Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Liquid Gases in Bulk - IGC Code

G. HIGH SPEED CRAFT: In addition to the certificates listed in section A and C above,
shall carry

1. High-Speed Craft Safety Certificate - SOLAS 1974/HSC Code

2. Permit to Operate High-Speed Craft - HSC Code

H. SHIP CARRYING INF (IRRADIATED NUCLEAR FUEL): In addition to the certificates listed
in section A and C above, shall carry

1. International Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of INF Cargo - SOLAS 1974


1. SPECIAL PURPOSE SHIPS : Special Purpose Ship Safety Certificate - SOLAS 1974

2. OFFSHORE SUPPORT VESSELS :Certificate of Fitness for Offshore Support Vessels -

MARPOL 73/78

3. DIVING SYSTEMS: Diving System Safety Certificate - Resolution A.536(13)

4. DYNAMICALLY SUPPORTED CRAFT:Dynamically Supported Craft Construction and

Equipment Certificate - Resolution A.373(X)
5. MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS :Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit Safety Certificate -
Resolution A.414(XI)

6. NOISE LEVELS Noise Survey Report - Resolution A.468(XII)

Harmonized System of Surveys and Certification. The 1988 Protocol - Harmonized System of
Surveys and Certification.

Adoption: 11 November 1988

Entry into Force: 12 months after being accepted by at least 15 states whose combined
merchant fleets represented at least 50% of world tonnage (but not before 1 February 1992)

Status: The above requirement was met on 2/2/1999 when the Bahamas and Malta deposited
their instruments of accession; hence the HSSC will come into force on 3rd February 2000.

The protocol introduces a new system of surveys and certification which harmonizes with two
other conventions = LOAD LINE and MARPOL. (Also IBC and IGC Codes)

Earlier requirements in the three instruments varied and as a result ships were obliged to go
into dry dock for a survey required by this one convention shortly after being surveyed in
connection with another. By enabling the required surveys to be carried out at the same time
the system reduces costs for ship owners and administrations alike.


one year standard interval between surveys ?Flexibility for execution of each survey (± 3
months) renewal survey may be completed 3 months prior date of expiry of certificate with
no loss of period of validity. ?5-year validity period for all certificates of cargo ships; 1-year
for passenger ship safety certificate ?3-month extension of certificates to enable a ship to
complete its voyage (one month for ships engaged on short voyages). New certificate will
start from date of expiry of existing certificate before extension.


SOLAS Chapter II-1 Part B Regulation 23 &23-1 Damage Control Plan shall be permanently
exhibited, for the guidance of the officer in charge of the ship, plans showing clearly for each
deck and hold the boundaries of the watertight compartments, the openings therein with the
means of closure and position of any controls thereof, and the arrangements for the
correction of any list due to flooding. In addition, booklets containing the aforementioned
information shall be made available to the officers of the ship.


Ships set out in the annex to Resolution A.601 (15). The Marine Safety Agency recommended
that maneuvering information in the form of a pilot card, wheel house poster and
maneuvering booklet should be provided as follows:

1.The pilot cards on all ships to which the requirements of the 1974 SOLAS Convention, as
amended, apply;

2.The pilot card, wheel house poster and maneuvering booklet on all new ships of 100
meters in length and over, and all new chemical tankers and gas carries regardless of size;

3.The pilot card, wheelhouse poster and maneuvering booklet on all new ships that may pose
a hazard due to unusual dimensions or characteristics.
1. PILOT CARD : The pilot card, to be filled in by the master, is intended to provide
information to the pilot on boarding the ship. This information should describe the current
condition of the ship, with regard to its loading, propulsion and maneuvering equipment, and
other relevant equipment. e.g. ship’s name, C/S, DWT, DISPL, draft, air draft , year of built,
ship’s particulars (LOA, breadth, bulbous bow, anchor chain) type of engine, maximum
power, maneuvering engine order, steering particulars (type of rudder, maximum angle, hard
over to hard over, rudder angle for neutral effect, thruster)

2.WHEELHOUSE POSTER:- The wheelhouse poster should be permanently displayed in the

wheelhouse. It should contain general particulars and detailed information describing the
maneuvering characteristics of the ship, and be of such a size to ensure ease of use .e.g.
ship’s name, C/S, GRT, NRT, DWT, DISPL, Block co-efficient, Draught(loaded/ballast), steering
particulars, Anchor chain, Propulsion particulars, thruster effect, Draught increase (loaded),
turning circles at max. Rudder angles, emergency maneuvers (full ahead to full astern),
stopping characteristics (track reach), man overboard rescue maneuver.

3. MANEUVERING BOOKLET: The maneuvering booklet should be available on board and

should contain comprehensive details of the ship’s maneuvering characteristics and other
relevant data. The maneuvering booklet should include the information shown on the
wheelhouse poster together with other available maneuvering information. e.g. General
description (ship’s particulars, characteristics of main engine), maneuvering characteristics
in deep water (course change performance, turning circles in deep water, accelerating turn,
yaw checking tests, man overboard and parallel course maneuvers, lateral thruster
capabilities), stopping and speed control characteristics in deep water (stopping ability,
deceleration/acceleration performance), maneuvering characteristics in shallow water
(turning circle in shallow water, squat) maneuvering characteristics in wind (wind forces and
moment, course-keeping limitations, drifting under wind influence) maneuvering
characteristics at low speed & additional information.

Knowledge of Fire Appliance:- Maintenance and ready availability, fire control plan, fire drills,
fixed fire fighting system, various FFA and its usage.


1.Emergency Fire Pump : Run up and operate for at least 5 minutes. Check remote starts
and pressure at furthest Hydrant point.

2.Fire Hose Boxes : check each hose box and contents – fire hose, jet/spray nozzle, hose key
(spanner). 3.Emergency generator : Run up and operate for at least 5 minutes. Check remote

4.Fire Flaps : Test all fire flaps are free to operated and grease dogs and nipples. Check
position of flap to see if OPEN or SHUT. Where necessary, paint handles RED and re- stencil
‘OPEN’ and ‘SHUT’ as required.

5.Alarms – E/R, CO2, hospital, cold room, bilge etc.: All alarms to be tested, all CO2 alarm
activating release boxes to be opened and alarms tested in the presence of the Chief

6.Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) : A fully charged cylinder (200 Bar)
contains about 1235 liters of air. An average person in normal working conditions consumes
about 35 liters per minute. Therefore the effective duration of the cylinder is about 35
minutes. The warning whistle is set at about 48 – 50 bar pressure in the cylinder which
makes an effective duration of about 8 minutes. Therefore the effective duration of a fully
charged cylinder is only 35 – 8 =27 minutes as the air supply for 8 minutes duration (on
blowing of warning whistle) is basically for retreat only. Check apparatus for leaks. Check Air
Hoses for fraying or cutting. Inspect Harness and Buckles to ensure shoulder straps are fully
extended and in good condition.

Face mask check:

i. Face masks rubber for perforations. ii. Inner seal for correct inflation. iii. Ensure head straps
are fully extended. iv. Clean facemask with weak soap. With sets pressurized put on
facemask correctly and breathe normally to check warning whistle unit and mask sealing on

7.Oxygen Analyzers: Test equipment in accordance with manufactures instructions to

ensure instruments are reading correctly.

8.Portable gas detection equipment: Test Detection Equipment with kit provided. Check
all ancillary equipment. Ensure fully operational.

9.Portable Fire Extinguishers : (9 Liters Water, Foam, 4.5 kg DCP & CO2 type) All
extinguishers to be checked externally and made good where required. D C P extinguishers
to be inverted to loosen powder. Nozzles to be tested. Plungers to be tested by turning by
hand. Check distribution of Portable Fire Extinguishers. AFFF need to be recharged every
three/four years as per Makers instructions. Every 2 year inspection to be carried out by the
Service Engineer.

10.Fire Hoses and Nozzles: Fire Hoses: All fire hoses to be visually inspected for signs of
deterioration and , if suspect, pressure tested to 6 kg/cm2. Coupling to be inspected and
lightly greased. Hose washers to be in place. All hoses to be pressure tested. Hose to be
connected to Jet/Spray Nozzle and a pressure of 6 Kg/cm2. Hoses to be inspected for
damage, replaced as necessary. Check couplings for thread damage and correct if
necessary. Coupling to be lightly greased. Inspect washer in female connection or both if
quick coupling type. Grease and/or replace.Nozzles: All nozzles to be checked in position.
Nozzles to be cleaned and a small quantity of grease applied to working parts. Mid-joint to be
tightened if slack. Packing washer to be inspected and tightened if loose. Washer and
coupling to be inspected and the latter lightly greased. All nozzles to be cleaned and a small
quantity of grease applied to the working parts only. Mid-joint to be tightened if slack.
Packing washer to be inspected and tightened if washer loose. Inspect washer at coupling.
Lightly grease and/or replace.

11.Fire Hydrants : Inspect all hydrants for ease of operation and water tightness. Refit
leaking hydrants. All hydrant caps to be in position. Replace missing caps. Inspect and lightly
grease threads on couplings. Paint RED where necessary.

12.Foam Hoses & Boxes : Foam Hoses to be visually inspected for signs of deterioration
and pressure tested to 6 kg/cm2 if suspect. Foam Branch pipe and extending pipe work to be
checked. Inspect and lightly grease threads and couplings. Each box should contain: 1-Foam
Branch pipe, 1-Foam Spray Branch pipe 2- Hoses.

13.Fixed Foam Installation: Operate fixed foam system for a period of at least ½ minute,
making foam through one Monitor and one portable applicator. (a) Stop foam pump and flush
through the entire system operating all monitors in the system and pump room to spray. (b)
Top up foam tank if necessary. (c) Ensure system is set on ‘foam’ on completion.

14.Fixed CO2 System: Inspect all cylinders, pipe work, wires and pulls in the CO2 room and
Engine Room. Verify CO2 cylinders are securely clamed in position.

15.Emergency Alarm Bells, Siren and switches. 1. Check alarm bells and lights are
operating satisfactorily. 1. Ensure that all alarm switches are operated at least once every
three months.
16.Fire doors/Water Tight Doors : correct operation of fire doors/water tight doors to be
checked. 1. Remote operation 2. Local operation.

17.Emergency lighting: All lighting to be tested to ensure correct functioning of bulbs.

18.Fire Detection Equipment : a) Smoke and Rate of Rise Detectors are to be tested once
every three months in accordance with the manufacturers instructions. B) Siren checked for
operation and repaired/replaced as necessary.

19.Fire Blankets: check blankets are free from grease, oil and paints. Refold so that tag is
clear check holder is secure.

20.Fire Man’s Outfits: Fire man’s outfits consists of fire proof clothing and breathing
apparatus etc. which give protection from heat/fire and foul ambient conditions to a fire

21.Sprinkler system: Paint locker shall be protected by a water spraying or sprinkler

system, designed for 5lm2/ min. Water spraying systems may be connected to the fire main
of the ship.

22.Emergency Escape Breathing Device (EEBD)

23.International Shore Connection.

FIRE CONTROL PLANS: Fire control plan is the detailed drawings which give complete
details of ship’s total fire fighting equipment viz. portable fire extinguishers, mobile
extinguishers and fixed fire fighting installations and their exact locations in each zone on
board including the refills for the portable extinguishers where stored and location of fire
party lockers and their contents Fire control plan is displayed in the form of big scale drawing
in crew messes, officer’s saloon, bridge, machinery control room and main alleyways. The
fire control plans also indicates clearly the access and escape routes in different zones of the
ship and the fire fighting equipment/fire hydrants/fire hoses-nozzles etc. available in each
zone and their exact location.The location of fire pumps/fire and bilge pumps/emergency fire
pumps, the complete layout of the fire main system, the various main/bulkhead/isolating
valves and the points/switches from where these pumps can be started in emergency.

The plan also gives to complete layout of different machinery compartments/spaces and
accommodation, dinning and galley areas, main stores, various ventilation and exhaust
blowers fitted and their dampers and the location from where they can be
operated/shutdown in case of emergency/fire.

In case of a major fire, to assist the shore fire fighting organization, a copy of fire control plan
is also kept safely in a steel tube painted red and marked “Fire Control Plan” in white. The
steel tube is normally welded on bulkheads under cover near the gangway or on the wings of
the Navigation Bridge. The steel tube is closed on one side and the other side has an easily
opening threaded cap. In case of a major fire on board ready help/information may not be
available to the shore fire fighting personnel or ship’s personnel may have abandoned the
ship. In such cases, the fire control plan kept in the steel tube becomes handy and guide for
the shore personnel in fighting the fire.

Fire control plan drawing is periodically checked and updated and is duly approved by the
competent Shipping Authority (MMD/DGS). Any change in number of portable or mobile fire
extinguishers or change in their locations on board or any modifications/alterations in fire
main system of other fixed fire fighting installations are incorporated in the fire control plan
and approval for the new fire control plan is taken from the approving authority.
FIRE DRILLS: Each fire drill shall include:

1. Reporting to stations and preparing for the duties describe in the muster list

2. Starting of a fire pump, using at least the two required jets of water to show that the
system is in proper working order;

3. Checking of fireman’s outfit and other personnel rescue equipment;

4. Checking of relevant communication equipment;

5. checking the operation of watertight doors, fire doors, fire dampers and main inlets of
ventilation system in the drill area;

6. checking the necessary arrangements for subsequent abandoning of the ship The
equipment used during drills shall immediately be brought back to its fully operational
condition and any faults and defects discovered during the drills shall be remedied as soon
as possible. Fire drills should be planned in such a way that due consideration is given to
regular practice in various emergencies that may occur depending on the type of ship and its
cargo. Drills should as far as practicable be conducted as if there were an emergency. On-
board training and instructions in the use of the ship’s fire- extinguishing appliances
shouldbe given as soon as possible but not later than two weeks after a crew member joins
the ship.Individual instructions may cover different fire extinguishing appliances, but all
fireextinguishing appliances should be covered within any period of two months. Each
member of the crew should be given instructions, which should include, but not necessarily
be limited to the operation and use of fire-fighting appliances.

The date when the musters are held, details of fire drills and on-board training should be
recorded in the log book. If a full muster, drill of training session is not held at the appointed
time an entry should be made in the log book stating the circumstances and the extent of
the muster, drill or training session held.

E. RADIO COMMUNICATIONS :5. Knowledge of Functional requirements, Radio Installations,

Radio personnel and Radio records. Avoidance of false distress alerts. GMDSS RULES WILL



FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS : SOLAS 1974 Chapter IV Regulation 4 –: Every ship,

while at sea, shall be capable:

1.of transmitting ship-to-shore distress alerts by at least two separate and independent
means, each using a different radio communication service.

2. of receiving shore-to-ship distress alerts;

3. of transmitting and receiving ship-to-ship distress alerts;

4. of transmitting and receiving search and rescue co-ordinating communications;

5. of transmitting and receiving on-scene communications;

6. of transmitting and, as required by regulation V/ receiving signal for locating;
(Radar operating in the frequency band 9300-9500 (Mhz)

7. of transmitting and receiving maritime safety information;

8. of transmitting and receiving general radio communication to and from shore-based radio
systems or networks subject to regulation 15.8; and

9. of transmitting and receiving bridge-to-bridge communications.

GMDSS Concept: The basic concept of the GMDSS system is that search and rescue ((SAR)
authorities ashore as well as shipping in the vicinity of a vessel in distress will be rapidly
altered to a distress situation.

SEA AREA 3:- INMARSAT and/or HF DSC on 8414.5 KHz and

All other HF DSC frequencies.

MF DSC ON 2187.5 KHz, MF R/T 2182 KHz

VHF DSC on Ch 70 and VHF R/T on Ch 16


GMDSS Carriage requirements (Sea Area 3):

1. VHF with DSC

2. SART (2)


4. EGC Receiver

5.EPIRB (2)

6. VHF Portable (2-3)

7. MF R/T + DSC


9. H/F, R/T with DSC and Telex

RADIO INSTALLLATIONS: Every ship shall be provided with radio installations capable of
complying with the functional requirements prescribed by regulation 4 throughout its
intended voyage and, unless exempted under regulation 3, complying with the requirements
of regulations 7 and, as appropriate for the sea area or area through which I will pass during
its intended voyage, the requirements of either regulation 8,9,10 or 11.

Every radio installation shall:

a. be so located that no harmful interference of mechanical, electrical or other origin affects

its proper use and so as to ensure electromagnetic compatibility and avoidance of harmful
interaction with other equipment and systems;

b. be so located as to ensure the greatest possible degree of safety and operational

c. be protected against harmful effects of water, extremes of temperature and other adverse
environmental conditions;

d. be provided with reliable, permanently arranged electrical lighting, independent of the

main and emergency sources of electrical power, for the adequate illumination of the radio
controls for operating the radio installation; and

e. be clearly marked with the call sign, the ship station identity and other codes as
applicable for the use of the radio installation. Control of the VHF radiotelephone channels,
required for navigational safety, shall be immediately available on the navigation bridge
convenient the conning position and, where necessary, facilities should be available to
permit radio communications for the wings of the navigation bridge. Portable VHF equipment
may be used to meet the latter provision In passenger ships, a distress panel shall be
installed at the conning position. This panel shall contain either on single button which, when
pressed, initiates a distress alert using all radio communication installations required on
board for that purpose or one button for each individual installation.


1. Every ship shall carry personnel qualified for distress and safety radio communication
purposes to the satisfaction of the Administration. The personnel shall be holders of
certificates specified in the Radio Regulations as appropriate, any one of whom shall be
designated to have primary responsibility for radio communications during incidents.

2. In passenger ships, at least one person qualified in accordance with paragraph 1 shall be
assigned to perform only radio communication duties during incidents. RADIO RECORDS: A
record shall be kept, to the satisfaction of the Administration and as required by the Radio
Regulations, of all incidents connected with the radio communication service which appear to
be of importance to safety of life at sea. DOCUMENTS TO BE CARRIED a. Ships Radio License
b. Radio Operators Certificates

c. GMDSS Radio Log Book

d. ITU list of call signs and numerical identities

e. ITU list of Coast Stations, and the charges applied

f. ITU List of Ships Stations

g. ITU List of Radio determination and Special services

h. ITU Manual for use by the Maritime Mobile and Maritime Mobile-Satellite Services

i.Admiralty List of Radio Signals (A.L.R.S) Volume I – VIII


1. Switch off equipment immediately.

2. Switch on equipment and set VHF DSC Ch 16 and MF/HF RT 2182 Khz, MF/HF RT.
consecutively on 4,6,8,12 & 16 Mhz.

3. Make broadcast to “All Stations” this is vessel name, C/S & MMSI NO. Cancel the false
distress Alert. Example: All stations x 3, this is M.V. Amba/VVWG MMSI No. 419298000 x 3
Posn 20 21 N 089 33 E

Cancel my Distress alert of date xyz.


F. LIFE SAVING, SEARCH AND RESCUE Knowledge of Muster list and emergency instructions,
drills, on-board maintenance, Operational readiness, MERSAR manual, Various LSA and its
37. The muster list should specify details of the general alarm signal and also the action to
be taken by the crew and passengers when this alarm is sounded. The muster list shall also
specify how the order to abandon ship will be given.

The muster list should show the duties assigned to the different members of the crew

1.Closing of watertight doors, fire doors, valves, scuppers, side scuttles, skylights, portholes
and similar openings in the ship.

2. Equipping of the survival craft and other life saving appliances;

3. preparation and launching of survival craft;

4. General preparations of other life-saving appliances;

5. muster of passengers;

6.Use of communication equipment;

7.manning of fire parties assigned to deal with fires

8.Special duties assigned in respect to the use of fire fighting equipment and installations.
Muster list should specify which officers are assigned to ensure that fire appliances are
maintained in good condition and ready for mmediate use. Muster list should specify
substitutes for key persons who may become disabled, taking into account that different
emergencies may call for different action.

Muster list should be prepared before the vessel proceeds to sea and revised whenever any
changes in crew occur. Muster list and emergency instructions complying with the
requirements of Regulation 37 shall be exhibited in conspicuous places throughout the ship
including the navigation bridge, engine room and crew accommodation spaces.

Clear instruction to be followed in the event of an emergency should be provided for every
person on board. e.g.

In the form of personal card showing their assembly stations, emergency duty and the
lifeboat or life raft to which he is allocated. In ships with significant numbers of non-English
speaking crew the emergency instructions should be provided in the appropriate language of
the required by the ship’s flag State and in the English language.

DRILLS: SOLAS 1974, Chapter III, Regulation 19-3. Drills shall, as far as practicable, be
conducted as if there were an actual emergency. Each crew member shall participate in at
least one abandon ship drill and one fire drill every month. The drills of the crew shall take
place within 24 h of the ship leaving a port if more than 25% of the crew has not participated
in abandon ship and fire drills on board that particular ship in the previous month. When a
ship enters service for the first time, after modification of a major character or when a new
crew is engaged, these drills shall be held before sailing. The Administration may accept
other arrangements that are at least equivalent for those classes of ships for which are

ABANDON SHIP DRILL: Each abandon ship drill shall include:

1. An abandon ship drill is announced by the general emergency alarm signal (Seven or more
short blast and followed by the one long blast).

2. All crew member and passengers are proceeds to their muster stations and prepare for the
duties describe in muster list;

3.Checking that passengers and crew are suitably dressed;

4. Checking that lifejackets are correctly donned;

5. Lowering of at least one lifeboat after any necessary preparation for launching

6. Starting and operating the life boat engine;

7. operation of davits used for launching life rafts ;

8. A mock search and rescue of passengers trapped in their staterooms

9. Instruction in the use of radio life saving appliances.

Each life boats and Rescue boat shall be launched with its assigned operating crew aboard
and maneuvered in the water at least once every three months during an abandon ship drill.

Emergency lighting for mustering and abandonment shall be tested at each abandon ship

ON BOARD MAINTENANCE : SOLAS 1974, Chapter III, Regulation 36 Instructions for on-
board maintenance of life-saving appliances, shall be easily understood, illustrated wherever
possible, and, as appropriate, shall include the following for each appliance;

1. A checklist for use when carrying out the inspections required by Regulation 20.7
(Inspection of the LSA including lifeboat equipment, shall be carried out monthly to ensure
that they are complete in good order. A report of the inspection shall be entered in the log-

2. Maintenance and repair instructions;

3. Schedule of periodic maintenance;

4. Diagram of lubrication points with the recommended lubricants;

5. List of replaceable parts;

6.List of sources of spare parts;

7.Log for records of inspections and maintenance.

OPERATIONAL READINESS : SOLAS 1974, Chapter III, Regulation 20.2 Before the ship
leaves port and at all times during the voyage, all life-saving appliances shall be in working
order and ready for immediate use.


1. Lifeboat Winches Boats to be lowered to Embarkation level, weather permitting, to ensure

free running
2. Life/Rescue boat Lifeboat Engines to be run up and gear and throttle Engine operated
weekly. Fuel tanks to be checked.

3. Signaling Lamp is operating correctly , the independent source of power from the ships
main is operating correctly and Battery is fully charged.

4. Lifeboat Davits --- a. Check condition of davits and ensure that the slides are greased.

b. Davits to be oiled and greased

c. davit limit switches to be checked and repaired if not functioning correctly.

5. Emergency lighting All lighting to be tested to ensure correct functioning of bulbs.

6. Life Jackets To check : a. Condition of Life Jacket, Whistle secured to Life Jacket by
Lanyard and operating correctly .

b. Life Jacket correctly marked.(ship’s name & POR)

c. Retro Reflective Tape in good condition.

d. Light secured and battery exp. Date checked.

e. Stowage boxes in good condition and labeled ‘Life jackets”.

Renew/Repair as necessary.

7. Navigational Shapes Muster, Condition to be checked and shapes painted as necessary.

8. Navigational Lights --- a. Check all Navigation Lights are operating correctly and sound
signals and that the wiring on the fitted lights is in good condition

b. Check spare bulbs and slides.

c. Check Fog Gong and Striker.

d. Check Bell and Striker.

e. Check Fog Horn and the condition of spare vibrating reed.

9. Life rafts are required to be landed annually for servicing. Details of life rafts are to be
entered below:

= Serial Number

= Date of Manufacture

= Manufacture By

= Capacity

= Date of last service

= Date of next service due

10. Lifebuoys --- a. Inspect Lifebuoys and attachments to ensure correct position and

b. Lifebuoys to be painted as required.

c. Buoyant Lifeline to be renewed as required 30 mts long.

d. ‘Man overboard” signals should last for three (3) years from the date of manufacture.

e. Man overboard S.I. lights should last for a minimum five (5) years from the date of

Ensure pins are free to move. Open top cover and inspect light. All plugs should be intact and
the plastic case containing the battery should not show any signs of distortion.

11. Life/Rescue boat --- a. Examine boats hulls for damage

b. Life boat is correctly marked as; Ship’s Name; Port of Registry; Dimensions; Capacity.

12. Life boat --- a. Remove and check all gears are in good condition Equipment and working

Oars (painted orange colour) 04 ,Crutches 06 ,Boat hooks 02 ,Boat Plugs 02 ,Buckets-2
,gallons02, Bailer (8”dia) 01, Hatchets 01, Compass in binnacle w/light 01, Sea anchor w/lines
01, Parachute Signals 04, Hand Flare 06 ,Buoyant Smoke Flares 02, First Aid outfit in W/T
case 01,Electric torch, Spare batteries And bulbs 01, Daylight signaling mirror 01 Jack knife
01 ,Buoyant Heaving Lines (30 m),With Rescue quoits 02, 25 Manual pump 01 Whistle 01
Fishing tackle with 6 hooks 01 Lifeboat boarding ladder 01 Life saving signaling table 01
Portable Fire Ext. 01 Survival Manual 01 Radar Reflector 01 Engine Tools 01 set T PA 10%
Capacity Immersion Suit 03 13. Emergency Steering Check/try out Emergency Steering Gear
before departure Gear and entering harbour. 14. Immersion Suits 15. Thermal Protective Aids
16. Anti-exposure suits 17. Rocket parachute flares 18. Hand Flares 19. Buoyant smoke
signals 20. Rescue boats 21. Marine evacuation systems 22. Line throwing appliances

G. SAFETY OF NAVIGATION 7. Knowledge of :

(a) Distress messages; Obligation and procedures,

(b) Manning,

(c) Collision regulations,

(d) Ships reporting system.

(e) Navigation in special areas such as offshore installation and structures.

(f) Avoidance of dangerous situation in following and quartering sea.

(g) Aspects of ships handling with or without tugs.

(h) Anchoring and berthing vessel under the influence of tide and wind.

(i) Piracy and Armed robbery against ships.

(j) Stowaway.

(k) National and International obligation following collision, grounding.

(l) Methods of re-floating ship,

(m) Survival procedures.

(n) Precaution when beaching.


OBLIGATIONS AND PROCEDURES: SOLAS 1974, Chapter V, Safety of Navigation,

Regulation 33. 1. The master of a ship at sea which is in a position to be able to provide
assistance, on receiving a signal from any source that persons are in distress at sea, is bound
to proceed with all speed to their assistance, if possible informing them or the search and
rescue service that the ship is doing so. If the ship receiving the distress alert is unable or, in
the special circumstance of the case considers it unreasonable or unnecessary to proceed to
their assistance, the master must enter in the log-book the reason for failing to proceed to
the assistance of the persons in distress, taking into account the recommendation of the
Organization to inform the appropriate search and rescue service accordingly.

2. The master of a ship in distress or the SAR service concerned, after consultation, so far as
may be possible, with the masters of ships which answer the distress alert, has the right to
requisition one or more of those ships as the master of the ship in distress or the SAR service
considers best able to render assistance, and it shall be the duty of the master or masters of
the ship or ships requisitioned to comply with the requisition by continuing to proceed with
all speed to the assistance of persons in distress.

3. Masters of ships shall be released from the obligation imposed by paragraph 1 on learning
that their ships have not been requisitioned and that one or more other ships have been
requisitioned and are complying with the requisition. This decision shall, if possible, be
communicated to the other requisitioned ships and to the SAR service.

4. The master of a ship shall be released from the obligation imposed by paragraph 1 and, if
his ship has been requisitioned, from the obligation imposed by paragraph 2 on being
informed by the persons in distress or by the SAR service or by the master of another ship
which has reached such persons that assistance is no longer necessary.


1. Contracting Governments undertake, each for its national ships, to maintain, or, if is
necessary, to adopt, measures for the purpose of ensuring that, from the point of safety of
life at sea, all ships shall be sufficiently and efficiently manned.

2.Every ship to which chapter 1 applies shall be provided with an appropriate minimum safe
manning document or equivalent issued by the Administration as evidence of the minimum
safe, manning considered necessary to comply with the provision of paragraph 1.

3. On all ships, to ensure effective crew performance in safety matters, a working language
shall be established and recorded in the ship’s log book. The company, as defined in
regulation IX/1, or the master, as appropriate, shall determine the appropriate working
language, give orders and instructions and to report back in that language. If the working
language is not an official language of the State whose flag the ship is entitled to fly, all plans
and lists required to be posted shall include a translation into the working language.

4. On ships to which chapter I applies, English shall be used on the bridge as the working
language for bridge-to-bridge and bridge-to-shore safety communications as well as for
communications on board between the pilot and bridge watch keeping personnel, unless
those directly involved in the communication speak a common language other than English.

(d ) SHIPS REPORTING SYSTEMS: SOLAS 1974, Chapter V, Safety of Navigation

Regulation 11.

1. Ships reporting systems contribute to safety of life at sea, safety and efficiency of
navigation and/or protection of the marine environment. A ship reporting system, when
adopted and implemented in accordance with the guidelines and criteria developed by the
organization pursuant to this regulation, shall be used by all ships or certain categories of
ships or ships carrying certain cargoes in accordance with the provisions of each system so

2. Ships reporting systems and reporting requirements are used to provide, gather or
exchange information through radio reports. The information is used to provide data for
many purposes including search and rescue, vessel traffic services, weather forecasting and
prevention of marine pollution.

3.PROCEDURES : Reports should be sent as follows:

1.Sailing Plan (SP) – Before or as near as possible to the time of departure from a port
within system or when entering the area covered by a system.

2.Position Report (PR ) – when necessary to ensure effective operation of the system.

3.Deviation Report (DR) – When the ship’s position varies significantly from the position
that would have been predicted from previous reports, when changing the reported route, or
as decided by the master.

4.Final Report (FR) – On arrival at destination and when leaving the area covered by a

5.Dangerous goods report (DG) – When an incident takes place involving the loss or likely
loss overboard of packaged dangerous goods, including those in freight containers, portable
tanks, road and rail vehicles and shipborne barges, into sea.

6.Harmful substances report (HS) – When incident takes place involving the discharge or
probable discharge of oil (Annex 1 of MARPOL 73/78) or noxious liquid substances (Annex II
of MARPOL 73/78).

7.Marine pollutants report (MP ) – in the case or likely loss overboard of harmful
substances in packaged form including those in freight containers, portable tanks, road and
rail vehicle and shipborne barges, identified in the International Maritime Dangerous Goods
Code as marine pollutants (Annex III MARPOL 73/78).

8.Any other report – Any other report should made in accordance with the system
procedures. Details of types of ships and areas of applicability of times and geographical
positions for submitting reports, of shore establishments responsible for operation of the
system and of the services provided should be clearly specified.


Squat: As a ship moves in shallow water, then water pushed ahead by the vessel is replaced
by water running down the sides and under the keel of the vessel. The increase speed of
water flow causes a drop in pressure and therefore a loss of buoyancy, hence the ship drops
vertically in the water, there is also a change in trim. This effect is known as “Squat”

The Squat effect has always existed, however has acquired importance as the size and speed
of ships has increased. The effect is more pronounced on large full form vessels and
increases with increase in speed of the vessel.

Block coefficient is another factor governing squat. Formula for calculating Squat in confined

Squat = 2 x Block coefficient x Speed/100 (in Knots in still water)

And in open shallow water

Squat = Block coefficient x Speed/100 (in knots in still water)

Shallow water effect: Ship behavior changes with change in depth of water. The effects
start showing as the under keel clearance is equal to draft. Ship moving through water
pushes water ahead of her. In order not ”hole” in the water the volume of water pushed
ahead of the ship must return down the sides and under the keel of the ship. The stream
lines of return flow are speeded up below the ship; this causes a drop in pressure, resulting
in the ship dropping vertically in the water. In deep water this flow of water has a vertical
dimension. As the under keel clearance reduces the flow of water acquires a more horizontal
movement signs that ship has entered shallow water can be:-

1.Wave making increases in the force end of ship.

2. Vessel becomes sluggish to man oeuvre.

3.Draught increases due to squat.

4. RPM indicator will show a decrease – in open water may be up to 15% and in narrow
channels up to 20% of service RPM.

5.Drop in speed, in open waters up to 30% and in narrow channels may be up to 60% drop in
speed. 6. Ship may start to vibrate suddenly because of the entrained water effect causing
the natural hull frequency to resonate with another frequency.

Bow cushion: When a ship is making headway, a positive pressure area builds up forward of
the pivot point, this is known as bow cushion. Aft of the pivot point the flow of water down
the ship sides creates a low pressure area. Bank effect : when ship closes into a vertical
obstruction, such as a shoal or canal bank, the positive pressure at the bow causes a bow
cushion effect making the bow cushion away from the obstruction. The low pressure area
abaft the pivot point causes a suction effect with the bank. Since this suction effect is
working well aft of the pivot point this is consequently a stronger force which will need to be
counteracted by a large corrective helm.

The higher the speed, greater is the bank suction effect because the magnitude of the forces
varies with the square of the water flow.

SHIP-TO-SHIP INTERACTION: A fundamental theorem of hydrodynamics – Bernoulli’s

theorem relates the local velocity to the local pressure and states in essence that as the flow
velocity increases locally so the local pressure will decrease,. It in fact states more than this
as it relates the change in pressure to the change in the square of the velocity, so that a
change in flow velocity can have a pronounced effect on the local pressure head.

Head-on encounter: when two ships move in close accompany at the same speed the open
sea pressure field around one ship is changed by the presence of the other.

In a head on encounter where two ships approach each other on parallel courses the highest
passing speeds will occur. When two ships meet on a reciprocal courses the high (positive)
pressure regions near the bows tend to repel each other so that the ships turn away, the low
(negative) pressure regions over the mid body then causes the ships to be sucked together.
As the passing speeds are high the pressure fields have little time to change form their
“open sea” configurations.

Overtaking encounter: as overtaking ship approaches the stern of ship being overtaken its
bow pressure zone will put pressure on the rudder of overtaken ship causing it to shear
across the path of overtaking ship. The overtaking vessel will also feel the low pressure area
astern of overtaken ship and will exhibit a tendency to turn into the stern of overtaken ship.
When the two ships are abeam, a high pressure zone exists between their bows and a low
pressure zone at their mid ships and stern. This is a powerful force and a helm towards the
other ship must be given to counteract this force.

As overtaking vessel passes vessel being overtaken, the vessel being overtaken bow may be
influenced by overtaking vessels negative suction at the same time vessel being overtaken
stern could be sucked towards the bank due to the bank effect.

AXIAL THURST: is the force which cause a ship to move ahead or astern through the water.
The axial thrust is most efficient when the propeller is moving the ship ahead because the
lines of a ship are designed for that purpose. It is less efficient when the propeller is going
astern (60 % or equivalent to half ahead) because the throwing up of water against the
ship’s stern prevents the setting up of a smooth flow of water through the propeller.

TRANSVERSE THRUST: is the sideways thrust of the propeller blades as they rotate. Right
handed propellers the resultant thrust tends to cant a vessel’s stern to starboard and her
head to port when the engines are put ahead. When right handed propeller is put astern the
result is a pronounced kick of the stern to port, so that the head cants to starboard. Left
handed propellers the resultant thrust tends to cant a vessel’s stern to port and her head to
starboard when the engines are put ahead. When left handed propeller is put astern the
result is a pronounced kick of the stern to starboard, so that the head cants to port.

TURNING CIRCLE: When it is required to a/c precisely, it should be remembered that a

rudder acts on the stern of a vessel. The rudder should be put over as the bow comes up to
the point of turn to make allowance for this and for the “ADVANCE” which will be made
before the start of the turn proper.

When vessel rudder is put hard over with engine full ahead , the lines indicate the path of the
vessels pivoting point, the slightly smaller turning circle to port being due to the effect of the
transverse thrust. When the rudder is first put over the vessel begins to swing about its
pivoting point which is usually a little forward of a amidships, the pivoting point however
continues to trace a straight path for about a ships length, this distance being known as the
“ADVANCE”. As the vessel swings she loses speed over through the engines are kept at full
ahead and after 180 degree of turn, speed will have been reduced to about 75 % of full
speed and thereafter it will remain constant. The diameter of the turning circle also remain
constant after this point and in a typical 10,000 t ship it might measure three ship length.

WILLIAMSON TURN: Has been developed to achieve a similar object i.e. to return to a certain
starting position more quickly. If a man is lost overboard the wheel should again be put hard
over towards the man and held hard over, when ship is heading about 70 degree form her
original course, the wheel is put hard over in the opposite direction until the ship is on a
course reciprocal to the first course. Steadying upon this course should bring the vessel back
to the man in the water. This manoeuvre depends for its success on the angle at which the
helm is reversed and is not recommended for Merchant ships since the angle should be
varied not only from ship to ship but also with difference conditions of loading and trim. It is
useful as an approx methods if the position of the man can be marked by lifebuoys with light
at night.

THE EFFECT OF WIND: When a vessel is going ahead her pivoting point is a little forward a
mid ships and the effect of a beam wind depends upon the area presented to the wind
forward and abaft this point. In most cargo ships the bow tends to fall off the wind, but in
vessels such as tankers with much superstructures aft the bow tends to fly up into the wind.
The effect is generally slight and very little rudder is necessary to counteract it. When vessel
is affected by a beam wind she makes a certain amount of “LEEWAY”.

LEEWAY: Leeway may be defined as the angle between the ship’s head and the course she
makes through the water and it may be estimated when a ship steering a steady course by
noting the angle between the wake and her fore and aft line. When maneuvering it is
important to relies that the leeway angle increases as a ship’s speed decrease.

THE EFFECT OF CURRENT OR TIDE: is to set a ship bodily. It is particularly important when
setting across a ship’s course as it frequently does when approaching the entrance to a
harbour or channel. It is best allowed for if a leading line can be chose from fixed objects in
transit ashore and the ship steered to keep them in line. Falling this an estimate must be
made of the strength of the current and the course set to counteract it. Moored objects such
as buoys, vessel at anchor etc. give a good indication of current strength and direction.
When a vessel in a tideway is made fast to the ground by a line or anchor, the ship can’t
move bodily with the tide and the rudder may be used to deflect the flow past the ship and
thus to give the ship a sheer. The pressure of the tide on the ship may also create a couple
with the tension on the mooring line thus tending to swing the ship round. These effects are
made use of latter in various berthing and un- berthing manoeuvres.

LOCAL EFFECTS: in narrow channels a vessel underway tends to find the centre of the
channel. A vessel approaching one bank of the channel tends to be pushed away by the build
up of water on that side. For this reason a vessel needs very little helm to negotiate a bend
in the channel and may in fact require opposite helm to prevent too violent a swing

A gravitational attraction is experienced between ships and land masses, but this isseldom
important enough to be taken into consideration.



1. slow ahead

2. stop – half astern (when the engine is put astern to check the vessel’s way, the effect of
transverse thrust is to swing the stern in towards the berth.

3. stop.


1. Slow ahead, wheel to port;

2.stop – wheel mid ships – half astern - (when the engines are put astern to check the
vessel’s way is to swing the stern away from the berth. Using port wheel to swing the stern in
towards the berth. Judgment is necessary to ensure that the effect of transverse thrust when
the engines are put astern)

3. stop

BERTHING WITH TIDE AHEAD: When a tide running, the approach to a berth should always
be made stemming the tide.

1.Slow ahead - the vessel should be taken to a position about half a ship length off the berth
and about half a ship length ahead of the berth.

2.Stop engines. Let go offshore anchor - cable should be payout until the vessel has dropped
back abreast of the berth (about 2 shackles). and the rudder should then be put over towards
the berth to sheer her alongside.

3.Pay out cable - rudder to port - sheers vessel towards berth - and the rudder should then
be put over towards the berth to sheer her alongside.
BERTHING WITH WIND OFFSHORE: To prevent excessive leeway, the approach should be
made at a large angle to the berth.

A messenger line should be passed outside everything from aft forward, on the shoreward
side of the ship (slow ahead).

When the bow is in position, a headline and a back spring should be sent ashore and also the
end of the messenger (stop if necessary, give touch astern) By means of the messenger, two
stern lines can be sent away and these may be used to (heave the vessel’s stern alongside).

BERTHING WITH WIND ONSHORE.: To prevent excessive leeway, approach is again made at a
large angle to the berth. To control the bows and prevent them from being set down too
heavily onto the berth, the offshore anchor is dropped under foot and dragged into the berth.
Sufficient cable should be pay out 1.5 shackle) to exert a drag which will enable the engines
to be kept going slow ahead although the ship makes very little way over the ground.

The stream of water from the propeller enables the stern to be kept up into the wind by
using the rudder (slow ahead, let go offshore anchor onto bottom).

Fenders should be rigged forward and the engines stopped in time to bring the bow gently up
against the berth (drag anchor into berth. Stop engines. Send away back spring) Once the
engines are stopped the wind starts to take the stern down onto the berth. A back spring
should be sent away from the forward as soon as possible and when fast the engines should
be put to slow ahead. By using the rudder and keeping the engines going at constant speed,
the rate at which the stern drops alongside may be controlled (slow ahead.)Use rudder to
control rate at which stern drops).

Once all is fast alongside, it is generally preferable to have the anchor home.


The Maritime Safety Committee, circular 623 revision 1 dated 16 June 1999. (Guidance to
ship owners and ship operators, shipmasters and crews on preventing and suppressing acts
of piracy and armed robbery against ships).

This circular aims at bringing to the attention of ship-owners, masters and crews the
precautions to be taken to reduce the risks of piracy on the high seas and armed robbery
against ships at anchor off ports or when underway through a coastal State’s territorial
waters. It outlines steps that should be taken to reduce the risk of such attacks, possible
reasons to them and the vital need to report attacks, both successful and unsuccessful to the
authorities of the relevant coastal State and to the ships own maritime Administration. Such
reports are to be made as soon as possible, to enable necessary action to be taken.

The pirates/robbers objective: In addition to hijacking of ships, and the theft of cargo, the
main targets of the South East Asian attackers appear to be cash in the ship’s safe, crew
possessions and any other portable ship’s equipment even including coils of rope. In South
America some piracy and armed robbery attacks are drug related. When there has been
evidence of tampering with containers, it has been suggested that the raiders may initially
have gained access when the ship was berthed in port and then gone over the side, with
what they could carry. Thorough checking of ships compartments and securing before
leaving ports is therefore recommended.

Reducing the temptation for piracy and armed robbery by the following:

1. Watch over the ship and the cargo

2. Illuminate the ship and its side

3. Establish communication for outside support

4. Control of accesses to the cargo and to living quarters

5. Keep the portholes closed

6. Do not leave valuables exposed

7. Keep the gangway raised

8. in case of assault :-

i. do not hesitate to sound the ship’s general alarm in case of a threat of assault.

ii. try to keep adequate lighting to permanently dazzle the opponents, in case of an attempt
by strangers to climb the ship’s side;

iii. raise the alarm, by VHF channel 16, to the ships in the area and to the permanent watch
system of the authorities ashore.

iv. Sound the alarm with intermittent blasts on the siren and use visual alarms with
floodlights and signaling rockets;

v. If appropriate, to protect the lives of those onboard, use measures to repel the boarding by
employing powerful floodlights and dazzling the aggressors or using jets of water or signaling
rockets against the areas of boarding;

vi. Do not attempt any heroic acts.

9.Keep the contracted watchmen under the control of the officer of the watch 10.
Communicate to the police any occurrence relating to robbery, theft or assault.

11. Cash in the ship’s safe

12. The pre-piracy/armed robbery phase- Ship Security Plan

13. Routing and delaying anchoring

14. Practice the implementation of the ship security plan

15. Precautions at anchor or in port

16. Watch keeping and vigilance

17. Communications procedures

18. Radio watch keeping and responses

19. Standard ships message formats

20. Secure areas

21. Alarms

22. Use of distress flares

23. Evasive maneuvering and use of hoses

24. Fire arms

Q. Piracy/armed robbery attack is “DISTRESS ALERT”?

Answer: Yes, It is expected that this message will be a “DISTRESS” message because the
ship or persons will be in grave or imminent danger when under attack.

ANCHORING: THE LENGTH OF CABLE TO USED when anchoring depends :-

1. On the depth of water.

2. On the length of time it is intended to stay at anchorage.

3. On the nature of holding ground.

4. On the strength of the tide.

5. On the weather expected and the shelter available at the anchorage.

A scope of cable equal to four times the depth of water is generally sufficient. It should be
noted that sandy or muddy bottoms provide good holding ground, but a rocky bottom is

PREPARING TO ANCHOR: The following procedure should be followed:-

1.Order for electric power on deck.

2. Check and clear the hawse pipes and spurling pipes.

3. Check that the brake is on.

4. Come up on the bottle screws holding the claws, and remove from cable.

5.Put the windlass into gear.

6.Unscrew the brake and walk cable out until the anchor clears the hawse pipe.

7. If an anchor buoy is to be used, this should be connected ensuring that sufficient line is
used for the depth of water in which it is proposed to anchor.

8. Ensure that the brake is firmly screwed up and take the windlass out of gear. The anchor is
then ready for letting go.

9.Keep the anchor ball ready for use, and anchor light or lights ready to be switched on if


It is necessary that anchor should be ready for letting go when:-

1. nearing harbour

2. in shallow water

3. visibility is poor

4.ship’s position is uncertain.

In an emergency anchor can let go directly from the hawse pipe with out first walking it out.
SINGLE ANCHOR: An anchor should be let go when a vessel has either sternway of
headway over the ground. If the vessel not moving, the cable tends to pile up on the bottom
and may foul the anchor. If there is no wind or tide, the anchor may be let go and cable paid
out when going either slow ahead or slow astern. If the tide is running either stem the tide,
stop engines, and let go anchor while making sternway over the ground, or else lay out the
cable across the tide while making headway.The brake is used to check the cable as the
scope paid out approaches that with which it is finally desired to bring up. The vessel will not
then fall back too heavily on the cable when the brake is screwed right up.When the vessel is
lying quietly with a steady strain on the cable she is said to be brought up.

TWO ANCHORS : may be used when anchoring in an open roadstead. It is generally best to
let go the weather anchor first, and in the northern hemisphere it is preferable to bring up
with more cable on the port anchor than the starboard anchor. The spread between the cable
should be sufficient to prevent the vessel yawing, but it should not generally be more than
60° otherwise the anchors tend to pull against each other and the benefit of the extra
holding power is loss.

MOORING: consists of securing a vessel by means of two anchors laid out in opposite
direction. This has the advantage that the space occupied by the vessel when swinging in a
tideway is much less than that taken up by a vessel at single anchor.


1. The tide must always be stemmed when mooring and for a standing moor the vessel
should steam up about a ship’s length ahead of the position in which it is desired to finally
bring up.

2. The engines should than stopped and as the vessel starts to make sternway over the
ground the lee anchor should be let go.

3. A scope of cable should be paid out, equal to the sum of that required on the two anchors
together and then this side of the windlass should be put into gear. Heave away on the lee

4. Let go the weather anchor as the vessel starts to move ahead. Continue to heave away on
the lee cable and to pay out on the weather cable until the vessel is middle between the two.

5. When mooring, about three or four shackles of cable are used on each anchor.

6. If moor close to bank the offshore anchor should be let go first. The vessel swinging away
from the bank at each turn will keep an open hawse.


1. Stem the tide with engines slow ahead and let go the weather anchor about a ship length
before arriving at the position in which it is desired to finally bring up.

2. Continue slow ahead past this position until a scope of cable has been paid out equal to
the sum of that required on the two anchors together.

3. Stop main engines and put the windlass into gear for picking up the weather cable. As the
vessel starts to make astern way over the ground.

4. Let go the lee anchor. Pay out on the lee anchor cable and pick up on the weather anchor
cable until the ship is middle between the two.
5. The running moor has the advantage that it is quicker to execute than the standing moor
and that since the first scope of cable is laid out with the vessel under power, more positive
control is obtained in positioning the anchors.

6. The final position aimed at is the same in each case.


If the vessel swings in the opposite direction at slack water, a cross develops in the cables. If
she swings again in the same direction, this becomes an elbow. And if a third time it
becomes a round turn.

CLEARING A FOUL HAWSE: by two means. 1. Tug made fast at astern 2.Cable must be
disconnected, and cleared on forecastle deck or in dump barge.

SLEEPING CABLE: means slack cable or foul cable which is to be disconnected.

BEACHING: When a vessel is grounded intentionally she is said to be beached. If she is

grounded accidentally she is stranded. Beaching is carried out for two reasons.

1. To prevent loss of the vessel when damaged below the water line.

2. When it is intention to refloat after watertight integrity is restored.


1. Operation should be carried out in daylight.

2. Gentle slopping beach.

3. Free of rock

4. preferably, sheltered with little or no current.

5. No surf action.


1. Take on full ballast before beaching (as this will make the operation of re-floating easier)

2. Approach bow first (unless damage is aft, then stern first) at about 90°.

3. Consider little go the weather anchor first (this would tend to prevent the vessel slewing
parallel to the beach).

4. Should the vessel have sustained damage aft there a stem first approach would be
desirable. In that case it should be made in the form of a Mediterranean moor, letting go
both anchors which may be used to heave the vessel off when the time comes.

5. Anti slew wires should be used in conjunction with the anchor.

6. On taking the ground take on more ballast prevent pounding by driving the vessel on.

7.Make a complete sound round all tanks together with a complete sound round the vessel’s
hull to find out depth of water.


1. take the con

2. stop/manoeuver the ship so as to minimize the effect of collision.

3. sound general emergency alarm

4. call the master, inform Engine Room.

5. mustering all crew/head count, Establish communication.

6. close water tight door and automatic fire doors.

7. maintain VHF watch on Ch 16 and if appropriate on Ch 13. 8. Hoist NUC lights or shapes.

9. Switch on deck lights at night.

10. Muster passengers if carried, at emergency station.

11. check for fire/damage.

12. sound and monitor the affected areas, bilges and tanks.

13. Make ships position available at Radio Room/GMDSS Station.

14. Chief Officer visually inspect compartment where possible.

15. Minimize the ingress of water, using bilge/other pumps

16. Offer assistance to other ships.

17. Make the hospital stand by for medical emergency.

18. keep lifeboat ready for embarkation

19. if any compartment damaged and ingress water exists:-

a. List the vessel over to raise damage area above water line.

b. Build and position collision patch/mat.

c.Co-ordinate pumping out onto effected areas.

20.Transmit urgency signal if appropriate.

21. transmit Distress signal if appropriate

22.Investigate safe port operation, and/or beaching situation in order to save the vessel for
being totally lost. 23.If delay prepare for Abandon ship.

24. Calculate Damage Stability.

25. Inform owner, P&I, Classification Society, Flag State Control, Charter, Agent and
Contracting Government.


1.To evaluate extent of impact & manoeuver vessel in order to minimize the effect of

2.Remember – it is NOT advisable to go astern & pull out the vessel, especially when there is
damage below Water Line.
3.Establish Contact with the Master of other vessel, obtained Satcom ID & send message to
them relating to liability, immediately.

4. Broadcast URGENCY or DISTRESS ALERT message.

5. Evaluate the requirement/possibility of Rigging a Collision Mat, if any ingress of water.

6.Stand by for render assistance provides own vessel and crew are safe.

7.Exchange information between both the vessel, name of vessel, c/s, IMO No. port of
registry, last Port of Call, Next Port of Call.

8. Entry into the Official Log Book.

9. Inform M A I B.


1. Stop engines immediately

2. Sound general alarm.

3. Call Master ,inform Engine Room.

4. Close water tight door

5. Check depth/sounding. Using echo sounder, draft considers.

6. Maintain VHF watch on Ch 16, if appropriate on Ch 13.

7. Exhibit lights/shapes and make any appropriate sound signal in case restricted


8. Switch on deck lights at night.

9. Check hull for damage.

10. Sound bilges and tanks (DB, FW & F.O/D.O)

11.Visually inspection of compartment where possible 12. Sound around ship

13. Determine which way deep water lies.

14. Determine the nature of the seabed

15. Damage control party to access the damage

16. Obtain information on local currents and tides, particularly the details of time of rise &
fall of the tide.

17. Reduce the draft of the ship

18. Make ships position available to Radio Room/GMDSS STATION.

19. Broadcast distress alert and message if the ship is in grave and imminent danger and
immediate assistance required otherwise broadcast an urgency message to ships in the
20. Entry must be made in Official Log Book.

21. Inform Port and obey the port orders.

22.Check for pollution.


1. Over all in charge.

2. Inform port authorities, coast guard, company etc.

3. broadcast security and or appropriate message

4. co-ordinate communications onboard and assess damage

5. Evaluate pollution if any or potential and necessary preventive action.

6. Evaluate possibility / necessity to transfer cargo, ballast or bunker.

7. Verify from charts if any danger of sliding off the ground. Evaluate need to prevent vessel
from sliding by use of filling ballast.

8. Evaluate danger of vessel being broken down by heavy seas or swells or if vessel is
exposed to torsional forces.

9. Check if the tidal range in the area is very large. Possibility of the vessel drifting further
inshore due to tide/weather.

10. Evaluate the possibility and consequences of re-floating by own means.

11. Condition of engine to be considered.

12. Evaluate necessity of salvage requirement.

METHODS OF RE-FLOATING: Vessel can be refloat by the following methods-

1.Ground tackle

2. Tugs

3. Dredging craft

4. Even lighters into which to discharge of cargo.

5. Perhaps the hauling power of large vessels.

GROUND – TACKLE: If vessel not in tidal water, secure vessel with ground tackle. This is
meant for the use of anchors, carefully placed at considerable distances from the ship, and
connected to her by heavy wire hawsers, possibly using some lengths of her chain cable.
Heavy purchases are then rigged, often one secured to the hauling part of the other to give
greater mechanical advantage and lower stresses on the final hauling part, to impose a
stress upon these anchors. This stress, which must be applied continuously, is beneficial in
re-floating the ship.

STATE OF TIDE: While re-floating must be rising tide.

TIDAL RANGE : Check the draft of the ship and compare it with the estimated draught prior
to impact. The difference in cm multiplied by the tones per cm immersion indicates the
amount of lost of buoyancy. The tidal range may provide this required buoyancy at high
water or even before.

DISCHARGED: Water tanks may be discharged in order to provide the required buoyancy.

NATURE OF BOTTOM: ideally, a survey should be made of the surrounding sea-bed, noting
depths and material. The sea-bed formation in some localities changes with every tide
making initial surveys unreliable. Some beaches are subject to strong cross-currents and
scouring by surf. A survey will indicate the best possible direction for re-floating.

LEGAL SITUATION: The owners and Llyod’s Agent should be informed as soon as possible.
The underwriters will then be notified. At the next port of all protest should be noted, and a
survey of the hull and machinery carried out. A certificate of Seaworthiness should be
obtained before proceeding.


V, Safety of Navigation, Regulation 34.

1. Prior proceeding to sea, the master shall ensure that the intended voyage has been
planned using the appropriate nautical charts and nautical publications for the area
concerned, taking into account the guidelines and recommendations developed by the

2. The voyage plan shall be identify a route which:

a. Takes into account any relevant ships’ routeing systems;

b Ensures sufficient sea room for the safe passage of the ship throughout the voyage;

c. Anticipates all known navigational hazards and adverse weather conditions;

d. Takes into account the marine environmental protection measures that apply, and avoids,
as far as possible, actions and activities which could cause damage to the environment.

3. The owner, the charterer, or the company, as defined in regulation IX/1, operating the ship
or any other person shall not prevent or restrict the master of the ship from taking or
executing any decision which, in the master’s professional judgement, is necessary for safe
navigation and protection of the marine environment.

H. CARGOES 8. Knowledge of provisions for ship carrying:-

a. Liquid Chemical in bulk,

b. Liquid gas in bulk,

c. Solid bulk cargoes with chemical properties that may entail hazard during transport.

d. Grain in bulk.

e. Carriage of dangerous packaged goods.

f. Care of cargo.

g. Hague rule.

h. Hague-Visby Rules,

i. Hambaurg Rules,
j. Containerization and Multi-Modal Transport.


1. Check whether carriage is allowed as per certificate of fitness.

2. refer to IBC/BCH Code, Ch 17/18 (if any special requirement as per Ch. 15 say that P/V
Valve etc is required & if V/V is under repair, then can’t carry that cargo)

3. If all requirements are met, check the ship type I, II & III required.

4. If COF says that the cargo can’t be loaded, do not reject out right. Consult owner who will
check with Administration. If Administration says ‘yes” than check all precautions i.e.
IBC/BCH/ICS/Data Sheets/Shipper’s instructions.

5. Check segregation of cargo.

6. Check tank coating compatibility from the tank coating guide.

7. If all criteria are satisfied, load the cargo.

8. Tank cleaning are to be discharged as per “ P&A Manual & MARPOL Regulations (Annex


1. Physical properties

2. Chemical properties

3. Hazards

4. Compatibility

5. Fire fighting agent requirement

6. Inhibition requirement

7. IBC/BCH Ch 17, minimum requirement

8. Check ship type (C O F)

9. Inform Company/Administration.

10.Tank coating for compatibility.


is published by the Int. Chamber of Shipping (ICS), Oil Companies Int. Marine Forum (OCIMF)
and Int. Association of Ports And Harbour (IAPH). The general scope of the guide is to make
recommendations for practices to be adopted by tanker and terminal personnel to ensure
safety in operation relating to the carriage by sea and the handling at terminal of crude oil
and petroleum products.

COAL : HAZARDS:1. Spontaneous Heating

2. Emission of Methane

3. Corrosion

4. Liquefaction
Whenever coal is shipped from any place, the history of previous shipments must be known,
so as to be aware of the hazards of that particular type of coal. Spontaneous Heating: Coal is
very liable to spontaneous heating. Freshly mixed coal absorbs oxygen, forming peroxides
which break up into CO & CO2. Oxidation depends on the surface area available for
absorption of O2. Emission of Methane: Coal emits methane or marsh gas (CH4) particularly
immediately after loading and when newly worked or freshly broken. Methane is a flammable
gas and when mixed with air forms an explosive mixture. It is lighter than air; accumulate
upper regions of hold and other spaces.

Corrosion: “Pond Coal” is the term given to coal left over form earlier mining which has been
dumped into fresh water ponds and later reclaimed for shipment. It is high moisture content
(MC) with high sulphur content, coal gives high temperatures from self heating and release
H2SO4 resulting in corrosion of the ships holds.

Ph value must be measuring of the bilge regularly.

Liquefaction: is the process whereby moisture in the cargo migrates to the surface due to
compaction and vibration resulting in the development of a flow state.

This is particular in the case of coal slurry, coal duff and mud coal.

The surface of the cargo behaves like liquid and a transverse shift of cargo results in reduced
ship stability which can be extremely dangerous.


1. Ventilation

2. Temperature

3. Fire

4. Shifting

VENTILATION: Surface ventilation (one vent is put on supply & other on exhaust, windward
vent turned into wind and the leeward vent turn away from the wind) is an important
necessity during the carriage of coal for two reasons:

1.To carry away any methane gas which may be given out by coal?

2. To dissipate any heat formed by oxidation of the coal. First five days after loading all
ventilators should be utilized for removing the gas.There after lower holds vent to be plugged
and open only for 6 hours every two days. Each hold should have 2 ventilators. In fine
weather hatches may be opened to facilitate surface ventilation.

Attention to be paid to store rooms, tanks and other spaces where Methane or CO can

TEMPERATURE: Monitoring of temperature at three levels in the hold to be done at least once
a day. Particular attention to be paid to cargo stowed against hot bulkheads. Deck to be kept
cool in tropical areas by rigging awnings covering with dunnage or running deck water.

Spontaneous heating in some coal as low as 38°C (100°F). at temperature 55°C, strongly
suspect of Fire. Cargo space should be sealed against entry of air. The master should seek
advice immediately and should consider making for a suitable Port Of Refuge.


1.Sufficient safety lamps to be carried .

2. Electric cable free of defects.

3. where gas suspected, electric circuit to be isolated.

4.if cargo burning, closed the hold and sealed for prevent the entry of air.

5. introduce the CO2, Inert gas or high expansion foam.

6. boundary cooling.

7. no salt water to be used in cargo.

8. regular monitoring of Methane, O2 & CO with suitably calibrated instruments.

SHIFTING: A certificate is obtained for shippers stating the moisture content of the cargo.
Moisture Content should not higher than Transportable Moisture Content. Precautions should
be taken to prevent ingress of water into the cargo. Hold bilge to be pumped out regularly.
Coal shipped wet = less 3% by weight.


1. Flow state, FSM, FSE

2. FSC creates loss of GM

3. Bilge pumping out

4. Reduce FSC, shift of cargo

5. Port of refuge, to be plan, in the voyage plan.


Grain Code is mandatory as per SOLAS Ch. VI Carriage of Cargoes Part-C Regulation 8 & 9.

Grain includes wheat, maize, rye, barley, pulses, seeds, rice, sunflower, pear, hemp, poppy,
oats and processed forms thereof where behavior is similar to grain in its natural state.

Ships carrying grain to comply with above code and also hold a Document of Authorization.
Ships without Document of Authorization shall not load grain until master satisfies the
Administration that the ship will comply with the code’s requirements in its loaded condition.

Lay out of the code:-

Part A - specific requirements (18 regulations)

Part B - calculation of assumed heeling moments and general assumptions.(6 Regulations)

Appendix SOLAS Ch. VI Part C - (Regulations 8 & 9)

(17) adopted on 06 Nov 91. Layout: 07 Chapters 11 Annexes 6 Appendices

STOWAGE AND SECURING: is mandatory as per SOLAS, Chapter VI Regulation 5 (Cargo

Securing Manual):-

1.Cargo Securing Manual to be atleast as per guidelines in MSC/Circ 745.

2. Cargo Securing Manual to be approval by the Administration.

3. Container not to be loaded to more than the maximum gross weight indicated on the
safety approval plate under the International Convention for Safe Container (CSC).

As per MSC/Circ 745 :-

1.A Cargo Securing Manual is required on all types of ships engaged in the carriage of all
cargoes other than Solid and Liquid cargoes.

2. The requirements to be consistent with ILL certificate, Stability booklet.

3. MSL (Maximum Securing Load) for securing devices to be greater than or equal to the


1. The angle of heel due to an assumed shift of grain should not exceed 12º.

2. The net or residual area between the heeling arm curve should not be < 0.075 mR.

3. The GM should not be less than 0.3 m.

4. Ship should be upright

5. The master must demonstrate compliance with the criteria at all stage of the voyage.


1. Check bilges are working satisfactory.

2. Lashing arrangements – Laying of wire, welding points, eyes bars.

3. Checking of fire alarm system

4. Laying heavy damages and chocking by woods.

5. Loading as per stowage plan and loading plan.

6.Final lashing complete.

7.If using ship gear – make sure gears to check for proper SWL and tank top stresses to be

CARE/SAFETY OF CARGO: Cargoes must be stowed in such a way so as to prevent

damage due to any reason such as:

1. Chafing or crushing.

2. Moisture & sweat, cargoes like salt, oil cakes & dry skins absorb moisture.

3.Leakage or drainage, wet or moist cargoes should not be stowed on top of dry goods.

4. Fire:- Any substances with vegetable oil or animal oil will heat up spontaneously & hence
should not be stowed near hot bulkheads. Proper ventilation is to be carried out for such

5. Tainting, contamination or incompatibility.

6. Pilferage or theft.
LOADICATOR: is used to calculate SF/BM.

1. It can show in harbour and sea condition.

2.Normally used in sea, because any time can proceed to sea.

3. Tanker loads only at sea condition.

4.For bulk carrier uses harbour condition.

SULPHER: BC Code – Appendix ‘B’ UN No. 1350 IMO class 4.1 MFAG table no. 635 Approx
S.F. 0.74 m³/t EMS No. B 9 PROPERTIES:-

1. Ignites readily

2. when involved in a fire, a very irritating & suffocating gas is evolved.

3. forms explosive & sensitive mixtures with most oxidizing materials.

4. bulk Sulphar is liable to dust explosion, when may occur especially after discharge and
during cleaning.

5. dust may explode due to static electricity.


1. Fine grained sulpher (flows of sulpher) should NOT be transported in bulk (only lump &
coarse grained powder is shipped in bulk).

2.carry out mechanical ventilation or adequate ventilation, or hose down instead of sweeping
(preferably with fresh water to minimize risk of dust explosion.

3. Sulpher residues are highly corrosive to steel particularly in presence of moisture.



1. Protect from sparks & open flames.

2. Electrical fuses in cargo spaces should be extracted.

3. Sparks arresting screens should be fitted to ventilators.

In case of sulpher fire:- Smothering with more sulphur or a very fine fresh water spray. Also
refer to MS notice MS 22/98 regarding “ARCADIA PRIDE”.

1. No metal objects that could be picked by grabs should be there in hold.

2. Bilges to be caulked & use burlaps.

3. After discharge proper cleaning of hold, particularly ledges, box beams etc.


1.Forms extremely sensitive & explosive mixtures with most oxidizing substances like
chlorates, nitrates, per-chlorates or per-magnates.

2. Corrosive to steel especially in presence of moisture. should not be carried as a bulk

3.The provisions of IMDG Code not to apply to sulphur when it is – transported in a quantity
less than 400 kg per package.

4. Formed to a specific shape (like priller, grankler, pellerter, pastiller etc.)

PACKING GROUP III:- Class 4.1 – Flammable solid- combustible solids and solid which may
cause fire through


Readily combustible solids mean- pondered, granular or pastry substances which are
dangerous if they can be easily ignited by brief contract with an ignition source.

Danger in fire due to toxic gas.

STOWAGE & SEGREGATION :- Category A – protect from spark and open flame. Separated
from class 5.1


1. DoC for carriage of dangerous goods as per regulations II- 2, Part G/19.4, SOLAS.

2.Signed cargo declaration from shipper giving stowage factor, angle of repose, trimming
procedures, moisture contents, Flow moisture point, transported moisture limit, IMO CLASS &
UN No. technical name, MFAG, EMS.

3. Detailed information of hazards based on past carriage history of cargo to be obtained (if

4. If required, consult competent authority at load port regarding the requirements in force in
the port.







6. EMS


MBH (Material Hazards Bulk):


1. Loss of stability

2. Shift of cargo

3. Cargo liquefaction

4. Structural damage

5. Chemical reaction.

1.Amount and numbers of pipes to be loaded should be known. So that accordingly I can
check the load density of the deck (normally 5-6 t/m²) and the space availability.

2. the height on the deck should not be such that it may reduces the GM.

3. adequate dunnage and lashing materials of enough strength should be available.

4. lashing materials should be certified by the competent authority and having certificate of
the SWL, Annealing, thorough examination and testing.

5. As the pipes taking on deck bottom tanks should be fully filled up so that adequate GM is
available and their will be no FSE.

6.The chain for lashing and old ropes should be spreader on the deck in athwartship
direction to facilitate anti- rolling of the pipes and the lashing. The chain should be of enough
length so that they can be secured on top of the pipes.

7. All pipes mouth should be closed with appropriate device to avoid ingress of water in the
pipe and some time to avoid rats and snakes house.

8. Lashing of these pipes should be on the strong points on the crash rail/guard rails.

9.All people working on the deck should be cautious of rolling of pipes and they shall be in
proper PPE. 10.Manifest to be checked for the quality and quantity.


1. Weather should be suitable for the operation.

2. Vessel should be secured alongside with proper fendering , preferably yokohoma fenders.

3. Discharging should be evenly layer by layers.

4.Pipes should be secured with tack line at the end to facilitate steadying discharge and
avoid any contact on the ship and the crew.


1. Minimum FSC. (Minimum numbers of tanks to be kept slack)

2. Be careful in calculation at critical condition. (most probably it will be destination/arrival


3. If necessary (If dead weight permits) Ballast DBs.

4. Load density of deck is not exceeded.

5. Lashing must be adequate

6. Access for crew.

7. Sounding pipes. Air pipes, ventilator or other structure to be protected.


1. Bottom dunnage

2. Wedges
3.Timber for shoring

4. Timber for chocking

DECK CARGOES: Cargoes are often carried on the decks of ships like containers and timber
carries. General cargo ships too carry a wide range of cargoes on deck which may include
motor cars and other vehicles, iron and steel pipes or girders, dangerous goods, containers
and some times even live stocks, Besides heavy lifts and unusually shaped goods such as
locomotives, yatches and small launches, large tanks or pressure vessels and other such
machinery may also be shipped on deck. Deck cargo requires special attention during
loading and carriage which include the following:-

1. Load Density : - spread dunnage, LD never exceeded, rig temporary wooden or metal
beams and pillars.

2.Stability : The GM should be adequate at all stages of the voyage.

3.Stowage : - All openings in the weather deck must be securely closed and battened down
before deck cargo is stowed on top of them. Vent, Air pipes and other working gear must be
in good condition. Access for working areas. 4.Lashing : - Proper lashing is important not only
for the safety of life and ship. Lashing as per cargo securing manual or code of safe practice
for cargo stowage and securing.

5.Protection of crew : - A clear walking space on deck at least 600 mm wide should be
provided for access for personnel.

GAS AND GAS CARRIERS: Gas cargoes are not transported in a gaseous form they occupy
about 850 times more volume than in a liquid state. Gas is liquefied by pressure,
refrigeration or by a combination of both methods and carried in a liquid state. LPG &
AMMONIA (Propane, Butane) – common temperature is -33ºC for Ammonia and -55ºC and –
0.5ºC for LPG. Carried in semi/fully refrigerated ships.

Design pressure depends on cargo temperature but may range form 3 -10 kg/cm². Tank
made from carbon manganese steel and are insulated. A reliquefaction plant is installed.
Relief valves are set to left at pressure of 1.2 bar which is slightly more that atm. Pressure.

SOLA Ch VII Part C Regulation 13 makes IGC Code mandatory.

International Gas Carrier Code: Application for ships constructed on after 1 Jul 86
(irrespective of Tonnage). Construction and equipment of ships carrying liquefied gases in
bulk. IGC Code (1993 Edition),

Layout of IGC Code : 19 Chapter, 1 Appendix – C.O.F.


1.1G Type – Required maximum preventive measures.

2.2G Type - Used to carry products require significant preventive measures.

3.2 PG type- 150 m, or less – same as 2G.

4. 3 G type – Moderate preventive measures.


1. Flammability and explosion

2. Vaporization of spilled liquid

3. Toxicity & toxic products of combustion.

4. Cold burns and chemical burns.

5. Brittle fracture.


1. Tank inspection

2. Drying the tank

3. Inerting

4. Purging or gassing up

5. Cooling down.

6. Loading

7. Loaded voyage

8. Discharge of ballast voyage

9. Changing cargo if required.

LNG SHIPS: Methane, Ethane (-104ºC) is carried fully refrigerated at -160º. Tank made from
aluminum nickel steel or stainless steel (austenitic) insulation is fitted. Re-liquefaction plant
usually not installed. Boil off gas is neither vented or burnt in the main machinery. 4-6 cargo
tanks. 40,000 to 135000 m³ cargo. Full DB, side ballast tank. Loaded/unloaded under shower
due very low temperature.


1. Entry into force 01.01.2008 with a 12 month implementation period.

2.The code will be updated on a two yearly basis.

3. Annex III of MARPOL is also implemented thru the IMDG Code.

4. SOLAS, Ch VII – Part A - Carriage of D.G in packaged form or in solid form in bulk.

5.Reformatted IMDG Code lays down basic principle, details recommendation for individual
substances materials and articles in a “Dangerous Goods List”

6. There is an “ORANGE BOOK” which makes “Recommendations on the Transport of

Dangerous Goods and is up dated every two year.

7. in Dec’96 the Orange book was reformatted as UN “ model Regulations” 8.The IMDG Code
was reformatted to be consistent with UN model Rags.

LAYOUT OF THE IMDG CODE: There are 2 volumes and one supplement.

Volume I has 7 parts except part 3

Volume II has only part 3

In the contents as in Vol I, but in effect all chapter except part 3 are reefed to Vol I so,
actually Vol 2 consists of the following:
DGs list and limited quantity exceptions.

Ch 3.1 – General, scope and general provisions, proper shipping name.


1. Emergency procedures (Ems) 2. Medical First Aid Guide (MFAG) 3. Reporting procedures 4.
Packing cargo transport unit use of pesticides on board 5. I N F code.



2.Gases, compressed, liquidified or dissolved under pressure

3.Flammable liquids

4.1Flammable solids ,4.2Substances liable to spontaneous combustion ,4.3 Substances

which emits flammable gases in contact with water

5.1 Oxidizing substances , 5.2 Organic peroxides

6.1 Toxic (poisonous) substances , 6.2 Infectious substances

7 Radio active materials

8 Corrosives

9 Miscellaneous dangerous substances and articles.

PACKING (REGS 3):Packing to be well made and good conditions.

1. Liquids in receptacles.

2. Ullage allow for expansion

3.Cylinders for gases under pressure should be adequately constructed, tested, maintained
and correctly filled.

4. Empty uncleaned receptacles to be treated as filled.

MARKING, LABELLING, PLACARDING: 1. Correct Technical name 2. Provide with label,

stencil of the labels


1. Correct Technical name is to be used in documents and correct description given

according to classification.

2.Documents are to include a signed certificate or declaration from the shipper that the
shipment is properly packed and marked, labeled or placarded and in proper conditions for
carriage by sea.

3.Every ship shall have a special list or manifest or stowage plan for D Gs showing class and
location of goods on board.


1. D Gs are to be stowed safety.

2. Explosives are to be stowed in Magazine

3. Stowed in Mechanical ventilated compartment

4. Precautions against fire and explosion.


1.AWAY FROM : Carried same compartment and deck, horizontal separation of 3m projected
vertically is maintained.

2.SEPARATED FROM : Carried in same compartment, if the intervening deck is resistant to

fire and liquids, otherwise separate compartment. One deck –horizontal separation = 6m.


hold and two bulkhead or deck.


FROM: = Vertical separation not allowed. = On deck horizontal separation 24 m. BALE
CAPACITY: It is the cubic capacity of a space when the breadth is taken from the inside of the
cargo battens, the depth from the top of the wood sheathing on the TT to the underside of
the deck beams and the length from the inside of the bulkhead stiffeners or spar ceiling
where fitted.


It is the cubic capacity of a space when the length, breadth and depth are taken right to the
plating. Allowance is made for the volume occupied by the frames, beams and stiffeners.

STOWAGE FACTOR: It is the volume occupied by a unit weight of cargo usually expressed
in cubic meters/tonne (metric) or cubic feet/long ton It will be noticed that S.F. is the
reciprocal of density. High density cargo have low S.F. and vice versa.

BROKEN STOWAGE: It is the space between packages which remains unfilled. This factor
varies with the type of cargo and the shape of the hold. It is greatest when packages are of a
large and irregular shape. B.S. always add with S.F to get realistic space that cargo will

LOAD DENSITY: It is the maximum weight that can be safely loaded on a unit area. It is
expressed in tones/m². The height to which cargo can be stowed on a deck will depend on
the load density of the deck and the S.F of the cargo. Load density can be find in capacity
plan or stability booklet.

ANGLE OF REPOSE: It is the angle between a horizontal plane and the cone slope obtained
when bulk cargo is loaded on this plane.

SAFE WORKING LOAD (SWL): is the stress that a component of a lifting apparatus can
safely bear in normal use.

BREAKING STRESS OR BREAKING STRENGTH (B.S.): is the stress at which a component

will fracture.

FACTOR OF SAFETY (F.S.): is a factor used to divide the Breaking Strength to obtain the

PROOF LOAD: is the load that we apply more than the SWL, is call the proof load. The proof
load depends on the component and its size.
MATE’S RECEIPT: This is a receipt signed by the mate of a ship for cargo that is loaded on
board. It contains details of goods to be shipped and should be available to the mate before
loading starts. He can then use them:-

1. As a pre-advice of what to expect.

2. To plan the stowage of the cargo

3. To note on them any defects in the condition of the cargo, shortage or other pertinent
comments regarding quantities, marks and description of the goods. Mate receipt prevents
claims against ship arising at discharge port.

BILL OF LADING: The Bill of Lading performs 3 main functions:

1.It is a receipt for the cargo signed by the master or agent on behalf of the ship owner.

2.It is a document of title to the cargo. The holder of the bill of lading is the owner of the
cargo and it is a negotiable document, which means that the cargo can be sold just by
signing and transferring the bill of lading in the name or new buyer.

3.It is evidence of a contract between the ship-owner and shipper governing the terms and
conditions of carriage.

4.The information in a bills of lading including name and address of the shipper and
consignee, ports of loading and destination , marks, description and weight or volume of the
cargo, No. of originals and copies freight paid or payable, date of loading and name of the
ship. The reverse side of the bill off lading contains the terms and conditions of carriage. The
bill of lading must contain an accurate description of the condition of cargo and its weights
and quantity.

CARGO MANIFEST: It is a list of all cargo on the ship at any time. It is prepared for customs
purposes primarily but comes in useful for several other purposes such as tallying of cargo,
checking against over carriage and for ticking off the cargoes shoes bill of lading have been
sighted. Besides the names of items of cargo, it contains the weight quantity or number of
packages and the compartment loaded in.

DANGEROUS GOOD MANIFEST: When dangerous cargo is loaded a separate manifest for
the same has to be prepared. Proper shipping names must be used for dangerous cargo,
trade names are not permitted, in addition the commodity must be identified by its UN No.
have been formulated pursuant to the Dock workers Act, 1986.

AIM: Safe guarding life and interest of dock workers applies to all major Indian Ports. Each
port has an appointed chief inspector who ensure the compliance of the regulation and the


1. They are documents presented to the vessel when the goods are brought alongside the

2. Mate receipt should not be copied from the boat note but should be combine from a ship’s
tally and show the actual quantity and quality of condition of the goods are received.

3. the shipper must proceed the signed mate receipt to the agent in exchange for the signed
Bill of Lading before the vessel sails.

SHIPPING DOCUMENTS: The shipping documents, prepared by shipper shall include and
signed certificate or declaration that the shipment is properly packed, marked,
labeled/placarded as appropriate and in proper condition of carriage.The shipping document
should contain the statement.

“Shipment under this entry approved by the competent authority of-----.

The competent authority is the MMD in India.

MARPOL LINE: MARPOL line is the sludge discharge line, which is 10 % of the main cargo
line. (the size of the pipe line is not more than 10 % of the main cargo line).

NOTE OF PROTEST: Noting protest may help resist cargo loss or damage claims on the
owner.A protest is a solemn declaration made on oath by shipmaster that circumstances
beyond his control have, or may have, given rise to loss and /or damage to his ship or its
cargo, or behave caused him to take action such as leaving on unsafe port which may render
his owners liable to legal action by another party. A protest (without an extension) is a simple
statement of fact, without added details.


1.After every case of General Average.

2. After wind and /or sea conditions have been encountered which may have damaged cargo
or caused failure, to make a canceling date.

3. After cargo is shipped in a condition likely to deteriorate during the forthcoming voyage.

4. After the ship has been damage from any cause.

5.After a serious breach of the charter-party by the charterer or his agent (e.g. under delay,
refusal to load, cargo not of a sort).

6. After the consignee fails to discharge or take delivery of the cargo or fails to pay freight.

# Protest should be noted as soon as possible after arrival and always with in 24 hrs of

# If in connection with cargo it should be noted before breaking bulk.

DRAFT SURVEY: The displacement of ship can be calculated from the drafts of the vessel
such procedures are known as draft survey. The draft taken on port & Starboard sides
(forward, amidships & aft). After making correction for :-

1. Hog & Sag (mean of means)

2.1st trim correction

3.2nd trim correction

4. List (heel) correction

5. Density correction

The displacement is obtained. Two draft surveys are carried out. On Arrival and after
completion of cargo. The difference in displacement after making allowances for changes in –
bunkers, ballast, fresh water and other known weight of cargo loaded or discharged.

When a ship arrives at the load port a draft survey is carried out and from the displacement
so obtained, the weight on board such as – bunkers, fresh water, ballast, light ship etc are
The remaining figure gives weight of the ships constant. Constant means unused stores,
sludge in tanks, rust, other things which are not accounted. The displacement is obtained
and after subtracting the known weights for the departure condition and the constants as
obtained from the initial draft survey the balance figures gives us the cargo loaded at that

The procedure is same but the figure obtained reversed during discharged.


1. Closed box and general purpose container

2. One sided container

3. Dry bulk container

4. Tank container

5. Half height container

6. Refer container

7. Other special type container: Tiltable , open top, collapsible container.


1. Single or multi legged sling not to be used.

2. Avoid swinging or dragging a container.

3. When being lifted from or lowered on the chassis of a vehicle no one to be inside its cabin.

4. No one to stand on a container adjacent to it , it being lifted

5. Proper ladder to be used when climbing on top of the container.


1. SWL of derrick should not be exceeded

2. If using a spreader, corner fittings should be held tight.

3. If by bridle arrangements all four leg to be equal length

4. container should not be dragged.

5. deck space over which the container is swung should be kept free of personnel

6. height of container above deck not interfere with navigation or lookout

7. container should be lifted from above four corner, using a container sling.

8. container stored in the fore and aft direction with the door facing aft.

9. container should be secured on top and as well as bottom

10.the container door should be locked and sealed container having dangerous goods to be
properly marked and labeled.

1. ensure container is loaded close to ship’s socket for power

2. loaded on hatch top 1 tier high to enable read temperature and if necessary for repairs

3. Plug in temperature recorded on graph by duty officer and initiated. Electrical officer also
present while plug in and also during unplugging

4. check temperature graph for any discrepancy

5.if vast differences in set temperature and plug in temperature consult master

6. temperature should be recorded in temperature record book

7. Adequate power supply available for refer container and required temperature to be

Multimodal Transport System: Definition: a multimodal transport operator is any person

by whom or in whose name a contract of multimodal transport has been concluded with a

A contract whereby a multimodal transport operator undertakes, against payment to freight,

to perform or to procure performance of international multimodal transport. Int. multimodal
is the carriage of goods by at least two different modes of transport between two different

Contracts of multimodal transport between places in two different states if:

1. The place of taking charge of the goods is in a contracting state; or

2. The place of delivery of the goods is in a contracting state.

Basis of liability : carrier liable if the occurrence which cause the loss, damage or delay in
delivery of the cargo took place while the goods were in his charge, unless he proves that he,
his servants of agents took all measures that could reasonably be required to avoid the
occurrence and its consequences.

HAGUE RULES: A set of Rules were drafted at the Hague in1921 and were adopted by a
number of countries at a meeting called the “International convention for the unification of
certain Rules Relating to Bills of Lading signed at Brussels on 25th August 1924. and known
as the Hague Rules, gained wide acceptance and a number maritime countries, gave
sanction to them by enacting their provisions in their municipal laws.

Hague Rules do not apply to charter-parties unless incorporated therein by agreement.

Also wherever Hague Rules have been adopted into the national statutes, they apply only to
outward cargoes (except under the U.S. Carriage to Goods by Sea Act, 1936). In case of
inward cargoes, the Hague Rules are incorporated into Bills of Lading by agreement.

Similarly if cargoes are carried from or between countries that have not incorporated the
Hague Rules in their national legislation, then the Rules are generally incorporated into Bills
of Lading by agreement.


1. The Hague Rules met the needs of the shipping industry and the merchant community
satisfactorily – till about the late fifties when a need a amend them was felt. This was mainly
= due to difficulties faced consequent to the pound sterling losing its convertibility to gold,

= due to certain court decisions and perhaps most significantly

= due to the advent of containerization and multimodal transportation goods.

2. Consequently, in 1968 the Hague Rules were amended and when adopted in 1977 came to
be called the Hague -Visby Rules. The Hague -Visby Rules were further amended by a
protocol in 1979. The amended Hague -Visby Rules came into force in 1984.

3. The main difference in the Hague and Hague -Visby Rules concern the definition of
voyages to which the Rules compulsorily apply, the carrier’s right to limit his liability in terms
of pecuniary limit and the extension of such protection to non-carriers.

4. India has adopted a number of provisions of the Hague -Visby Rules by amending “The
Carriage of Goods by Sea Act, 1925”.


1. The Hague and Hague -Visby Rules came under criticism from the economically under-
developed countries of the world (who trade as merchants but do not have large ship-owing
interests) on the following main grounds:-

a. The Hague & Hague -Visby Rules did not provide for contracts of carriage of covered by
Bills of Lading; and b. The provisions of the Hague and Hague -Visby Rules were weighted
unfairly in favour of the Carrier and the Shipowner at the expense of the cargo interests.

2. In 1971 UNCTAD recommended that a new international conference be called under the
United Nations auspices. A set of rules was prepared by the United Nations Commission on
International Trade Law (UNICITRAL) and was adopted at Hamburg in March 1978. These
rules are called the “Hamburg Rules” and came into force on and from 1st January, 1992.

3. The provisions of the Hamburg Rules apply to all outward and inward shipments – whether
or not a bill of lading is issued. Further, unlike the Hague and Hague Visby Rules, the
Hamburg Rules also apply to cargo carried on deck as well as to live animals. As compared to
the Hague and Hague Visby Rules, the basis of Carriers’ liability, the limits of his liability and
the period of limitation have all been extended and enlarged. The limitation of carrier’s
liability has been increased by about 25%. Most importantly, under the Hamburg Rules, the
Carrier is presumed to be at fault if the goods are damaged or are lost or if there is delay in
delivery. To avoid liability, the Carrier must prove that he/his servants took all reasonable
measures to avoid the occurrence which was causative of loss/damage. However, the
Hamburg Rules have not received wide international acceptance. India has also not ratified
the Hamburg Rules.

International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code:

Adopted on 12 Dec 2002. Part I – Mandatory ,Part II – Recommended Regulation

2 – Application:- # Passenger ship including High Speed Passenger Craft.

# Cargo ship including High Speed Craft of 500 GRT and upwards.

# Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit (MODU).

# Port Facilities serving such ships engaged on International voyage.

Not applied to: # Warships – Naval auxiliaries, # Govt. non-commercial service

SHIP SECURITY ALERT SYSTEM: All ships must provided with SSAS :-

a. Ships constructed on or after 01 Jul 04.

b. Passenger ships, including high speed passenger craft constructed before 01 Jul 04,
not later than 1st survey of the radio installation after 01 Jul 04.

c. Oil tanker, chemical tanker, gas carrier, bulk carriers and cargo HSC of 500 GRT and
upwards, constructed before 01 Jul 04, not later than the 1st survey of the radio
installation after 01 Jul 04.

d. Other cargo ship of 500 GRT and upward and MODU constructed before 01 Jul 04, not
later than the 1st survey of radio installation after 01 Jul 06.

2. The SSAS when activated shall:-

a. Initiate and transmit a ship to shore security alert to Competent Authority designated
by the Administration. b .Not to send the ship security alert to any other ships

c. Not to raise any alarm on board the ship.

d . Continue the SSAS until deactivated and or reset.

3. The ship security alert system shall:

a. Be capable of being activated from bridge and one another location.

I. POLLUTION FROM SHIPS :9. Knowledge of provisions of : 1. MARPOL 73/78 2.

Requirements for reporting incidents involving dangerous goods 3. Harmful substances
and or 4. Marine pollutants 5. National and international Liability for oil pollution 6.
International compensation fund. MARPOL 73/78: International Convention for the
prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978. Regulations
covering the various sources of ship-generated pollution are contained in the six Annexes
of the Convention.


Description W.E.F- I Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by oil 02 Oct 1983

II Regulations for the Control of Pollution by Noxious Liquid Substances in Bulk 06 Apr 1987

III Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Harmful Substances Carried by Sea in
Packaged Form 01 Jul 1992 IV Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution bySewage from
Ships 27 Sep 2003

V Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution byGarbage 31 Dec 1988

VI Regulations for the Prevention ofAir Pollution from Ships 19 May 2005

IOPP CERTIFICATE (REGULATION 8): An International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate

shall be issued for a period specified by the Administration, which shall not exceed five


a. The tanker is not within a special area.

b. The tanker is more than 50 NM form the nearest land;

c. The tanker is proceeding en route;

d. The instantaneous rate of discharge of oil content does not exceed 30 liters/NM;

e. The total quantity of oil discharged into the sea does not exceed 1/30,000 of the total
quantity of the particular cargo of which the residue formed a part.

f. The tanker has in operation an oil discharge monitoring and control system and a slop tank


a. The ship is not within a special area;

b. The ship is proceed en route;

c. The oil content of the effluent without dilution does not exceed 15 PPM;

d.The ship has in operation ODMCS (up to 10,000GT) & Oil filtering equipment (more than
10,000 GT)


a. The Mediterranean Sea

b. The Baltic Sea

c. The Black Sea

d. The Red Sea

e. The Persian Gulf

f. The Gulf of Aden

g. The Antarctic Sea

h. The North-West European

i. Oman sea area of Arabian Sea (New)

OIL RECORD BOOK (REGS 20): Every oil tanker of 150 GRT and above and every ship of
400 GRT and above other than an oil tanker shall provide with an Oil Record Book Part I
(Machinery Space Operations). Every oil tanker of 150 GRT and above shall also be provided
with an Oil Record Book Part II (cargo/ballast operations).

Part 1.for machinery space operations (all Ships)

a. Ballasting or cleaning of oil fuel tanks;

b. Discharge of dirty ballast or cleaning water from tanks;

c. Disposal of oily residues (sludge);

d. Discharge overboard or disposal otherwise of bilge water which is accumulated in

machinery spaces;

Part II – for cargo/ballast operations (oil tankers):

a. Loading of oil cargo

b. Internal transfer of oil cargo during voyage;

c. Unloading of oil cargo

d. Ballasting of cargo tanks and dedicated clean ballast tanks;

e. Cleaning of cargo tanks including crude oil washing;

f. Discharge of ballast except from segregated ballast tanks;

g. Discharge of water from slop tanks

h. Closing of all applicable valves or similar devices after slop tank discharge operations;

i. Closing of valves necessary for isolation of dedicated clean ballast tanks from cargo and
stripping lines after slop tank discharge operations;

j. Disposal of residues.


Prevention of pollution arising from an oil pollution incident, Regulation 26. 1. Every oil
tanker of 150 tons gross tonnage and above and every ship other than an oil tanker of 400
tons gross tonnage and above shall carry on board a shipboard oil pollution emergency plan
approved by the Administration. In the case of ships built before 4 Apr 1993 this requirement
shall apply 24 months after that date.

SOPEP shall be in accordance with organization and written in the working language of the
master and officers. The plan shall consist at least of:

a.The procedure to be followed by the master or other persons having charge of the ship to
report an oil pollution incident, as per guidelines developed by the Organization.

b. The list of authorities or persons to be contacted in the event of an oil pollution incident;

c. A detailed description of the action to be taken immediately by persons on board to

reduce or control the discharge of oil following the incidents;

d. The procedures and point of contact on the ship for co- ordinating shipboard action with
national and local authorities in combating the pollution.

CARGO RECORD BOOK (Annex II, Regulation 9) :

The Cargo Record Book shall be completed, on a tank-to-tank basis, whenever and of the
following operations with respect to a noxious liquid substance take place in the ship:

1. loading of cargo

2. internal transfer of cargo;

3. unloading of cargo

4. cleaning of cargo tanks

5. ballasting of cargo tanks

6. discharge of ballast from cargo tanks

7. disposal of residues to reception facilities;

8.discharge into the sea or removal .

CLC CONVENTION : (International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage,
1969 as amended by the Protocol of 1992): In force : 30/5/1996.


1. Ensure adequate compensation is available to persons who suffer form oil pollution by
ships even if the Owner is unable to pay the same;

2. Adopt uniform international rules & procedures to determine Civil Liability etc. for losses
due to pollution of oil from ships.

3. To encourage Governments and others to feel more confident in taking early and decisive
action in containing/minimizing the adverse effects of oil pollution.

APPLICATION: 1. The Convention applies to all oil tankers in situations where pollution
results from in Territorial Seas and Exclusive Economic Zones upto 200 miles (as established
under UNCLOS).

2. It does not apply to war ships and to State-owned ships provided such ships not engaged
in commercial operations.


1. The owner of every tanker is liable for pollution damage caused by his tanker unless the
damage is caused by reasons external to the ownership and operation of the tanker.

This strict liability is based on the principle “polluter must pay”

2. The owner of every tanker may limit is total liability in the following manner: For tanker
upto 5000 GRT : Liability is limited to 4.51 million SDR (US$5.78 million) For tanker 5000 to
140000 GRT : liability is limited to 4.51 million SDR (US$ 5.78 million) plus 631 SDR (US$
807) for each additional per Tones over 5000 GT. For a ship over 140000 GRT liability is
limited to 89.77 million SDR (US$ 115 million) Provided that the damage is not caused by the
actual fault or prior knowledge of the Owner himself.

3.No claim can be made against the Charterer (including bare-boat chatterer), Master, Pilot,
Crew, Salvor or Agent of the ship.

4. After a pollution incident, if the Owner wishes to avail of the benefit of limitation as
describe above, he deposits a sum (equal to his maximum liability) either with the Court or
with any other competent authority of the country where legal cases have been/can be
started against him.

5. If the Owner incurs any expenses to prevent or minimise pollution damage, then such
expenses are deductible from the amount deposited by the Owner in the same ratio as other
claims on the “Fund”. The object of this provision is to encourage immediate measures by
the Owner to minimise/contain damage and be willing to spend money therefore.


Every tanker of 2000 GT and above has to maintain an insurance or other financial security
(such as a bank guarantee) to ensure that the tanker can meet her pollution damage
liabilities to the extent indicated above.
# The flag state shall issue a certificate to each ship after she has complied with the above
condition regarding financial security. The certificate must be carried on the ship and must
show the name of the insurer etc. giving security in respect of the ship.

Certificates so issued shall be recognized and accepted by all countries that have ratified the

#The liability insurer (meaning the P&I Clubs) of the Shipowner usually provides the proof of
insurance policy/financial security. On the basis of this document the flag state issue the “
Certificate of Civil Liability for oil pollution damage” (called CLC Certificate).

# The certificate shall not be valid beyond the validity of the insurance policy.

# Any one who suffers loss due to oil pollution from a ship may sue either the owner of the
vessel or even the insurer who have issued the policy within three years of the loss. Even if
the Owner goes into liquidation the insurer continues to be liable to those who may have
suffered a loss.

THE FUND CONVENTION (International Convention on the establishment of an

International Fund of compensation for oil pollution damage, 1992) – In force from

The aim of the Fund Convention is to provide compensation for losses due to pollution to the
extent and in cases where the security provided by the 1992 Liability Convention is
inadequate. In other words, The fund provides supplementary compensation to victims of oil
pollution damage are borne not by the shipping industry, but are in part also borne by the
cargo interests.

FUND : For the above purpose, a fund, called the International Oil Pollution Compensation
Fund 1992 has been established. All persons/companies in any country importing more than

150000 tons of oil in any year shall make contributions to the Fund as may be called upon to
do so from time to time. The Fund is managed as an independent entity under the overall
supervision of a Director who is appointed by and is responsible to the IMO.

SALIENT FEATURES: The new 1992 Fund Convention was so named and adopted on 27
November 1992 and entered into force on 30 May 1996.

1. The Convention established a separate, 1992 International Oil Pollution Compensation

Fund, known as the 1992 Fund, which is managed in London by a Secretariat.

2.Under the 1992 regime, the maximum amount of compensation payable from the Fund for
a single incident, including the limit established under the 1992 CLC Protocol, is 203 million
SDR (about US$260 million). However, if three States contributing to the Fund receive more
than 600 million tones of oil per annum, the maximum amount is raised to 300.74 million
SDR (US$386 million).

3. From 16 May 1998, Parties to the 1992 Protocol ceased to be Parties to the 1971 Fund
Convention due to a mechanism for compulsory denunciation of the ‘old’ regime established
in the 1992 Protocol. However, for the time being, two Funds (the 1971 Fund and the 1992
Fund) are in operation, since there are some States which have not yet acceded to the 1992
Protocol, which is intended to completely replace the 1971 regimes.

4.IMO and the IOPC Fund Secretariat are actively encouraging Governments who have not
already done so to accede to the 1992 Protocol s and to denounce the 1969 and 1971
regimes. Member States who remain in the 1971 Fund will face financial disadvantages,
since the financial burden is spread over fewer contributors.
5.For both the 1971 and 1992 Funds, annual contributions are levied on the basis of
anticipated payments of compensations and estimated administration expenses during the
forthcoming year.

J . MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 10. Knowledge of : a. Safety measures helicopter

operations on ships.

b. National and international provision of Registration of ships.

c. Official log books and its maintenance.

d. National provision on shipping causalities, Investigation and Inquiries.

e. Salvage. LOF 95

f. Towage.

‘Official Log Book’? What entries are made in it? Give an example of such an entry.

Answer : As per MSA 1958, section 212 :- An Official Log Book is a official document endorse
by the Shipping Master to every Indian ship except a home-trade ship less than 200 tons
gross. The official log may, at the discretion of the master or owner, be kept distinct from or
united with the ordinary ship’s log so that in all cases the spaces in the official log book be
duly filled up.

Following entries required to be made in official log books as per MSA 1958, section 214.

The master of a ship for which an official log is required shall enter of cause to be entered in
the official log book :-

a) Signed On/Signed Off crew : While joining/ leaving the vessel entries shall be made in OLB.

b) Load Line details : Date , Leaving /Entering Port, Draft (fwd, m/s & aft), Free Board, Water
density and signed by Mate and Master,

c) every conviction by a legal tribunal of a member of his crew and the punishment inflicted;

d) every offence committed by a member of his crew for which it is intended to prosecute or
to enforce a forfeiture or exact a fine, together with such statement concerning the reading
over of that entry and concerning the reply (if any) made to the charge as is by this Act

e) every offence for which punishment is inflicted on board and the punishment inflected;

f) a report on the quality of work of each member of his crew, or a statement that the master
declines to give an opinion thereon with a statement of his reasons for declining;

g) every case of illness, hurt or injury happening to a member of the crew with the nature
thereof and the medical treatment adopted (if any)

h) every case of death happening on board and the cause thereof, together with such
particulars as may be prescribed;

i) every berth happening on board with the sex of the infant, the names of the parents and
such other particulars as may be prescribed; j) every marriage taking place on board with the
names and ages of the parties

k) the name of every seaman who ceases to he a member of the crew otherwise than by
death, with the place, time e, manner and cause thereof;
l) the wages due to any seaman or apprentice who dies during the voyage and the gross
amount of all deductions to be made there from;

m) the money or other property taken over of any seaman who dies during the voyage;

n) any other matter which is to be or may be prescribed for entry in the official log.

o) Inspection of Provision’s store/crew accommodation

p) Record of Safety Drills

q) Radio Batteries inspection

r) Watertight door inspection/ opening and closing date and signed by Mate and Master.

Q . With reference to MSA, explain

a) Registration of ships

b) Disciplinary action in case of various offences made by seaman.

Registration of ships : Every Indian ship, more than fifteen tons net and is employed solely in
navigation on the coasts of India, shall be registered under Merchant Shipping Act 1958

Part V, Registration of Indian Ships, section 20-33.

For the purposes of this Act, persons registered the Indian ship should be :

a. A citizen of India ; or

b.A company or a body established by or under any Central or State Act which has its
principal place of business in India;

c. A co-operative society which is registered or deemed to be registered under the Co-

operative Societies for the time being in force in any State, An application for the registry of
an Indian ship shall be made a. In the case of an individual, by the person requiring to
registered as owner or by his agent; In the case of more than one individual requiring to be
registered as owner or by his agent;

d. In the case of more than one individual requiring to be registered, by some one or more of
the persons so requiring or by his or their agent; and

e. In the case of a company (or a co-operative) requiring to be so registered, by its agent

Declaration of ownership on registry : A declaration of ownership shall be made in the
prescribed form of the certificate of the surveyor and containing the following particulars: a.
A statement whether he is or is not a citizen of India. b. A statement of the time when and
the place where the ship was built of if the ship is built outside India and the time and place
of building is not known, a statement to that effect; and in addition in the case of a ship
previously registered outside India, a statement of the name by which she was registered;

c. The name of her master; d. The number of shares in the ship in respect of which he or the
company (or the co- operative society) as the case may be, claims to be registered as owner;
and e. A declaration that the particulars stated are true to the best of his knowledge and
belief. Documents to be retained by registrar:- a. The surveyor’s certificate;
b. The builder’s certificate;

c. Any instrument of sale by which the ship was previously sold;

d. All declarations of ownership;.

(b) Disciplinary action in case of various offences made by seaman: As per Merchant shipping
Act 1958, Section 194,195 & 196. A seaman lawfully engaged or shall be guilty of an offence
against discipline if he commits any of the following acts, shall be entered in Official Log
books, and a statement of a copy of the entry having been so furnished and the entry having
been so read over and the reply, if any made by the offender shall likewise be entered,
signed by the master, mate and crew member. The copy sent to the company for further

a. If he quits the ship without leave after her arrival at her port of delivery and before she is
placed in security;

b. If he is guilty of willful disobedience to any lawful command or neglect of duty;

c. If he is guilty of continued willful neglect of duty;

d. If he is guilty of continued willful disobedience to lawful commands or continued willful

neglect of duty;

e. If he combines with any of the crew to disobey lawful commands or to neglect duty or to
impede the navigation of the ship or retard the progress of the voyage;

f. If he willfully damages his ship or commits criminal misappropriation or breach of trust in

respect of, or willfully damages any of her stores or cargo. If offence are smuggling goods ,
crew shall be liable to pay the sum sufficient to reimburse the loss or damage and the whole
or a part of his wages may be retained. If a seaman lawfully engaged is convicted of an
offence of smuggling opium, hemp or any other narcotic drug or narcotic, the Director-
General may direct that the seaman’s certificate of discharge or continuous certificate of
discharge shall be cancelled or shall besuspended for such period as may be specified in the

Q. Describe the procedure of conducting an investigation in to a marine casualty as per the

provisions of Indian Merchant Shipping Act.

Indian Merchant Shipping Act section 358 1. for the purpose of investigations and inquiries
under this part, a shipping casualty shall deemed to occur when :

a) on or near the coasts of India, any ship is lost, abandoned, stranded or materially

b) on or near the coasts of India, any ship causes loss or material damage to any other ship:

c) any loss of life ensues by reason of any casualty happening to or onboard any ship on or
near the coasts of India;

d) In any place, any such loss, abandonment, stranding, material damage or casualty as
above mentioned occurs to or on board any Indian ship, and any competent witness thereof
is found in India.
e) any Indian ship is lost or is supposed to have been lost, and any evidence is obtainable in
India as to the circumstances under which she proceeded to sea or was last heard of.

Q. What are the Master’s responsibilities as per MSA in case of a collision with another ship?

Answer :- As per MSA 1958, section 348 : Duty of master of ship to assist in case of collision –
In every case of collision between two ships it shall be the duty of the master or person in
charge of each ship, if and so far as he can do so without danger to his own ship, crew and
passengers, if any

a) To tender to the other ship, her master, crew and passengers, if any, such assistance as
may be practicable and may be necessary to save them from any danger caused by the
collision and to stay by the collision and to stay by the other ship he has ascertained that she
has no need of further assistance and

b) To give to the masters or persons in change of the other ships the name of his own ship
and of the port to which she belongs and also the names of the ports from she comes and to
which she is bound.

Q. What is the Master’s role in collecting evidence in this? How will he get about it?

Answer :- as per MSA 1958, section350 – report to Central Government of accidents to

ships :- When a ship has sustained or caused any accident occasioning loss of life or any
serious injury of any person or has received any material damage affecting her
seaworthiness or her efficiency either in her hull or is so altered in any part of her machinery
as not to correspond with the particulars contained in any of the certificates issued under
this Act in respect of the ship, the owner or master shall, within twenty-four hours after the
happening of the accident of damage or as soon thereafter as possible, transmit to the
Central Government or the nearest Principle Officer a report of the accident or damage and
or the probable cause thereof stating the name of the ship, her official number, if any, her
port of registry and the place where she is.

Q: Keeping in mind the commercial interests of owner, discuss the role of a shipmaster in
respect of his duties OR Why Master’s role is very important in safeguarding the commercial
interests of owner?

Answer :- The role of ship master is very important in safe guarding the commercial interests
of owner because the master is the owner representative and take care of the ship, its crew
and cargo for the commercial benefit of the owner by the following :

1.Voyage Planning : As soon as owner informed about next load port voyage planning should
be prepared, the route must be the proper and shortest so that vessel will reach next port as
early as possible. All the information regarding ROB/Required F.O./D.O./L.O./F.W./ Provision
and ETA to be sent to owner well in advance so that he can arranged all things available
when vessel reach to load port. Owner or agent must informe the master regarding
availability of berth/anchor position/ bunker berth/what is going to load and how much to be
load, according holds/tanks can cleaned and time can be saved.

2.Time management : time management is very important in the commercial aspect. Master
should delegate the jobs to all the crew members and authority must be given as per their
rank/position. E.g. Chief Officer is in-charge of cargo loading and calculation, 2/O in charge of
to make the passage plan etc.

3.Vessel should be seaworthy : All Certificates & Documentation should be in order and valid.
Survey will be carried out before departure.
4.Planned Maintenance Schedule : Proper maintenance of hull and all machinery to be
carried out as per the planned maintenance schedule to avoid the any breakdown & incident.

5.Complying National/International Rules & Regulation : When vessel at port and at sea the
National/international rules and Regs must be complied with.

6.Safe loading, carrying and discharging of cargo and care must be taken

7.Documentation : Weather reports/Navigational warnings must be obtained so that proper

action may be taken in advance. Information/instruction/orders from owner /charter party
must be followed.

8.Budget : Budget for the financial year should be made e.g. Provisions, tanks/holds cleaning
money, any other requirements/authority given to master and forwarded to owner.

9.ISM Code : Safety of crew, environment and property must be taken in account and proper
drills, training to be carried out as per schedule to avoid any emergency situation.. All crew
must have proper certificates and medically fit.

10.Human Resources Management : crew must be motivated and their welfares regarding
their wages, provisions, PPE etc.

11.Leadership quality: All officers and crew must obey the masters instruction .

12.Bill of Lading : Cargo loaded on board must be checked and remarks can be written on the
bill of lading in case cargo are less or damaged.

13.Proper communication : There are two type of communication : a) Routine b) Non-


Communication must be clear and understandable from the owner/chatterer/surveyor/port

control e.g. fax, e-mail, verbal etc. Verbal order always written in the log books and time and
senders name to be written down.

14.Bunker Management : Bunker should be calculated for the voyage and 2-3 days extra in
case of emergency, proper quantity & quality, proper speed and cost effects. There should
be no oil pollution while bunkering. 15.Charter party : Know the various clauses of the charter
party. Time of arrived ship, vessel ready for loading and time of NOR and statement of facts.

Q1.When you came on watch error was 2 degree suddenly after some time it become 9 – 10
degree what is the cause and action?

Answer: the main cause is magnetic anomalies, if crossing through rock containing iron or
when passing iron ore loaded vessel. Effect can be felt around 250 cable.

Action : continuous checking of deviation till magnetic compass becomes normal and record
in compass error book also plot the position in the chart.

Q2:how a new danger marked?

Answer : one or more cardinal or lateral buoy. If the danger is graved one of the buoy will be
duplicated one of those will have reckon with morse ‘d’(- . .) With the signal length 1 nm
atleast on radar ppi. Light on the buoys must be quick or very quick.

Q3 : if you see a white light on night time what it could be?

1. Astern light of a vessel

2. Life raft light

3. Vessel less than 7 nm long & whose maximum speed should not exceed more than 7

4. Vessel less than 50m at anchor

5. Vessel under oars.

Q4. Your vessel’s heading south and you see a south cardinal buoy on right ahead, what is
your action?

1. Stop engine

2. Take all her way off

3. Echo sounder on

4. Check the position of buoy on chart

5. Check the vessel position

6. Make a full appraisal of the situation

7. Decide the best course of action

Q5. What is the provision of magnetic compasses onboard ships as per SOLAS ?

Answer :- SOLAS chapter v regulation 12 requires all ships of 150 gt and over to be fitted
with :-

1.Standard magnetic compass if exemption the steering magnetic compass

2. Steering magnetic compass unless heading information provided by the standard compass
is available at the main steering position.

3. A spare magnetic compass interchangeable with the standard compass shall be carried
unless a steering magnetic compass or a gyro compass is fitted

Q6. Occasions when a full correction is necessary in magnetic compass.

Answer --1. First installed

2.Large structural alteration/repairs

3.Alterations of any electrical apparatus or magnetic materials in the vicinity of compass.

4. Struck by lighting

5. Major fire

6.After collision or stranding.

Q7. Occasions when an adjustment is necessary in magnetic compass.

Answer :-1. 3 – 4 month after the first correction

2. Once every year as a routine

3. After carriage and discharge of cargoes of a magnetic nature.

4. After loading or discharging by electromagnets

5.When ship enters service after being laid up for some period.

Q 8: information required when passage plan

Answer :- 1. arrival/departure draft

2. Tide depth of water while entering and leaving taking allowance of tide

3. Zones to pass (zone allowance) tropical, summer, winter

4. Expected weather – rough/calm, cold weather precautions

5. Duration of voyage to calculate – bunker, fresh water , provision etc.

6. Ballast water management

7. Check the route plotted on various chart

8. Time of arrival/departure port (stations/pilot ladder etc.)

9. All navigational dangerous (wreck, shoal, buoys) are marked/ high lighted.

10.Contingencies plans.

Q 9. What is the principle of navigational watch ?

Answer : 1. Safe navigation (look out)

2. Environment protection

3. Shortest route (commercial aspect)

Q 10. What is tide, tidal stream and current ?

Tide : vertical movement of water due to moon/sun/planet.

Tidal stream : horizontal movement due to moon/sun/planet.

Current : horizontal movement due to change of temperature , salinity, wind and local

Q 11. Emergency towing arrangement

Answer : SOLAS chapter II-1 reg 3-4

Oil, chemical & gas carrier tankers of not less than 20,000 tons dwt, const after 1st Jan 1996

& const before 1st Jan 96 schedule 1st dry dock but not alter than 1st Jan 99 must have ETA
fwd and aft position.

The E T A should be designed as To facilitate salvage & emergency towing operation on

tankers primary to reduce the risk of pollution.

The arrangements should at all times be capable of rapid development in the absence of
main power as the ship to be towed & easy connection to the towing vessel.

Towing gears :

1. Pick up gear 2.Towing pendants 3. Chafing gear 4. Fair lead 5. Strong point 6. Roller
pedestal Length of towing pendent:
At least twice the lightest sea going ballast freeboard at the fairlead + 50 m

Ready availability of towing arrangement

1.Aft ETA can deployed in 15 min time. 2.Fwd ETA should be capable deployed not more than
1 hours.

Q What is an AIS ?

1. AIS provides automatically ships identity, type , position, course, speed and other safety
related information to shore station, other ships and aircraft.

2. Received automatically such information from similarly fitted ships.

3. Monitor and track ships.

4. Exchange Data with shore based facilities.

Q What is VDR ?

1. VDR should be able to maintained information in a secured and retainable form

concerning the position, movement, physical status, command and control a vessel over the
period leading to and following an accident.

2. The S-VDR which is to be fitted on cargo ships is not required to restore the same level of
data as the standard VDR but should none the less be able to maintained and provide the
information are given above over a period leading to and following an incident.

Q. Chapter XII – Additional safety for Bulk Carrier :-

Answer :- Due to several loses of Bulk Carriers during the period 1985-95 investigation
relevant the causes and the need for strengthen of Regulations with resultant in inclusion in

The causes for losses is a combination several reasons the mean one being corrosion attack

High Tensile Steel the same extent the ordinary steel and the excessive use of high tensile
steel to reduce the scantly and light ship weight resultant in extremely weak structures over
a period of time corrosion was enhance due to the presence of corrosion elements in cargo
as specially coal, Sulphur, Fertilizer, Cement, iron ores etc.

The carries of this cargo with the cleaning of that following and lack the improper paint
coating inside the compartment due to the inherent nature of discharge bulk cargoes by
scrapping with grabs, bulldozers and shovels provides the poor maintenance & high chances
of corrosion.

Additionally the hatch cover watertight ingress the water specially in forward hold lead to
corrosive dynamic looks and corrosion..

The requirement of Ch XII of SOLAS provide for strengthen of tank top in number one hold
and of the transverse watertight bulkhead between one and two holds, so as to withstand
flooding of the foremost hold. Ships with don’t comply with this structural standards will be
prohibited for carrying cargo with high density and the mark with the black ? on the ship

The damage stability requirements applicable to bulk carriers have been modified and water
level detectors are to be fitted in void spaces to monitor ingress of water.
The ship shall comply with an enhance survey programme which will ensure that ballast
tanks are properly coated, thickness measurement are carrying out for critical areas.

Corrosion will be monitor by the maintenance of records of the ships cargo, ballast and
repairs history and the conduct of a survey programmed which is planned and focused on
the areas where problem are likely to developed.