# Topology/Countability

From Wikibooks, open books for an open world < Topology This page may need to be reviewed for quality. Jump to: navigation, search

Contents

[hide]

• •

1 Bijection

○ ○

**1.1 Examples 2.1 First Axiom of Countability
**

**2 Axioms of countability 2.1.1 Definition 2.1.2 Theorem
**

○ ○

2.1.2.1 Proof 2.1.3.1 Proof 2.1.4.1 Proof

2.1.3 Theorem 2.1.4 Theorem

**2.2 Second Axiom of Countability 2.2.1 Definition 2.2.2 Theorem
**

2.2.2.1 Proof

**2.3 Seperable Spaces 2.3.1 Definition 2.3.2 Theorem
**

2.3.2.1 Proof 2.3.3.1 Proof 2.3.3.2 Corollary (Lindelöf covering theorem)

2.3.3 Theorem

•

3 Countable Compactness

○ ○ ○

3.1 Definition 3.2 Theorem

3.2.1 Proof

3.3 Relative Countable Compactness

1 Definition
4 Total Boundedness 4. In the case where there are two such points.y).2 Proof 6.1 Theorem 5.3 Theorem
○ ○
4. an arbitrary choice may be made.Dimensional Lattice: Let countable. namely . where (x.2 Definition 4. then
is
represent the function such that f(0) = (0. for every there exists a countable collection of neighbourhoods of x.1 Definition 4.y) is the lattice point 1 unit from f(n − 1) nearest to the origin.) and f(n) = (x.
[edit] Examples
The Even Integers: There is a simple bijection between the integers and the even integers.
Because f exists and is a bijection with the integers.1 Theorem
• •
6 Hahn-Mazurkiewicz Theorem
○
7 Exercise
[edit] Bijection
A set is said to be countable it there exists a one to one correspondence between that set and the set of integers.1 Proof 4. there exists with . such that if N is any neighbourhood of x. where f(n) = 2n. A 2 . • ○ ○ ○ ○ •
3.3.1 Proof
4. Proof: let whichever point:
• •
represent the usual two dimensional integer lattice.3.dimensional integer lattice is countable.
.4.4 Theorem
5 Urysohn's Metrizability Theorem 5. The 2 . Hence the even integers are countable.y) is
not represented by some f(m) for m < n (x.
[edit] Axioms of countability
[edit] First Axiom of Countability
[edit] Definition A topological space Xis said to satisfy the First Axiom of Countability if.

there is an Ai such that . A is closed. All metric spaces satisfy the first axiom of countability because for any neighborhood N of a point x. and the countable collection of neighborhoods of x that are B1 / k(x) where [edit] Theorem If a topological space satisfies the first axiom of countability. has the neighborhood B1 / n(x) where
. Conversely. The point x is a limit point of {xn} and thus is a limit point of A. there is a sequence {xn} which converges to x. f(A) is a subset of B which contains f(xn) when n > N. Since {xn} to x. f is continuous. Then form a sequence {ai} such that [edit] Theorem Let X be a topological space satisfying the first axiom of countability. suppose that whenever {xn} converges to x. Let {xn} be a sequence which converges to x. Let B be any open neighborhood of f(x). Then by the theorem above.
[edit] Proof
.
Suppose that {xn} converges to x within X. and since A is closed. x is within f .
[edit] Proof
is continuous
Let X satisfy the first axiom of countability. Conversely. then for any point x of closure of a set S. Thus. As f is continuous.
Let {Ai} be a countable collection of neighborhoods of x such that for any neighborhood N of x. Then. {f(xn)} converges to f(x). Then obviously {ai} converges to x. [edit] Theorem If a topological space X satisfies the first axiom of countability. there exists an open neighbourhood of x.
[edit] Proof
. there is a sequence {ai} of points within S which converges to x. Thus. Then f(xn) converges onto a limit f(x).1(B). a subset A of X is closed if an only if all convergent sequences which converge to an element of X converge to an element of A. and let be continuous.
.
[edit] Second Axiom of Countability
[edit] Definition A topological space is said to satisfy the second axiom of countability if it has a countable base. Let be a sequence which converges onto a limit x. Thus. that {f(xn)} converges to f(x). suppose that all convergent sequences within A converge to an element within A. Let B be a closed subset of Y. it is contained within A. then if and only if whenever {xn} converges to x. Thus. which is within B. Thus. {f(xn)} converges to f(x). and so x is within A. there is an open ball Br(x) within N.A topological space that satisfies the first axiom of countability is said to be First-Countable. and let x be any point of contact for A. Define . implying that it is closed. then there must exist an such that A must contain xn when n > N.

[edit] Proof
Let be an open cover of X. Example: is separable because is a countable subset and . The union of all such neighborhoods containing an element of O is O. and this is a countable subcover of . covers X. and let A be a countable set such that Cl(A) = X. select an element of which contains Bx. and let x be any element of O. then it is separable. select an element of . and an element of the base. [edit] Theorem If a metric space is separable.
[edit] Proof
Consider a countable base of a space X. and let be a countable base for X. Consider the countable set B of open balls . Thus it is separable. [edit] Theorem If a topological space X satisfies the second axiom of countability. and A must be a subset of N. there is an element such that . Thus B is a base for X. which in turn must contain an element of A because A contains at least one point from each base. Moreover.
[edit] Corollary (Lindelöf covering theorem)
.
[edit] Seperable Spaces
[edit] Definition A topological space X is separable if it has a countable proper subset A such that Cl(A) = X.
[edit] Proof
Let X be a metric space. For each Bx. since the countable collection of neighborhoods of a point can be all neighborhoods of the point within the countable base. Let r' be a number of the form 1 / n that is less than r. then . Cx which contains x. [edit] Theorem If a topological space satisfies the second axiom of countability. its closure is the whole space X since any neighborhood of any element of X must be a union of the bases. then all open covers of X has a countable subcover. and let N be an open ball of x within O with radius r. The resulting set A of the chosen points is countable. Because Cl(A) = X. Bx which contains x and is a subset of Cx (which is possible because is a base). then it satisfies the second axiom of countability. Choose a point from each set within the base. A topological space satisfies the second axiom of countable is first countable. Let O be any open set. Thus that contains x. Then the ball Br' / 2(x') is within B and is a subset of O because if . and thus must contain at least one element within the base. {Bx} forms a countable open cover for X.A topological space that satisfies the second axiom of countability is said to be SecondCountable. so that any neighborhood N of that point must contain at least one neighborhood A within the collection. For all points x.

Define:
. There is a limit point x of this set of points. so Sn is not an open cover of X. Select xn such that . [edit] Definition A subset S of a topological space X is relatively countably compact when its closure Cl(S) is countably compact..
[edit] Proof
( )Let {xi}. which does not cover X. and is open. [edit] Theorem A topological space X is countably compact if and only if any infinite subset of that space has at least one limit point.. then it satisfies the second axiom of countability.. it satisfies the second axiom of countability. and so is a countable cover of the set.) be a set within X without any limit point. .. which must also be a limit point of . but any finite subcover of this cover does not cover X because it does not contain contradicts the assumption that X is countably compact.
[edit] Total Boundedness
[edit] Definition
. there is an analogous property called relative countable compactness. Thus. Thus. since they are all isolated points within the sequence. Let Sn = {xi} for (i = n. The are all open sets. This directly implies that any cover a set in has a countable subcover. Clearly all compact spaces are countably compact. X is countably compact.n + 1. Then this sequence is closed. This
( )Let {Sn} be open subsets of X such that any finite union of those sets does not cover X. A countably compact space is compact if it satisfies the second axiom of countability by the theorem above.2.
[edit] Countable Compactness
[edit] Definition A subset A of a topological space X is said to be Countably Compact if and only if all countable covers of A have a finite subcover. .
[edit] Relative Countable Compactness
Since there is relative compactness. Example: Since is a separable metric space. (i = 1. and thus any cover of a subset of that metric space can be reduced to a countable cover.If a metric space is separable. Since is closed.3.n + 2...). and thus is not within any Sn.

if for any b within X. and since a point within the open set is also closed.
[edit] Theorem
A second countable normal T1 topological space is homeomorphic to a metric space. [edit] Theorem A totally bounded set is separable. and is thus a metric space. Thus. and any open On set of it. Select a point xn within this open set.
[edit] Proof
. selecting where xn is at least apart from any xd where d < n. and since these two closed sets are disjoint. First.
[edit] Proof
We are going to use the Hilbert cube. meaning that the function value of any point within the open set is less than 1. to prove that the topological space is homeomorphic to a subset of the Hilbert cube.A set element
is an -net of a metric space X where such that . To prove that this is continuous. There exists an N such that
. since all T1 normal spaces are Hausdorff. consider any countable base of the topological space X. which is a metric space. Now define the function from X to the Hilbert cube to be . because there is no possible infinite set with all elements more than apart. one must eventually have formed an -net because this process must be finite.
[edit] Proof
Take the union of all finite 1 / n-nets. Therefore. in this proof. but that such that fn(On) < 1. and that is a countable set such that its closure is the whole space X. we can apply Urysohn's lemma to find a continuous function such that: fn(xn) = 0 fn(X / On) = 1 It is easy to see from the proof of Urysohn's lemma that we have not only constructed a function with such properties. there is an
[edit] Definition A metric space X is totally bounded when it has a finite -net for any [edit] Theorem A countably compact metric space is totally bounded.
[edit] Urysohn's Metrizability Theorem
The following theorem establishes a sufficient condition for a topological space to be metrizable.
Any infinite subset of a countably compact metric space X must have at least one limit point. Since the complement of the open set is closed. where n varies over the natural numbers. all single points are closed sets. let be a sequence that converges to a. Consider the open ball Bε(f(a)) where ε > 0.

. that . Moreover. there exists disjoint open sets and .
. and then the distance from g(an) to g(a) is now
This proves that it is continuous. there exists a neighborhood of a. Let
. since fn is a continuous function from X to [0. Since the space is Hausdorff. let On be an open set within the countable base of X. then
or .. since .. It follows that fn(a) < 1 whereas fn(b) = 1. Since fn(x) < 1.. Then
Implying that
indicating that
.3. and that there exists an inverse g − 1.. there exists an Mi (i=1. and select an element of the base On that contains a and is within Ua. Consider any point x within On. In addition. indicating that there exists an εn > 0 such that when | fn(z) − fn(x) | < 2nεn then Suppose that . consider two different points. and let M be the maximum of Mi so that when n>M. To prove that this is one-to-one.2. proving that the function g is one-to-one. To prove that the inverse g − 1 is continuous. Let n>M.M-1) such that when n > Mi. then .1]. and therefore an open set Sn of the base within that neighborhood containing a such that if . . a and b.

connected. for it completely solves the problem of "space-filling" curves. . This theorem provides the necessary and sufficient condition for a space to be 'covered by curve'.
2. Here.a space filling curve The Hahn-Mazurkiewicz theorem is one of the most historically important results of point-set topology.wikibooks. Note that this also proves that the Hilbert cube thus contains any second-countable normal T1 space.org/wiki/Topology/Countability" Category: Topology (book)
Top of Form
What do you think of this page? Please take a moment to rate this page below. Then there exists a set of the base εn > 0 such that whenever This proves that the inverse is continuous. locally connected and second-countable space. it is thus a homeomorphism.
.
[edit] Hahn-Mazurkiewicz Theorem
The Hilbert Curve. connected. Prove that a separable metric space satisfies the second axiom of countability. Hence. [edit] Theorem A Hausdorff space is a continuous image of the unit interval [0. meaning that
and an . is one-to-one. Retrieved from "http://en. proving that X is metrizable. prove that a countably compact metric space is compact.Now consider any open set O around x. Prove the sufficiency condition of the Hahn-Mazurkiewicz theorem:
If a Hausdorff space is a continuous image of the unit interval.
[edit] Exercise
1. or otherwise. then it is compact. locally-connected and second countable. and has a continuous inverse. Your feedback is valuable and helps us improve our website. we present the theorem without its proof. a property that is widely considered to be counter-intuitive.
Since the function is continuous. then .1] if and only if it is a compact.

Reliability: Presentation:
13b0bd16b66f65
(unsure) (unsure) submit
Completeness:
Submit +\
(unsure)
Neutrality:
(unsure)
Special:ReaderFe Topology/Countab 1748788
Bottom of Form
Personal tools
• • •
Views
Log in / create account Book Discussion
Namespaces
Variants
• • •
Actions Search
Read Edit View history
Top of Form
Special:Search
Bottom of Form
Navigation
• • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Main Page Help Browse Cookbook Wikijunior Featured books Recent changes Donations Random book Reading room Community portal Bulletin Board Help out! Policies and guidelines
Community
.

• • • •
Toolbox
Contact us Create a collection Download as PDF Printable version Search this book What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Page rating This page was last modified on 1 April 2010. additional terms may apply. at 15:33. See Terms of Use for details. Privacy policy About Wikibooks Disclaimers
Print/export
• • • • • • •
•
• • • •
• •
. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.