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Science Laboratory Instruction: Summary of Findings and Implications from Four Companion Studies abstract and analysis by Chuck Downing, Access Excellence This article provides an in depth overview of what inquiry-based learning is and is not, and a way to analyze your own teaching stratgies.
Fundamentals of Inquiry from the Exploratorium's Institute for Inquiry These five workshops give teachers a thorough grounding in the pedagogy and practice of science inquiry by examining different ways of teaching hands-on science, exploring the process skills of inquiry, engaging in a full scientific inquiry, and considering ways to include inquiry in thei r own classrooms. Preview these workshops or download the Facilitator's Guide to present these workshops locally. Learning Science Through Inquiry From the Annenberg Foundation, this video workshop for K-8 teachers includes 8 one-hour video programs which are available for viewing online. A workshop guide, Web site and graduate credit are available. This is a rich resource for those wanting to learn techniques for themselves or introd uce inquiry to others. Synergy Connect: Inquiry Learning Six teachers working at different grade levels and with a variety of school populations write of their experiences using inquiry learning in their classrooms. These teachers have worked together in the Exploratorium's professional development project, the Institute for Inquiry. Powerful Learning: Studies Show Deep Understanding Derives from Collaborative Methods This in-depth article from Edutopia describes research which shows that "inquiry-based teaching is not so much about seeking the right answer but about developing inquiring minds, and it can yield significant benefits." What do inquiry-based lesson plans look like? " Inquiry-based lesson plans are usually referred to as "facilitation plans," to help teachers remember their role as facilitator of learning, rather than fount of all wisdom." Smithsonian Lesson Plans Smithsonian lesson plans emphasize inquiry-based learning using primary sources and museum collections.
PROJECT and PROBLEM BASED LEARNING
to three-hour class or session or a one.y y y y y Starting at the End . what do we want kids to know and be able to do when the project is finished? Includes a project design template. datasets. and (c) application of this list to five educational projects and environments to observe how constructivist epistemology and theory of learning can be accommodated in educational practice. this article describes what a constructivist teacher does and and what happens in a constructivism classroom Constructivisim: From Philosophy to Practice This site aims to highlight attempts to integrate constructivist characteristics into the practice of teaching and learning. Teaching Module: Project-Based Learning (PBL) Edutopia's Project-Based Learning Teaching Module is designed for either a two. A discussion of constructivist epistemology and learning theory is followed by: (a) summary of characteristics of constructivist learning and teaching. CONSTRUCTIVISM y y y Constructivisim: The Theory and the Controversy Constructivism is defined and the pros and cons are discussed. (b) compilation of a constructivist checklist. BioQUEST Library Online BioQUEST Library Online is "an ongoing peer-reviewed community publication of software simulations. RELATED RESOURCES . designed to give participants a brief introduction to PBL. Problem Based Learning What is it? Where did it come from? How does it work? and Why is it an effective approach? These questions and more are answered in this article compiled by the California Science Project Leadership et al. and is divided into two parts. Constructing Knowledge in the Classroom From the Southwest Educational Development Laboratory publication Classroom Compass. tools. and overview of Project Learning. Part One: Guided Process." Core Concept: Project Learning Videos provide an introduction to. assigns readings and activities for experiential PBL. answers the questions "What is PBL about?" "Why is PBL important?" and "How does PBL work?" Part Two: Group Participation.to two-day workshop.possibilities and pitfalls of project-based learning Alaska Project-Based Learning expert Helena Fagan insists that good projects are designed "backward" ² That is. one of the key concepts featured in Edutopia's "What Works In Public Education" website. and other supporting materials from educators and developers engaged in education and research in science.
David L. inquiry. observing.y y Assessing for Learning from the Exploratorium's Institute for Inquiry These five workshops build on one another so participants develop a comprehensive view of formative assessment in the classroom. and surveying" (Rutherford & Algren. the National Committee on Science Education Standards and Assessment (1992) has said that "school science education must reflect science as it is practiced. p. Educator Resources from Action Bioscience Action Bioscience has posted peer reviewed articles and related educator resources which address issues that affect students' lives.accessexcellence.org/RC/teaching_strategies. Department of Education and the National Science Foundation (1992) together endorsed mathematics and science curricula that "promote active learning. DeBoer. sorting and cataloging. Rakow. "If a single word had to be chosen to describe the goals of science educators during the 30-year period that began in the late 1950s. Teaching Science through Inquiry. problem solving. "students need to have many and varied opportunities for collecting. participants learn to assess process skills. interviewing. it would have to be INQUIRY. and examine ways to involve students in assessing their own work. and other instructional methods that motivate students. discover how feedback can help students advance their own ideas. http://www. 1991. polling. In a statement of shared principles.S. the U. These articles and activities are useful tools as teachers work to relate curriculum content to student interests. note taking and sketching . 1986. 1986) and promoted from a . determine how different kinds of questions can reveal students' science ideas. ERIC/CSMEE Digest." Likewise.php ERIC Identifier: ED359048 Publication Date: 1993-03-00 Author: Haury. 199 1. Preview these workshops or download the Facilitator's Guid e to present these workshops locally. 1990). DISTINGUISHING FEATURES OF INQUIRY-ORIENTED SCIENCE INSTRUCTION Inquiry-oriented science instruction has been characterized in a variety of ways over the years (Collins." and that one goal of science education is "to prepare students who understand the modes of reasoning of scientific inquiry and can use them." (DeBoer. After an introduction to formative assessment. Source: ERIC Clearinghouse for Science Mathematics and Environmental Education Columbus OH. 206). cooperative learning." More specifically.
1988) while others advocate providing students with few instructions (Tinnesand & Chan. 1991). One implication is that inquiry-oriented teaching begins or at least involves stimulating curiosity or provoking wonder. In its essence. From a science perspective. with curiosities being satisfied when individuals have constructed mental frameworks that adequately explain their experiences. learning is the result of ongoing changes in our mental frameworks as we attempt to make meaning out of our experiences (Osborne & Freyberg. then. explanation. "Inquiry is the [set] of behaviors involved in the struggle of human beings for reasonable explanations of phenomena about which they are curious. so strongly held among science educators today. inquiry -oriented instruction is not synonymous with any of them. or decision. p. they are generally involved in "developing and restructuring [their] knowledge schemes through experiences with phenomena. 27). through exploratory talk and teacher int ervention" (Driver. Teachers vary considerably in how they attempt to engage students in the active search for knowledge. collection and interpretation of information in response to wondering and exploring. Others have linked inquiry with a disco very approach or with development of process skills associated with "the scientific method. There is no authentic investigation or meaningful learning if there is no inquiring mind seeking an answer. 1989). inquiry-oriented teaching engages students in investigations to satisfy curiosities. inquiry-oriented instruction engages students in the investigative nature of science. 1987).variety of perspectives. though. . 1991. Some have emphasized the active nature of student involvement. research findings indicate that." Though these various concepts are interrelated. 1985). solution. associating inquiry with "hands -on" learning and experiential or activity-based instruction. According to constructivist models. using their senses to observe and using instruments to extend the power of their senses" (National Science Board. often referred to as active learning. but the focus is on the active search for knowledge or understanding to satisfy a curiosity. In classrooms where students are encouraged to make meaning." So. "students are likely to begin to understand the natural world if they work directly with natural phenomena. Others promote the use of heuristic devices to aid skill development (Germann. inquiry-oriented teaching is often contrasted with more traditional expository methods and reflects the constructivist m odel of learning. inquiry involves activity and skills. From a pedagogical perspective. As Novak suggested some time ago (1964). A focus on inquiry always involves. some advocate structured methods of guided inquiry (Igelsrud & Leonard. Indeed.
1983).. 1988). Active explorations in science have been advocated for teaching deaf students (Chira. 1987) and a content analysis scheme for identifying inquiry-friendly textbooks has . 1990). Inquiry -based programs at the middle-school grades have been found to generally enhance student performance. positive attitudes toward science (Kyle et al. In one study. Evidence has also been reported that shows inquiry-related teaching effective in fostering scientific literacy a nd understanding of science processes (Lindberg. and the effects of directed inquiry on student performance may vary by level of cognitive development (Germann. studies of inquiry-oriented teaching (Anderson et al. 1986). 1990). 1985. 1990) have been generally supportive of inquiry approaches. talking. 1990). There seems also a possible conflict of goals when attempting to balance the needs of underachieving gifted students to develop more positive self -concepts with the desire to develop skills of inquiry and problem solving (Wolfe. in interpreting reported findings. 1990).. critical thinking (Narode et al. 1991). 1990). 1987). language-minority students were found to acquire scientific ways of thinking. 1986). 1990. 1989). Other materials accommodating an inquiry approach to teaching have been identified by Haury (1992). Sarther... 1988). vocabulary knowledge and conceptual understanding (Lloyd & Contreras. It must also be emphasized that an emphasis on inquiry-oriented teaching does not necessarily preclude the use of textbooks or other instructional materials. and construction of logico-mathematical knowledge (Staver. Rakow. 1985. Caution must be used. 1987). 1983. however. It seems particularly important that inquiry-oriented teaching may be especially valuable for many underserved and underrepresented populations. 1990).THE BENEFITS OF TEACHING THROUGH INQUIRY Though some have raised concerns about extravagant claims made for science instruction based on activities and laboratory work (Hodson. 1989). Finally. 1982) and inquiry -based programs of the 1960s (Mechling & Oliver.. and writing through inquiry-oriented teaching (Rosebery et al. higher achievement on tests of procedural knowledge (Glasson. experiential instructional approaches using ordinary life experiences are considered to be more compatible with native American viewpoints than are text -based approaches (Taylor. Shymansky et al. There is evidence of interactions among investigative approaches to science teaching and teaching styles (Lock. particularly as it relates to laboratory skills and skills of graphing and interpreting data (Mattheis & Nakayama. The Biological Sciences Curriculum Study materials are examples of those that include an inquiry orientation (Hall & McCurdy. Several elementary school textbooks have been compared (Staver & Bay. Inquiry-oriented science teaching was shown to promote development o f classification skills and oral communication skills among bilingual third graders (Rodriguez & Bethel.
The effects of hands-on and teacher demonstration laboratory methods on science achievement in relation to reasoning . J. 367). (1991). REFERENCES Anderson. Rep. Science vision: An inquiry-based videodisc science curriculum. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. January). 53(4). Directed-inquiry approach to learning science process skills: Treatment effects and aptitude-treatment interactions. Cambridge. E. D. Beranek. MA: Bolt. and new materials are being produced and tested (Dawson. ED 223 475 Chira . R. R. E. A. Use of interactive media in inquiry-based learning is being examined (Litchfield & Mattson. New York: Teachers College Press. Miller (Ed. In R. ii) many years ago. February 20). 27 -32. (1989. R. 1985). et al. 8(4). P. D uschl (1986) has described how textbooks can be used to support inquiry-oriented science teaching. (1990. P.). 1991). Germann. (1989). New York: Falmer Press. 86(1). G. (1986. (1991. Use of computerized data-bases to facilitate development of inquiry skills has also been studied (Maor. G.been described (Tamir. FL: Florida State University. American Biology Teacher. December). p. As mentioned by Hooker (1879. No. G. (1982. Developing science process skills through directed inquiry. "No text-book is rightly constructed that does not excite [the] spirit of inquiry. S. Collins.. March-April). Perspectives in Education and Deafness. 237 -50. 26(3). April). Inc. Tallahassee. A. there will become more options for using a variety of materials to enrich inquiry-oriented teaching. (1991. Doing science: Images of science in science education. February). 243 -47. Driver. March). Glasson. January). Textbooks and the teaching of fluid inquiry. School Science and Mathematics. ED 266 423 Dawson. J. The construction of scientific knowledge in school classrooms. Germann. ED 336 257 DeBoer. (1986. 1991). Science meta -analysis project: Volume I (Final report). and Newman. C O: Colorado University. A sample dialogue based on a theory of inquiry teaching (Tech. 5 -7. 1989). Duschl. A history of ideas in science education. Boulder. Wherein balloons teach the learning process." As instructional technology advances. (1989.
Science and Children. Effects of a laboratory centered inquiry program on laboratory skills.. Hall. C. Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching. San Diego. 303 -06. H. Kyle. & Leonard. L. Open-ended. Fall).. ED 281 189 Lloyd. 26(2). 30-31. American Biology Teacher. W. J. G. & Mattson. 67(2). (1990. In Science curriculum resource handbook. Hodson. Recommended curriculum guides. (1990. March). D. et al. W. (1985. D. Science and Children. Labs: What research says about biology laboratory instruction. D. Jr.. J. 50(5). A. D. The role of exper iences in learning science vocabulary. October). science process skills. December).. 25(2). Litchfield. School Science Review. Lloyd. 121 31. S. Lock. (1990.. ED 336 261 Mattheis. C. April). 9(1). What research says: Science inside-out. & Nakayama. E. Millwood. 63 -72. October). 27(7). September).. (1988. and understanding of science knowledge in middle grades students. R. 79 -81. Hooker. (1991. W. & McCurdy. CA. May). C. Winter). What research says: Science through discovery: students love it. NY: Kraus International Publications. H. & Contreras. F. A. Development of student inquiry skills: A constructivist approach in a computerized classroom environment. V. (1985. 37 -43. N. problem-solving investigations: What do we mean and how can we use them? School Science Review. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Reading Conference. W. A critical look at practical work in school science. October). N. (1987. 39 -41. (Eds. Lake Geneva. March). D. & Contreras. 71(256). WI. Childhood Education. 33-40.ability and prior knowledge. D.). D. V. What goes 'round comes 'round doing science. 23(2). (1989. Lindberg. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. Maor. (1992). (1988.. New York: Harper & Brothers. ED 307 148 . Haury. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. B. Igelsrud. 71(256). Natural history. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching. (1879). 625-36. (1990. C.. The interactive media science project: An inquiry-based multimedia science curriculum.
Paper presented at the United States-Japan Seminar on Science Education. (1987). Inc. IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation. February). A. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. R. & Oliver. A. Narode. The constructivist epistemolog y of Jean Piaget: Its philosophical roots and relevance to science teaching and learning. J. 101-08. (1990.. and Newman. Washington. C. Staver. HI.Mechling. Shymansky. MA: Bolt. M. J. (1964). Making sense of science in language minority classrooms. (1990. L. P. K. A. (1990). (1983. An inquiry approach to science and language teaching. 62(4). J. (1991). Washington. 127-44. DC: National Education Association.. Baranek. (1983. (NSB 91-1) Novak. Bloomington. February). ED 278 563 ... DC: U. Teaching Education. March).. (1986. Rakow.. Fastback 246. 291 -96. Science curriculum and the BSCS Revisited. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. R. A. ED 326 059 Rutherford. R. Analysis of the project synthesis goal cluster orientation and inquiry emphasis of elementary science textbooks. Bioscience. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. S. 27(2). (1991. Science for all Americans. J. Government Printing Office. New York: Oxford University Press. & Bay. Honolulu. S. et al. 41-43. A reassessment of the effects of inquiry based science curricula of the 60's. 25-28. 20(4). 14. 629 -43. Auckland. et al. Osborne. L. Cambridge. M. M. National Science Board. September). Activities.. Sarther. & Freyberg. (1987. October). & Bethel. I. & Ahlgren. Winter-Spring). 3(2).. J. not textbooks: What research says about science programs. Principal. ED 275 506 Rodriguez. et al. New Zealand: Heinemann. Teaching thinking skills: Science.S. 24(7). D. Rosebery. DC: National Research Council. R. Teaching science as inquiry. Washington. Science & engineering indicators -1991. National science education standards: A sampler. Learning in science: Implications of children's knowledge. (1986). Staver. ED 320 755 National Committee on Science Education Standards and Assessment. April). J. F. (1992). (1985). Scientific inquiry.
January-March).htm . 87-94.. Hands on science. (1992). (1985.S. & National Science Foundation. 43-45. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Council for Exceptional Children. http://www. P. ED 297 917 Tinnesand. G. 17(1). (1988. Washington.org/1993/inquiry. F.Tamir. L. & Chan. DC: Author. (1987. U. Science Teacher. Department of Education. DC.ericdigests. April 1). Statement of Principles (Brochure). (1990). 6(1). 88 -97. 54(6). Wolfe. Content analysis focusing on inquir y. M. Step 1: Throw out the instructions. Journal of Curriculum Studies. Teaching science to gifted underachievers: A co nflict of goals. Canadian Journal of Special Education. Washington. September). A. Taylor.
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