Production planning management in a garment industry

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GARIMA SHANKHDHAR

MAJOR DEPARTMENTS OF APPAREL INDUSTRY
Layout of a plant of both department and machines should be the expression of purpose. the most important is that the layout of the plant should be even such as to facilitate the flow of material to pass through various operations involved in the manufacturing of the garment. the size of the plant will increase based on the number of machines to be placed on a production floor, which is the main floor and the heart of all operations. Let us see the various departments:

MERCHANDISING DEPARTMENT
Merchandising is a process through which products are planned, developed, executed and presented to the buyer. It includes directing and overseeing the development of product line from start to finish. Marketing and merchandising department: A team of merchandisers and marketers work together under a profit controls head. Merchandisers handle the foreign buyers. The teams are made according to the buyers being handled. Merchandising is the department which mediates marketing and production departments. Sometimes, merchandising department will have to do costing and pricing also. In any case, the merchandiser is the person whose responsibility is to execute the orders perfectly as per the costing and pricing. So it is a very valuable department. Following are the main responsibilities of merchandisers. Two type of merchandising done in garment exports 


Marketing merchandising. Product merchandising.

Marketing merchandising Main function of marketing merchandising is

   product Development Costing Ordering Marketing merchandising is to bring orders costly products development and it has direct contact with the buyer.e. A Merchandisers key responsibility is as follows:                     Product Development Market and product Analysis Selling the concept Booking orders Confirming Deliveries Designing and Sampling Costing Raw Material Flow Monitoring Production Follow Ups Payments Follows Internal & external communication. Sampling Lab dips Accessories & trims Preparing internal order sheets Preparing purchase orders Advising and assisting production. the products merchandising work start and ends till shipment. first sample onwards. Product merchandising Product merchandising is done in the unit. This includes all the responsibilities from sourcing to finishing i. Advising quality department about quality level Mediating production and quality departments .

Internal and external communication of merchandise department: Earlier. Sometimes. Helping documentation department Taking responsibility for inspections and Following up the shipment. As the other departments will follow the instructions given by the merchandising department. they may not be correctable.    Giving shipping instructions and following shipping. Hence all the instructions to be double checked before being informed to other departments. internal communication is also very much valuable. we had seen the importance of communication with buyers. So it is the sole responsibility of merchandising department to instruct other departments the specifications and instructions of buyer¶s orders clearly. Even a small omission. By the same way. . Prevention is better than cure. mistake or deviation of instruction may create big problems. they know only the merchandising department¶s instructions. they have very high value. Other departments don¶t know the buyer¶s instructions.

Department structure .

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Issues to consider when conducting the production planning process include: y y y y Future Demand Planning ± what is the trend of customers¶ orders? Are there any upcoming events that might increase or decrease the number of orders? Lead Times ± What are the time frames to manufacture an item? Are all the materials and tools required to manufacture an item available? Components Availability ± are the components required to manufacture an item in stock? If the components are to be ordered this has to be taken into account and included in the time required to manufacture the item.Functioning of Merchandise Department PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL: The production process involves the planning and control of how goods will be manufactured. This usually includes the identification of raw materials required. . the quantities of components needed to manufacture items. The above considerations will be taken into account by the production team during the planning activity as a reference to organize the work involved according to the skills and machinery available. Production Planning Process The production planning process within the production department involves the planning of what materials are required for the production of supplies and what is required to put these materials together. and the human workforce required to produce these products. Workforce Availability ± this takes into consideration the skills and availability of the workforces. These functions are the tasks carried out by the Production Planning and Control Department.

The ultimate aim of production control is to minimize the number of product rejections and ensure that the process of production is optimized. Production Control Process Production quality control involves the monitoring of the product manufacturing to ascertain that the products are produced according to the methodology specified and that the product performs to the planned functionality. Importance of Production Planning and Control To summarize the planning and control functions within a production department involve three main activities: y y y Production work is initiated The work carried out is measured and monitored Any necessary alterations are made. Their role is to check products to ensure that they meet the company¶s manufacturing standards. Quality control inspection will then proceed to identify any flaws in the established process. it is possible to calculate the production planning tools required and the cost of manufacturing. .By drawing up thorough production planning procedures that take into account all the materials and time required to manufacture a product. manufactured items and so on. These functions are performed by the Quality Control team. The feedback control loop may yield results that indicate a necessary change in raw materials. These three main activities are referred to as the classic feedback control loop.

SAMPLING The Details Attached to the Garment Sample After the confirmation of order. Color Fabric Composition Description Quantity Style n0/ Size Store There may be a separate sampling department in a company. this sampling department will work under the supervision of merchandising department. each sample sent to the buyer has the following details attached to it. merchandiser has to advise sampling department suitably. Also as the samples are to be made according to the buyers¶ price ranges and quality levels. what the buyer has demanded and what supplement fabric/trim etc they have used (if applicable). Types of samples:        Salesmen samples or promotional samples Proto samples or fit samples Counter samples or reference samples or approval samples Wash test samples Photo samples Fashion show samples Pre-production samples . with the help of a tag. But as the merchandiser is the person who is interacting with the buyers regarding samples and other requirements. It contains the details pertaining to both.         Ref no.

  Production samples Shipment samples Workflow of Sampling .

Also we will have to send samples to the newly contacted buyers to show our workmanship. If the buyer is having 7 salesmen in his office. Or it may be due to local business recession or competition or unsuitable prices. buyer may need samples. then also we will have to send these samples. due to poor quality. unsuitable colours. So it is better for a company to have a separate sampling department so that they can create new styles in new fabrics to impress the buyers. they may need samples in different fabrics to choose from. We may have to spend too much on these samples. we will have to keep on sending samples to them very often. These samples should be sent so that they would attract the buyers. improper measurements. 3 styles or 1 style. we may not get order for even a single style. Sometimes. Buyer will place the order to us accumulating the quantities. The salesmen will book the orders from their customers. Salesmen samples or promotional samples Some buyer needs these samples for getting the orders from their customers. we may get orders for all 5 styles. Buyers may like to see the garments in a new fabric. . etc of salesmen samples. they will bring orders to us. Whenever they have enquiries. quality standards and price level. some times. For one enquiry. But these samples are inevitably important to develop business. product range. if our samples are good and attractive at reasonable prices. If they want to develop new style in new fabric. even the buyer is not so confident of some enquiries. Some times. Any way. If we have sent samples for 5 styles. we have to make these salesmen samples perfectly with sincere interest to get orders. Expected sales may not be possible. unmatched prints or embroidery. by showing these samples.Development samples or enquiry samples When we work with some buyers continuously. then the buyer will ask us to make 7 samples in each style.

packing box. In any case. for the styles which we don¶t get orders. Some buyers may need these samples if they want to print the photos of garments on photo inlays. If they don¶t get samples on time. The buyers will arrange the photo shoot session. the samples will be worn by the highly paid models. Some genuine buyers will agree for this. etc. To avoid this embarrassing situation. So they can be made in available similar fabrics but in the actual measurements and specifications. the buyers will have to pay more compensation to the advertising agencies and models. He too can not help us in this regard. But as we don¶t get orders. time. Buyer may ask these samples to send either from production or before starting production. hang tag. Photo samples or fit samples These samples are to be made after getting the order sheets. So it is important to strictly adhere to these measurements.We might have spent more money. by spending huge money to the advertising agencies. So the buyers will need these samples strictly on time. We can not expect to get the full cost from the buyer. These samples may be needed for local advertisement or buyer¶s promotional occasions. Hence we can ask the buyer to accept 2 or 3 times of garment price as the sampling cost. Of course these samples will help us for our business. style and fit. These samples are needed to check the measurements. Buyers will ask us to make the photo samples according to the intended model¶s body fit. . we can not blame the buyer. it is better to discuss about the cost of these samples with the buyer before proceeding for sampling. Normally the sampling will cost us approximately 3 to 5 times of the garment price. etc for making these samples.

buyer may need samples in any one colour and swatches (fabric bits) in other colours. measurements. They will represent that the production will be like these samples. We have to get only µOK¶ from the buyer.Counter samples or reference samples or approval samples These samples are to be made in actual fabrics with actual trims. the approved samples should be followed in production. Pre-production samples These samples are almost like approval samples. But some buyers will need us to send these samples from production before shipment. These samples should be strictly as per the specifications in the order sheets. making. Production samples These samples are to be sent before shipment to get the buyer¶s confirmation for shipment. buyer may comment on fabric. So these samples are to be sent with more and more care. They have to be made in actual production fabric with actual bulk trims. If the order is for 3 colours. then we will not have any excuse and we will be in real trouble. We have to get the approval for these samples from the buyer before starting production. Sometimes. In this case. Some buyer will mention that the order sheets subject to the approval of counter samples. Buyer may check these samples for everything or anything. Hence these samples are needed to be perfect in all manners. We should not get any remark or comment. Wash test samples If these samples are sent before starting production and if we get some remarks or comments on these samples. Some times. If these samples are rejected due to some complaints. these samples may be considered as µshipment samples¶. etc. . Then only we can ship the goods and we can be sure of getting payment. we can correct them in production. So these samples are very important. they may do wash test also. We have to follow his comments carefully in production. After getting the approval.

Shipment samples These samples are to be sent after shipment. And even if we get some comments from buyers. (Generally these samples will not be tested by buyer for anything. we can save ourselves by saying that these samples were sent from the left over garments after the shipment. If we expect any comments in these samples. hence there might be some mistakes. tags. etc. it is better to inform the buyer during sending these samples). . They should be sent in actual packing with all labels.

FABRIC SOURCING Fabric sourcing department is basically engaged in determining how and where its merchandise i. .e. A fabric sourcer must have knowledge about all varieties of fabric in order to execute their function effectively. Fabric Issue The fabric store issues the fabric for cutting on challan. Such system maintenance of the store makes it easy to locate the fabric whenever needed in future. Storage Location system of storage is followed i. fabric packages are stored in two areas   Checked fabric and Unchecked fabric. The challan contains information regarding style no.e. buyer¶s name. color. All fabric is not issued at one go. It works in co²ordination with the merchandising department and looks after the delivery of the required goods within the scheduled time and cost. instead it is issued as required. and quantity to be issued and issued for which production unit. fabric will be obtained.

Fabric Sourcing Workflow .

Functioning of the Department .

The working is as follows. The merchandisers give the tech-pack and the BOM (Bill Of Materials) for a particular style to the purchasing department and the concerned person will start the further process and for costing purposes the in²house price is given like. After the order is being confirmed by the buyer the merchandiser will sit with the other concerned departments and then the exact quantity required and the breakup of the trims and accessories with respect to colour.. the cost sheet is made by the merchandiser s and the order is confirmed by the buyer based on the cost sheet given by the merchandiser. then the PO is sent to the concerned department for accessories and trims. In the process of doing the in-house pr ice . suppose the cost of 100 pieces of button is Rs. . This breakup is given to the merchandiser by the purchasing department for the costing purpose. will be given by the merchandiser to the purchasing department in the form of a sheet which is generally followed in the industry for all the orders irrespective of the buyer. etc. Once the first shot of the raw materials is sent by the supplier then the lab dips is done and is approved by the buyer. size. M OQ. Once the purchasing department receives this format.32 then a Taxes of 2% + 14% of exercise duty + 10% of per unit price is added as the transportation charges and this all together makes the in²house price (a hidden margin of 5% is also taken into consideration). the working procedure is the same.PURCHASING DEPARTMENT The purchasing department is similar to the sourcing department but the main difference is that the sourcing department works for sourcing the fabrics alone while the purchasing department works for sourcing the accessories and trims. the cost involved in the production and also the price involved for a unit involved with respect to the complete procedure involved for its production. However.

. in order to overcome this a breakups are being is given. This department also keeps in track of all the quantities received in-house timely. The goods are generally received in breakups as suggested by the merchandiser according to the requirements stated by the planning and the production department and this breakups will have specified date and quantity and if this breakups is not being mentioned then the order is being placed with the supplier several times for small quantities and PO¶s have to be sent all the time so.After receiving the goods from the supplier they are checked for the quantity and also checked according to the inspection criteria specified by the buyer and replaced if any of them are not meeting this criterion. Then the purchase department has to follow up with the supplier for deliveries as and when the merchandiser asks for the new set of the materials for that particular style and then the department also has to maintain the receipts and al so they have to maintain the documents of the inspections that are being carried out for those materials.

the emphasis is only directed to delivery and not productivity. Garments are being examined as many as five times and the repair rate in most of the factories is shocking. and the number of repairs is excessive. Work content can be reduced by installing a proper work control system and a culture for quality product production. This is obviously driven by the fear of order rejection or re-works. Some of the companies are examining the garment as many as 5 times. Finishing departments are over-staffed in most of the factories studied. The time taken to finish the garments is surprisingly high. Not one of the finishing departments have adequate systems of control.FINISHING DEPARTMENT The costs involved in this department are excessive in almost every factory surveyed. Finishing Time . this is understandable in the present circumstances but must be re-thought since it is excessively expensive. it is vital that this department is thoroughly investigated since there is a great potential to achieve a large financial saving. Layout and control The layout and work flow was generally poor and disorganized. the time taken to finish a garment is surprisingly high.

Now the garment is ready for packing. if it is of stiff standup collar shirt then a small butterfly is placed near the collar button.6 minutes. only cardboard cartons are used for packing purposes. color code etc. There are no monitoring controls except to record the number of repairs FINISHING DEPARTMENT Headed by the section in-charge with ironers and with few helpers in the pressing section. after the garment is nearly pressed and folded to size and color. pinned up along with a cardboard back support to hold the garment stiff. nor do any of them have any form of scientific performance measuring techniques.Finishing times are excessive in almost every company. Bundle System / Operator control None of the finishing departments use bundle systems for control. with the average finishing time per garment varying from 11. PVC collar ring etc are to be placed at this stage. If it is a shirt cardboard collar. size.2 minutes to 57. tags are hung from the top button to show the trademark. The buyer specifies the ratio of the packing. THANK YOU . garment is ironed to the specified size. label. the garment are put in to a poly bag closed with cello tape. PACKING DEPARTMENT The packing supervisor heads this section with packers and helpers.

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