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UNIT – 1

Short Questions and Answers

1. What is an automobile?

An automobile is a self 'propelled vehicle. The power required to propel the


vehicle is supplied by an engine (also called prime mover). Scooters, motor cycles, cars,
buses, trucks etc., are the different types of automotive vehicles.

2. List the components of an automobile.

Basically an automobile consists of the following components.

1. Engine.

2. Frame work.

3. Body.

4. Power train.

5. Instruments.

6. Lights.

7. Starting arrangement.

3. What is called chassis of an automobile?

Chassis is a structure constituting the foundation upon which all the other
components of an automotive vehicle are assembled. The chassis comprises of everything
of a vehicle except the body, cabin and equipment.

4. What are the three types of vehicle axle?

The vehicle axles may be of different types, namely, steering axle, driving axle
and dummy axle.

5. Why some trucks are provided with fifth wheel arrangement?

Some trucks (called tractor) are provided with fifth wheel arrangement. The fifth
wheel carries a portion of the weight of the semi trailor. The tractor semitrailer
combination increa.ses the load carrying capacity during transportation of loads in masses
over paved roads and thereby utilizes the power of the engine to the maximum extent.
6. What is the purpose of bumpers in a vehicle?

The purpose of providing bumpers with the frame is to take the shock of impact
on collision and transfer the same to the frame

7. How the engine is mounted on the frame?

The engine is supported on the frame at three or four places. Rubber pads or
washers are placed between the support lugs on the engine and the mounting brackets on
the frame.

8. What is the difference between normal control and forward control in commercial
vehicles?

. The normal control type has the engine located in front of the driver's cabin. In
the forward control type, the engine is positioned either in or below the driver's cabin.

9. What are the aspects considered in the body design?

The following aspects are considered in the vehicle body design:

1. Reduction in body weight.

2. Streamlining the body.

3. Aesthetic and ergonomic aspects.

4. Safety of the occupants.

5. Easy access to vehicle parts.

6. Cost of material and construction.

10. What is integral or unitary type body?

On the fully integral body shell, the longitudinal and cross members of the chassis
are incorporated into the frame work of the load carrying
body.

11. Why integral body construction is used in passenger ~rs?

Integral body construction is widely used in passenger cars, because of the


following:

1. Last longer.
2. Requires fewer parts.

3. Involves fewer assembly operations.

4. More economical.

5. The floor can be at a lower level.

12. What are the three aspects to be considered in vehicle layout?

The vehicle layout should take into account the following aspects:
1. Driver comfort.

2. Passenger comfort.

3. Best vehicle performance.

13. Why vehicle body design is important?

Importances of vehicle body design are as follows:

1. Body contributes about 40% of total weight of car an~ about 60 to 70% of total
weight of buses.

2. Reduction in body weight improves capacity and fuel economy.

3. Aerodynamic characteristics determine the fuel consumption at high speeds and


stability in cross winds.

4. Decides customer appeal.

14. What are the features that enhance driver comfort?

The following features help to improve driver comfort:

1. Seat position in relation to the steering wheel, foot control and

other secondary controls.

2. Adjustable (if possible self adjusting) seat.

3. Inclination of the steering column.

4. Means to reduce the force exerted on the foot pedals.


5. Electrically heated driver seat.

6. Soft seat, arm rests, proper angle of back rest.

7. Good all round visibility.

15. What are the three forces acting on a vehicle?

The following three external forces act on a vehicle body:

1. Force of air drag in the direction of vehicle motion (with the wind acting along
the longitudinal direction axis).

2. Aerodynamic lift acting vertically upward. .

3. Cross wind force in lateral direction, on the side of the vehicle.

16. What is aerodynamic lift?

Aerodynamic lift is the vertical component of the resultant force caused by the
pressure distribution on the vehicle body.

17. What is the Effect of aerodynamic lift?

The aerodynamic lift will tend to reduce the pressure between the tyres and the
ground. This causes loss of steering on the steering axle (usually front axle) and loss of
traction on the driving axle (usually rear axle).

18. What are the three moments caused by aerodynamic forces acting on a vehicle?

Aerodynamic forces cause the following moments:

1. Pitching moment caused by the air drag and lift forces.

2. Yawing moment caused by the side force formed by the asymmetric flow
around the vehicle body.

3. Rolling moment caused by the side force.

19. What features induce interference drag?

The following features induce interference drag:

1. Elements such as door handle, mirrors, aerials and badge which project out of
the normal surfaces of the vehicle body.
2. Projection below the vehicle such as axles, propeller shaft, and tow bars etc.

UNIT -2
Short Questions and Answers

1. What are the four operations performed by an 'engine?

An engine performs four operations namely, suction of the fresh charge


compression of the charge, ignition and combustion of the charge leading to expansion of
the products of combustion and exhausting of the products of combustion. These
operations form 'a cycle.

2. What are the two types of engines used in automobile?

The two types of engines used in automobiles 'are:

a. Petrol or diesel engines.

b. Two stroke or four stroke engines.

3. How the ignition of the charge takes place in SI and CI engines

In a petrol engine, ignition of the charge is by an electric spark and so it is called a


spark ignition (SI) engine.

4. What constitute an engine?

The main ~components of an engine are cylinder, cylinder crankcase, piston


assembly, connecting rod, crank shaft, inlet exhaust system, ignition system (in SI
engine), injection system, lubrication system and cooling system.

5. What is called cubic capacity of an engine?


The cubic capacity of an engine or engine displacement or engine is the product
of the stroke volume in one cylinder and the number cylinders in the engine. The stroke
volume .or swept volume of piston is the volume swept through by the piston, as it moves
from dead center to the other dead center.

6. What is meant by compression ratio?

The compression ratio is the ratio of the volume occupied by the cylinder before
compression (cylinder volume = clearance volume + stroke. volume) to the volume
occupied after compression

7. What is a square engine?


When the stroke is equal to bore, the engine is called a square en The diameter of
the cylinder is called bore. The distance between two dead centers is known as stroke or
piston travel.

8. What is a over square engine?

An over square engine has the bore larger than the stroke. Then stroke bore ratio
will be less than one. This is the most common in automotive field. A large bore and
short stroke allows for engine speeds.

9. What are TDC and BDC?

The top most position of the piston inside the cylinder i.e., when the maximum
distance from the crank shaft axle is known as Top Dead Centre (TDC). The bottom most
position of the piston in the cylinder is bottom dead center (BDC).

10. What are IHP, BHP and mechanical efficiency?

Indicated power output (IHP) is the power developed within the engine cylinder
by the gases on undergoing the cycle of operations. The power available at the crankshaft
is brake horse power (BHP). Mechanical efficiency is the ratio of BHP to IHP.

11. What do you mean specific weight and specific volume?

Specific weight is the weight. per unit rated power. Specific volume is the volume
per unit rated power. These quantities must be as low as possible for an engine.

12. What are indicated and brake thermal efficiencies?

The indicated thermal efficiency is the ratio of the heat equivalent of the Indicated
power to the heat supplied by the fuel.

the brake thermal efficiency is the ratio of the heat equivalent of the • rake power to the
heat supplied by the fuel. This efficiency is the product of indicated thermal efficiency
and mechanical efficiency.

13. Define compression pressure.

Compression pressure is the pressure that exists in the combustion between the
piston is at TDC, at the end of the compression stroke, during motoring the engine.

14. What is peak pressure? Why it is important?


Peak pressure attained in the cylinder during combustion is tile maximum
combustion or explosion pressure. This pressure is much greater than compression
pressure. The various parts of an engine viz., piston, cylinder, cylinder head, connecting
rod and crankshaft must be designed to withstand safely this pressure For maximum
efficiency, tile peak pressure should occur just about 10 to 15° after TDC.

15. What is an indicator diagram?

An indicator diagram shows the variation of pressure inside the engine cylinder
during a cycle of operations. It can be in two forms.

1. Pressure volume (p-v) diagram. 2. Pressure crank angel (p-O) diagram.

16. What are the different arrangements of engine cylinders?

The different arrangements of engine cylinder in a automotive VI are:

1. Horizontal.

2. Vertical.

3. Inline.

4. V type.

5. Radial.

6. Opposed cylinder.

7. Opposed piston.

17. Why liners are inserted into the cylinder?

Replaceable liners are inserted into the cylinders. 'This permits the use of cheap
and easily machine able cast iron for the cylinder block. By using a liner material having
a good resistance to wear and corrosion, the engine life can be increased.

18. What is the difference between a wet liner and a dry liner?

When fitted in the cylinder block, a wet liner has water on the external surface of
the liner. This ensures good cylinder cooling.

A dry liner is one which is inserted into the bore machined in the cylinder block.
In this case; the external surface of the liner is not in direct contact with the cooling
water. If there is any air gap between the external surface of the dry liner and the bore in
the cylinder, the heat flow to the coolant will be impaired.. _
19. What is a counter flow cylinder head?

In the counter flow cylinder head, the intake and exhaust port passages ~~n on the
same side of the cylinder head. This type limits the available space for fresh charge arid
exhaust lines; but greatly eases super- because its gas passages are very short.

20. What is the design criterion for the exhaust manifold?

The size, shape and orientation of the exhaust manifold is such will cause quick
and complete discharge of the products of combustion from the engine cylinder. It must
also be such that the gases let one cylinder should never enter into another cylinder. In
some diesel there is cooling (external) arrangement for the exhaust manifold.

21. What is the crank gear unit of an engine?

The crank gear unit transmits the force of explosion, products combustion of fuel
with air, to the output shaft (crankshaft). It converts the reciprocating motion of the piston
into rotary motion the crankshaft. The mechanism consists of pistons, piston rings, pins,
connecting rods, crankshaft and flywheel.

22. What is piston clearance?

The piston must always be free to slide up and down in the cy bore. The space
between the sides of the piston and the cylinder called piston clearance. Piston clearance
is called cold clearance clearance depending on the thermal condition of the engine.

23. Why the piston is tapered from bottom to top?

During engine operation the piston thrown is directly exposed to combustion heat.
As such it is heated to a greater extent than the ID of the piston. Therefore, the piston
crown expands to a greater than the skirt. To take care of this aspect, the piston is tape
bottom to top with smaller diameter at the piston top.

24. What is piston slap?

Piston slap is the noise caused by the sudden tilting of the piston in the cylinder as
the piston starts moving down on the power' stroke. The piston shifts from one side
(compression thrust side or minor thrust side) of the cylinder the other side (expansion
thrust side or major thrust side) With sufficient force. This hitting of the piston surface on
the cylinder wall produces a distinct noise (metallic noise) called piston

25. What are the two types of connecting rod?


The two types of connecting rod are

1. Single piece connecting rod.

2. Two piece connecting rod.

The single piece connecting rod is used in most of the small two stroke engines
meant for two wheelers. Then a needle or roller bearing is used at the crank pin.

In the two piece connecting rod the big end is detachable and is pr00vided with a
cap. The two parts of the big end are clamped together over the crankpin by bolts
The bearing is in two halves. It is in the f~ of steel shells or bronze backs lined
with one or more layers of and friction material. It is called bimetal bearing.

26. What are the two types of crankshaft?

The two types of crankshaft are:

1. One piece forged crankshaft.

2. Built up crankshaft which is used in two wheelers where as piece connecting


rod is used.

27. Why there are counter weights on the crankshaft?

Counter weights or balance weights are attached to the webs or integral with the
webs. Counter weights are located opposite two pins. The counter weights relieve the
engine main bearings inertial forces of the unbalanced mass of the crank and the lower of
the connecting rod.

28. Why small pins are incorporated in the piston ring grooves of two stroke engines?

The small pins incorporated in the piston ring grooves of two stroke engines
prevent the circumferential movement of the rings in the ring grooves and breakage of the
rings due to their free ends hitting the .ports in the cylinder.

29. Why there is a decompressor income engines?

Diesel engines have higher compression ratios. As such, it is difficult to ~rank


(i.e. rotate) the crankshaft of a diesel engine for starting and ending maintenance. Hence,
in these cases, the compression effect is reduced by decompressor unit. This unit opens
the intake or exhaust valve.

30. Why engine components should not be cooled to a great extent?


Abstraction of heat from the working medium by way of cooling the Engine
components is a direct thermodynamic loss

1. Reduction in thermal efficiency. ,

2. Increased corrosion of engine parts.

3. Reduced mechanical efficiency.

4. Improper vaporization of the fuel supplied.

31. What could cause overheating of air cooled engines?

Overheating of air cooled engines may be due to one or more of the following:

1. Cooling fan belt slipping:

2. Air leakage into the shrouds or through seals.

3. Thermostat stuck in the closed position.

4. Improper adjustment of air supply control ring.

5. Dirt on the cooling fins.

32. What is thermosyphon cooling system?

In the thermosyphon cooling system, the cooling water through the engine jackets
and the radiator connected to the engine by virtue of the density difference. Hot water
from the cylinder head fitted up to the radiator top. Cold water from the radiator bottom
enters bottom of the cylinder water jacket. The water circulation is by n means.

33. What are the different methods of water circulation used in forced circulation cooling
system?

The different methods of water circulation of forced circulation cooling system


are:

1. Parallel flow system.

2. Series flow system.

3. Mixed or combined cooling system.

34. How a thermostat makes the engine to warm-up quickly?


The thermostat is mostly placed in the hot water passage between the
cylinder head and the top of the radiator. When the engine is cold, the thermostat valve is
closed. Now the jacket water cannot flow from the engine to the radiator. The water
circulates within the cylinder block and head. The engine reaches the operating
temperature rapidly. When the engine reaches the, operating temperature, the valve opens
and allows water to circulate through the radiator.

35. What are the problems associated with liquid cooling?

Liquid cooling poses the following problems:


1. Air in the cooling system.
2. Freezing of the cooling water, when the temperature of the at IDO sphere is
below the freezing pint of water.

3. Deposit formation in the cooling system.

The presence of air bubbles enhances rust formation and also affects heat transfer. During
engine operation, rust, lime, and deposits accumulate on the inside surfaces of the cooling
system. As the Se heat insulators heat flow will be retarded.

36. What are the functions of the lubricating oil?

The lubricating oil performs the following functions:

1. Reduces friction between the moving parts.

2. Reduces wear of the moving parts.

3. Removes heat from the engine parts.

4. Acts as a seal and prevents leakage of gases i.e., blow by.

5. Absorbs shocks between bearings and other engine pars·

6. Acts as cleaning agent.

37. What is positive crankcase ventilation?

Discharging the. crankcase vapours and blow by into the atmosphere causes air
pollution. To prevent atmospheric pollution, modem engines have the positive crankcase
ventilation (PCY) system.

.
38. What are the factors that decide the power output of an engine?

The power output of an engine depends on the following:

1. Amount of air sucked in by the engine per cycle.

2. Quantity of fuel admitted and burnt.

3. Extent of completion of combustion of fuel.

4. Extent of utilization of the sucked air.

39. What is supercharging?

Supercharging is the process of admitting into the engine cylinder, a charge larger
in quantity (i.e. weight) than what the cylinder will c0nntain due to regular suction stroke
i.e. by natural aspiration. This is done by supplying air (or air fuel mixture) at a pressure
greater than that which the engine naturally aspirates.

Supercharging permits inducting and burning a larger quantity of fuel This in turn will
increase the power output of the engine.

40. How engine performance is influenced by supercharging?

Supercharging influences engine performance in the following manner.

1. Higher power output.

2. Improved torque over the whole speed range.

3. Faster acceleration of the engine becomes possible.

4. In a CI engine ignition and combustion become smoother.

5. Slightly better mechanical efficiency.

6. Slightly lower specific fuel consumption.

41. What are the emissions let out by automobiles into the atmosphere?
1. Nitrogen oxides.

2. Soot.

3. Carbon monoxide.

4. Hydrocarbons (CH).

5. Aldehydes. .

6. Cancer producing substances.

42. In a diesel engine, what are the requirements to be met for the reduction of NOx, He
and particulate emission?

In diesel engines, the requirements to be met for the reduction of the following
are:

1. NOx emission - cool intake air in the cylinder, late combustion beginning and
moderate air motion.

2. HC emission - complete combustion of the injected fuel and minimum


lubricating oil expulsion into the exhaust.

3. Particulate emission-fine fuel atomization, intensive mixing of air and fuel,


high excess air, reduced luboil consumption.

43. Indicate the methods followed to reduce diesel exhaust emission.

High injection pressure and variable injection timing are used to reduce exhaust
emissions. Particulate emission is reduced by filtration of exhaust gases. Multiple
introduction of fuel such as pilot injection process reduces smoke. M combustion system
is also us~ to reduce smoke. EGR is used to reduce diesel exhaust emissions particularly
NOx.

44. What are the major areas where electronics have been effectively employed?

The major areas where electronic have been effectively employed' are:

1. Engine and vehicle controls to obtain optimum performance, fuel

economy, and least emissions.

2. Safety related functions.


3. Comfort related systems.

4. Information display systems to assist the driver.

5. Vehicle security systems.

6. Traffic system for safety.

45. What is engine management system?

The primary function of the engine management system (EMS) is to adjust the
torque generated by the engine. For this purpose, all the variables that influence the
torque are controlled in the various engine management subsystems. EMS also takes care
of the demands placed on exhaust emissions, fuel consumption, power output, comfort
and safety.

UNIT – 3
Short Questions and Answers

1. How a computer controlled carburetor works?

Computer controlled carburetor normally uses a solenoid operated valve to


respond to the commands of a microprocessor, (electronic control unit - ECD). The
system uses various sensors to send information to ~ computer. Then the computer
calculates and causes to set a proper true air mixture. A computer controlled carburetor is
also called a computer' controlled emission system.

2. What are the factors that affect the degree of atomization?

The degree of atomization of the fuel jet..depends on the following:

1. Relative velocity of fuel and air streams.

2. Density of fuel.

3. Surface tension of fuel.


4. Length to diameter ratio of the fuel jet or orifice.
5. Depression at the carburetor venturi throat.

3. What are some of the factors that affect fuel vaporizations

1. Outside or inlet airstream-temperature.

2. Engine and air stream speed.

3. Engine temperature. .

4. Prevailing air swirl and turbulence.

5. Fuel characteristics, particularly volatility characteristics.

6. Latent heat of vaporization of the fuel.

7. Fuel discharge techniques i.e., carburetion or fuel injection.

4. What causes ice formation on the throttle plate?

The fuel abstracts heat for its vaporization from the incoming air. The heat
abstraction lowers air temperature. The air always contains some moisture. When the
temperature of air drops below the dew point of water vapour, condensation of water
vapour (moisture) will occur. When chilling is to a greater extent, condensed water
vapour will become ice. Accumulation of ice on the throttle plate throttles mixture supply
to the engine and may stop running the engine. .

5. What are the advantages of the fuel injection system?

The main advantages of the fuel injection system are:

1. Improves air induction capacity, i.e. volumetric efficiency.

2. Improves fuel distribution in a multi cylinder engine.

3. Reduces or eliminates detonation.

4. Prevents loss of fuel during scavenging.

6. What is the cranking system in an automobile?


The cranking system consists of a cranking motor, battery, control switches and
interconnecting wire, The performance of all these components must be matched against
engine requirements for satisfactory service,

Cranking motors are mostly of direct current series motors. These convert the, electrical
energy supplied by the battery to mechanical energy by rotating an armature shaft. A
drive mechanism couples the armature shaft through a pinion and flywheel ring gear to
the engine.

7. What could cause the starter noise during operation?

The starter may be noisy during operation and this may be due to one or more of
the following:

1. Loose pole (armature.rub)

2. Foreign material between armature and pole

3. Damaged or worn ring gear.

4. Worn bearing$.

5. Cracked or broken drive housing.

8. What are the features that will cause no cranking of engine?

No cranking of engine, this trouble may be due to one or more of the following:

1. Open field to termin.al connection.

2. Loose pole (armature rub).

3. Foreign material between armature and pole.

4. Grounded or open armature.

5. Damaged or worn starter drive.

6. Shift mechanism worn or inoperative.

7. High mica on armature.

8. Glazzed commutator.

9. What is a overrunning clutch?


Over running clutch acts as a afety drive for the starter motor. As the starter motor
turns, the pinim is driven positively through the over running clutch. But, as soon as Ihe
engine starts, the pinion turns much faster than the starter motor. Now, the over running
clutch allows the pinion w~th its increased speed to slip -backward into the over running
clutch UnIt. A.s ~oon as the starting switch is opened, the engagi~g lever releases the
pInIOn from the fly'lheel ring gear.

10. What are the lights included' the lighting system?

The lighting system in an automobile includes the following:

1. Head lights (high and low beams).

2. Directional signal lights.

3. Stop lights.

4. Back up lights.

5. Tail-lights.

11. What is a distributor assembly?

The distributor assembly houses the contact breaker, points and the distributor
rotor unit. The ignition system is so timed that when one of the pistons is near the TDC of
the compression stroke, the breaker points are op the verge of operation. The metal strip
rotor will then be in line with the brass segment that is connected to the spark plug of that
cylinder. The other spark plugs are connected to the distributor cap following the same
sequence as the firing order of the engine.

12. Indicate some of the defects that may cause improper failure of the ignition system.

Improper function or failure of the ignition system may be due or more of the
following:

1. Defective ignition switch or shorted ignition coil or con

2. Loose condenser lead or poor ground connections.

3. Worn out distributor shaft bushing.

4. Worn or loose breaker point plate assembly.

5. Loose nuts in the distributor i.e., loose central screw i~ the


6. Burnt, pitted or dirty breaker points.

7. Contact point gap set too small or too large.

8. Too little or too large a tension on the breaker arm spring.

9. Oil reaching breaker points.

10. Broken or weak breaker arm spring.

11. Moisture on the inside of distributor cap or on rotor.

12. Cracked or burnt or punctured' distributor cap.

13. Faulty segment or 'faulty central carbon brush.

14. Incorrect, spark plug gap.

15. Plugs badly covered with carbon.

16. Wet spark plug insulator.

17. Broken or cracked lower insulator.

18. Burned electrodes.

19. Soot or oil on the electrodes.

21. Plug fouling due to engine 01 or too r

22. Oil soaked and wet secondary wires. ,

23. Loose connections or damaged insulation Wires

13. What is magneto ignition system?

Many two wheelers use a compact magnet to generate the high potential, required
by the spark plug. The flywheel magneto ignition system uses an alternating current
rather than direct (battery) current to power the ignition system. The system consists of
magnets, breaker points, condenser, ignition switch, spark plug lead and spark plug. Two
types of flywheel magneto ignition system are used in two wheelers. One type products a
high secondary voltage as a result of the magnetic field collapses. The other uses a rapid
build up (surge) of the magnetic field to induce the high secondary voltage.