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IV. STEINDORFF. Religion of Israel to the Exile. The Veda. D. P. dhism. The Religions of Primitive By D. Ancient Hebrews.D. of the of Re By VII. By KARL BUDDE. Religion in Japan. The Religion MAURICE BLOOMFIELD.D.D. CHEYNE. Israel. BRINTON.A. VI. LL.D... The Religion of the Ancient By G. Primitive Religions.D. PUTNAM S SONS NEW YORK AND LONDON . RHYS-DAVIDS.D. Ancient Egyptians. Peoples.THE AMERICAN LECTURES ON THE HISTORY OF RELIGIONS. W. Religious Thought and Life among the By the Rev. III.M. Buddhism. KNOX. G. Israel.D. K. The Development By GEORGE W. Egyptians. Ph. D.. G. I. Sc.D. II.D. LL. Ph.. ligion in Japan. A. M. The History and Literature of Bud By T. T. Ph. D.D. Veda.. V. M.

New York. Tokyo G.D. LL. and Ethics D. PUTNAM S SONS NEW YORK AND LONDON fmicfcerbocher press 1907 . and Sometime Professor of Philosophy in the Imperial University.D. P. Professor of the History and Philosophy of Religion in Union Theological Seminary..AMERICAN LECTURES ON THE HISTORY OF RELIGIONS SIXTH SERIES 1905-1906 THE DEVELOPMENT OF RELIGION IN JAPAN BY GEORGE WILLIAM KNOX.

P.101 K6 Ube Rnfcfterbocfcer press.COPYRIGHT. 1907 BY G. /MIL. PUTNAM S SONS 2. Hew J&orfc ELECTRONIC VERSION AVAILABLE NO.(22 A .

To My Sister MARY ALICE KNOX iii .

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physical. to set forth for the general public the results scientific study of the Religions of Japan. for the purpose of instituting popular courses in the History Religion. stances are never quite alike. Given similar social. The two factors must ever be kept in .PKEFACE. at once the unity and the variety of religious experience in different ages and to There is unity. since men s minds respond in like fashion to the influences which are common humanity. in brief compass. therefore. besides. surroundings. and he has attempted. and. its political and the race reveals Yet circum oneness by the similarity of its response. THE ment of of the writer has been mindful of the announce of the Committee that it is formed &quot.&quot. there is the incalculable factor of individual genius. of the Modern research shows lands. so that there is a wide diversity in the expression of this response. is His specific object to exhibit the continuity life and the development of the religious people. economic.

of the feudal system. with results which can be understood as yet only in part. in our day. Especially in structive is the influence of the rise and development Finally. that the diversity be not forgotten in the unity. as a study in religious development. must hold fast to facts. ex presses the fundamental fact more truly than does the of title suggested in the beginning &quot. the primi can be discerned. for they . however. and the successive moments beliefs in its development are well marked. independ being not so much an ently ascertained.vi Preface view. nor the unity be obscured by the details of the diversity. but was modified at every point by the genius and needs of the people. Nevertheless. did not remain foreign. there has been a continuity so marked that &quot. through all. The imported system. the result exhibition of facts. These were rapidly supplanted or transformed of an alien civilisation step by the introduction a process which can be traced by step. The Keligions Japan. The at lecturer has sought to sacrifice of keep this topic in mind whatever novelty in details. tive rites By and the aid of historical criticism.The Development of Eeligion in Japan&quot. offers a field for Its history is Japan advantages. however. new factors of peculiar potency are introduced.&quot. Philosophy. study which has peculiar comparatively brief.

the translations Faber and James Legge have been constantly con of Ernest [NOTE : sultedand freely used. THE UNION THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY.Preface fitted to vii must determine theory instead of being conceived schemes. exhibition of facts is pre A sufficient to made. 1906. therefore. K. NEW YORK. however fascinating. to enable the student to submit this study to independent criticism.] . In the quotations from Confucius. with references the sources. GL W. August 11.

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: The object of this Association shall be to provide to courses of lectures on the history of religions. American Lectures on the History of Re THE under the auspices of the ligions are delivered of American Committee for Lectures on the History Religions.ANNOUNCEMENT. 2. for courses in the the purpose of instituting &quot. Philadelphia. be delivered in various cities. and others. in cities. or from from Institutions agreeing Local Boards organised where such co-operation is not possible. This Committee was organised in 1892. The terms of association under which the Committee New exists are as follows 1.popular somewhat after the style of the History of Religions. Chicago. 3. The Association shall be composed of delegates to co-operate. Brooklyn. York. Boston. to be delivered annually by the best various scholars of Europe and this country. such as Baltimore. These delegates Local Board one from each Institution or shall constitute themselves a .&quot. Hibbert Lectures in England.

from an historical point of view. may and perform such other functions be necessary. a Secretary.American Com mittee for Lectures on the History of 4. and a Treasurer. 9.x Announcement Council under the name of the &quot. Keligions. A course of lectures on some religion. All matters of local detail shall be left to the In stitutions or Local Boards. 6. assign the time for the lectures in each city. The Council shall elect out of its number a 5. The Council be charged with the selec tion of the lecturers. 10. as 8. in the different cities 7. Chairman. by this Association. . as well as polemics in the treatment of subjects. The lecturer shall be chosen by the Council at Itast ten months before the date fixed for the course of lectures. The lectures shall be delivered in the various cities between the months of September and June. or on j a subject germane to the study of religions shall be delivered annually. Polemical subjects. or at such intervals as may be found represented practicable. (b) shall have charge of the (a) shall (c) shall funds. under whose auspices the lectures are to be delivered. or phase of religion. shall be positively ex cluded.&quot.

Street. Morris Jastrow. F. . Boston. Prof. Mass Eev. Paul Haupt.. . Harper. New York Prof. Brooklyn Institute. the second half upon the publication of the lectures. Prof. Cambridge. Francis Brown. W. 225 West 99th Jr. 3 Divinity Avenue. Baltimore. R F. 248 South 23d Street. Meadville. The lecturer is not to deliver elsewhere any of is engaged by the with the sanction of the the lectures for which he Committee. Pa. Southworth. Theological Seminary.Announcement 11. Brooklyn. Chairman. C. Union Theological Seminary. One-half of the lecturer s compensation shall be and paid at the completion of the entire course. Street. as now constituted is as follows : Crawford H. Dr. Hooper. Md. New York. Prof. Mass. Pa. 7 Lowell . HL . The compensation to in each case by the the lecturer shall be fixed Council. Eichard Gottheil. Moore. Avenue. Prof. John P. George F. Treasurer. Prof. Peters. . 13. Philadelphia. except Committee. New York Prof. Secretary.. The Committee Prof. Columbia University. New York . 700 Park Avenue. 502 Fulton Street. Toy. 12. 14. Meadville . University of Chicago. xi The copyright of the lectures shall be the property of the Association. Prof. Chicago. . 2511 Madison . F.

Professor of the Philosophy and the New fit History of Eeligion in the Union Theological Seminary York. W. 1904-1905 Prof. The sixth course of lectures. LL. contained in the present volume. Eeligious Life after the Exile. was delivered by Eev.Jewish Religions of Primitive Peoples. Prof.. 299 Lawrence Street. T. Conn. K Cheyne. W. M. by study and practical experience. LL. The Ee ligion of the Ancient Egyptians. Prof. to Or dained a Presbyterian minister in 1877.xii Announcement E. Finally. 1896-1897 Prof. Rhys-Davids. The lectures in the course of American Lectures on the History of Keligions and the titles of their volumes are as follows : 1894-1895 Prof. D. Daniel G.D. he was appointed Professor of Philosophy and . Knox has had a most unusual opportunity. both himself to lecture on the religions of Japan. in the year 1886. D. Ph.D. Hopkins. Buddhism.. Georg Steindorfi. Prof. George William Knox.D. 1898-1899 Prof. Karl Budde. 1897-1898 Kev. T.D. New Haven.D.D. D.D. Eeligion of Is rael to the Exile. Brinton. he was for many years engaged in missionary work in Japan.D.. first in preaching and later as Professor of Homiletics in the Union Theological Seminary at Tokio. Ph.

. Philadelphia. he is also author View. and in in Union Seminary getics Theological 1899 to his present professorship in that institution. The the lectures in this course were delivered before . after filling 1ST. he was appointed Lecturer in 1897. for missionary purposes. Outlines of Homiletics. The Basis of Christ the Son of God. published in &quot.Japanese Life in Town and Coun &quot. Direct and Fundamental Proofs of the Christian (1903). with Professors of &quot. 1903 he was the Nathaniel Taylor lecturer at Yale. on Apolo for five years.&quot. try (1904). New York. &quot. Ethics. &quot. The Spirit of the Orient (1906). Union Theological Seminary.&quot.&quot.A an author his works are. Baltimore Drexel Insti Yale University. In As &quot.A &quot.&quot. Meadville . Johns Hopkins University. (1893). System of Theology. the second place works in English: &quot. The of a and in Mystery of Life more advanced and more geoeral character published &quot. tute. New Haven.&quot. practical works Japanese : Brief &quot.Announcement xiii chair Ethics in the Imperial University of Japan. Arai-Hakuseki (1902)..Autobiography of Japanese Philosopher&quot. Jointly Brown and McGiffert. Religion&quot. Y. The &quot. &quot. in the first place. &quot. The Christian Point of published in 1902. Asiatic Society of Japan. Knox was vice-president in the years 1891-1893. both &quot. of which published by the Prof. a pastorate in the Presbyterian Church at Rye. &quot. which he held until his furlough when he refused a reappoint- ment Keturning to this country in 1893.

C. JOHN P. University of of Chicago. ) Committee on Publication. ) H. . . Theological Meadville . December. Brooklyn. MOKRIS JASTROW. Chicago Brooklyn Institute Arts and Sciences. TOY.xiv Announcement Seminary. PETERS. 1906.

to deal with the facts in detail. THE labours berlain. the gods. indeed. and superstitions of the I also found many of my own con anticipated and ably in supported. as. and Doctor Karl Florenz. Aston came into found in of it my hands. by Chamberlain and Aston. respectively.W. To my great pleasure. Esq. by Mr. the work entitled Shinto. therefore. are accessible through the distinguished Hall Cham Gr. most important sources for the study of primitive religion in Japan.. the Nihongi. ancient Japanese. The refer and the Nihongi are to the trans lations.SOURCES. I have therefore freely referred my notes to this book . and its developed of Sir Ernest Satow. I a most useful classification and description rites. the limits of these lectures would not permit I have referred in support of the statements in the text constantly to the Kojiki. It form Shinto. Prof. After ences to the Kojiki the text of these lectures had been completed. and the Revival of Pare Shinto. has been unnecessary. Aston. the Way of the Gods. clusions myths. Basil &quot.

The Early Institu tional Life of Japan. A. To this an exception must be made in the work of Prof. for the made accessible. and I feel myself under obligation to him. The sources are not yet of difficulty. whose book. is a scientific study of interest and importance. ments in the to students by its aid. in the Transactions of there are the Asiatic Society of Japan numerous articles of value.. Certain of the original scriptures on which Japanese Buddhism is based are translated in the series entitled The Sacred Books of the East. They are for the most part under the influence of certain presupposi tions which largely vitiate the value of their work. especially by the Eev. life-long My inde pendent studies beginnings of for its it. Lloyd. Japan led me only into the as I had neither time nor opportunity in thorough investigation. xxii. study of Buddhism in Japan The subject itself is one and would require for its elucidation the devotion of a competent scholar. K. Asakawa. I would recommend it who desire to know the facts of the primi tive religion of the Japanese without the labour of writers on Shinto perusing the Kojiki and Nihongi. in vol. In addition. It adds largely to our knowledge of the period of which it treats. Modern Japanese add little to our understanding of the subject.A. M. ..xvl Sources although I have not needed to modify the state text also.

In Confucianism I have been compelled to depend upon of my own studies. E. Besides.. S. may be consulted. Shinto.D. and elsewhere. Mr. entirely omitted in my brief the lectures given at Union Theological Seminary. Early Institutional Life of Japan. s A. B. E. = Transactions of the Asiatic Society ofJapan. but none of these is either comprehensive or critical. the Way of . Griffis. the Eev. S. emphasising some periods which are survey. I am not familiar with writings European or American scholars who have investi gated with any thoroughness the modern school of Confucianists who. Esq. and xxii. Aston volume. in vols. D. re For a somewhat more minute account of the ligions of Japan. A. the abbreviations used are as follows T. by volume entitled The Religions of Japan. : In the notes.Sources xvii and by James Troup. = Sacred Books of the East.^Asakawa s Shinto the Gods. I have made frequent reference to certain articles of my own published in the Trans actions of the Asiatic Society of Japan. have determined the direction of Chinese philosophical and ethical thought. published in a York. numerous brief statements have been pre pared by modem Japanese scholars.. xiv. New W. from the twelfth century of our era.

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not the spring of fear or of theory : off its definition : its development. i-io LECTURE Meaning of &quot.CONTENTS. and objects in nature sketch of its story: the Emperor Shinto supplanted by Buddhism the incarnate god : &quot. primitive the beginnings of knowledge. beliefs as to the state after death beginnings of philosophy. NATURAL RELIGION. Confucianism distinguished from the religion of Japan: the relations of doctrines. The conquering tribe : the beginning of the Empire : . and emotions: religion as natural and primary. PRIMITIVE BELIEFS AND RITES. INTRODUCTION. : GODS. social. . charms : purifications offerings prayers origin of tabu revelation : : : : : the religious consciousness n-44 LECTURE II.: : its attempted revival with corruption of Shinto its failure Shinto outline of the polemics and theology . ethical conditions in primitive Japan. of ethics. as &quot. of &quot. SHINTO. RELIGION AND DEVELOPMENT. as dependence : dances . introduction reasons for its of Chinese civilisation/: its slow progress Chinese political adoption its effects on the government : theory inapplicable to Japan/: its influence on politics and reasons religion sources and construction of the Ko-ji-ki for its writing : its artificial cosmogony its deities abstrac : : : tions. THE WAY OF THE NATURAL RELIGION. as the religion of the people as patriotism.: : : religion the definition of &M*i(god) power the most prom inent attribute the objects of worship religion and ethics : : : : : religion as reverence. Buddhism. I. PACK Religions Shinto. political. 45-79 Norito : : : : : xix . rites.

7&quot. ETHICS.. .. 138-169 . SALVATION BY FAITH. the feudal the essential principle its illustrations hara-kiri position of its defects : courage : . in deterioration.xx Contents LECTURE III. karma : ontology : essence jof Buddhism : -&Jgin_. the Sage.phi_losophy appen 80-113 LECTURE I/ . . nature. . IV. the . : present position and prospects of . BUDDHISM. CONFUCIANISM AS POLITY ETHICAL RELIGION. study. Buddhism.. . its wealth. : its participation in the feudal wars ben sects of the Pure Land/ missionary labours his ho: Amitabha and : vows the Shin sect and its teaching the failure of the law.pf supernatural : religion OTd its relation to dix a &quot. the : why adopted its con object of faith. the results of faith its participation in his tradiction of Buddha s. T &quot. | PAGE reasons for the adoption of Buddhism : : Contrasts to Shinto f its : triumphs and civilising effects : its artistic and . rites wars : Bushido and : preserved transformation of his system in Japan. SUPERNATURAL RELIGION. Ten-dai sect: theShin-gon sect ^the Zen sect) comparison of the two Vehicles impermanence7 transmigration. : relation of at the sexes : polemic against Bud . DEVELOPMENTS OF BUDDHISM. : AND Confucianism supplies formal ethics cius : his relation to tradition : and China the land of Confu to China his presupposi : tions his doctrines of : man. : Buddhism : its favour at court. intellectual power original : Buddhism and : its modifications the Great : er Vehicle popular deities a theory of development Bud . .~. woman dhism . teaching : spirit : the Nichiren sect . SUPERNATURAL RELIGION. dha becomes the absolute: comprehensiveness of Buddhism. eMftce~aiid.Buddhist epitaph. an attempt popular teaching. 114-137 LECTURE V. THE WORSHIP OF THE ABSOLUTE. virtues.

: the want of organisation: . the world view : the difficulty of attainment : its quietism : the &quot. the worship its a system of ethics tality Confucianism not merely doctrine of Heaven. ETHICAL RELIGION.return to : Confucius&quot. ancestor worship summary review and outlook. PAGE : attitude of Confucius towards Separation of ethics and religion of ancestors. - 170-196 *97 INDEX . immor gods. demons: prayer. CONFUCIANISM AS A WORLD-SYSTEM. its religious emotion .Contents xxi LECTURE VI. its theanthropic nature. its essence as : : the idealistic school. righteousness.

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INTRODUCTION.
The Development
"

of Religion in Japan.
was* proposed as the

r

1
J[

^HE

Religion of
of

Japan"

topic

these

lectures

by

the Committee

under whose auspices they are given, a topic which For one may askf What is suggests various questions.
the religion of Japan
?

Is

it

JShinto?

It only

can

claim to be a native product and to be^^epresentative^ It arose in therefore of the native genius. remotejm^
jiquitYj,

in the beginning of thejtimes
it

which we may

wasjnade the theoretical basis of the terjn_historical Vlmperial power, and, after an eclipse for a thousand years, in our own day it is,JheJQrjiLjn which the
national

_feeling

manifests

itself.

I

But, nevertheless^

tkg interest iiK^hintq^chiiefly archaeological, for to the

majority of the people
the

its

teaching^ is

unknown, while

Government has disclaimed

religious significance

for its rites
^

and has announced that they are a jnerely
ceremonials.
as our text?

form for

state

Or

gball

we take Buddhism
if

We may

well do so

we

consider influence in the past and

2

Introduction

actual possession in the

present.

ostlnmpQsipg struct uresjji,Juhe^ towns, and^villages,
its

in priests arejseen
its

every
its

street, it enrol
is

as

parishioners,

and

presence

as manifest

asjs

that_pf Christianity

among

ourselves.

\In

the

past^it.

brought civilisation to Japan andjts impress is profound on alHhe higher activities of life, while f OIL centuries
it

of the strongest menjnjiterature, held th&. allegiance Yet. it is ^essentially_a_ and in the state. in society,

foreignreligioj^ and ^though

rt

has beeiymodifiej) in

Japan

its

t^orough^exposition^ would^reo^ire^a descrip

tion otits origin

and career

in India and_Cb.ina.

r

Its

__scriptures for the greater part are inj^foreign tongue,

s~\ )

into the ver^Chinese, having never been translated nacular, and _ its_most common phrases are
^

_^SMff9 nounced Sanskrit^ not_ understood by jthe people. no meansjost^ yet its vitalityis by
orepver jtbough
T

it

no longer commands the assgnt of intelligent men, its and for three centuries __ influence hasjwaned jmtil *
-

- ___
we
x
it

and the lowly.

^
turn from the multitude to

Or, once more, shall

the highly critical minority and ask after the religion
of scholars
!

and gentlemen ?

but fortbree hundredjrgars

has

1

Confucianism in its_r^ligious_and philosophical forms. has influenced profoundly also the life of the people, ^^
""

I

Introduction
for the social_relation

iving

it

ideals

and forms

V

constituting the accepted _ethical system.

were to ask
"

after

the^ systernwhichjorjjggg,

bun-

dred years has
irTforming the Japan^wlTich

now

is,

one would

janswer,

tbTteacbings
*
.*-.

of iQonfucius as set forthjp
-

iaW.
/

.~

^~

f ucianism

Jd"in"the

never became the religion of the multitude, modern era its philosophy has given way

^>

^to

tbe learning of the West._ the religion of Japan is Already it is apparent that fact not expressed fully in any particular system, g.
clearer as

^ which becomes
)

we

discover tbajjQon^ofjbe

th^e"reii^M_hasjemainA^ur&
1

Buddhism to.qk_up^
anged

/

by the

process

;

ancMa^J^jnfj^

finaTIorjm imingia^]y^ u^d^r_5^^
influence nnqftjhftjp.aa direct because the indebMngss entered was repudiated. But still more, the three have little discrimina into the religious consciousness with
tion,

t

the

to Buddhism^wben people being.ffon finally native gods were incarnations
it

hfBuddha, so that

JTT^e
that

became easyjor a man to^onour ^nd jbe nationaljiiyinities. Go^nfucius^Buddba,
it is

For, fortunately,

characteristic of

human

nature

men may j^brace^imulfenfiQusly

antagonistic

systems withoutL sugerin^fromjheir divergence.

Thus

4

Introduction

the_religion ofjtbe_japaDese is nojtjx^be

found by a

V

stud^of^tbe systems,jisivenin sacredjoo^^for it is at once more and less than they.

the

Thus we

distinguish religion from religions,
"

andjwe

must seek the

religion of

"

Japan

neither in

Buddh
though

ism, nor in Shinto, nor yet in Confucianism,
T

these afford our material for study and without

them

we cannot know it. Let us attempt, then, to indicate the meaning we shall attach to the term. Here we are at once on debated ground. The term belongs to the long list of common words which everyonejonderstands, but which no one can define.
writer oi^l^ejpJylojspjDl^^

Every

none satisfies any other. In so long a one would suppose that all tastes could be satis fied, but since it is better to be out of the world than
descrjptioji^but^
list

out of the fashion^ I, tog, shall accept none of those If it offered, ^butjshall rnj^g_j^^fiiiiticur-Qf my own.
helps no one
else, it will at leastjindicate

the sense in

which the word

religion will be used in these lectures.

Negatively, then, Jjie__gtudy of jreligionk not ex hausted by thg_mvj3gtigation of rites_jind^jggmas. These are its manifestation and its explanation, but

not

itself.

We
which

are all familiar with the distinction
is lifeless,

:

we know an orthodoxy which
ritualism
is

and a formal

cold and_hollow, while, on the

other hand,

we sometimes

recognise a_radiant

iety

too far. For ^ ings which.] But how seldom system^bhe is cisely set wholly true! JTbeology does^ot pre forth the real object of adoration. ^^*^_^ - neither versed in doctrine nor obseryant of religion essentially has to do with the feel ^ ** _____ . indeed. nor is it in precise hajcmiH]yj$sitkJie-_n^ or less successfully to overcome^the In divergence. J through the_notion of their after all life has departed inherent_sacrednesji_ long from them. leave for their being. Especially is theology subject to such changes. for rites and theology will are vary from many causes quite disconnected with the emotions. in unstable equilibrium. are the ultimate factors^in our consciousness.Introduction 5 s^ writes. and ritesjire sometimes instituted TQ- J because of^f eelings (iuite_jiistinguishable from the ligious. extreme instances jt may bejnecessary to overthro The thre theology jind ceremonial tc^ save religion.reserYed But. as if we must not carry our separation man were divided into separate faculties. and need no explanation and ask no In a rough fashion we have is already laid out our subject: religion or.gt. ? jn our emotions. . and_J&amp. in a true threeanTm harmony. . manifestly. is rites manifestjmd i V excite them and theology at once their . in our feelings. through coj^roversies^and alterations in the general world view . and Jibe delimitation of religion thus their object explanation thus. more precisely.

making it im possible to preserve precisely the identical religion under varying forms. intellectual or emotional^for religion. ourselves religious when we our are merely stock or sympathetic. a response to our environment as truly fact that religion is not common naturalas_js_ieason. for the if whole ultimately affect and. Further. too. conflict^ between theology and with possibly disastrous effects both. Man reacts upon his environ ment instinctively. or repeat these commonplaces to emphasise the something apart. we for resist. thejre^ejQues__a science. but certain way. so it be a real change and not So. It is of our nature. the part. merely a difference in words and propositions. Hence we are not to look for the . we cannot keep ordinary will our of theology separate from knowledge. the other.6 Introduction no change in which does not for there is aff eoQiis his theology emotions. we (^religious from jmr other feelings too sbarply^as w&Jiave^ no separate apparatus. &quot.We the one. Finally. the rj^es_jnjisjb_impart their effect? and with their changes our consciousness will change. in and we attempt to set them forth our science. needing no particular defence or ex planation. and these reactions are revealed in his consciousness. it is ourselves functioning in a Hence it is not surprising that we often suppose aesthetic.

and the description of the feelings is the descjjption^of * / religion. and. our response instinctively in_our ^ f o urjeny ironmenl is the response ofjnan s Objectively.P. is jto its cause.iic__phenomena and^the mysteries_o .nie. however.nor as t. nor all of them. nor of fear. m)r_J.V&amp. \ of_emption.Introduction not the origin cause: it is result of ignorance. and the history of thought is the story of failures. sight . but none of them. and. but ideally. The two. is are intimately inter v woven. ghosts ar^ causes . as we have seen. some of them are attempted ex planations of the objects of religion. and I . nor in theories of the unity of man and the world and the conception of the all-pervading Infinite \ Some of these are associated with some forms of religion. of theology ^thehistory the story of alas I man s at- temt^fter_such _agreement. religion nature to certain stimuli. subjectively.rroSj^ nor in especial insight. as in second lij^n^&amp.gt. . constitute peat. shoiiTd__be_|n^ complete accord . is of his failures^ of science true of all human effort^ and philosophy no jes^Jjian of theology^ For reason is of nature. though through failures ajsojpf success. then.gt. let_me_renature as men. That.(and This. nor from our desire to ofjjie_setises r know from special errors in the arjpearar^ of. magic anjmisni^and ^spiritism . it is a state The definition of the object is theology.

is for much and which termed science is is equally theology.&quot. &amp.&quot. so that it cannot be understood if be considered separately and apart. worth. his peculiarities of mental structure.&quot. rated. and of philosophy theology science. his associations. I am not seeking analogies from biology or other of . he deteriorates^ or His environment. all in fluence his religion. what it is &quot. The two cannot be widely separated. changes likewise.&quot.gt. and.* &quot. without special immunity or privi is lege.&quot. so largely compounded But as these may not be too widely sepa man must be considered throughout as one.&quot. jion and self-devotion from derjendej^ge conqe^offerings and petitions. and without attempting here forth for x***&quot. and religion is simply he it functioning in a certain way.&quot. develops. we it repeat. Let &quot. . his special stock of information. and as our feelings correspondingly are u using the term ennobled* Thus.&quot. his ^aptitudes. For all these and more constitute himself. in development.&quot. as it.f jyur d^ende^g^while_rites jstimulate devotion and obtain the granting of our petitions. TEeology sets our forth^the^objecj^f .8 Introduction theology only one manifestation of this instinct afterknowledge. too. His religion is merely he. Now religion develops as a higher object takes the place of a lower.V to justify my statement. put &quot.Our feeljjigs-aff awa QiLffej^reneeJand of de- pendence_constitute religion.v me bedogmatic.

^ and practices of the Japanese. as seems to be the all but universal law of historical progress.. We would justify the term &quot. and the^jKrere^Jr^^ caused j)y contact with foreign peoples^and^ civilisa tions. x Wf P ^l^l & /-.Introduction 9 the natural sciences. *nf) continuous and progressive change. 8. therefore.i^nns of resident forces_&quot. Evolution and Its Relation to Religious Thought. to facts by collecting V hitherto unknown specimens of the religious beliefs. l our treatment is not included in it. take Prof^ Joseph Le Conte s is If for it we may statement-f-&quot. de velopment use it only on the most general grounds. p. But neither does development as here used come under the general definition of evolution. and we because beneath the changing forms we seem to be able to_Jrace_an_ex2ansion and ennobling of^the religious consciousness^ The~purpose of these lectures add to our knowledge of the is not. and the study of history is Man s not aided by transferring alien formulae to its sphere. &quot. nor even to set forth the systems which successively have expressed Joseph Le Conte. Evolution V certainJaws. For the developA ~^ ^f &quot. biological development was substantially complete before the period in which our investigation begins. 1 . according to^ then ^Y &quot.-Sft^ ment of religionjnjjapan was neither continuous nor Its advances were in periods forces^ B^resldent widely separated.

but to show how an(} the j reli- giaus_Jeeljjggs_. the ages they have changed and pro .l^ now n t ne course of gressed.io the nation Introduction s faith.

formation. men may be our contemporaries. has been studied history of the Japanese sufficiently for our purpose.&quot.LECTURE L Primitive Beliefs and Rites. is lost in the dimness of millenniums. 11. &quot. .&quot. They are far from being the earliest ^Brinton s Religions of Primitive Peoples. centuries.thagarliest usedjiot of absolute beginnings a given race ra.gt.tribe of which we have trusty in of_ &quot. N &quot. times within the compass ofjifteen hundred years at the and for twelve years we ^aye written longest. but witbj^evdoE5MmLfe^3J^5SSl? jiundred &amp. N but only of &quot. donot&amp. p.&quot. For the beginning is well down in the Christian when the Japanese were primitive.It has reference to a state of culture so that primitive rather than to time.^ &quot. Natural Religion. records. Work For we enough remains to tax the but the outlines are clear before deal with an antiquity which us. a word &quot.lt.

foreign elements. In jthe third or fourth century o^our_era. to men Hundreds of generations have toiled produce even their low estate of culture. collected in tiny ham the most part by the banks of rivers and on the sea-coast.12 Religion in Japan or resembling them. we may imagine ourselves in the land which in the future was Excepting the natural features of the landscape.* the remainder being aborigines. Whence the Japanese came we do not certainly know. Around the villages were the signs of rude agricul ture with rice as the principal crop. as we should expect. p. lets for The^people lived in huts. had been subdued. Only the centre still of the main island. with portions of the west and south-west.as_j-et_r_eyeals. be called Japan.temples. nor recognise. Commerce was 1 Brinton s Religions of Primitive Peoples. . nor what strains of blood have mingled to produce them. 11. nor when they reached their land. hunting and fishing being the chief occupations. there was little which we should There were neither_c_itigs.. with in the possession of the whom was carried on constant warfare. to art. then.&quot. the result of contacts long forgotten with other peoples. nojr . \A11 their mi grations had passed from memory long before the times is when they had reached the state of culture^which the earliest soholarshift. But even in this earliest stage it is possible to detect.

Thus in an early &quot. with families in differ ent places.&quot. have such wjyes as he pleased.p.Thou.horde. as sailors have been known to have their riage A establishments in various ports. and money unmentioned iron instruments were in use. But as for me. regarded as 2 necessary. and clothing was varied and ornamented.. It was simply the acknowledgment isting. Marriage was neither by capture nor was the consent of the parents nor by purchase. iv. of a relationship already secretly open ex nor for ages was the distinction between mar husband might and concubinage made definite. . alas ! I have no lines man except thee ! ! In such a society family were not closely regarded.Primitive Beliefs and Rites 13 unknown. half-sisters. &quot.xl. 2 K. \For the family was only &quot. so that marriagejwitb._and Cf.i. a wife like the young herbs. * The community was just emerging from the condition and the most named by sociologists the combinations were through community of important warfare or of occupation.. K. partially organised. . Chamberlain s Introd. probably hast on the various island headlands that thou seest. were 1 common and regarded as proper. 3 K. legend the goddess says to her husband: my dear Master of the Great Land. sometimes even with full sisters in the divine age.. indeed. being a man.. and on every beach headland that thou lookest on.xxv.

The legendary history recounts the high position of of woman long after. &quot. and the result was disaster. 1 man might marry The ma and the triarchal state of society was just passing away.. Thus on the memorable occasion when the two deities who be gat the islands of the Empire went a-courting. 1-2.~*K. and occasionally neither SisterSj^o^jwere eligible. Izanagl. the Empress^Jmgo^ holds high place in the the heavens. p. i. p. ii. ii. pp. among the legends are stories showing why man should have the precedence. So the courtship was begun anew and when the two met again the secpndjime.. 212. and indicating clearly the knowledge of a different condition of things. vested and later. 22: for the marriage of a niece. p. p. 195-196. i. xxxviii. dess Izanami spoke first.. pp. Preferably the elder son succeeded.. &quot... but often the younger supplanted him. and of refusal N. Indeed the succession _to the jthrone was far from orderly down to the time of the writing of our sources. and struggles for the throne indicate that the cared for the dignity. ! K. For an instance of choice see N.. story.In fact sister terms and ideas/ K. the god^spokejirst and all was well. 145. ... ii. xiii. 1.. of an aunt.. ~lisakawa. 52-5~6~ Seealsol^. pp. is^a goddess and she inher descendants with the government of Japan. . the remarks of Prof. the god :. for the~great theSun.* andjwif e were convertible JThe marriage with half^ sisters lasted into historic times but cf. and nephews.14 a Religion in Japan his aunt or his niece.clxvi.

Names derived from occupations and offices and of a 5 quasi-patriarchal character were applied to various groups or ranks. xvi-xvii. combinations which 1 S 8 A.* At a far later period the complaint was heard that there were lage and district their men in every vil 4 who acknowledged no authority but own and who resisted all centralised power. established. i. in the de velopment of the society from the horde... The rule of and there are traces of conferences 3 none was thoroughly where Certain families matters of importance were discussed. by kindred interests and occupations. p. Ixii. pp. introd.Primitive Beliefs and Rites 1 15 still more remote claimants were not unknown. JT. as we have noticed. 63. the family so was the state. other combinations precede the family. K. A.lxxv. his less in control. Tribe fought__aainst and group against group. 56-57. pp. formed were more or subjection.. the law of the stronger and the more am bitious prevailing.lxiii. 4 * K. Note 4. K. and the people were in call The common man could servants nothing own. and individual against individual. or groups.. Trans... it As was tribe had neither unity nor self -consciousness.. For. et passim. .. and were sometimes entombed N with their dead masters. For the family name its bad not attained consistency and without a self-consciousness was not clearly established.

for our purpose is not ancient Japan excepting in so far as its social status. 4 K. 1 The ethical standards ill-defined. Punishments were arbitrary and tion 4 cruel. Shinto. for justice was not yet born. xxxiii. introd.. c/. Aston. females. live chiefs of companies. . &quot. is to describe . metal workers...&quot..necessary to determine 1 Thus when the Sun-goddess sent the con^uefthejarth. shield-makers. as hereditary chiefs of government corporations 9 hatters.shocking obscenity. were the rules of propriety rigid. tree-fibre workers Of. et seq. jewellers.. In speech there was a naivete which in more sophisticated times would be &quot.&quot. But we cannot dwell on this subject. K. jn his to &quot. are enumerated which belong to the most 8 savage communities. nor. Long crimes after. 81. In tKe~N..16 Religion in Japan correspond roughly to the guilds and societies of civilised men. xli. . when Chinese notions were introduced. and in like manner much went without notice or rebuke which in developed com munities would be considered abhorrently criminal. i. pp. p. 242-243. 59. without long-established usage. Trans. and retribu was wrath excited by personal offences. As the lines were of course primitive and of the organism were far from rigid. they are put down i. the conscience could not well distinguish between mine and thine. p. August Grand-child descenThe was accompanied by K.xcvii. p.&quot. A.. Two of these were &quot.

though here the legends are appear like the earth. 4 and pleasant abodes. the means of access. hole_m_its bottom^} and objects which In the fell from_it_are still found _up5n__the_^arth. Nor its is the sea too. and Hades^not far . and any one in the province ofJTangOj may see its &amp. Hades is the place of corruption. Xfor the three form a part of the same world. are fields find. may also with cottages and palaces. gather in the and Hades. the little circle of earth with theblu^glain^pf^ Heaven above. 9 In the Izanagi legend. * The distances were_small. itself essen-^ plains different. and meadows and tially rivers._ beneath. as j/( rock. dry beds of men. as Heaven f had been rejtched^bv^an arrow^ which. The way to Hades could be pointed by a mighty please.. all alike you like Heaven isCO like the earth. the river for consultation . . for in depths. their length. if one only could as happy individuals have found. though the entrance was blocked natural.lt. shot from the Y earth.Primitive Beliefs and Rites 1 7 Knowledge was correspondingly rude. and the gods._ ^fragments still and measure out. connected by a bridge were Divine made a Age_the_two ! which. 3 2 conflicting. alas has fallejidown. or supernatural. Only the im mediate vicinity was known.

but just as on earth ejrulership fluctuates. . below. neath the sea arjjjillj^ji_^indj _and one indifferently in any.. a rock fled before a man.. stuck her . while K.. i. a woman.. See the whole story of Yamato-dake. the sun was at once the orb of day and a goddess who could be . men. so is there their inhabitants. without any question being raised as to her self-consciousness during the metamorphosis.. i. but gods.Jiis. for nothing was natural.in. the being vague.. is it n neither there permanence. she resumed her natural form. like the earthly relationships. andjiemons^ differ not is not different in virtue in nature is from the great deity of Hades. Nothing was A god picked up unnatural.hajr. and then. xc. 25 31. See A. K. ii. above and beneath.. pp. taking her out again. As Heaven. N.p. p. where she became his comb.. xviii. thus the ruler of Heaven nor&quot. 189 ff. _and the jworld be Nor within gories.1 8 Religion in Japan these narrow limits are there fixed cate earth JL Hades. beasts L birds r and serpents acted and spake as men.! 3 \ ^Crocodiles or sea monsters j)ecame women. and men 4 3 became birds. Indeed. so stories.i. and contradictory. Fishes. anything might be anything else as well as itself. may abide no real difference in at all. enticed from retiracy ! by an appeal to her vanity.xlii.. uncertain. 8 K.

32. . Then the wife sends forth thunder-gods. / When / _ Izanami-no-Mikami died.. we may be permitted He recognised no differences in himself. he simply disappeared. she went toJIades. whither her husband followed her. \ distinctions between the possible and the impossible wanting. with It all was a the storm were beings jwho_acted_like fairy world taken as matter of fact. after giving birth to fire.. and grapes. against her earnest ^living. See also Shinto. and he was not bipartite. he looks upon her and sees her to be a mass of protest corruption. which turns she_stops again to pull and eat them. but to fleeing. but he threatens them with his sword and 1 N. Man was substance. kin to if things in feelings. powers. he Finding her. or. Even the distinction between mind. if When he went to Hades. i. which tempt her and she stops to eat As she again pursues.) | and vengeance. &quot.Primitive Beliefs and Rites 19 the moon and 1 men. p. which turns into bamboo shoots. but still conscious and capable of anger she dead. J?or_she orders the ugly female of Hades to pursue him . he throws down his comb. as we have all noticed in the instances given. which she had begotten in her filth . and so abstract a word. it was bodily and in as under standable a fashion as a trip to any remote shore. he died. pp. he casts down his head-dress.and ma tterjwas unobserved.

How. N. and only some thing extraordinary which provokes the query. he to purify himself and she to become the great deity of Hades.. 1 9 8 K. if neglected. it is seeing familiar objects disappear.. and the offer show a purpose to provide for wants as material as those of earth. safe and after mutual challenges they separate. save when some marvel arouses the imagination.2O defeats Religion in Japan them by pelting them with peaches. but some seem simply to disap Man is accustomed to\ pear. over it. 92 Jf. the funeral rites indicate a belief in ja continued existence after death for ings some at least.. et passim. pp. Cf. which from he blocks with a great rock. xxiii. pp. who die go thither.. 54 ff. i. alsoK... See Mr. the living might suffer from their vengeance. Aston s excellent notes and discussion. pp. Evidently there was a vague belief that the dead were in a measure dependent living. he divorces When her. 1 But Hades has all is not always this place of terror. farther pursuit.ix. i.: ever.. .i. men and deities alike. they may depart. What has become of it? So is it with deities and men. catching him just as he passes the Even Pass of Hades.. The story is relatively late in origin. Finally Izanami arouses_ herself and comes after him. and no curiosity be aroused. on the and that. Shinto. for 3 it Nor do its pleasant abodes and peaceful plains. Shinto. 24 ff.

1 Or as flies swarm in filth.Primitive Beliefs and Rites 2 1 Akin to his powers of man s powers of reasoning. the fertile the sun. the thunder. untrained.. for As explains the unknown by the known. Thus. all soil. As lowly forms of life continue and * K. i. Umashi-ashi-kabi-hiko-jiwhich came the no-kami and Ame-no-toko-toch^no-kami. so came all things into existence. so are his questionings beginnings of philosophy. and from the blood which dripped from his sword when he slew his 3 his wife died. .. See also K.. something sprouted first deities. like the child s. \ were born alike in the corruption of Izanami s de caying body. the stars. viii. the plains.gt. the the Whence come hills. the winds. To these man ever things around us swarm and sprout and are begotten. things. the moon. and the myriads rounded whence of beings by which we they? are sur and what are queries the answers are on the surface. And through whose birth thus maggots and thunder-gods son. but As his undiscriminating observations of the world around him are the begin nings of descriptive science. observation are primitive The faculty is there. the seas. so did jgods appear f rqm_the filth_which ^Izanagi washed from his face and J&amp. xvii. i.ody when he came 2 froni Hades. when once the earth from wasjike^flpating oil..

condition that he should take likewise her cess-enduring-as-the-rocks . creation creature.22 Religion in Japan multiply by division.With these questions as to the beginnings of gods : and things are joined other queries Why.* from the &quot. Take-haya-susa-no-o^Mikoto. v. once upon a time. pp. and the mischievous nose. i. so are the islands and deities begotten. Blossomingbrilliantly-like-the-flowers-of-tiie-trees by name. See Shinto. 1 The method of does not effect the rank or kind of the Thus the islands of the Empire are begotten by the their divine parents. was washed from the eye when he fled which filled Izanagi s right from Hades. are ? the offspring of the Imperial line so short-lived Be cause. Vide Shinto. born from the left eye.. Sun-goddess. sub voce . So was the moon deity. who is mightiest of the host of ImjDeria^ line. PjhaJJic_worship_ has left its mark indelibly upon this early faith. JBuckle^ s Phallicism in Japan. met and loved a beautiful maiden. so may gods be formed. . for example. as men and animals beget their offspring. once more. he could not abide the 1 K. Heaven. who was also an em peror. But her father consented only on sister. Or. a deity. but ill though the emperor looks of Princess-en- agreed. * He most probably is the Rain-god. and the ancestress of and the founder filth of the Empire.. also Griffis s The Religions of Japan. The mysteries of procreation commanded a large share of attention. 136 ff. sub voce . but the. whom Prin- he wished to marry.

i. in Suga_untiljthis^ay.. K... 1 xix.. &amp. and therefore the name a more Or again. mountains and seas suggest questions and find ready answers.. &quot.gt. proving the strange or unusual or marvellous which excites primitive curiosity. and thus mythology grows up. But nothing is so prolific in arousing curiosity as words and names. Such answered with a mythology springs not from a single root. the Suga? Because when the god Susa-np-pno-Mikoto was seeking rest. has the Beche-de-Mer so trivial fashion. The folk etymologies are very numerous. quickly satisfied. he came hither and cried &quot. for 1 it is offspring of th K. . 1 and so his offspring are of nature all as fragile The phenomena storm and earthquake. nor from a misunder standing of names and words. giving nature myths. i.. f place called Why is. man s and leads to the question Why ?. the wonders we see explained by wonders. K. it is not formed solely from a desire to explain the processes of nature. xxxvi. nor from any single source. he is sue the inquiry. tion. as the flowers. and that any answer to the question will suffice. Best of all Quick to ques and shows no desire to pur is it if a question can be story.Primitive Beliefs and Rites 23 during-as-the-rocks. why is called strange a mouth ? * The ancient books contain scores that it is of these instances. i.. Sugasugashi yof that place still (I am refreshed).

&quot. His father bestows on him a commission to subdue the East.&quot. p. of the mythical age of the primitive poetry of war 41 Ho now is the time. he begins_his careerby murdering his elder brother. until perhaps they mingle with the nature myths and none can separate thenceforth the diverse elements. all this are 1 With Dead heroes gather to themselves varied stories of brave men and of great deeds.. i. ! ! J My boys! Even now My boys &quot. and he rid of him. save this only that mythology Ja-4he primitive manifestation of man s in quisitive response to the world around. illustrates . the beginning knowledge which philosophy and science. and then.. the legends growing more and more wonderful in the repetition. and afterwards a third. sent by his father who was alarmed by his ferocity. war cries and love songs. re ligious. I N.24 Religion in Japan his ready contentment man and with a tale of the wonderful. 1 A and who desired to be In all the poems of the KojiTd not one can be called &quot. The following. of the shall ultimately become his dimly remembered tales of the past and snatches of verse. Thus all theories fail. .Jimmu. Such is the story of Yamato-dake. 124. conqueror of the East younger son. he slays two mighty men by a stratagem. Ho now is the time Ha Ha Psha Even now : ! ! &quot.

. that primitive delighted in if it man. aunt and accompanied by the angry sea-god. i_ Or again. how should one distinguish between history and romance ? Indeed who cared for prosaic matter of fact. many adventures he returns. or why should it be remembered ? 1 N. i. pp. 224 ff.. originating none knows whence nor how. . after who quiets the stormy sea by casting herself overboard. his purpose accomplished. mingled with aimlessly save nature myths. cribe her victory to her of her and different accounts as own 2 unborn son is whom prowess. et seq. begins. like his enlightened descendants. and continues such with temples innumerable in his honour. In after years the son be to this comes the God of War. 189 ff. K.. K.Primitive Beliefs and Rites 25 his starts forth aided by potent charms bestowed by his wife. as children make the flesh creep with ghostly stories in the dark. ii.. strange stories of the day Thus history dim past.. In a world which as yet knew no distinction between man and beast. xcv et seq. ii. Ixxix. and aimlessly repeated and amplified. the Em- press Jingo conquers Korea. which receives divine honours. Nor is the tale worse liked contain an element of horror. but stricken with is a fatal disease he dies and transformed into a white 1 bird. pp.. an offering to At last. or man and God. good stories. i. 8 N. or to the might she carries in her womb till the conquest completed.. where matter and spirit were not separate categories..

25 ff. nor the thought of sin or of redemption. and surely nothing of its opposite pantheism. tinguished and forgotten Only with the stories are the beginnings too of poetry. though See the discussion of it is true one in Shinto. The in the text refers to the earliest period only. and all the rest sinks speedily into an undis past. The remark * Some of the earlier legends have to do with the contrasts of light and darkness. not the faintest trace of monotheism. the simple songs of love and war which are readily remembered. pp. but. of the soul going into the West. definite doctrine there is none of There is nothing of a creator. 1 much as the there is More remarkable still. nor so notion of a soul. &quot. the absence of myths the race common to the greater portion of of a deluge. all these we have discussed. so the in As marvellous men s deeds is remembered and re counted. of science. .26 Religion in Japan the marvellous in nature excites curiosity. but not with the succession of morning and evening. there has been no hint of theology or religion.spiritism&quot. of is the stately drama of the heavens which fresh every morning and new every evening. of poetry. nor any men tion of a future state of rewards and punishments. But in all this beginnings of history where pray do we find religion ? The and of romance. of philosophy. notion of a distinction between soul and body is seen slowly developing in our sources. save in certain titles used. Indeed if by theology we mean it.

god meets us everywhere. and the powers of nature are as &quot. so are the greater themes of religious literature. be religion or religion be not at all and yet we may not miss the object of our search. a layman^ witji certain added There_is_np trace jin our sources of the head of the JamUy as^priest a very significan^omission. The term 1 The priesthood in Shinto has never beenjccjapletely The__priest. There is as yet no ancestor worship. and no con sciousness of sin. for there is no wrestling with the problem of evil. notwithstanding the assertions of certain writers religion of the Japanese. differ entiated. Religious gui Ids are mentioned in the Nihong *uTtne last part oTthe~sixthTcentury. Mani festly the religion. &quot. 577~AJX . But themes of mythology are wanting. in almost every name and title. upon the primitive How indeed could there be any ancestor worship when the family was only in the forming and when family names were unknown ? We need not add that there was no priest and only the be ginning of priestcraft in a knowledge of the magic arts * which control nature. js essentially ftmctions for religious occasions. as all else at the beginning. for all which we have reviewed may be placed under our category. as the be ginning not of religion but of practical science. and no felt need of redemption. is primitive and our categories all may be interchanged and .Primitive Beliefs and Rites 27 is as these greater reminded of other mythologies on every page. and this again. The men are as divine as are the heavenly rulers.

the we have : seen. was not found. seas Eminent^ does not mean solely worthy of honour. save in one doubt ful instance. plants and trees. too. Among human beings . born a late.&quot. He writes. summing up The word kami applied to all the kami of lieaven jmd earth who_are mentioned in the ancient records. men. here are none of the ordinary distinctions.&quot. but is applied also to the kamiwho aj^J^J:e_drea^ evil taracter or miraculous nature. But with all allowances for an apologetic writer. and mountains. thousand years too as fairly is we may the case. or deserve to be revered and worshipped and dreaded^ are called kami. as denned by the greatest Japanese writer on Shinto. and is engaged in the im possible task of turning history back upon itself. human beings. twelve hundred years after the composition of our sources. for. for Thus.Further. to repeat. not only But to resume the quotation &quot. good. In passing we may note that this dis spirits is tinction between the kami and their not found in our sources for the earliest period. as well as to their spirits which reside in the temples where they are worshipped. tion. or distinguished by great deeds. it is true. as In primitive Japan. kami. but also birds. and that it is the outcome of later reflec distinction. in the nineteenth century.28 Religion in Japan as the human &quot. god. we may take the term illustration. accept his definition &quot. other things whatsoever which possess powers of an extraordinary and eminent character. and all beasts.

S. for they dragons. tojthe p^riod_jn_which_ they jexisted. department. Besides human The /^ beings. stamps.. an error. 1 The kami of the Divine Age were mostly human beings yet resemble J^am^7an3 that is why we give that name 2. 2 / Revival of Pure Shinto. iii. ^. While same title further our author goes on to say that the to the wolf. Appendix. some who are revered the whole empire. rocks. How &&amp.Primitive Beliefs and Rites 29 are atjhe_same_time kami are the successive . . tojpeaches. far is &quot. so that the word may even now be applied &quot. and leaves of plants. the thunder is callejd sounding god. but for the most part of historic . T.. pp.rgjiot of thejige^of the rocks. see Hepburn s dictionary. and those whose sphere is limited to a single province.&quot. whojin ancient poetry are called distant_god8\ on account of their being far removed from ordinary \ who by men. village. goblinsTang^jhe are eminentlylnTrlicjulous and dreadful creatures. 43-43. kami &quot. jewels. JThiais. waifused directly of the particular sea or mountain oiHthe sea on account of its depth and the^dinTcuTty^bf 2 crossing it. or family.Kami^ is simply^hat__wh[ch_is belong to it above us. A.Mi-/ kadog.&quot.^ThfisfUmman deities&quot. of the mountain because of its loftiness. the tiger. trees.times.gt. . as well as many other men. See p.*^?) voce. was applied but the term It wa^n^a^sp^itjwhich was meant. from the meaning we ascribe to an(^ now ^ tt ^ e ! does that whichjwas attributed to Him &quot. . 31 below. &quot.. - fox are also kami.

30 | Religion in Japan to the Government and to all superior objects which matter if I excite the feelings of awe and reverence. Not knowing what Grateful tears he it is weeps. * by and by. in the Shundai Zateuwa. pt.. A Japanese verse. tility its_ ways of reproduction.. i. A. are its fer the marvels^pf nature. is Tcami. It is apparent why all in these sources is religious. T. the f j II / [ Of several templesjn^ipdern Japanjt is noted thatthe god Acts xvii. its awe-inspiring mountains and seas and heavenly bodies and sky. contains the &quot. j and. 23. The viersel?quote3 worshjppedjsunknown i cf. written long after these primitive times.. xx. so here with As in science we find the beginnings |of_eligipn_ which. 52. in fact the marvellous in nature and in and all in legend. happily. and tie. arise within it No us L i what it is nor wby_thesejeelings only \/ man ru bowsjbef ore jitjind regards as high above him. p. They record only man._ its processes^ jts_ powers. it may be The found.. are connected with jthe_same sacred first loqkjwith respect^ upon man s these simple folks we questionings. * . objects of worship^jhen^in the beginning. shall rear splendid^rnj)le^.search aJtjej^e^ELdnite jandjhe^tgrnaljf._organise^great priesthoods.&quot. and all calHorth^the same emotion. S.

&quot. &quot. ^yosjo^UijiV^r* J*hips \ no^hostlxwQrld.orship.gt. and the divine embraces in its category all that impresses the untrained imagination and excites or fear. for his gods are beforehand with him. of the goddess. 70 Shin-tai. l Shin-tai. He needs no idol. me mento. . . 83. ff. jSee Shinto^ under i. birds. which goddess. ful. and afterwards taken fpT aj* concrete token of her^ presence. 36. ._ When he begins it to formulate his thought and to commit v religion. divine. and to it he apart Qf_J^ig. Shinto.god-body. xvi. . one is a sword.Primitive Beliefs and Rites 3 1 trees. Much later are added heroes and kings. &quot. mirror_was the &quot. 2 An analysis of a list of Greater Cf. K. 1 it to reverence 8 N. . reptiles. / all alike mysterious.^ herself. ?&amp. Shrines jpreparedjn_the tenth century yields the following results Of the gods comprisedTin it7 seventeen are nature : deities. great fishes. then is Or if some god withdraw he may have a of. &amp. It The was an offering made to her.Sun-*! &quot.lt. i.as whelming testimony to the nature of the w. and the repro wonder connected with our weal or woe. his presence._but the nature _of which hejs_ and_sings. pp. to_writmg T it is still the centre of his consciously and formally.Jie^speaks offers_gifts. beasts. symbol if it were/ and which he worships \9 The record of the early gods gives over-) the^. . like_jhe_mirror. ductive powers of man. p. and thus jwe can sum human being it up i^ the statement that all_that_js wonderful is God. which probably represented a nature . for they re^r^s^n^nMu^ejjwith^ scarcely^ a amongjthem all.

chap. and.&quot. &quot. civilised Thus art.ence and seeks it. two are more or less legendary deceased Mikados.&quot. and rejoices in the emotions forth. long after Shinto had become a theory of state. and architecture. one is the deified type and supposed ancestor of a priestly corpora the ancestor of an empress. tive man yearn after the gods. change this yearning into opposite. and one a deceased Seethe list given under Nature Deities. that he may arouse does primi these great emotions. that its some gods are terrible all. man longs for the mystery of danger. ^Sp^asJSomer^says.Qt. gods constitute the wonderful in nature. For the emotions are at once desirable and ennobling. statesman. one is &quot. and he finds religious joy in their_^re^. art. besides.32 But Religion in Japan fear is_secondary. deified individual men. oppojsed to him. and counts labour and cost not too great that he may stand in its presence. nor does the fact &quot.&quot. taking infinite pains in music. ethical dis Does not nature cernment does not apply to them. after the evil powers are excep tional. tion. 177. As Manifestly there are yet no moral distinctions. Thegods_arejg. Note that the list is of the tenth century. bring forth tigers and venomous serpents? Do not earthquakes and storms come equally with sunshine and quietness and fertility ? Are not good men and bad born into the world. Man is in sympathy with it calls the divine world. and character.. .&quot. None of the Dii Majores of the more ancient Shinto are viii. and have we not to deal with deity. p. for. man^ gazes upon the sublime in nature.

for many I of the deities jire not_addrSSd and adores. Nor need there be wisdom.&quot. . but they may be seas and hills. 3 . the &quot.Primitive Beliefs and Rites 33 them all alike ? the gods ? How. accept force as the final tribunal 1 from which there is no appeal. and they may be devoid of beauty. embracing all alike. In later independent of the character of the ruler. for gods like Susa-no-o-no- Miko^o_may_be__foqlish as _well _ as . and as yet religion exists in its innocence. and are not sub our judgments. chieflyadores powgijfor. superior. for the hideous. in prayejr at all. and good. T Shinto^loyalty 8 is though_hisjeyiL be recorded. except the tiny minority. As men even jn_our age are hero-worshippers.^ The thought that God is holy. It is only at this stage that they so impress that he wonders man s feelings He to its claims all answer.mischievous. as in the JSor~ig__thfi__iing. should it be different with Even when the incipient social organisa it tion brings with the knowledge of good and evil. xviii.&quot. i. K. excites awe. i Norj. too. belongs to the far future. then. these categories are not applied to the gods. .this appeals to all and not daring nor seeking to escape. marvellous.s_it essential that they give material aid. and all. common analogies. the &quot. are far above our ject to just. for the &quot. and dragons are deceived by the simplest stratagems^ It is not even required that the deities possess intelli gence.&quot. awe-inspiring.

or stick. priniitive man. seas. achieved by the_miraculous_babe carries. the proof of the divinity is its less than power. are the tales he loves. or sky.&quot.34 Religion in Japan A presence of the overwhelming forces of_nature x we are Wlent. as fail is it may. / power and doing wonders. dis^ tree. ains. ( The stupendous dejed^^j^ajrmtp3and_of Jlmmu ^thejower_ of Izanagi and Izanami. andjv^hen longer worships rock. which is above him. yet living or extinct only within historic times Yet volcanoes and earthquakes have very little part myths or rites of Shinto. and the earth. but a &quot. and thejhunder. or &quot. surimpossible that this primitive worship so long mountains smoked ^tnyedj. for that which is thus mere^ objects and in the nature of things he bows only to that man. and if this fail. who form the liquid brine into the solid earth the con she quests jof_Jingo. stirring with /burst and life^ trembled? without significance Or_is_it_ are vol ? / that stilHhe_^b^cte_^l the j)e_asants worship 1 canoes. feeling our insignificance.and bows. as legend and myth and worship bear witness. filled with sun are the objects before which he mere nature. For man does not worship nature. the wor Js_ ship it is transferred to that which truly godlike.n_ Japanjbecause^the forth with fury. mount. The superiority which he_recognises in his gods is of strength. . so^jffiith.N . Hence. in the . with it / veriest fetish is instinct appears man no it.

qfjormal worship in adoration and dependence. man and neither feared nor begged. . But_undeniably closely connected with adoration is dependence. yet perfect^j^eligion casts would he out fearL wMe_heightening adorajioji^ adoratipn_and completingjpve. and Clones in his absorption in being. for how else should man act when realising his helplessness ? Thus we have the beginnings hand in supplication. complete its self-sacrifice. For. renewed experience. we return Jor. yet they do not form^its_primary^ejement. so does he the two be separate. turn to power Nor need for in a single act he may worship and stretch out his To pray is instinctive in times of peril and of need. and the place holy ground and as we^iave_escaped our prayers when danger comes.Primitive Beliefs and Rites 35 We may dwell upon this feeling of sacred rever sometimes told that_religion comes from jear. story to Cjur fellows. too. and the two may well combine in the same object. and jwould . peril^. man adores power. Even though adore. or at least from the sense of depend ence. becomes^ we repeat v our the ex We relate. intimately as these are associated with ence because are religion. as for aid. To_Ae_^]^c_t_of_his_ man surrenders himself^ sometimes with . sharejwrthjthem PrimitixfiL religion perience of worship and salvation. we and often as they seem to constitute it. But. Wlien once we have felt the impress of marvellous power.

where brevity is synonymous with discourtesy.. state rituals are (^requests.. ( Hence arise rituals. its speaking as a whole or in representatiyes.o_ civilised men. and the length of word and phrase increases with the rank of the person addressed. and to prc&amp. and charms. the most common word be comes strange and unmeaning the. Prayers affect our hearts and the gods by their solemnity. according to one account. The community present. but_social. r The K.gt.36 is Religion in Japan is is not solitary. the ritual. e. Nor in a cially is this true I . . ifor in their unmtelligibiUty is their wonder. Espe- power. dis^is^aii^jrepetitionj thus the f immera^one^tp_ ten. give no hint as to the contents of There is almost nothing which can be called a formal prayer inK. Janguage like Jhe Japanese. carefully rewritten in fine literary style. wereLusedjis the &quot. merely ejaculations. ^cting^jwatching. Words is it are high in the list of wonders and mysterious phrases_j^epeated slowly ^acquire a sacred necessary that they be understood.grand ri tuaP^when the Sun-goddess was enticed from the cave. brief The Norito i.repetition Even J. exclamations. .. through and remoteness from the cja^tomary_speech. unintelligent if often repeated. and belong in their present form to a much later period._ the great names of the gods of duce t^e effect wonder a^in to that aroused tyi/Sometimes the most common forms of speech are ren dered jnysterious_by^slight. and in our sources there only a trace of religious retiracy. and N.

or purity. nothing_else. xxviii. what pleases man pleases the gods. the spoils^ of the chase. when the seas threatened YamalQidake..---gods. where a god offers to stay a pestilence in return for worship. intoxicating liquors. Not yet does he seek wisdom.. offers to ^ tj -. gods purely natural. ^greeing_to. for escape from^_evil. the &amp. It is for goods. of caverns and the shadows of great is But for the real substance of primitive jDrayers . *- What one &quot.--: his wife cast herself into the waves. leaving room for beyond^ the grave. the^orse^the^sword.&quot. Thus. offers to his chief *&quot. nor_eyen a bliss happy entrance into The present^with its dangers andjtsjyoods. or holiness.... 1 The gods make. the works of one s^hands. when herself in a cave the great Sun^goddess^ Ame-terasu^ng^Mikoto.. ii. i. or.^ and left the world in darkness.gt. bargains. in greater stress of danger.~~ great calm. K. for deliverance Primitive man s prayers_are like his from_ danger. occupies his_ thoughts. &quot.. Also K.g. the leaves of_trees.&quot. &quot. and there was a I he &quot. if help . as simple as their form is mysterious. - --. the most cherished wife. pieces of ^Ipth. Ixiv.. Thus So. the frmts_of_the field. happiness._tog._ possessions.Primitive Beliefs and Rites by the dimness hills. worshipped. e.Wjjh__simple_prayers_ are childlike offerings. the nor does he question what becomes of his --&quot. . -- -y and thejL^e_made^ even tojtrees_ and hills^-lxx jl gifts.

[ swpnjg^wprk miracles in a variant.. 248. cliii. N. 252. its JaM__ia_P^l^KJ^51i^ ar or_jjtrange to \mg_jittle (much of the unity of magic and charms in their analogies provof actual_ contact with other peoples. A ^^-T---T - - - -~ --. strangeness of appearance.. it. or. back 8 to brings evil are 6 . strange_birds^ are good^oinens. based on Chinese ideas. and curses efficient causes/. . doesjiotjinderstand why pgj3g how ] evil come to him. ii. and the jealous goddess looked forth and * the world was bright again. and suggestive association in name or idea produce them. K. 6 4 K. Dpssible explanations ^j__j^}ggiblfi. % pp.. g.. Coincidence.. 236^.38 Religion in Japan Ame-no-uzumi-no-Mikoto danced licentiously before its entrance until the assembled gods roared with laughter. i. 322... xliv. ii. 237. ii.. \ at the controLof nature tbe_earj^ attempt man s nor first 1 essays_in practical _ science. and he jumps of at / I (byjiiystery. i. and many other instances e. Allied to prayers and gifts and dances are charms. also strange animals. . &quot.. but man s mind. 174. have an extended account of their significance.. Charms the world over have a remarkable . iii. 7 6 N. xxxvii. Jewels make tides life 1 -pebb and flow and bold the power of and death 4 * . offer... ii. K. to proceed face to the sun.xlv. . Mystery^ jgj3ontrollable I Man good luck andL /tection... K. - -- prp. with . N. ] i similarity..

lt.&quot. By the s recovered. . an eager hook. and finally using successively the bottom. hook. returns from his visit Jqjlades. ant. As he the washes. far the most import Izanagi-no. say. is raise the wind now the wind by whistling. thefe are many in Vide Shinto. ~ Jn whistling. is used in many instances. and the surface of the ocean.^s^three_times.. Hideous &quot. a Then the Sea-god says c : When your and &quot.S. nor would brother. in. he exclaims. ! | 1 seeking different parts of the stream that he may find pure water. Thus. also. ordinary life. the young mother being / Q) Besides_the illustration stances. a formula and a charm.^Mikoto &quot. raised hook. The mental attitude is illustrated by the story of the 1 younger prince who lost the fish-hook of his elder The latter would not be placated. frorn^ his person. First pLieligipusjrites. silly A big hook. 330. and by water. Jjind ! a hideou^and _a_polluted jLJiave come_to and he washes bimselJTwith repeated washings. but its efficiency is destroyed by &quot. the rain-storm. isparincation^ by When &amp. . is top. the deities are born .^^ there js purification. by the best con 1 jecture. the middle.. brother uses the a poor hook. p. and the god which. he accept a multitude of others in its stead.Primitive Beliefs and Rites * \ 39 Sympathetic magic.

this ^gnsciojisnss_pf uncommon and repulsive filthiness causeashrinking.apart and invisible. nor garden of Eden. 9 and many forms of un- cleanliness demanded . Shinto.. In more developed nature religions this ceremonial defilement.--~^ja-~-~..4O Religion in Japan unclean. after__the_ dejnise o^Jbhe^riiler.jrevelation. through dreams. neither_flood. 252. tion of a coming deliverer. nor fall of man. i. J^^gin^ filth spiritual but bodily and notof^the spirit. _or Injthe.to~-~remain. obliged --------_ ---_ Z - 1 -- - * - i^ - * while^ the (dead bod^}fep_^files-fthat. is also primitive. K. jlevelation are as real as our waking experiences and even as ma1 comes which A separate hut was built for her. norjiell. p. but in primitive this too is in its beginnings. and the conse quent consciousness that one is unclean^jod unworthy of As thejgeling presence_calls forth adoration with a mysterious of praise its acts and worship. whence come the ceremonials oJjDuj^jatLpn. nor More remarkable still. Disease. is origin carried into great complexities. V ive shrinking from objects which defile. xxxviii. which is the of tabu. sg^doea. wounds. Japan Thejwpdjr^rn_^e_gods. nor dream of a golden age of promise. there is no expecta he_ay_ejQ. without trace_of a common revelation. J^jvillae_is_destrojed and_a new place a What is this but the instinct \found for the living. and . purification.

p. So.ii. world-wide and in our persistent. even the succession to the 2 throne. while gods appear to sleepers and reveal in formation of the most mundane nature. by the divinities as means for their expression reptiles. subconscious activities breaking through into the field of attention. crystal reading. v. and of induced hypnotism. i.. and birds are the medium Besides this. . especially of girls. is and not only human beings but animals. too. Shinto. Thus their when Izanagi ancMLzanami are disappointed in offspring. For a sword in one instance 1 comes dream and remains on earth. the revelations of our sleeping hours. there are also other inspirations. . 8 themselves appeal for help in their perplexities. xlv. 337. . they refer the matter to the supreme heav first enly deities who by it discovered that by was because the goddess spoke divination a deer s shoulder upon meeting with her husband. important matters may be decided by dreams. .* These phenomena. of complex personality. who are taken .. 4 K. which second modern days are variously explained sight. 1 in K. Besides the dreams.Primitive Beliefs and Rites 41 in a teriaL. 348. of divine communidivination to which the gods cations. See also Shinto. p. But neither show their presence unmistakably. the mysteries of sleep-walking.

since the dis supernatural and natural was not how yet The myths are the beginnings of science and of religion: i tions as to the origin of things \ligion. and he peers into the past as into the mouth of some deep cavern whence issues the vast stream of unexplored From the Whence does it all come? existence. we must jipgeal to ordi nary experience^ Tbe_y_arejlke children sitting in the . The ancient books claim for themselves no supernatural authority. They readily attach themselves to it and Sometimes indeed heighten certain of its features.he_j!au^ ju_and_nature 1 Farther man cannot go. quesojjcje^c^because they are man and their causes of res first . but only for the time they continue. the . When man finally we attempt to reproduce primitive s religious consciousness as represented in the story of the ancient Japanese. Iife Hejicj3 1J. are thrust for the time into prominence. gods and the gods are tbe^range^Jbh^jiijgterious. religion becomes superstitious and debased. if it. because this is the realm^o^jnjstery and of wonder. adorable. as indeed tinction between could they. as if they they constituted the substance of or.42 Religion in Japan Japan nor elsewhere are they the sources or the stay of religion. and the myths are not set forth nor narrated by the gods. The substance of revelation is practical.

AlMsjlim. co incidences.presence of a cataract or mountain peak. we know not /\ow. and in farmers who fasten a horseparticular rites. and acts of devotion. child of nature. The sky is darkens. critical. And close at handjs nged. we too hush the careless and ir reverent word. and the pos are so incalculable. we too feel. and in adults who are uneasy if they see the moon over \/ the left shoulder. sibilities He lifts__his__hands_and prays. The individual is so weak and^ so conscious of his weakness. jnystical. Repetition gives ^so lemnity. . before a marvel. un but powerfuLas any element in man s nature. distinguishes cated and critical. Around his prayers gather memories. and omission causes uneasiness as habit fixes conduct Primitive religious consciousness. We too uncover our heads. but primitive man. or like ourselves and find ourselves filled we give our feelings sway with emotions inexpressible / v in the . the wind rises. jsophistihis emotions when he checks the flow of his feelings. the Strange beasts creep forth from their homes_and danger 1 on every hand.Primitive Beliefs and Rites 43 dark and relating stories which. remains^in boys /shoe over the stable door. affright and yet charm. ( that this is holy ground. forgetting our science. worships ani adores. producing who knock wood. Modern man. somehow. or like the peasant who stands mouth open in unthinking wonder when. or like one awed by the vastness and solitude of the forest. night comes.

&quot. and dependence. adoration &quot. nor is it mere custom. .44 It is Religion in Japan not juperstition. faith and rite it but only that in the soul there is a sense of a greater than self which we joy to worship. nor is it simply the arousing of the aesthetic nature. It is and prayer. the beginning of religion. . a more praise is. not knowing what powerful than self on which we must depend.

the confused forms of the family and the tribe continuing.. too. Ke- was undeveloped. Japanese remained long in this state of guesses at the causes of nature. or in the deductions of science. for the extraordinary. theseer. but with them ^ and its destiny. which shape For Japan the touch of a splenwhich was already old. the unique.to_^e^k_Jhe_^e^ret_in _enit is vironment. THE ligion. the only change being This indeed It is content is from marvel to marvel. aroused the djd civilisation. with posses sions and cherishes them. Way of the Gods. their rude things. state of the ordinary its human nature.LECTUEE Shinto. the genius. the magical control of destiny. the superhuman. Natural Religion. progress. the II. tjaejjtiyjrielyjn^ have of the future ^visions will it arouse itself for It is only the elect few. nation and made it a factor in the world s history. 45 . who which become true asjhey are the hopes of the race are followed. nor new and doubtful experiment. It is_yain .

and after it western part of that which now years. and the conquered land was small and its population sparse. and rude was the sovereignty. traditions worked up mingled with fragments of folk-lore systematically into a corrected whole with the purpose of giving. which was his only much later was con for he claimed all. is It came from the south Japan. perhaps generations. this side of the Christian made itself master. foundation is fact.. of the and still many disputed the sway sovereign. and that was the important thing.. of strenuous fighting. 109-135.. It has is a true myth. is K. Kude was the fighting.46 Sometime era. property and persons. pp. and centre were welded into a kind of unity. the control of the title Emperor let us save time and call him siderable..D. Jimmu. as his own. was supreme over the centre of the country. 1 It is this ii. conquest which i. south-west. Now for the first time west.. still even within the central territory were dejpendent chieftains.a_ Its divine basis to the Imperial throne. Still there was much land to be con in- quered. without thorough-going organisa tion or laws. but the beginning was made. N. not that there ever basis of the Imperial was a conqueror named power was conquest. This symbolised by the Jimmumyth. but that the . xliv-li. from which was to come the Empire^* - By by the the beginning of the sixth century A. a tribe Religion in Japan in the dim past.

as stories with an object. / S tribes. \child Thus surjremacj^was through conquest. while against it conquered tribes and chief We have here the is notion of superiority which explains at once the facts and legends. To? waalikifl p()wer limited to thfiJEmperorjakma. the Way life of the Gods 47 subjects. While he was the head of a patriarchal eociejby and his orders passed through the heads of families and quasi-families. and was the struggled for centuries the tains. and assjimed^power to employ people under their separate tribal chiefs. for the .^ He created his royal estates out of the possessions of private citizens. Shinto.&quot. slaves and degrade freemen into servitude^ IIe__bestowed. Way of the Gods. In the earliest times tribes drifted and established themselves in different . yet his authority. let us see the^ ejejneiitsjwhich made such 1 re- f f daction possible and indeed necessary. but seemed to ex tend to other members of his family. and revoked of his subjects. . Lejseas A. and this object is the support of the Imperial house and power. this conquest and unification of the civili- sation^^anjd religion.. this I fact preserved in the_icadition. the natural religion of the people reorganised and^completed asjnyth that is. was^ ^Spmejtima_ater the introduction of Chinese literature. 25. Before going into this subject. titles &quot. p. He had power over and death of his He could emancipate. changed.Shinto.J^gmedjn theory to jpenetrate to the lowest in the ^patriarchal scale.

quotes voluminously from older documents. p. 148. but not yet was there an organisation or a perpetuating the impressions. social state capable of When finally one tribe became supreme and introduced the elements of unity and order. origin. 712^ The^ Ni-hon-^L^. / A. but some of these documents are manifestly fabrications. e W hatever may have been the itisjgnly these laterjones^ which were effective. earlier contacts. and giye_ occasion itself. 780. as evidence remained of their foreign even in the earliest legends one may detect continental influence.48 Religion in Japan parts of the islands.. N. for only now was there a central government^ which could welcome Jhe strangers. Probably there was still occa sional communication with the continent. . in the_soiitJi^jji^^ injdzuma in the western Kyushu They fought lost the ^ with the barbarians and with each other. bringing the rudiments 1 of Chinesejmlightenment.D.C3 ~f~ Of. document is^from the^begin^ During this long period_of two ~~~~fi.P. and memory of their immigration Still and of their contacts with other peoples. VThe Ko-ji-ki. ^ We have dates which are trustworthy from the middle of the sixth century ior earlier. came the opportunity which new-comers from Korea improved. to _ the native power of assimilationjbo manifest But the process was slow. accept their gifts and profit by them. but our / - first ning of the_eighth. A.

are the potent arguments. * influential in it.j^teE_jheaeJ$Efir^j3ut down did lasting peace come. and when active alternatives are sugggested. for in jthe year 645 there was a revolution or | ^reformation. The Imperial house was threatened by an intrigue which almc-st_succeeded. in part at least. et passim.dixe. For the need at once for Jhe re- organisation of the^ government and for its justifica tion.Shinto. The slowness of the latter ^&quot. pp. was felt Japanese legends. . 1 N. 109 ff. Cf. satisfaction. Without literature. |t was foiled 1 Empire__jsjtablished. but. and largely enment. 4 . the Way of the Gods : 49 jmndred years the twofold process was going on the acquaintance with continental culture. . . by a cojinter-mtrigue and the Yet oncejmd again there was and only.rgence _Qf__the it through . rebellion.VEven in the middle of the seventh century the power of the Emperor was by no means / assured. but upon reflection. discovered in time. Simultaneously with this process of centralisation. and the conof the Empire. man is content with things as he finds them. It accounts in part at least for the was the Chinese enlight form and for the _. the reason becomes and demands 189 ff.solidation process was. A. They are their own excuse for In the actual conquest the sword and spear being. the reason for the slow ness of the former. ii.

p. for theory produced Shinto. In the same year court ceremonies were remodelled (g. cit.D. the Prince Imperial issued the - first laws.&quot. worship was organised. d and -^officers. &quot. . A. this we see.. society was remodelled departments of government. of all lands within the it / range of vision. Wor the^&amp.gt. ranks of . 133). pp. earlier^jnjherejgn^of^uiko. ii... and the Prince Imperial lectured on V Buddhist Sutras.604ji. op. both in the theory of the government effect of that and in the theory upon religion.50 Religion in Japan Naturally the Chinese civilisation so impressed the J Japanese that lisation of was eagerly adopted. Ja. A..D. nations. records the institution of &quot.cap-ranks. 257 ff. first ^ t remodelled or for the instituted^ It was a mar- vellous transformation and to be compared only with the great ested movement in our day. which has so inter and astonished the But great as were the innovations.&quot. But there were other influences at work. The N^ii. j3eginniEg8 had bggnjgadg^ Thus N. 195 jf. 127.. And yet there was from the beginning adaptation. codes of law the whole range of institutions. shippers of the /\do rfi superior. p. it is not surprising that I Japanese fldoptedjit^ After the revolution of 645. 592-628. etc. It was the civithe whole world. and wholesale as were the importa tions. for example. 128 et seq. of a truly immemorial antiquity and of overwhelming completeness and splendour. pp.

Shinto. and by convert ing the personal powers claimed and lost by the Emperor into effort of the theory of divine succession. rtjsummoned to its aid the religious i &quot.&quot. nor the native tradi&quot. V/Y^&quot. 135-136. the Way of the Gods 51 Chinese civilisation &amp. ^-did not fit_the insular Conditions. came down to historic times in To all this the_Jajia^ese intellect responded.&quot. . At the briefest. conception of the world as now existing. and in addi tion a history which. and it had its of government.&quot./ and a phnjosophy. it\ It is a is this : the principle of Heaven and Earth ^ is virtue/ Asakawa points out with convincing clearness the political conditions which produced Shinto. it knew no absolute beginning. tionsjtbe exigenciesjoj^jthe Imperial house^ menaced /by many foes.]^jQot_on]j an elahorat theory tte &quot. though widely different in form and fashion. v -. to once public powers of the new state. was a supreme had! been almostf^&amp. He sums up The Reform : which more assert itself.^*C~ \ emotions and^jreshaped. unbroken sequence.jthe legendsjo _suit itsjieedglO The Chinese power was based theoretically on vir tue. we return to it in our fifth lecture. remarkable theory. like all the East. beginning with myth and fable. but was not overwhelmed by and as the Chinese theories . by ^striking dowj3^the__tribal organism and substituting for it a new state. .bliterated. but jij3Oj3mgo_ny. modelled after a foreign example.gt. though. and a historyA It knew how the heavens and the earth were formed out of chaos. it. the causes of the reform of 645-646 as follows &quot. Pp.gt. akin to that of the Hebrews.

ipso facto by power. . the offender of righteousness is a that robber is a mere fellow. who held their Sage Kings Yao and Shun. place. in order. graded by their virtues. Emperor. and in the but by state the virtue. The_ officials. which gives meaning. Mencius I. i. A. the family. A man is for the the Empire.. Cf.. Ch ou. It follows that position more important than personality. sake of society. S. is evil. is tion of the meaning not the Chinese word. but of the whole system. 53. or by inheritance. Shundai Zatsuwa. his fellows. Legge s trans. 8. not that he killed a king.Religion in Japan were theTr all By it things_formed. He rules does not fulfil the duties of his for if he he is a usurper. Order&quot.. Thus Mencius de not clared. The immortal theory finds its embodiment illustrious position. I have heard A ruffianly Wu killed in the a fellow. and 1 and substance. but by the not by conquest their 8 supremacy of virtue. : ruffian. xx. and all which is Orderjs Heaven s onlyjaw. Jqo^ wisdom sojhat immaculate it is are i &quot. Now in the family the father is the pivot.. and according to it chaos. office. when asked as to the driving of Ch ou from his The offender of benevolence is a robber and throne &quot. others^ the~order of value. ii.. for all is Hence in the ideal state there is nothing evil. T. relationship to a series.^nd^th It is have substance.&quot. Without it is is the cosmos. pt. my interpreta p.

was by no means mvested__even the greatest of the Emperors with su perhuman virtues. nor could be fitted to such a theory. the bare fact was conq uest. without factions^ or disputes.Shinto. and all then^^^en^stupiditj l ew are_wise. and the succession was in thejiamilv. and the theoretical basis of the state^aye been found in an ethical philosophy. facts in Japan. the aml^ghtepusjness are last. though^ it_ superhuman jpQwers^^or did the Emperors^ assume_any r the morals of their subjects. ii. irregular. But the people were not at peace. that a Okina Hondo. But such were not the and of its historic contradictions Japanese students were in ignorance. arejrjrtuous. possiblyjn time the_ Chinese fiction might have been Jaken_seriously. they ^Here^as we have seen. of the Gods 53 and^ in vincible stupidity loses its viciousness. . p. Way first. 1 It was necessary. therefore. the people_been at peace. ised and the \ though the family was succession still loosely organalso. 31. tbouglif Such was the theory in the books. or the position of the lesser^ chiefs secure. Such. nor was the basis of the Imperial power. The claimants were many.. for the stories of the past the__tr_adjion. the tradition and the religion being essentially non | moral. the_worshrp_ jind the supremacy of non-moral \ power. and Jheir pretensions extreme.

they wereretold^with a purpose. vellous. instead of the con fusion of chance. Hejs not a liar. He ceases^ to be naive. he is to place theory is . invent his facts That. and which he remem So. . did we need more. the on the whole. too. which had nothing and not the^nore^ profound portions system.&quot. science. too. and instead of the crude evidence of his senses. It is the &quot. is For with the beginnings of theory man does not he takes them as he finds them. Legend and were transformed into myth that is. nor a builder of romances. It is inevitable philosophy. Man reflective.54 (basis Religion in Japan should be found which should be at once recog- nised bjjjJJLand in^temj^u^^rs_top^by_jhenation. inevitable. he to place order. which^engaged the_ajjntion of the Confucian The effect upon relifflon js apparent. true_to his facts as he Now his facts have to do with thejnarthe divine.superior. it to say of ppjjjiy. was Budd^isni. and it is the marvel which he worships. marvel power which impresses him. when Chinese civilisation 1 came to Japan. of . but. t Finally. sees them. that his first attempts shall take on the form of the last-named discipline. and in tradition it becomes arejbjdden all the_possibilities qf_the nice. and takes the first step in the development of and theology. and religion was supplied with a theology^ It is a momentous transition. bers.

but in N. genealogies. the ( he asks in his childlike : Way way of the Gods 55 and after the beginnings. ii. comes at once upon and demons. even that of the Imperial house. N.. there are no dates.. ToJhejaBngjrealni_of_jnvention must be placed the mimerous N wide.the &quot. . tain places. stories^of gods The jonly thing new and system. So that the inventions are limited to cer is where facts fail. be written.D... as even our scientists tell us what must be beyond the range of possible experiFmentatiorL But the invention of the early writer is. revolution. the same Emperor commanded ( a man of extraordinary memory to learn 1 VYet in our sources the range of conscious invention is e. dates are given with great exactness.^A. . As early as the_^t^century_recorders were appointed. was not completed.ii. stroyed. or is lost.D. ajid conscious explanation. for in 681 the reigning Emperor. in K.. The results are astonishing in places.350. or purposely deI I In part. 148. g. theory. 4 - commanded j&quot. but this also or was unsatisfactory. 4 I V*Tgesitate to N. jthat. .ii.. and in 620 something in the fashion of annals was pre \. together with various matters of antiquity. forx later.* but_thej_were_Jost or burned. 193. pared. perbaps 1_the^jwere embodied in The next attempt was long after the laterjwri tings.Accounts of the Emperors. Temmu.&quot.Qne__^ould put much reliance upon its details before the middle f the sixth century A..&quot. N. 1 f Jjjrajygjact^ naive__and / easily_detected.Shinto.

.. and from his lips. 9-11. P.lt. states its clearly the principle which led to It is that production. the ancient Annals. _its wjrtei^_in_con junction with others._said hear that the chronicles of emperor^ likewise the original words in k the possession of the various families. If ajt tl^ pj_ejejit_lime^li^ pp. our oldest source. i.. tells He further U us tl^ajy^3_JEm^^ : &quot. and adding two hundred years of history.. 686^ so that at least twenty-five years elapsed between the order and the taking down the contents of his memory. . / we may know men&quot.jrom the_exact^iruth. commit to memory The Emperor who gave it died in A. was and taken dosjn the material which. reduced to written form. from the I ^end_of_the fifth to the end of the seventh centuries/ A.D. The book was finished in 712. deviate . and in part \ modifying and transforming the early simplicity under 1 influence of &amp. the that &quot. in his introduction. to the Recordsjrf_Ancient Matters. Now this man.56 Religion in Japan in 711. giving variants of much value.. K. 1 one of the most important of our sources^ Eight years later. U ginnings of the world and of the Empire. When the order to was given we do not know. pre pared a second work^ coveringjn_paj^thejame^ground.I the y prejD^ation-JQL Jhe_ajansls. \ . ajid are mostly^ampjifiedMby empty falsehoods..the^ Chinese critical^and philosophical * theory.a^j^c^ujiL^lthe^be^-. . constitutes the first of all Japanese books. origin of deities^nd jthe/ establishrnent of is.

has always been recognised. too. j and Shinjcycan be understood. the cor rection of false claims and the establishment^ the monarchy. &amp. but the book now under con sideration has been thought by some to be a simple record of traditions collected without other ends in & But manifestly this was not the case. tion of andjChinese history which impelled the collec the national annals.Shinto. The preface of the . ^ the I wjiile in a secondary itself . -it_was Chinese philosophy which suggested the notion of an ordered account of the beginnings of^heaven and view. \ earth. way we_are There to be given prjgm_ofjhe_uniyerse is^noJlpretence of a reli^iqu^motiYej nor but. and an account of the fashion in which the Imperial house . a national history. &quot. he &quot. Japan. comjnler tells usjbbat Thus in this so-called ^ ^Bible_o_the Japanese&quot. the monarchy.made a careful choice. tendency of that the meaning of the book itself. the grand foundation of the &quot. ! of setting forth a moral code. ^accordance with Chinese precedents. shall have a cosmology. we ^have a work written with jt definite purpose. \nll_be__destroyed. and Chinese political theory which necessitated a theoretical justification for It is only in the light of this mani the government. erejman^yearssball elapse basis of the__country. The Chinese influence in the seconxLJiQok mentioned.gt. fest &quot. ) And further.&quot. the Way of the Gods 57 r the great arejiot amended. written eight years later. robtamgd-ite power.

and pos.musu- I They were born and died. the Deity Master-of-the-August-Centre-of-Heaven.&quot. Kami. when the earth was young In^no-Kami ). afld the In_andJbheJYo [ neg. like unto floating 1 oil.August-Prod ucing-Wondrous-Deity. * ^ . it is wholly in Chinese. i. heavier and substances in their formationyLJfor we begin at once * with the deities^ Yet these latter are as evidently late inventions. formed because things ning. elements] not^ ^tgvided.Of old. . on the contrary. when the Heaven and the Earth began. In the Kcgiki it is true we are not jtroubled by the its direct intrusion of the Chinese philosophy. when the Heaven arid Earth . 1. Heaven and Earth were not separated. &quot. next the High. its heaven lighter. in the Plain of The names of the deities that were born High Heaven. was drifting about medusa- Thus th0 Nj. Then from a thing like unto a reed shoot. but the body of the book but is mingled archaic Japanese and Chinese. with separation of positive ( / / and negative elements. is Nihongi. Thus tha K. not on that account more completely under Chinese influence. next the j / Divine -Producing -Wondrous -Deity (Ame-no-mi-nakanuishi-no-Kami^ Taka.58 is Religion in Japan written in in Chinese. come in contact with thorough-going Thus first__are placed in theJPkin of has High Heaven. 1 &quot.. and. and earth because of the divergent. after must have a begin man cosmogonies.mi-musu-bi-no-Kami. : i. began^were .

i.. Deity Elder Lord of the Great Place. last of whom the myth beginsS felt without father or mother. or any achievements. i. 6. and drew thejjpear up. Germ Integrating Deity. are created from the need of a beginning. jplacie^NTrT. note See also the alternative genealogy of the gods.Shinto. 1 last I names framed_to explain the beginnings * of courtship and marriage. Self -Curdling K. aslIrTlTston suggests. . 7 4.2. who also died and left neither descendants nor storyJ. and Deity Oh Venerable Lady. indicate Deity Mud-earth * * Lord and Deity Mud-earth Lady. thus belonging to the realm of invention^as their names also. with the opening of the my thology. from the name of a. Just possibly.. K. . Deity Perfect Exterior. and Deity Elder Lady of the Great Place. which had been given them. the and the Deity Female Who Invites ( Izanagi-no-Kami and Izanami-no-Kami). for these two at the command of the heavenly deities stood on the ^Floating Bridge of Heaven.&quot. and Life Integrating Deity. the brine which dripped from it piling up and^Jorming 1 the island called &quot. p. and finally. and finally like. 1.. or length of days. the Way of the Gods 59 were born two more heavenly deities. stirred up the brine beneath c till it went curdle-curdle ( koworo-koworo). * Vfive couples with the These deities. the Deity Male Who Invites. c..l.. and then two more with the same want of history. But first of the cosmogojny. pushed down the jewelled spear.. p.folk-etymologies. they were originally^ &quot. &quot. noteS.

arejborn the islands. (Onogoro) . they erect a pillar and a their courtship. the plains. the_variousjsiands the_great is j [o. &quot. Wind. becausef Izanami spoke first on their meeting. the island of A wa (Foam).jrp_uth! O beautiful and amiable ^antiM_ajid_amiable \ and &quot. hall.. 3. andjhe forces^nature. then after her response the work of the creation pro spers.! and the second. as is discovered by the heavenly deities by divination. iii. Youth the Great Male. the circling of the ^^xcepting perhaps et seq. i.. JThe story occupies the early sections j)JLK. Bubble K. the elements.60 1 Religion in Japan Descending. when they meetshe^exclaims. Circling the island. the Autumn. &quot. jfoam JWaves Waves. . 1 Summer. Their Jirst cbiMjvas a failure. pillar. After the geography objects complete come deities which are and forces of nature. . Deity Eock Earth Piince. and then begins &quot. maiden riage. the t of the Wind Breath j alm. i. and Moors. the Spring. Ah! What repeated^and Izana^ifirstjtiakes the exclaa fair and lovely maiden! and &quot.-vi. ! This institutes their is which w|thoj^c^r^rnpnj^-^or negotiations or capture. The geography ^ow^^y_the_jnu|dle is of the *\ seventh century given in detail. and Ti^e^ and Mountains.. is rnation.. . also. t Heavenly Blowing Male. he^ responds. and therefore the courtship &quot..( Bubble Calm.

Splitter. &quot.limriie~says Some are probably names is often very conjectural. and Boothis sword. and Bock-Possessor.Shinto. setiological. islands. Mr. a myth birth. to explain the beginnings of marriage. given thejrirth of FireTzanamTSies. whereat Izanagi kills / the Fire Prince. Sjriitter. is The artificial nature of the construction this brief enumeration but apparent. all I and and elements. / r Izanami dies and goes to Hades. and Swift Gods. meaning. which are_in__large from the the story and circumstances part taken frpinjih^objects.. and of_other deities thirty-five.&quot. andJFirj^y The total^number of islands begotten was fourteen. and all. Possibly some of the obscurer names are Korean. and the stories of the marriage of the nature of true legend.names The explanation of the meaning of these ends. Mr. with per- \haps only the Bridge of Heaven. the courtship. with \ and from the blood which drops from his ^^J^^IgJ^EgL-P101^ dgffi e g Bock. trees. in and the i / human Jashion. and Food. of places. In many instances the meaning could not have been present in the mind of those who spoke them. the Way of the Gods 61 and Passes. Aston re^ tains J/he Japanese names and questions their ori^uT^Re^ Thinks them the most distinctively Japanese part_ofjbhe_jeg^ &quot.&quot.. eight in VWith the orjgin_of^each. not only from names of the deities. : . of and rocks.^ of the myth being invented to explain its So far then the nature of the story ! is clear.jind mountains. Snapping Gods. whose birth had caused her death. Chamberlain translates the names of the gods through out.

K. range in groups appears repeatedly in the narrative. and the hilt of the sword and flying off bespattered the rock^-^ This tendency to ar of the_slajnJFire Prince all. and the violent (Je. With the stories of Sun.. from thejblood which stuck to the point. and blocks behind him the is full Even Pass of Hades. i. and there follow the stones of the emperors. heaven and the inhabitants of earth. and_eight thunder- gods born in her body and dwelling there. His wicked doings occupy the larger part of the next sec tions. and then.gt. and shows sjgng^of contact withjjther mythologies andLegends long^since forgojtten. but instead remains to trouble gods. viii. her messengers after Izanagi escapes as She sends and finally who flees. as. the upper part. with maggots swarming. we have seen. and of the leading families. at last. from the body \ / were born deities of the mountains. Thisjwhole story its of remi- mscences. begins the history of the earthly rulers.. and the discovery of the decaying body of Izanami. . and Susa-no-o- no-Mikoto. the cosmogony ceases. though diverse in motive and material. Moon. the Sip. Be&amp. the two divisions being indeed connected in uninterrupted sequence. purification of Izanagi are born jmany other From the 1 and amongjhem who is given dominion over Hades. eight deities in There follows the tale already narrated of the visit to Hades. the Moon.62 Religion in Japan with exactness.i|y. for example.

For^ the most part nothing is known of the rulers but their names and places.p and marvels. and^ invested the Sun-god dess witb_ sword^and mirror^and spear.O (^Marvels are still mingled with it. 1st day. 661 8th mo A a jjemon with a big hat appeared. receiving the submission of Idzumo.~ &quot.Shinto. V Genealogies of the families continue. - cosmogojiy.Jhe 7 . story. Kyushu.. of the people. and when the dull genealogies are made interesting with stories it is still of gods. loosely them without bearing upon either cosmogony or succession. and finally settling himself in Yamato. starting from the south-west.. the history as =mythological as the^ j and the mythology^as trust worthy _ as . With the help of the gods he^slowlj possesses the land.. with many fables and a suggestion or two of history. which should be henceforth the centre of the in fact occupies a subordinate place. ^ history. 272. --&quot. who was given the throne by gods of high heaven. N. until at fifth^century. say in the middle of the we come to the appointment of recorders and^the beginnings of sober history. emperors and of the great *last. As late as A. to th^a^tonigh^^ntx . and heroes. D. the tween the two are a connected. but Fromjthis time onr the narrative follows the succession. some of Way of the Gods 63 series of ancient legends. TjiejnJioJJxjwjjJ^^ &quot. . and put in here because they were in the traditions and must be disposed of.EmBgrpr stpry_pi_the_j6rjt by_flie Jimmu./u.

xxxiii. is a god. and thus by an identity of nature since he too .JDo thou. but now he was sur rounded with mysterious splendour. saved Shinto frorn extinction. from his people.. not only by divine decree issued &quot. the ruling Emperor named God Incarnate.. divinity and exaltation being separated from 1 power and rule. as With this transforma befitted a god. is In the edicts in the latter part of N..gt. tion too the control of affairs / more and more slipped from his hands into the grasp of men who had to do with the realities of empire and people. This political motive. and removed.shall rule but also by descent. wheji_jh^sjiprejn.. 77.64 Religion in Japan r^&amp. and its kami would have Jost their identity as they came to But the be regarded as incarnations of Buddha. i. j / Otherwise^j^xmldjiaYe disappeared in Buddhism. .&quot. 359..olMa- With this process went hand in hand his isolation. and may it. Hejheld too the sword and the_ mirror ^^ ^ the_ insignia . The Emperor ruled by divine right. Go and may prosperity attend thy dynasty. proceed it. I like 2 heaven and earth.&quot. 2 K. Thus the Sun-goddess instituted the dynasty: thither and govern &quot. N. . the difor us the land below ?^x vine blood flowing through his veins. i. N.. endure as &quot.e ^ii-gpd^ss_cried Who. forever.. ii. the theoretical establishment of the Imperial regime. Time had been when he had mingled with the people and had shared their fortunes. my August Grandchild. theory was too valuable to be put aside.

1 *&quot..- moniaJL and nor faith. others the set Shmtpjhad secondary objects. gods and obey the Emperor.X *&quot. temples.&quot. . \ that the native jyilt remained as court cere. In^ them. shrine. % and a few temples were built But the_duties_ were The nominal. Vv ~~&quot. L the_Emperor appears as the As the Emperor of . among tlement. its people.lt.\ . the Way of the Gods 65 Shinto entered_its it secDH&amp. and the organisation of a quasi hierarchy. and the notion that the /$o / land. used at court.Shinto. possibly its whole Fear the can be summed up in the phrase. and some ( of them abdicated their imperial rank and divine dignity and entered monasteries as \seekers of salvation. Families claiming descent from the gods were in charge of sacred places. iwith an~~hej-editary The priests were laymen. r Buddhism. .China ** &quot. Nprifa). /given in the prayers. twice a year worshipped .&quot. demanding neither understanding Even the emperors were the adherents of ritual. and_esgecially the ruler.i_stage. of disputes between great families. theology even content now was meagre. and images offered things concrete and tan gible so. &quot. are divine. the complete form of Shinto is / As was natural. Among thej3eople f was supplanted by Buddhism. attempt was made to instruct the people in the / j /&quot./ \Buddh]sm^supplied theology and Confucianism ethics. legends or in the ritual. &quot. which in its rites. interest in the while. and the religious influence nothing. f - s high-priest ofjthe people.

under the influence of China. and are compared. de pendent on the living yet effective for weal or woe. he/designates his ments. the plains. 8 N. so did the Emperor of Japan inter vene between the gods and his people. Konki is the marriage of the worship of nature to that of the worship of the Imperial house. . and. comes to take a prominent part. his stead. and the ele may be averted and good restored. . For the story of the the conception of their spirits. . . 1 A. the hills. Himself not present.. ions. gone yet present.66 Heaven and are wholly Religion in Japan Earth. is The Emperor Korean In the 8 called &quot. and cTotlies and horses.&quot. The prayers \ \ from the Imperial point of view.the Norito are precisely similar 4n form to the old Imperial rescripts issued concerning mundane affairs. p. nor of their worship. in their form to Imperial rescriptsr^ All things are regarded as the property of the people.. their contents are distinctly political and everything is uttered from the Emperor s point of view.. &quot. 38. by a recent writer. and their possesthe_JBmperor^the land. yet in like fashion &quot.ii. that evil representatives.&quot. 198.&quot.Sons princes are recognised as of God. . For their sakes he implores the deities of Heaven and Earth.p. Kojiki there is no hint of prayer to the ancestors of In the Nihongi the Emperors. Incarnate God. . For the people he makes offerings. feasts&quot. . who stand With the gods in his plajre and minister in of nature are combined the Imperial ancestors.

ligion besides. andthe men in controljieposed. cepted. p. but only at a late date. But this remains strictly subordinate. the ruling idea being the divinity of Japan and of the Emperor. .. had little. serving Emperor^remained. 1 Thus beginning &quot. as noted above. its representative.divine right&quot.Shinto. people did not even worship him. which It is is The worship of f amily. Buddha. incarnations of Shinto. the Way of the Gods 67 both appear. its purpose as a form of court cere monial and as a theory of the &quot. of the Shinto. the do with the practical control of affairs. hmijEis suitedtheir purposes. &amp. isnotjof natureijwprship. be- divine right&quot. to Yet. also. is more modern systems The Nihongi itself tendency. &quot. 2 In the ninth century the Shinto gods were declared to be part^)f~tHe&quot. cosmology. bauched. There were not wanting. Japan. Iti was formed. through the Chinese influence that Shinto is formed and the worship of the spirits of the dead in troduced. scholars enamoured of antiquity^ who explained the legends according to of thought. then. only as a part_of the re of the JBuddhasffi as superstitions among the ( ~o common people. 64. the first illustration of this The philosophy its of the Chinese was ac and principles its appended to the national is. Tlm)ugJx-the^ larger The common history^ the Emperor was^powerless. even of the Imperial the original religionjof. and a composite religion. and as Jaiiy tales told to children. ancestors. But while the name was Shinto Jihe ^ubstance was BuHdhism. controU^J^o^ignoreJ.lt.Anciently.

while Heaven is credited with directing into the affairs. These writers violently reject the adaptation of the tradition to foreign systems. or^wjth the mysteries of ^QBook^f_Changes^ or with the philo sophy of Chu Hi. and they have little diin- showing the hollowness of the Nihongijs These are_^jghilospphic adoption of Chinese phrases. With the revival of learning under the House of 1 Tokugawa. It flourished^ in the eighteenth and and its writings illustrate the of development_and^ adaptation religious systems. combination of theology and science was only thje which harmonised Shinto with precjur^cr__olLothers. and Chinese speeches are put This mouth of the early Japanese sovereigns.&quot. Noj^w^rje_they witliout^egect^ upon Jthe^jnational J development. and culty in . there_j3ame a new interest in^ancient school arose which attempted to free Shinto from its accretions and to restore it to its A ^ancient purity. with its Chinese language and concessions to Chinese philosophy. But none of these systems h*acT7 wide influence. theteachings of the Shin-gon Buddhists. terms utter^unknown_tp_Jhe^ncient_Japanese. I remained the chief authority. though the Nihongi.68 fore Religion in Japan Heaven and Earth separated andJlie_Negative and Positive Essences parted. supplanting the Kojiki in scholarly esteem.

|__and fields. the restatement of traditions in the terms of an alien &quot.The which preceded the introduction of i their as improbable as the ol jcontents^ too are story handing down is impossible. was only at the labours when the Chinese accretions Shinto. Yet. The Revival of Pure^ Shinto. iii. See i^SeneraI_lQr_ T. are difficult of understand belief. if she/ were really the sun. For the sun in ? . at all.&quot. heaven \ is a goddess.&quot. all must have been in total dark-\ . endeavour to discover explanations for what man with ~~ -rtiiL his limited intelligence can never comprehend. Pure beginning of its however. but it) Motowori. dates_whiclL-wero. had beenjremoved. philosophy. S. quoted by Satow. and houses. lefVwithgut philosophical explanation. A. while yet before her birth light. Supplement. as the ^defenders of the Chinese tradi philosophy were quickMiOjDojiit out tions pretend to tell the story of the Thus the immense periods writing. _it is I apparent that there were and plants. p. ing and for the ancient stories..Shinto. nessL 1 Nor did the word^kami Anean god 19. /&quot. andjJLthe varied forms of life. instead of accepting with faith the true traditions which have beenjhanded from the beginning of time. for the Nihongi was a crude attempt to accomplish the most difficult of intellectual tasks. .. the Way of the Gods 69 are^ the inventions of ignorantfnen wEd. whal^followst. ghring invented probably for political ends.^ The criticism is entirely justified.

1 need^^cSjjvl^^ . were entirely a discovery of his own. . dt. Op.70 Religion in Japan of honoui^ was simply a term and mentsof^equal cogency were urged^ How. 29. the statement is accepted.would strike even a child s intelligence. The very inconsistency_isjroof_ofjthe^ ajUMriiy__Qf jthe_record. p. who are naturally depraved. for_who_ would have gone put of his way to inyent_. JFur_- ther. of great antiquity. thee^_diffioultiefl_Jn the contents are upon the surface and &quot.a_ and incredible story so apparently ridiculous 1 ? L ^- Thus the strength. The critic as if it need not make so niuch fuss about the point. and it therefore not the special children of the gods. is development s the flower of the family^ most_cherished and (often argued that the child of Is it slow and late Wost intelligent. then^shall these traditions be given forth asjbe__actual truth oj^ of (the origin heaven and_earth?_ is The answer even as convincing as could be expected : as we_use^ Tradition^ is better thanjw-ritten records. now the spoken word in matters of^especial deli s cacy. difficulties of the narrative become its and in allj^mtsjrtie^^ Is it pointed out the argument_against his_assailant. that the Japanese are not . have no shown that the early records ethical teaching. andjiien memories were better in ancient times^ when they hadnot learnedtorely upon__writing. and it is urged that only people like the Chinese.

are based. seeing. the Way of the Gods 71 / Japanese without^teaching followed their naturally good^ instincts. JAs for the Indian account. The accounts given in other countries. when the_ great struggle between tradition | and science emerges. and thaj^only on__the introduction of I / Chinese_morals did evil HJevelop^ Finally. existence. there is the position of equally miraculous whether we describe the globe as resting on something or nothing.ntil_men _wjre_taught by the Chinese philosophy to analyse the acts^ of the gods by the aid of their feejble intelligence. How absurd to take them for granted. the earth itself. . to complete the account of ^mto^apologetics. but in fact. the and blossoming of plants and trees. the jower of rats and weasels to see in the dark. ^ . wondrous miracles surround /&quot.Shinto. walking. whether by Buddhism or Chi nese philosophy. the flight of bjrds insects. hearing. who exercised all their ingenuity over the problem. J^tjbo_ugh_the__ag ojf f the gods hasjDajssed away. on the other hand. and inferred that such /things must actually be the case. the : argument &quot. andbeyond all possibility of explanation are^the common tacts of us on alFsides. of the form of the heavens and earth. rises to its heights Many miracles occ_urred in the_age of thjjjgods. it JjETOreiiTand ^The Chinese Jbheories.son s I For example. on js^onl^Jipnseiise fit _to deceive w^men_and I _dp not think^it worthy_of^ref utation. and at the same time disbelieve in th^jmrj^lej_o^_th^^ivjne^ Age. . 1 \ and^the ma-nnerjn which they came into existence. the ^truth of which was not^disputed u. The reajassigned for disbelievmg_in_niiracles_is_ that they V cannojt be explained. are all of them inventions of men.

is infinitely_superior to qther^CQuntries. J3ut all ! which animate the universe are beyond the^ower_of analysis. and what^goes \G. and the five_element_s areL^jo^real existences.^to know how ^. even / iii the slightesf~degree.72 Religion in Japan profound philosophical speculations. How is it then possible for menjwho wejre born hunA C dreds and thousandsjof^myriads of years^ftexthej)rigin oT~theliiiiverse. ^Descendants for ever anTever.but diagrams. but what they call the absolute and essences.knjpj^^s_2i^ted_by the \ power^_of _sight.^ are fictitious names invented jy the philosophers/ and freely appliedjn every direction. and unmixed. its people are honest and to useless theorising upright^of heart. &quot. 6wing to the facts that it was begottenby two ^qds Jzanagi and Izanami.gt. wasjthe birthplace VoTAmaterasu-oho-mi-kami. and calculation. as long as the universe % shall endure. and sound jjx^ tremelyplausible.gt. with unsupported^nption^f / i .originated ajad^the sue- u by which it assumed its present form ? Our country.gj j is mdepgjadejvtL of |hem. and is ruled by her Sublime cessive steps ^ ( &amp. and all statements founded upon pretended explanations of them ar ejtpjbejre j ectecL*--&quot.ght rnfijTite^^^ ^_ \ &amp.gt. beyond these powers cannotjje known by any amount/ ofjthinking. and thus it possesses correct andTrue information with regard to the origin i .gt.the &amp. f&amp. and are not given and falsehoods likejstherjiatipns. They say that*-? andTthat a g en wbo]jMJ^^ nothinxistgjyhich &quot. the ej. whose chief and head it is . principles 1 i The j All that man can think out an^.gt. feeling. es&amp. &amp. of the universe^ This information has descended to us unaltered from the~age~ 67 tFe gods. nor canjbhey be fathomed by~the human intelligence.gt.

while the true tradition remains intact. still that curate discoveries only a matter of calculation. and moon came to asis jmme the^r form. sun. and one fancies that they must be right. the erroneous nature of these falsehoods becomes ever more apparent. theories of their own. made by the men of the^ITarJV^est as to the actual shape of the earth and its position in space ^ infinitely surpass the theories of the P/hingse. as to the origination of a thing in the midst of space and its /subsequent development. and have ascertained the actual shape of the earth. and that the sun and moon in a vertical direction. This indeed the genuine and true tradi as if based on profound principles.lt. so that. while the latter are the truth.Shinto. jmdjphisjresult confirms I the truth of our ancient traditions. as time goes on The Chinese accounts sound - and thought attains greater accuracy. and it may thus be conjectured how f uJLof errors are all thejjicjent Chinese accounts. tion. My reason for this observation is that in tries modern times men from coun lying far off in the west have jyoyaged _all round the seas as Jheir inclination prompted them. we find that there is not the slightest error. the Way of is the Gods 73 individuals. and there are many otherr things actually known to exist which cannot be solved! by that means . but whatever they Probably those countries possess may be. accounts sound shallow and But the former are lies. they . and still less is it possible to solve the\ question of how the earth. with what has been ascer tained to be the actual shape of the earth. They have discovered that the earth is round. But to compare our ancient traditions. and how impossible it is to believe revolve round it / anything that professes to be determined a priori. utterly unfounded in reason. while ^the Japanese. But although ac- when we come I &amp..

he__juhej!i^ hatred of the barbarian nature.Every As 1 From a work ofJHirata Atsutane. &quot. and the fleets of the foreigners should bringhim {tribute. &quot. so do the gods\ event in the universe is the act ot-* over all. In this way the two ages age of the gods and the present age are not one. published in 1813. and probably resem and Chinese theories.the. its stowed by Plato_ojij.&quot. but rules in accordance with precedents which date from the age of the gods. his s^ As the son mind is thought andjeeling new inventions. Satow s trans. cit.74 Religion in Japan ble the Indian can be but guesses after the event. . 51-53. Thus they differ not I tey divinejright the Emperor should reign over all the earth. Norjloes his rule depend upon hijj)Wji^yirtug orwisdom.. and if he is ever a in with hers. Jn perfect harmony of^ He does not seek out * - doubt he__has resoiLjo divination^ which &quot. of the gods unreserved Japan is . thus the Emperor rules over men.. op. Hence no jniscjinduct onjais part can absolve his people from obedience. but solely upon his divine descent. pp.^/ The positive teaching of the It new school can be more briefly summarised. would merit tbe_^raisejbe. reveals^ to_ him the mind but of the great goddess. as he is not responsible to them nor obliged to render a reason for anything he does. country and its people t^ir^irectjde^ejLj^a^ts^ in degree but in kind from others.

and ^extermination ^ the race. they / ployed the usual methods of purificatiojijU. the wind.worshipped own natures. Some of the gods are good and others and their acts partake of their &quot. the rain. ftof agreeable food. f Thejnpst fearful crimes which a man_cojnmita go unpunished by soci . they inflict ^disas. the good and bad fortune of states and of individual men.s. blowing_the and dancing. good luck. so long as they are undiscovered. the gods of heaven prayed to the_good^gods in ormed rites in honour Border Jo obtain blessings. They direct the changes of the seasons. the Way of the Gods 75 the gods. playing the harp. . as piness effectually as if they were to manifest themselves to our sight and give treasures. such as strangulation.j)erf the As Emperor and earth. they enjoy exemption from disease. Never mind the praise . singing to pulTthem in a good humour. If emthey^committed crimes or defiled themselves. in order^ to^javert theirdispleasure. / \ ^f Sometimes they even cause a clue to be given ^y^which a secret crime is made known to the_authoriThe gods bestow hap ties who have power to^unish. and long life and prosperity is granted to their descendants. .&quot. it is As there are^bad as well as good 1 necessary to propitiate them with ojffejrrngs gods. are bad.ught them I by their own_hearts. but they him the hatred of th. short life. and even if the good do not obtain material rewards. andjvhatever elslT isjikely JSute. and blessings on those who practise good. so his people ^qf Jjie^ it badjrods. by^ the by performing good acts 2S_re_gulated by the Even if the gods do not punish secret sing usual penalties .ein visible gods. and transfixion on jjEejoross.of_the_law. happiness draw jown on Theattainment of same law.jind. decapjtation.Shinto. misfortunes.

and ~Make^a vow to the jrod who rules ov^ r^theJJnseen^ cultivate the conscience (ma-go-koro} implanted in you. learn to stand injiwe of the/ Unseen. for it called i andjossibly aided in hw restoration to control in the reformation 0^1867-68. way it none the less accomplished much. but jict so that J-QU needjiotJbePX JheJJnseen. 21-25. ^-^-f- the priests or for the court butJpj^alL This systematising of ( Shintol never attained ** v - -^ ~ It remained the possession_of a little^ of scholars interested in antiquity.&quot. If you desire ) as^amedTbef ore J/hei_gods K&amp. learn betimes to bowdown before tradi- With this developed theology. . Enthusiasm^or the~Emperor succeeded 8 &quot.76 Religion in Japan or blame of fellow-men. no^precede the event. It Jias yetL tp Jbe_sho wnjthat aiiyofjhe_ Three Clans were influenced by them. rule.pp. The leaders of the &quot. &quot.feign / are directions for daily prayersjxnd rites. You cannot hope to live more than a hundred years under the most favourable circumstances. but as you will go to the Unseen Realm of Oho-kuni-nushi after death. and then y^&amp.gt. In my judgment too much credit hasbeen given to this little group of literarv^ men. 0p. for the religion is to be no longer exclusivelYJbr. and be subject to his him. and that will prevent you from doing wrong.uwill never wander f romjthe way.* attention to the Emperor.f to practise true virtue. as unlike the is tionsofthe Eojild as its mod cosmology ern view of the world. with which these writers would unlike the reconcile it.gt. I &quot.causes of the reTbrmation of~l 867-68 are clear_and sufficieiit^ it did Jhjs. cit.. in- ^ fluence.

is Yet Shinto true sense it more than a code of^ceremonies. little for in a \ Its la- embodies the religion of the people.&J and Shinto put in the place. and damashii meanTsplrit or genius. and ojjt importance in the government in 1877 its position was that subordinate bureau. the Way of the Gods 77 With the overthrow of the Shogunate. mer^lvjncurnber the shelves its maintain ofjmtiquarian scholars but. Its rapidly diminished. and pseudo-history are not the is and . 1 This phrase has come to represent the faith and self-confi dence of the people. of honour. the borious works of the great scholars who attempte{i_to inerranUruthfulness. cosmology. and finally a^decree wasjgsued declaring it to he merely aoonyenient schejne of govern mental ceremonies. . fastened ishness. as so of ten hap pens. impossible. none the less. their exegesis. Yamato-damashitQ xit/ &quot. Yamato is^th^j. theory of life make Shinto texts^ the basis for a_modern is The legends.gt. Buddhism was f&amp. a system its day was long past andjt_cpuld not ^SjiL^s disestablished maintain Jtself. gods are \V stories of the more than fairy tales . religion. Shinto holds large place in the people s hearts. not in dogmas nor in forms of worship it is a the spirit of Old Japan. and reconciliations. .Shinto. perhaps all the more. upon its accidents and exalted for the letter they its fool In their zeal obscured the since to spirit. - Its professed upholders and expounders.ncientjapanese naniejor_ the empire. apolo getics. its power spirit. thus putting itjonce more back into its old place.

Though perish. while influence on the living is akin to the patriotic feelings excited by our inheritance in the patriots of recognition of a precious Thus Shinto is witness to an abiding ages past. spirits power though taken over from the Chinese. or of rewards and pun In emotional content it can scarcely be any state of distinguished from our saintly Western reverence its for the and heroic dead. this is difficulty described. worshipful. continued existence of the heroes of the past. signifies that to which one bows in adora superior. and its emotions with ment. in our modern sense. The tion and gives himself in consecrated service. hell. Wr&J^Jbj^X^E^MS^iMA is The Emperor nor is not a god. powerful feelings . the land an abode of supernatural beings. mains beyond the reach of hostile criticism and argu If its doctrine be vague. and of the nation in its toils and aspira their inspiration tions. ^divine&quot. because it belongs to those which are only partly differentiated. yet rests on no argument and is embodied in no dogma. true to the ancient meaning. but. their To them Japan is a divine land. has become essential.78 Religion in Japan essential fact in Shinto is the religious patriot The and ism of the people. It has no clear vision of a heaven or ishments. the in the dgvat|gB_^^ Emperor. its substance re its forms reality. and inspiration of the in the continued belief of the past.

Shinto. The more may receive new names. the Way of the Gods 79 and in this it remains true representative of primitive religion. of the simple feelings which persist. knowledge. nor in its legends and cosmology. their trust in the national powers and destiny. but the farth_ will thing &quot. their interpretation being restated with man s progress in its dates. nor its Shinto will survive its not in genealogies. and while^jJapan works out a^future greater more glorious than the fabled Age of the Gods. &quot. abide . but in the affections of the people. nor theory of the descent of its sovereign from Ame-terasu-no-Mikoto. and their confidence that there is a something more than their present strength and wisdom which directs some and aids and on which theyjnay_rely.

who are versed the prayers are involved in form but in the ritual in substance. the stored are plain citizens insignial\ the priests . is There 1 neither creed nor of torii is still dogma nor required cere- The meaning a topic of learned discussion. the Worship of the Absolute. conscious of adoration. and rock. Buddhism. or bird it. the sacred memories of the dead. before l torii. shrine (mya) the simglicitj^ the ancient hut slightly modified with-^ In Shinto out elaboration or ornamentationj with the perch. the Way is of the Gods. depend but he is unable to tell the inquirer how or why. wonder. Around these gather sea. and sun. reverence. and Butsudo. and tree. in the great historic temples. 80 . and connected with them is are the traditions of the past. Supernatural Keligion. the all is Way the Buddhas. The worshipper ence. and. Shinto. it contains no idol or symbol except a mirror. NO of contrast in religion is greater than this. and the divinities are the familiar simple objects of and everyday contemplation mountains.LECTURE III.

incense. and traditions. many if great sects. polemics.Buddhism. drum towers. some them mutually hostile. of images. It thus dogmatics. with a minute divisions and subdivisions.. 1 which make life But when from the mya we pass great the contrast! to the 2 fern. and the will. and within are a large and complicated structure and elaborate worship libraries. of the intelligence. elaborate. schools for priests. an excellent des . 180-181 for cription of worship in the Imperial palace. nunneries. but a dim conviction and a vague emotion the better worth living. carvings. the Worship of the Absolute 81 monial. the emotions. no sacred book. exegesis. ornate. holy days and seasons magnificently illuminated copies of sacred books with everything for the satisfaction . how are Instead of the simple torii towering gateways. properly speaking. There are monasteries. pictures. assembly rooms for congregations. with apologetics. as of large number of Hence nothing were too petty for the foundation of a distinct order. bells. revolving pagodas. : gongs. with immense guardian statues. sacred wells. litanies. * From Shinto shrine to Buddhist temple. but ^Shinto has. the Buddhist canon numbers hundreds of volumes and its perusal is a task beyond the powers of any but the It has most exceptional students. in contrast to Shinto idj on its intellectual as on its 1 Vide Brinkley s Japan v. it has a minute and intricate theology. pp. and companies tonsured monks.

respond than otherwise in centuries. for thus may man s to external influences and more be ac nature itself &quot. Shinto has to do with the world we see and hear and touch. pass at once nation We went from primitive Shinto to the Buddh For we do not study in this change a slow ist faith. of A Manual . material side Fear . orders of sentient beings is bounded by Japan throughout the universe. of referred already to the effect of the introduction of Chinese civilisation upon the minds of the leaders the people. evolution by means of resident forces. fleeting show. Religion in Japan the ethics of Shinto are at most Bmpea?or. A. According to the Nihvngi.82 . complished in a generation The seventh century than all was more important to Japan We have the time which had preceded it. Jbut verse and stretches 1 its claims throughout unnumbered kalpas from eternity to eternity. but ism conceives this all as a given. and in like fashion the from mya to tera. &quot. in the year 1 552 priests and images s For the immense length of a kalpa. for Buddh man s delusion and seeks salvation in a world behind the world. p. _ the gods and obey tEe ethics but Buddhism has an which embraces all .&quot. may In Japan the two are in juxtaposition. Shinto Buddhism embraces the uniin time and ^space. but a conver sionnot growth. see Hardy Buddhism.&quot.&quot. &quot. 7. after earlier ineffectual attempts. but regeneration.D.

and shortly after tbe_JEmperor s jpalace was destroyed by fire from heaven. and the statue was cast into the sea.. for Shinto could not 9 See N.minister but of tbejgourt^and finally of the ^Emperor himself. for the story.. p. but Shinto_^rew ^ r steadily weake^and Buddhism 1 stronger.. T.. to the a pestilence breaking f j wrath ofjjie native gods. Therefore the Emperor commanded the rebuilding ofjhe temple. 361 et seq.Buddhism. - was attributed -^^F _.. but it t was put down. ^1 .. xxii. temples were erected in all important places. the books disapBut the ~ peared. ri But shortly after. A. p. ^to and more especially ^fr \ China to study the religion in its sources. and a further mission of priejtsjxxxk^ the place of those Korean whojmd been driyen^away.. and \ students_crQ_ssed the sea to Korea. S. the prime-minister becoming patron foreign cult out..-. the Worship came to of the Absolute 83 Yamato and were given / a welcome and a of the habitation. image_was recovered miraculously. the country was^ divided into dioceses.. so that the_Jem^le^ was Destroyed. and in the year 621 Buddhism became the established religion. These were followed by others in in creased Cumbers.. 65 et seq. were appointed. . the two chief opponents of Buddhism perish ing injthe flames. JThenceforth there was still_ conflict. and not_only^o_f J^Jayjouj^asjwon_ the prime. Anti-foreign and anti-Buddhistic feeling was aroused and a rebellion resulted. .I. ii. Bishops and archbishopi I .

and effect to the f ortbgir deities wj. Shinto. The Buddh maintained their reputation as wonder-workers until modern . arguments. neither in^ dialectics nor to in miracles. lel^^ T Shinto could onlyjnof thejiative gods andjbheJosejrfJihe was The attribute divinities.sjitiliseji. Besides. and how could simple-hearted compete with them? laymen 1 like the Shintojpriests .when Jhe ingenious declared that miracle: working priest. vii. argument * RndfjhTste__were_oL uick to seize the_opportunity. and the . of^deity vokelhe^ath ^plejor_^eir the pestilence which power. for who could say that the pestilence did not come be of the Buddhas at the coolness of cause of the anger their reception? Thej8hittteJ2!i^^ matched withthe newcomers. to build a great statue of I added people &quot. 360 times. 1 . the native gods were incarnations of Buddha. chap. Kobo-Paisbi. and it was manifest^in broke out when the first temple was erected but the could be turned the other way. \ and thus_ later _ at ^ moment was ^ a solejnnjvoicejrom thejnost holy Shinto! a hesitating Emperor^ r^om^anjimg Buddha.84 Religion in Japan and^com- / maintain iteelfjagainst the doctrines. xThus _did_theJi re iall from heaven reinforce jthejygigj^ji. p. ist priests Religions of Japan. rites. theJBuddhis^monks were deeplyjn_earnest and devoted to evangelistic labours.

!vJ The truth could not be summed up more succinctly we have seen. the Buddhas or more accurately. and hence responded with avidity to these wonders. illimitable China. and ~ because Buddhism wag V &quot. but overwhelming was security judicat religion of the entire civilised world orbis terrarumf Korea. philosophy. medicine. literature. Old things turned passed away. . As sjirpassed Ihe kami in the other argument the power. highly organised and government. and history the incoherent traditions of the past. to set down at random a few of the elements which impressed the Japan ese. and the leaders of the people eagerly to the treasures of the continental enlighten ment law. etiquette. architecture. v~f men The \ y we^r^told^Jturned to Buddhism because these^^^^^ new gods were powerful. thejyult of Jhe entire world. They reformed their government. And they were essentially worshippers of the society marvellous. and there_were new heaven and a^ew_earth. and in a dim ! jind fabled backgroiindjQdia Imagination could not mirror the reality nor reason compass it The world had been portions of the Empire of Japan.Buddhism. the Worship of the Absolute 85 But our sources give us tbeinterpretation of the themselves who were concerned in the conversion. while life was nar row in range and interests lifted But now a curtain was revealed a and poor in equipment suddenly. poetry. art. &quot. science. nation.

in enacted the same drama which.86 Religion in Japan instituted a system of education. and as result only a degeneration to a more hopeless condition but in the other there were . with a sudden The latent powers. revolutionised their entire the seventh century. 824. Thus. has held the attention of the who. . guided. and. was life. changed their social turned with eagerness to art. their 1 would have Dr. 3. As the Japanese came into contact with Chinese civilisation. developed. be tedious. but in one case there was no response. p. so did the American Indian come into contact with the European. and perfected them. revelation of response and imitation. did not acceptance of Chinese civilisation wholesale check the natural talents of the Japanese it aroused. not to organisation. fate Had the Japanese remained unmoved. student has rare material for the investigation of the methods of man s which contribute 1 to the rapid progress and of the causes development of a great civilisation. He transformation of Japan in the seventh century has a sensation akin to that produced by looking at a famil iar In both the scene through a telescope reversed. n. familiar with the transformation of Japan in our own day. adoption and then adaptation. in the nineteenth. Asakawa thinks the development in the seventh century was more rapid even than in the nineteenth. . comes to the study of the world.

philosophy. built roads. varied. for these two were is not two but one. strange. so system was still five hundred years in the &quot. priests introduced civilisation. its was in break with that future. but was the faith Its of enlightened men and the instrument of culture. the Worship of the Absolute 87 been that of the Indian and of the Ainu but now . images of artistic merit. and the faith of educated men. and art. and parcel with the civilisation.ages that these were the of faith. and wonderful forms of worship imposing structures. for criticism fol Moreover the same lows and does not precede faith. motives which led to the adoption of the continental civilisation led to religious belief. taught agriculture. Eeligion was an integral part of the structure of Chinese civilisation. priests in picturesque garments. Not only was it Buddhism the religion of the world.&quot. since religion the world over integral part of an man s development : Suddenly before the eyes of the people were un folded new. began their history. Buddhism was and the religion of It the state.Buddhism. jurisprudence. constructed temples. it was not yet sepa rated from the new enlightenment. and were the teachers of Part medicine. a ceremonial impressive and and the novelty of a missionary enterprise Soon be teaching that this is the way of salvation. hind the outward pomp was placed the power of the . alliance with Confucianism.

and more. The visit effect was immediate. for the artistic production of man took its place. Government ready give all its prestige to the faith. heart. nor a demand for a new &quot. mystery had been revealed. Horuiji and see Near Nara we niay still a temple which dates from the seventh century. had its official teachers and expounders. we unto What j ye in you. to The emotions which change in the emo 1 belonged to Shinto were thus heightened and broad ened. and the great Dai-Butsu at Nara is from the eighth. tions. No longer did reverence and dependence attach themselves chiefly to nature. the nature above nature. and besides enough other specimens of ancient religious art remain to 1 show how rapid was Thus are conditions stronger than doctrine. for when the native gods were declared to be the incarnations of Buddha. . and that the world behind the world. The boast that in the name is blood of Buddha there has never been shed a drop of contradicted throughout the history of Japan.88 Religion in Japan to punish opposition. but the proclamation of a ignorance worship that declare new knowledge. the Indian system became / the authorised interpreter of the old. No demand was made for a but their object was transformed. been no theology. In this then there was essentially not a call to repentance.&quot. Shinto was not deserted. but it was turned to account. there had. Before. which previously it but now was understood that the had been dimly felt after.

Buddhism. Eighth month. Ideals of the East. Their teachers were Buddhist monks. for maintenance. ogy. 686. . for temples had already been huilt in all erable towns. Of. a university with faculties of medicine. Princes and ministers made images for the Emperor. 7th month. 200 houses to another temple. something of Chinese literature had been known to the select few. no For gen less strong was the appeal to the mind. the Worship of the Absolute the acquisition. astrol was established.their hearts set on learning.&quot. Schools were attached to the temples. seventy per sons of pure conduct&quot. as the learning of the whole world conformed to their system. 1 3 &quot. and the men of the higher classes had &quot. . retired from the world.D. Impressive as was the appeal to the senses. Even in the pages of the Nihongi there is repeated testimony to the strength of Buddh consid ism. and literature After the reformation of 645. and Buddhist script ures were read in the palace. For example. priests were made &quot. 1st day. .priests and nuns to the number of 100 in all entered religions 100 images were set up 200 volumes of Buddhist scriptures were read. with nations a hundred years are but as yesterday it is when passed. &quot. . and a certain degree of Far learning was put within the reach of wide circles. but only in the seventh cen erations tury were there lasting results. their and lands had been lavishly set apart for 3 It was a nation born in a day. Second day. 118-127. fiefs of 100 houses were given to temples on the 23d. 100-105. eighty for the sake of the Emperor. 28th day. in A. and of the 89 how proficient were the adapters new 1 faith. Fifteenth day. pp.&quot.

Way other than the of the and philosophy was nothing And what a Buddhas.90 Religion in Japan was the badge of the later than this period scholarship priesthood. ceremonies. kindliness. and taught that not in absorption in the being of God. but is in the salvation is victory over passions and the self. . divine or human. &quot. and that without prayers or sacrifices or the paraphernalia of worship are to associate ourselves with others like-minded. He re nounced the search for the Absolute. but taught that we we are to have reliance in ourselves. that together 1 we may follow the noble Thus in the Okina Mondo the question is argued at length and learning is urged upon the Samurai as not the exclusive prerogative of the &quot. reading priests.&quot. science &quot. with the calling of a Literature received a religious colouring. and uprightness. They represent Buddha as turning from philosophic con templation and ascetic self-torture to the ordinary duties of charity. He renounced de pendence upon God. angels. nor in transcendental heaven beyond the grave. and forbade to place faith in any saviour.&quot. for Buddhism when it came to Japan was by no means the simple system unfolded by modern scholars in their efforts to get back to the original sources. and in the seventeenth century 1 it was thought to be essentially effeminate and incompatible soldier.controlled was by theology. world of wonder was thus opened to the mind.

The message of the historic be only the beginning of his teaching. was recog nised. however. All that again. Buddha was held Nor was it considered that the two doctrines do not differ as less and greater. had been exorcised came back demons and gods and miracles. it had gathered to itself strange deities as 1 it had invented strange Buddhas. being system. its used only by this school Little term of reproach for the simpler . title It adorned . the Absolute. the developed and magnified Buddhism of Korea and China. the Worship of the Absolute 91 eightfold path which is hased on the four great truths. In long journey of more than a thousand years from India to Japan. This. Hindydna. too. for the religion had changed its outward form as in inner meaning. salvation. the soul.Buddhism. and thus attain the end of our labours lect of India This simple teaching did not long satisfy the intel nor the needs of the people. in was not all. its The Mahdydna is Vehicle. and salvation by metaphysics and ascetics. and a philosophic creed was set forth as the true wisdom which could make men wise unto salva to tion. The system which came 1 to Japan was the Greater Vehicle. The Little Vehicle. but are in thorough-going contradiction. but only as a temporary device for the weakminded and faint-hearted who could not endure sound doctrine. the salvation sought by Buddha being the reverse of that proclaimed by his followers.

God of Medicine. of offerings of a tiny fraction repeat a prayer in an unknown tongue. the same shown reliance upon powers superior and invisible. Before these Ema. pp. and if a Christian church be entered 1 See Deal s Catena of Buddhist Scriptures. God of the Dead. is 1 the Goddess of in countless Mercy. . - is transferred by the hand of mothers from his wooden . and they became the gods of the common people: Kwannon. life confident that some blessing for the which now is has been gained. 383 ff. p. With the peasantry. Handbook Japan.92 Religion in Japan temples with their images. for a description of 2 Murray s Kwannon. their images the simple-hearted peasants stand. present world. Buddhist temple and Shinto shrine are alike. and ears of their offspring eyes and ears to the eyes and many others. clap their hands. and depart. and whose delineation 2 task of artists Binzuru. with the same un There is the same want thinking obedience to custom. the same reverence for the wonderful. whose virtue . make a cent. 32.. 1st ed. whose benignant statue found became the favourite temples. for the popular deities. for the religion of the great Indian has turned back against salvation by faith protestant to the worship which he rejected. and the same the evils of the longing for protection against desire for its goods. This worship is in for in tera as in mya is distinguishable from Shinto. with rare exceptions. and the same of dogma.

find enough for our purposes. represented to the imagination . of the earliest sects Of the teaching we know nothing. we more than point out most general fashion their characteristics. he worships and implores. Nor knowing what it in popular Buddhism is the moral nature yet aroused or any to demand made for holiness. as always. the According of doctrine in the development Buddhist community has corre life sponded to the successive periods of Buddha s after his attainment. merely intensifying the religious experience. the Chinese system appealing irresistibly to the emotions and the imagination. since our limits do not permit even a cursory review of the Yet we may readily history of Buddhist doctrine. as the mind of man works along such well-defined lines that we need only a sign-post at the beginning to comprehend the destination. to the Greater Vehicle. Shinto yielded Buddhism simply as the less to the greater. This was for the few and yet. the same muttered words. and our survey nor can begins with the doctrines promulgated in the eighth and ninth centuries in the . and perhaps the same of offerings &quot. In Buddhism also. None lect. the Worship of the Absolute 93 casually there are the same motions of reverence.not a fraction of a cent is.&quot.Buddhism. the few determined the faith of the many. the less irresistible was the appeal to the intel .

Thus. But so prosaic an explanation does not satisfy even the Little Vehicle. 11. from the Sanskrit text in vol. of the coming attainment. Lloyd s Developments of Japanese Buddh ism. See also the description. . while in his mortal body Buddha he proclaims preaches to men. p. of the same series. xlix. showing it describes the scene with all at the command of the Indian assailed by infernal unmoved and serene until the powers. A. on coming to full self-consciousness. xv. xxii.. vol.94 Religion in Japan 1 Our by his conflict and victory under the Bo tree. xix. 13. for it Gautama not only raises the conflict to a struggle of cosmic sig nificance. The Fo-Sho-Hing-Tsan-King. or at least own salvation. pp.. Both of the Prince of temptations named above are suggested by Mara Evil to enter Nirvana at once. modern scholars interpret the struggle psychologically. in general. but it foreshadows in the sermon preached at its conclusion the entire development of Buddhist doctrine.. iii. 14. Sacred Books of the East. Buddha. was a victory over temptations common to men that is. of the desire to preach after his iii. 165. and to become a world conqueror. 49. the corresponding sections of the trans. 2 T. without under taking the thankless and onerous task of saving others.. how ever. 147 /.. with a spiritual body the same truth to all who in the future shall become 1 See. S.. but remaining Evil One himself recognises his defeat/ This. Deal s trans.. xv. 37-46. is not sufficient for the Greater Vehicle. for the wealth of imagery imagination. Cf. is to rest content with his tempted to use his powers for conquest. It .

was a simple summary of the elementary truths. by marks the place of a sermon. Already. the Worship of the Absolute 95 Buddhas. and with his third and real body he is simul taneously fixed in his eternal state in contemplation of the Absolute. 1 Then followed a period of ex when he preached to Bodhsattvas in the ten Deal s trans. but the Greater Vehicle makes it the first period of Buddha s activities. and the deliv Its substance.Buddhism. the things which are unseen are real and eternal. come the scriptures which pansion. iii. cit. while the things which are seen are temporal and illusory. The same activities. op. then. called Kokukon (Deer Park) from the place of Buddha s residence. . and in which its account of the same discourse are found all is esoteric and metaphysical in the doctrine of 8 the developed schools. according to the Little Yehicle. 1 and readily understood by the people. we have the funda mental metaphysical distinction. and from this period constitute its canon. But was too advanced the multitude and therefore ensued a period of twelve years. Because of the hardness of men s hearts the Master set forth the doctrines of the Little Vehicle... It is given at once on attaining salvation. 2 The scene of the first discourse is different as well as its substance.. 15. tivity This first brief it period of ac for was named Kegon. distinction belongs to all of Buddha s its He begins his labours still great tope near Benares ery.

and being. here. pp. 1 by successive and move and have our As thus Gautama s life was divided into five periods which corresponded with the great divisions of his teach ing. when he teaches the doctrine of the Absolute. from it come the characteristic scriptures of the Greater Vehicle. the Absolute. with its recognition of Hindu the inclusive form of the nation s . pp. The Ideals of by Okakura. But Buddha did not stop with more positive concep tions he described the one heart and the one nature of In the fifth period. 71-81. 441. but which incarnate and manifested Buddhas. so has the community followed the same order of Thus for centuries only the Little development Vehicle was preached. . A. which is the negation of all which is finite.96 Religion in Japan assuming a form of greater import ance and profundity (Hodo). but this was only intro regions. his doctrine ductory to a fourth period (Dai Hannya). until in the fulness of times ma ture teachers were born who were able to comprehend the profounder aspects of the Master s doctrine. life. and therefore can be neither described nor comprehended by the ordinary processes of the intellect.&quot. which cannot be is set forth indeed in words. which is in all things and constitutes them all. ism as also p.. and in which we live This last period is called Nirvana (Nehan). 347-353 &quot. xxii.. and the highest stage was reached in the 1 Buddhism of China T. S. Cf. the East.

is given by the Shin sect. s6 Buddha is 2 at once the histori who have taught successively the truth itself. 130. but were incarnations of the same original It is Buddha far of enlightenment. the Worship of the Absolute 97 and Japan nor were these teachers inferior in author . p. unchangeable. 126-7 below. nor tical the truth iden with his system. but essentially they are all one in the invisible being of the Infinite. by the desire for replaced the attainment of Absolute. to men. with gradually decreasing powers. 1 apparent how we have come. * I am about to Thus a Mahay ana Life of Buddha begins: describe the traditional life of Sakya Tathagata. Beal. but at the cost of Quite a different division of the history. ity to the historic Gautama. Buddhahood and absorption in the Hence the ancient gods of Japan were proclaimed to be incarnations. Catena. and the Absolute The historic Buddhas have been many. spiritual was present in cal personages. is Buddha is no longer the historical Gautama. Two results are gained at once. and their phenomenal consciousness has varied. and an all-embracing comprehensiveness was attained. See p. human form and he . commu nion with the Absolute. the historical since a Gautama occupies a subordinate is place opened way and salvation in Nirvana for belief in is many Buddhas. of his great love he was led to assume a was born. As simultaneously he was visible to men and gods in a human body under the Bo tree. But by the constraining power 1 &quot. with respect to the essentially pure and universally diffused body that is incapable of beginning or end. and eternal.Buddhism.&quot.

. *It is based upon the Saddharma-pundartka. . but different ways of attaining salvation by contempla tion. or The Lotus of the True Law. sects set forth these differing methods. T. The Shin-gon was founded by the great priest Kobo Daishi in the tenth century. 373-382. it has become the par ent of the other sects. piety. and striving for the enlightenment and weal of our creatures. eclectic.. for its strength was its weakness. pp.. and on these basing their hopes established new sects and taught exclusive and mutually contra dictory doctrines. The teaching of the Lotus comes to this. &quot. The comprehensiveness of Buddhism embraced not only differing scriptures. divergent and contradictory. p. S. It admits that from a practical point of view one may distinguish three means. Kern. These means fellow are. by philosophic comprehension. Word) and the Zen. is 8 and combines the various ways of salvation. Kern s Introd. Founded in the ninth century. called Vehicles (Yanas) to attain the summum bonum. illustrated The more great transcendental forms are the Shin-gon (True by two sect sects. xxi. in plain language. xxii. however. trans. philosophy or rather Yogism. Sacred Books of the East. sovol. .98 Religion in Japan the surrendering that which was distinctive. A. by ascetic practices. as men laid hold of differing doctrines and differing methods. . most characteristic features of primitive Buddhism.. by H. although in a higher sense there is only one Vehicle. that every one should try to become a Buddha. xxxiv. Kobo visited China.&quot. Nirvana. and various The great sect in Japan called Ten 1 Dai.

the centre of all things. and around these group after group significant of genera and species. A. for he remains in the system only as one of the four Buddhas of contemplation. which exists behind and within the un real ideas world of appearances. until the individual is reached. 130-140. Thus he. the Worship of the Absolute 99 wrought miracles. unchanging and real. Ideals of tlie 1 T. pp. This is the &quot. but as the centre of the lotus with eight Buddhas about him is as petals. identified by the common people with the sun. xxii. or better IT. The centre of the world of is Dai Nichi. His system shows Buddha as the centre of a world of ideas. a symbol of the highest abstraction. absorbed. S. world. In popular language historic we become Buddha. real and phenomenal. The end ledge is of the u Way &quot. and by a righteous life. one of the last ideas which re main before 1 all is swallowed up in the Absolute. diamond &quot. as the sun surrounded by four planets. is reached when is perfect know attained and the individual absorbed in the Infinite. by meditation and knowledge.. so has his distinctive teaching and glory. and correspondingly there are two ways of salvation. . and was esteemed an incarnation of Buddha.Buddhism. while the is phenomenal world also who is represented not now grouped around Dai Nichi. 383-405. Cf. East. and around him are the four Buddhas of contemplation representing the highest abstractions. and as Thus was the Buddha himself his individuality disappeared.

this self. ! It distinguishes life. to put away study and striving of all kinds. But with its distinctions true self is beneath it and salvation is in its knowledge. excepting that 1 it bears with 1 it everlasting peace. especially pp. 10 /. pp. We are to get below these distinctions of subject. which is before them all and of which this tations. and illusive. Then in the undifferentiated pure material of consciousness we shall reach reality. phenomenal. nothing &quot. salvation favourite Its Oh.&quot. also Ideals of the East. Motora s Essay in Eastern Philosophy. the I and the world. to be nothing. Prof. to the unchanging undifferentiated self. To do but temporary manifes to rid our minds of their we are all are ordinary modes of operation.. knower-known. the self of which we think and speak.ill more It seeks clearly by the Zen sect. and will. two selves the first.object. and a divine emptiness. . the self which has the world as its object between subject and object the knower and the known. 170-176. ego-non-ego. and to destroy desire. hymn might well be : &quot. a reality without describable content. the ego and the nonThe ego. is itself temporal. of our conscious the self of presentations. the self of our ordinary feelings. thoughts.zoo Religion in Japan revealed The metaphysical character of the Greater Vehicle is sl. Cf. by meditation.

ligion without a 1 and is is a re God or a soul. The Little has to do with &quot. the at Little Vehicle sets forth Nirvana as the object of tainment. His instructor suggests puzzling questions and to the intuitive activities of the trusts mind for knowledge of the answer. S. the Greater metaphy- E. B.. but it still holds an honoured place. many points The two Vehicles indeed have of difference. the Greater strives after Buddhahood. sects are The Shin-gon and Zen extreme illustrations of the divergence of the Greater Vehicle from the teachings of Gautama. The Lord Buddha is See Saddharma Pundarika. xxi. only one Buddha. like the Master and aid in the salvation of others the Little Vehicle re fuses to speak of the ultimate questions. the comprehension passes from mind to mind without audible words. and its scholars are - men of repute. 101 of attainment is is by meditation and sug There a curriculum with prescribed post ures and methods through which the seeker passes. . and teaches that each disciple may become ..Buddhism. 106 seq. &quot. It is one of the chief themes of this Sutra. while the Greater Vehicle obscures his importance in a multitude of mythical Buddhas past and present and to come . for the revelation of this destiny of Buddhahood for all believers. the Worship of the Absolute The method gestion. [ If a class be gathered. the teacher noting the enlightenment by the expression of the fa^oJ Naturally the Zen sect has not been numer ous. really the being of them all.. p. the historic Gautama.

no true satis In its very nature as fleeting. nothing remains. and sets sical up again these ontowhich logical entities. And to learn this is to make a beginning of wisdom. 5. Thus the beginning i. Gautama is it. as set forth in the first course of lectures in this series. like unto it : in the fleeting. and believers are ever mindful of its presence behind the phenomenal world. literally its ro. Only thus there salvation. misery is embedded. &quot. c. in the doctrine of the Abso under lute. The and practical lesson therefore its is plain. its a. of Buddhism. that in the rest converge. is To be religious 1 to be a monk. and there room for lay 9 Buddhism.IO2 Religion in Japan through and through. flee the its world. The beginning of the syllabary priest. Buddhist as arranged in a verse by a a child learns first of all that &quot. its pleasures. yet none the a uniting all in one. by Rhys-Davids. the second truth is all things. is the impermanence of Everything passes away. faction. chases shadows as he attempts gratification in a sphere of il lusion. its is labours. is gains. so that away. who desires permanence. and man. world there can be no salvation. bor rowed &quot. represented as dissuading his disciples its from seeking while in the Greater Vehicle standing is the end of endeavour.&quot. and the doctrines of the Shin-gon less there are and the Zen resemblances sects in Japan. losses its relationships. Wide 1 as iq thq difference frfitween original Budd h - ism. j all But the is chief difference. ha.color and leaf fade .

in Christianity. and in the birth stories he concludes by declaring that Doubtless he took the lion. of the net result of lives. but only ontologically. Bud dhist Literature in China. but none the less it became of the highest importance. Gautama denies and as the doctrine of the soul. of seeking satisfaction in first doctrine and minimised the world. over this doctrine from the popular belief. . The Sermons of Asvaghosha translated by Deal. Gautama is represented as con scious of the infinite succession of previous existences. pp. our this is given mythological form it differs from transmigration! not religiously.&quot. terrors of the law. the beggar. nor is it necessary to his system. nor popularly. the prince. was himself. successive existences that of the &quot. &quot. 101 ff.Buddhism. or whatever form the hero might have taken. On the one hand. all the doctrine of successive existences alike impermanent. 1 Another point of importance is transmigration. as the best they can hope is for a chance for the truly religious life in some future existence. but he believes in the reincarnation of influence. any of them. heightened the It was adding inhabit. and this teaching of &quot. all alike emphasising the folly. 8 The conviction of misery takes the place occupied by the conviction of sin&quot. The opposing disput ants are always converted in the end and enter the order. the Worship of the Absolute 103 brethren only by accommodation. 2 the entire universe of the imagination to the motive which led 1 to flight from the world we now Cf.

bird. which with truth in which all agree. and how that the never-ending law produces again and again the same results in series which are identically the same ? Thus &quot. insect. cause and forever endures. and his immediate disciples de clared them understandable only by a Buddha that is. will not long content any. studying . impossible to check inquiry at this point. though effect. Meanwhile a certain explanation is vouchsafed with which the ordinary intellect is to rest content Thus. is it animal. declares itself content pragmatic philosophy.In my teacher in Buddhism once said to me : all has been an American named preceding worlds there Knox. it is This is un all changeable. though Gautama answer such questions.IO4 Religion in Japan precisely in proportion as this teaching for a But was thus emphasised became the necessity for here metaphysics. all his For how that Buddha. man. seated in a room precisely like this. But it is A And so it was with the Mahayana. to further inquiries is it its scholars pressed on and further explanations. in incarnations god. the law. and not only embodied in phenomena but it constitutes them. men were forced to distinguish between ap refused to pearance and substance. all things disappear. karma. by omniscience. which forms us and constitutes us men or animals or insects or gods. Thus in ourselves it is karma. is ever one. the result of our previous series of activities. eternal.

So&quot. Gau tama simply took over transmigration. the change an illusion. for the object of its endless search is the its Absolute. the seeming change? answer is the is same. /It apparent that thence come various sects fail and schools. f&quot. the greater the dissatisfaction. less believed in it though he doubt his trines are quite The modern exponents of able to teach them without doc faith in . upon It is not of the essence of his system. since all efforts and each must be tried in turn. How comes that the great wheel of existence thus forever revolves without alteration though is with Whenever the reality. and thus does metaphysics revenge as we may judge. the unchangeless the things which are seen are temporal. and shall it be in all the worlds to come.Buddhism. And the lesson drawn is forever the same : we must free ourselves from the phenomenal and cleave only to thenoumen|l. this question is asked. and the greater the probability that the devout soul will turn to some new device for the attainment of the / ( Thus is Buddhism transformed. as we have said. the Worship of the Absolute 105 so it Buddhism with a Japanese named Takahashi. In many portions and forms this is the message of the Mahay ana. The greater the earnestness.&quot. the things which are unseen are eternal.faf central what J Gautama itself denied. making its denial. and the end of salvation is is the absorp tion of the finite in the Infinite.

things. and we are to take as determina tive the faith of the majority of the adherents to the complex systems which bear his name. and find his truth the clearer without And this statement raises the question as to the feature in the this 1 it. by Paul Carus. The Gospel of Buddha. we find Buddha s differentia in them he turned from the religious thinking and methods of his times. but in Buddhism. and shall find For thus do the that Buddha was not a Buddhist. at least. . and the emphasis In the story of transferred to another sphere. the clothing choke the life. traditional drapings of a teaching obscure its meaning. even in is the Hinayana. and the em truths phasis on charity and a common morality ? In these . Buddha under 1 the Bo tree already the Hinayana sees Of. this world is denied. then we shall answer our question from the Mahay^na. the worship of the world which now is. if we are to find not in the we mean by own teach religion of Buddha But if but in Buddhism.io6 Religion in Japan mythology. Was it the great and the noble eightfold path ? Was it the re volt against metaphysics and asceticism. essential system. The to transition is Buddhism from the primitive religion of Japan illustrative of the change from natural In Shinto is to supernatural religion. essential not his own world it if view. nor his ing. and in them he made a contribution to the ethics and religions of the world.

but . and But none of these. a transition which is the outcome of the natural working of man s mind. miracles. In both instances we have that is. the religion of the supernatural of the world behind the world . in visions. nor the limitless of the metaphysician. and many others suppose religion to be the discernment of the Infinite in the finite. which are as old and as universal as humanity itself. of the origin of supernatural re The explanation ligion has been sought in many directions in ghosts. in man s own shadow upon the of the states universe. in the projection of in the irruption scious. and in Miiller their explanations they describe the Infinite not as the Max Absolute. So universal a fact must have an explanation. the Worship of the Absolute 107 him in conflict with transcendental foes. in the anthropomorphisation of the world. nor all of them. while the Mahayana its transforms him into the representative of scheme of metaphysics. revelations. in one instance it is formed by the sensuous imagination. Men everywhere have been be lievers in the world behind the world. account phenomena. and this in man s mind. in dreams. subconscious into the con abnormal wherein the subject is really allied deranged. refusing to be content with the visible. for the in apparitions. and in the other of concepts.Buddhism. audible. and tangible world of sense and time. in hypnotism and the phenomena. in second sight.

as yet there It no clear thought of the invisible remains wholly within the realm of nature. which real But. cavern.io8 Religion in Japan more in as this consciousness of something ity consists. and hears. and yet the old. This When memory flection and anticipation become active and re begins. trees as men walking. philo sophy. mountain. sun. and he begins to classify his objects and to discriminate. He had been as the man who saw before him. the universe of science. while power attracts his attention and the passing scene suffices. sea. as tree. It worships the object itself. and mtuitionally feels that the fulness of the object of sense in is not exhausted what he touches. knows no soul neither in himself nor in nature. is while he remains unreflective. awaken reverence and excite acts of devotion and feelings of Man dependence with prayers and offerings. and its newness is in the ideas and the imagination which give form and substance to the universe he constructs. though he is dimly conscious of a greater than him self to which he renders homage. past and future. and religion. as he attempts to assign effects to causes. as is we have seen. mythology. but now. and he sees all things clearly. a as to the new world opens man whose eyes were touched the second time. then he gains a larger world. He has obtained his . and which becomes to him reality in a higher sense. there is religion when world. It is a new world. sees.

for Nirvana is the utter passing away. for to But against this Buddha pro him there was neither soul nor Absolute. 1 . assertion of the permanence of the concept- of the substance. Mahd-Parinibdna-sutta. . S. again. we may answer which has often been put: How comes it that the religion which knows neither the soul nor God. the com plete going out. si. and which has no place for prayer. All phenomena pass. also Hop . and we gain salvation only by ceasing the bootless search. 1 But. is as metaphysical as Brahman- ism. flows away in This apprehension of the temporal. as we have even for Buddha there was it karma. law.Buddhism.E. to the the world came back ma jority of its followers.B. which. Hence the world behind and Buddhism. worthless speed. 20. the Worship of the Absolute 109 measure for the fleeting world. the tangible. then. 48 kins in The Religions of India. from which there noticed. unchanging forever. the question Incidentally. has claimed unnumbered multitudes as its votaries? Cf. of the Absolute. and as super-naturalistic as popular Hinduism. and this constituted self the reality of his religion. represents the Buddhist it is faith in its first stage. in comparison with the unchanging world beyond. pp. . is no returning. of the noumenon. tested. the underlying reality only remains. 335-336. For it only abides and is eternal behind phenomena. as illusive and unreal. Hi. while contrasted with the Brahman that is. neither Heaven nor Hell.

it that. and the Greater This. but karma and the its inherited belief in transmigration rendered of denial of the soul and God of none effect.no Our answer needs of is Religion in Japan that it men by conforming Buddhism has not. Popular religion uses the traditions and myths of the people and weaves them a magic world. it hand the imagination given free play in the greater world. or electrons. out of centres so of force. since material was given for the construction of the world behind the world. These three agree in turning from mere phenomena to that on which they depend. though is the world and the fashion of change. percepts and science makes up its world out of atoms. continuity preserved and the fundamental laws are held as . The Lesser Vehicle Vehicle in both. revels in the latter. was conceptual. into if the fashion changes. On the one world of ideas deified. the less the achievement of philosophy is none and of science. the on the other it was popular. and changeless laws. or. which is not bound by the laws of time and space. the achievement of supernatural religion in placing reality in the world behind the world. in the beginning attempted to be entirely of nature. for Buddhism has met the to man s mind. philosophy turns from and images to concepts and reifies them. and by a perfectly natural process reinstating what its founder denied. the super-nature.

Buddhism, the Worship of the Absolute
everlasting.

in
of re

Indeed, the scientist

may dream

ducing that behind the world of an
series of

all qualitative differences

to quantitative, so

infinite variety

we have
is

a

numbers

of a limitless
itself.

monotony, which

the

reality of the universe

Doubtless, the abnormal in

man

has stimulated the

notion of a super-nature, which breaks into the world

law and knowledge and doubtless these abnormal phenomena have given rise to forms of magical religion but this is secondary, and it is not
of scientific
;

the source of supernatural religion, which cannot

come

from the abnormal nor find
miracle or magic, since
it is

its

necessary content in

co-extensive with reflective

humanity.

The super-world
minds, as
it

of

the imagination, revealed in

diverse fashions, excites no religious emotion in

many
So

seems inferior to the world we know.
of positive religions fade
of their

do the visions
ing the
life

away

;

reflect

and hopes

cold and dim.

Plato were
]

it

times, they grow should not like the Republic of offered to us, not the Heaven of Moham-

own

We

vmed, nor the Paradise of the Chinese Buddhists.
heavens cease to call forth desires, so do
gods, and, like

As men outgrow

Buddha, they may deny the superworld in order to preserve their religion. But even so straightway man constructs another

order of the supernatural.

Thus have philosophers

H2
in all ages,

Religion in Japan
;

-

denying the other world of the sensuous imagination, rendered worship to pure ideas, and they

-

VJ&i

&

have found themselves in the peace of a perfect trust in the contemplation of the unseen and the eternal, and
salvation has

come
it

with it

So was

as they have identified themselves with Spinoza, and with the Chinese

philosophers of the eleventh century A.D., and with the

Or man may make Buddhist monks of the Mahayana. science his religion as he feels himself in the presence
of that

which

is

greater than himself,

which he rever

ences and adores, and in dependence

upon

it

finds

and

peace and rest. For in the super-world,
finding nothing which
is at

irreligion essentially, in the
is

world

the habit of

mind which,
to
itself,

it

adores,

no superior
is

once satisfied with

its

own pre-eminence and
at once

self-

sufficiency.

But such an
facts of

attitude

abnormal

and untrue to the

our

common experience. So

that religion, far from being the offspring of the abnormal

and the

lawless, is itself the emotional expression of

man s deep
1

consciousness of his true position in the

Acvaghosha s Discourse on the Awakening of Faith in Mahdydna, translated from the Chinese by Teitaro Suzuki. It is to be highly recommended as a representative writing of the Mahdydna. 2 1 append the inscription on the tomb of a Buddhist prelate,
Cf.

the

translated by

my

friend the Rev. K. Ibuka, D.D.:
[here] Seeks Nirvana.

The Hoin Jakudo

The Hoin (high rank of Buddhist priesthood) Jakudo who was

Buddhism, the Worship of the Absolute

1

13

calledTannen (Fulness) and whose nom deplume was Gaun (Sleep ing Cloud) was a native of the capital of the province of Nagato. He was a descendant of the noble family of Seiwa Genji and his original name was Tojo. His ancestors lived in Tojo in the
province of Aki and they adopted the name as the family name. The Teacher Jakudo was the second son of Kuninao Toyo kun. When he was thirteen years of age he was admitted into the priesthood in the temple Shugakuin and soon distinguished himself for quick perception and brightness of mind. As he matured he cherished a great ambition to travel through the whole country in search of sacred places and famous teachers his object was thus to reach the fountain-head of both the esoteric and exoteric doctrines of Buddhism and at the same time to master all the branches of secular learning. After thus wandering about for several years he finally returned and took his abode in Jishoin Eifukuji. Afterwards he moved to Hok;

woji and rebuilt

its shrines, greatly adding to their beauty and splendour. The Master was a man of humble mind. He never flattered the vain world or sought after popularity. In the

fourth year Bunka (1807) he retired from the active duties of priest in order to enjoy the remainder of his life in peace. After his retirement, by general request (or vote) he was raised to the rank of Hoin, although it was contrary to his own desire. Upon a certain day of a certain month the Master selected on the seaside a site for his own tomb. He himself wrote the Sanskrit character and his name and requested me to write his epitaph, which J did as follows

a

;

The abounding

fulness of the sea of

Law

Is like that of the

yonder sea whose face the waters cover.
;

The tides bring the blessed tidings The wind wafts the ship of mercy How delightful to rest on such seaside
;

Oh

the Infinity of Bliss, Endless Happiness

!

TOJO JUNSHIN

The Master entered Nirvana on August 20th, in the eighth
year of Bunsei.
(1825.)

LECTURE

IV.

Developments of Buddhism. Salvation by Faith.
Supernatural Religion.
if

we

exaggerate, the world revenges itself

BUT upon
Gautama
his state

the super-world.

The worship
away

of

the

Absolute requires quiet,

leisure,

and contemplation.
the activities of

in the beginning put

and family never again to resume them, and Buddhism has consistently insisted upon flight from
the world.
Its

method forbids occupation,
world
is

toil,

the

activities of life; for the

evil

through and

in through and must be renounced, and this not Yet Gautama turned theory only but in practice.

from asceticism as a

failure

a failure in

its

principle

and

in its results.

of his career

Thus he accepted in the beginning the "deer park," which became his abode

in the rainy season, for the super-nature still finds its in nature, and the man of the world endows

support

establishments for religion, vicariously sharing in their
benefits.

Monks were

forbidden
114

all

industry,

and

by art. called first into activity are akin to the aesthetic feelings. and pictures and images.Developments of Buddhism 115 were made dependent upon free-will offerings.. itself temperament poured its religion. and before long such gifts assumed transcendent to a importance better a gift of a trifle monk than a it pre seventh fortune to the vulgar sick and poor.. S. 84. The Maha-parinibana-sutta. and elaborate vestments and rituals. for they Hence come groves and temples and gardens. E. the adornment of 1 so that art out upon and religion 9 Cf. For not only vast extent Thus the world did the desire for merit stimulate gifts. Hence as early as the eighth century there are loud complaints of the wealth and luxury laid of the orders. and in their became a grievous evil. The emotions of reverence and dependence. p. . but the re ligious emotions gave wide field for their employment. Even in our earliest sources a gift brought merit to the 1 giver. and great nobles and emperors vied with each other in gifts. Japanese artistic The _wealth _gjLlbe. B. and elaborate or by nature. See A. The Government century endowed the temples. So was in the eminently in Japan. xi.. . pp. and of the added burdens of the orders upon the laity all for the possessions were freed from burdens. 342-343. are fostered naments costly and magnificent.* came back and took possession of the order devoted to the super-world.

but with a religion . of -the powerful. the wealthy. without earnestness or which purpose. luxurious. and the aristocratic. immoral. with its conception of illusion and its mysterious glimpses of the real world behind the of sense. ence of the world corrupting &quot. Still veil other elements entered first in. &quot. the longing for a luxurious life of retiracy. The &quot. The world had been cast out and repudiated. For surely no corruption is greater than this. great families became abbots. merit &quot. other-worldly religion. the gratification of the senses.1 1 6 Religion in Japan a unity fostered by the mystic worship seemed one of the Absolute. power. It^was the Court which welcomed Buddhism. gained through thus al ready before the close of the Nihongi we see how Other motives also operated the influ powerfully. wealthy. became Heads of the powerful. and the abode of monks became The condition the is home of worldliness. and aristocratic. reflected in the literature of the It eleventh and twelfth centuries. and the conversion. religious certainly. but wealth.of its chiefs. the ad mission on false pretences of that which has been for mally expelled. and emperors retired into monasteries. the nation began with The Church. and the example of the aristocracy led to the adoption of a religious life from irreligious motives. shows a civilisation effeminate.

The Genji Monogatari. The Emperor was never really ruler of all Japan. 141-144. who. sought the conversion of their subjects by force. in the capital rival families struggled for pre-eminence. and there ensued five centuries of bitter orders participated in it 2 strife. The Buddhist 1 Cf. and plete. in part of satiety. Suyematz. . arms of one of Japan s greatest generals Thus the Church became a part of the its world. became the baron of one of the greatest provinces for a century. repeating point by point the history of religious establishments in other lands. Monasteries became of Hieisan cita and the armed monks overawed the capital. having converted the Japanese barons.Developments of Buddhism was in part of superstition. and the world with ambitions and pleasures drove out the super-world and its aspirations. while later the knights of the Church militant defied the for ten years. It is not surprising that ultimately the Buddhists extirpated the Christians. Ideals of the East. has been in part translated into English by K. The religious The head of a great sect. Sect struggled against sect and Buddhist persecuted Buddh ist. the Christian orders themselves being soldiers of the world. 1 1 7 and is in part of aesthetics. The most famous of the mediaeval romances. dels. 8 Probably the attempted centralisation had not been comGreat men in the provinces went their own way. the Shin-shu. pp. The intelligence of the nation turned and the control of affairs slips from the ener vated grasp of the Emperor and of his nobles. In the twelfth century the long peace broke up. to art.

Ultimately.dlv^activities interests. and its revival a revival of religion ami not ofjwgrj. faith to a condition of sub- fort Simultaneously ijjsej^se^to gentlemen^and. disestablished^ it_is pathy and the i dependent wholly upon the symofferings of the people. of forgiveness and mercy &quot. bloody conflict &quot. with the missionaries of the Prince of Peace them There was nothing to choose between in ferocity or in apostasy from the princi ! pies they professed.Enlightened Teacher&quot. both ill-adapted to the popular comprehension.^ and Buddhism. became the refuge and the comIn our day.1 1 8 Religion in Japan well monks knew their defence. But the religionjxf the Absolute is faithful members. and of the attenuated atmosphere breathed by . missionary religion. finally of the aged and the lowly. A saving much knowledge sacrifice of itsjnfinj^e^^ elect. of &quot. however. cannot remain content with the aristocratic allegiance of jhe_few.bj^Jhejn^nlv^bhr^gh and labour. Aware of the difficulties of the way. under the Tokugawa familyjjthe state asserted its thorough-going supremacy^ and reduced the Buddhist serviency. only by the and. how to enlist the secular arm in and needed no lessons in warfare. the anomaly! But in how strange The followers of the &quot. It is eminently a by the example and precept and his spirit still inspires its most of its founder.

. the Mahayana recognises Buddha s own teaching. E. See the justification of S. &quot. in the Saddharma-Pundarika. grows up a system called by the Buddhists ho-ben.&quot. afterwards giving them something far better than he had promised. Just man entices boys from a burning building by offering them the toys which chance to be at hand.Developments those of Buddhism 1 19 who have accomplished &quot. and the abstract truth is Religious allegory we may name it. 71 ff. so the common man the Absolute who cannot worship may nevertheless be led gently in the upward direction by teachings adapted to his low estate and humble condition. xxi.&quot.. For just as it is impracticable for for all men and women to enter the orders ? how then would the great multitude be fed laity and as the ing the religious who work may obtain an inferior merit by feed who worship. but meanwhile Gautama his words to the capacity of his hear Thus may his followers also. As we five stages in have already seen. pious fraud. Only in the fulness of time was the accommodated whole truth made known. those &quot. and five corre sponding periods in the development of doctrine in the Church. or symbolism. vol. where symbol is put for idea. &quot. the journey and dwell in the presence of the beatific vision. pp. and hence there ers. ho-ben &quot. who have thus im attained are least of all inclined to attempt the practicable task of exciting the multitude to the same attempt Therefore missionary activity must content itself on lower planes. so does . or what ever euphemism we may substitute for the words opponents 1 l use as a &quot. B.

while the popular preacher talks of a materialistic Hell and Heaven. more or less clearly identified with the Sun-goddess of the Shinto faith. many popular sayings : Just as the seller of sweets blows a flute and sings a song. while to the populace Dai Nichi may be the sun. surrounded by the which represent the highest genera. The esoteric teaching may have to do with self -identification with the Absolute. 36. do the monks preach doc lead trine. far dis See S. p. and even adorns his temple with realistic pictures of the torments of the damned and the bliss of the redeemed. It higher doctrine unless one passes through all the of the highest stages and observes truth from the point attainment. xi.. but it he to the people s needs by becomes then ultimately wrapping difficult to be sure what is intended even by the in husks. . not for the sake of the tune or song but only that he may sell his wares. B. He holds thus for himself the kernel suits it of his system. Thus for the Shin-gon sect Dai Nichi may be the most abstract ideas of all ideas. tinction. his truth being something Yet Buddha declared that he had made no such better. and surrounded with planets.I2O Religion in Japan rendered in the concrete forms of the imagination. E. Eventually such a system threw a shadow of insin This doubt found ex cerity over the whole doctrine. pression in &quot. not because it is true but only that they may Buddha adapt his teaching.

Well Swallowing the device of the Priests satisfied they dance their prayers. the whole of any religion. . save indeed here and there the earnest mind which or is really in earnest in its search for the Absolute. Hell. and the people no longer throng their preaching-halls. so . . The intelli* gence of Japan in fact has broken once for all with the system. In Buddhism another development is of profound sig and interest.hoben were regarded in the early part of the nineteenth century. They show how the &quot. or chiefly upon the images In Buddhism the metaphysical sects the former and use the latter by way of rely upon the imagination. naturally the teach is ing function of the monks at an end. the worship of the Absolute on the one hand. .&quot.ben on the other. But the resources nificance of supernatural religion are ample. &quot. once this is * When understood. ho. is do the priests talk of the torments of until at last &quot. could not long maintain itself with the multitude. only that the child fear to venture near the edge of the veranda.Developments to virtue. in the con struction of the world behind the world chiefly man may rely of upon concepts. The quotations are from the Shin-gaku Michi no Hanashi. As we have seen. a series of sermons for the people.&quot. faithful student some who holds fast in reverence to the traditions of the past Were and it &quot. of Buddhism 121 there may Just as the nurse tells her charge that a dragon in the garden. 1 &quot.

E. it is He teaches his disciples to flee existence because an everlasting round of changing misery. partii. a stock of merit the &quot. &quot. Takakusu. larger still demands &quot. 8 8 part ii.. pp. B. declares that salvation not a &quot. but in the larger and the smaller Sukhdvati there is also an im portant divergence. and he forbids suicide because that is merely a change in existence and not its extinction. we should say. evidently the necessity of extinction would cease.reward and 1 result of good works performed in this present Miiller. for the A basis is second in Gautama s teaching. Translated from the Sanscrit by F.. from us as essential to salvation.. xlix. while the popular always. The sects of the Pure Land take as their scriptures three books.122 Religion in Japan sects. Translated by I. the large and the small Sukhdvati-vyuhas* and the Amitdyur-dhydna-sutra. 159. containing his final teaching. as he takes over from the earlier tradition the notion of transmi gration with its scenery and misery. 1-107. while is smaller&quot. seq. p. and such salvation is offered eternal to humanity in the teachings of the sects of the Pure Land.* Their contradictions to his earlier teaching are admitted and insisted upon. . S. His unauthentic teaching.* which are held to be from the last years of Buddha s life.. The u &quot. B. rely upon found the latter as expressive of the truth. E.. S.. Max xlix. is Now could one find an existence which and happy. as accommodation.

S. and that not in his final words exhorted.. enormous. in ourselves.. 2 S.lt.concentrated the perfection of the excellences and good qualities of the Buddha countries. such as had never been known before in the whole world. more excellent and ten quarters of the more lent perfect than any. and composed the most excel prayer. Here of in the fullest sense faith is made the as way Buddha of salvation. and incom prehensible kalpa before for five kalpas. all terminating with the &quot.&quot. this prayer consisted of a series of aspirations. 3 Amida &amp.. . the salvation of all those who put their trust in him.* Now &quot.6.Developments of Buddhism 1 123 life. but he points away from himself to another. all 4 now. Op. 5 in Japanese. a in but the power Gautama..&quot. and with May I not obtain the highest * aspiration be not realised. and more Amitabha. is the speaker in these Sutras.in than innumerable..ii.xlix. the historic Buddha. 98. B. forty-six in number. xi. immeasurable.. E.xlix.S.p. P. B.p.p. who lived another. cit.E. p. 11. 3 an innumerable. B. E... Not yet a Buddha he &quot.&quot. &quot. the nineteenth. 12-22. The most important are the eighteenth. vow: if the knowledge These aspirations have to do with the perfection of Amitabha s land. 38.&quot.

&quot. and who have spoken evil of . &quot.&quot.124 Religion in Japan In these it is and the twentieth. if they should not be born there may obtain perfect knowledge barring only those beings who have committed the five deadly sins. . Cf. and from the writings of if When I have obtained Buddhahood. True. large parts of the two books and of the Meditation on last Buddha Amitayus are devoted. : Even the hearing of the name of this Bodhisattva will enable one to obtain immeasurable happiness. 183. and sums it up in the ex clamation &quot. then.&quot. Amitabha s land. 73.&quot. and should have say ten times thought of me (or re I not peated my name). and also Hongwanji. more. To 5 the description of this paradise in the West. This Sutra exhorts to the profound contemplation of AmMbha and his paradise. declared that all l who put their trust in him shall be saved. 3 P. will the diligent contemplation of him ! Brought to Japan in the eleventh century of our era. those beings who are in the ten quarters should believe in me with serene thoughts. only. and should wish to be born in my country. Pp. origi nal and Monto and Ikku. was carried to its logical the great denomination called Shin. P. this doctrine obtained wide influence and underwent It a certain development. because it vow. It is from a synopsis of the doctrines of the sect is sued by 1 its chief authorities &quot. How much &quot. 15-16. the temple of the &quot. 169. conclusion in &quot. trusts only in Amitabha. p. the good 2 Law.

T. and sidewise crossing over..passing out&quot. &quot.cross wise passing over. alsoxvii. lest there should remain even a trace of self-help.&quot. and &quot. had its share in our salvation.sidewise passing out&quot. and full of dangers. Namu Amida Butsu. It rests But the Jodo-Shin sect unhesi upon the passage in the smaller Sutra quoted above. 101-143. own : divergence from the other Mahayana is. One repetition of prayer.&quot. said some extremists. have to do with the difficulty and ease of attainment. &quot. 124. A. since the stock of merit p. is by the . 122 above &quot. The chief of these are four. so that only the fa voured shall succeed. 1 etseq. S. and &quot. Jodo. that of the passing over of the sea of existence to peace and safety beyond. namely : There are various ways of attaining salvation the methods of the &quot.lengthwise and sidewise belong to the sects of the Pure Path. whose path lies across mountains and plains and rivers. illustration: the passing out two maybe set forth by an ways of the &quot.lengthwise passing out&quot. Now our sect teaches the way of the &quot.&quot. &quot. with faith. &quot. * The older sect. &quot. difficult. Those who follow it are like travellers far from home. lengthwise and sidewise. so that in The translation is by James Troup.Developments one of its of Buddhism 125 greatest representatives that the following It thus accounts for its sects of the brief account is given. long. p.&quot. xiv. &quot.&quot. while our denomination is of the Pure Land.* p. They teach that the faith itself &quot.sidewise crossing over.. and its methods like that of the traveller who 1 finds a well his destination. and these &quot.. a &quot. still difficult. 128 below. brings salvation even without faith. tatingly makes faith all. The contrast between the &quot. with favourable sea equipped boat waiting to carry him to and wind.. passing over.power of another. taught the sidewise passing out method. and &quot.

For there now no salvation by works. and attainment. that we offer an immediate salvation. They wear They silks and satins. and the proof is seen in the monks themselves. for he who puts his faith in Amida with nnf altering heart shall at once enter into peace and find salvation.126 Religion in Japan peace and without labour he reaches his desired haven. employed with one leisure thing. And we differ from the other sects of the Pure Land in this. forsake the world and are ever. they delude men. not after death but now. but after five hundred years attainment dis appeared and there remained only the law and the wit ness and then after a thousand years more the witness . They They drink wine. the witness. internally they are full of covetousness and sordidness. they deceive themselves. What have f hey for meditation Of . but of is possibility and impossibility. disappears and there remains only the law. Externally they exhibit worth and goodness. At the time when Bud dha was on earth there were the law. How then shall men in these days find salvation by the Pure Path ? For that to seek snow in summer or fruit in winter. they love their children. but without power latter is for obedience. they sit on hair rugs luxuriously. they are with ? If they are not another. They style themselves abbots. they eat love their wives. Not only is the distinction between the sects of the of relative difficulty Pure Land and the Pure Path one and ease. much more worldly than flesh.

there seems no means of escape. I shall not accept Enlightenment. or without the Prohibitions. call my name to remembrance ten times. for long kalpas we re volve. and it is therefore proved is that in these days though the law remains there &quot. : * holders or homeless. is are truly like this. witness faith : &quot. of attainment. having wives or not having wives. unenlightened we are subject to the evil of Birth and Death. Even if they set impetuously about the performance of religious duties. Amida Buddha. they envy the worthy. putting forth a heart of great compassion. 1 See p. they revile the good. they are not occupied with one thing they Thus we note the various Buddhist virtues denied to the monks. they lack the virtue of continuance. no practice&quot. floating and sinking . whether or not drinking wine or eating flesh. and still less &quot. perfected his having accomplished the long kal vow. having faith and joy and ardent desire to be born into My Country. breakers of the Prohibitions. He said If any living beings of the ten regions who with sincerity. greedy for gain. having children or not having children. should not be born * If there there. for if are with another. if only they put forth the believing heart and take refuge in the vow of Amida Buddha. whether they be husbandmen or merchants. long kalpas ago. are any living beings of the ten regions be they house through five kalpas. . 124 above. planning We pas. note. Hence our only hope &quot. But He. Nor can they concentrate their minds. they will throw out the radiance of Buddha. &quot.Developments of Buddhism 127 inordinate lust.

the Popular System. faith assured. The eating of flesh. by and works. for this too salvation . We are or the not to suppose that even prayer to repetition of Buddha avails. and matters. by our own power is Our faith itself then power of &quot. . confers this believing heart on all men and hence all we need is the knowledge and a joyful response. for true salvation is by his power only this once accepted.&quot. the duties involved in them must be observed. a wife and eats flesh attains salvation. wives. such faith is like the diamond. e. rily exist.the another&quot. if they are con trasted with the power of the Vow they are as a millet seed to the ocean.&quot.128 Religion in Japan is But this faith itself forth faith not of our own power. Although sesses the sins of the unenlightened are many. but by &quot. Namu Amida Butsu. Amida. attains salvation. is. we thenceforth repeat his name and the formula taught us. is for to put on water. are nothing to speak of. from grati Thus it follows that the truth has to do not with our relations and acts in this world. that of Amida. nothing Our sect terms the attaining the rest of the heart True System the observance of the relations of life the &quot. and i. is his name. &quot. Thus the Sovereign who installs his royal consort and partakes of his royal The commoner who pos viands. sion to marry. but with faith and doubt in our minds. Our sect has granted the permis Hence the five relations of life necessa Where the five relations exist. like a picture drawn not of ourselves. A the having stone is by nature . Buddha. tude.

best are full of &quot. if cast on the three worlds they assuredly sink. It is less Nirvana which sought. and like them per mitted the whole round of the too. activities. the former being merely the guides and instructors of the latter. and a complete under- . and relationships and pleasures is comes also no longer a a transformation of the eschatology. human . ties of Buddhism of to the actual and the full permission of all the activi life. The sins of the Hence no there is &quot. but an eternal satisfaction of all needs. and still absorption in the Absolute. only one life to in all the relations of to and of ever to call thankfulness. war itself is not forbidden for the soldier may follow his calling without fear. for our and in Amida s land there &quot. where there shall be no more sorrow nor suffering nor death nor labour.Developments of Buddhism heavy .&quot. and death in battle will is be but entrance into the eternal be faithful life.&quot. but a continued and sensuous existence in a Western Paradise.are leaks no merit in good deeds. Amida s name remembrance out With this accommodation facts of life. So. but placed unenlightened are heavy . Hence there is between the clergy and the laity. 129 if if cast into the water it sinks. but if placed on the ship of the Vow they are light. in a boat it floats. leaks. and imperfection cannot no essential difference inherit perfection.

ii-jxJTS nay.&quot. B. finally. denominating it ludicrously In popular estimation. after all. it with antinomianism. Each will attain the 1 happi ness and enlightenment of a Buddha. ignorant. .new. on Buddha Amitydus.true. it was esteemed filthy. or of the Mahayana. also.&quot. Amida &quot. The adherents of this sect are for the most part from the lowly and ignorant.&quot. Judging the sect denominations.and by the standards of the Hinayana. himself 7r originalvowr another. S. &quot. and charged &quot. xlix.130 standing of Religion in Japan all mysteries. since why should profound study be necessary since shortly we shall know all ? And for these reasons it was even denied the name Buddhist . and. called the sect not &quot. Naturally enough such a teaching excited extreme By a pun upon the word the other sects opposition. but &quot.&quot. it is your : . and with a certain reason. Cf.&quot.gt. and^ from them it calls forth an earnestness whi^^s_unj)aralleled in the other In our own day it remains the largest the_most influential. or of our modern students who reconstruct the 1 Yet it is sometimes implied in esoteric_teaching that is r &amp. and. E. . most able Jjurdened by a cosmology to adapt itself ~to modern conditions. Jot are only ho-ben. its teaching that the faith excited the vilest criminal might be saved by scorn of Confucianists. and the Jj&amp.true self/ and that thus the and the Western Paradise.p_wer_ &quot. tibe Meditation &quot.gt. only the &quot. indeed Buddha. unor a philosophy. the most zealous.

. so completely that there is left no place for prayer.Developments of Buddhism 131 we must indeed deny jojbhe doctrine tive_teaching. It too recognises the world as transient. But from these presuppositions cisely draws conclusions pre opposed to those taught in the Little Vehicle. for that is settled unchangeably by karma. we may regard it as ist presuprjositions. &quot. but only C/. We may not escape our fate in the smallest particular. . power of another. for the and 412 T.. its rigorous interpretation of these terms of salvation condemns all who follow them. S. the name^BuddhistLor possibly. et seq. 425. Neither his ex asserted istence nor his vows are proved. It too admits a way of salva self-control it tion by laborious and self-mastery. and death in Heaven. or to salvation by the &quot. as the miserable lot of man.&quot. effect. law bringing about its annulment Nor is it fabulous difficult to Amida account for the acceptance of the as source of salvation. It too holds to and transmigration an unde- viating law of cause and which determines abso 1 lutely one s lot in each existence.. better.. xxii. and reduces man to helplessness. the^e^tr^m^^pssible development of the Buddh For these it still retains. Instead of proclaiming flight from the world and the religious life as the only way of escape. but none the less we are saved now after in a peace the world can never take away. Shin sect. mi. A. p. the exaltation of the &quot.

But Amida himself a part of the greater scheme of the Mahayana. terpret the universe.&quot. 1 &quot. religion We wonder that a great system of may come into existence. maintain a hierarchy.&quot._the inherent desire for salvation turned to faith for its refuge^ . great religious fact. a. the satisfaction of resource.^MB*&quot.132 Religion in Japan taken for granted. / { self mt. and when men professing to leave the world became more worldly than_before. a greater than himsect in ^&quot.lt.jriv.lt.tt. Certain needs imperatively demand satisfaction. The Shin .i. and through them he comes to in Given an interpretation which . on which he may depend. &amp. Japan &amp. neither more puerile nor more false. Adopted became the symboljind form of. The fable of (Amida offered ready it without criticism. religious need. It de termined culture and it permeated all knowledge. Forever does man seek that which. J( than himself he m:iy adore. Not yet was criticism prepared to discuss it. and be taken as ex pressive of absolute truth by millions that and its for centuries without any evidence offered foundations is exist other than in the fancy. his successive attempts in religion are tipjx like his successive attempts in science. Unchallenged it furnished the atmosphere and a large measure of the material of learning.T man s deep. build innumerable temples. When now the meth ods of salvation by contemplation and philosophy broke down. bears testimony to this^rutb of manfe naturejand posi-i After all.

. he is content. TJThe religions I of the earth. -fruit. and however venerable. nor should he. in and fable. parable ^nd myth (yet do not depend on these. destroy i ng^is^p^^e^doctrine. which he accepted uncritically from the popular cosmology. clings to it until by and by an hy_pothesis appears which better satisfies his demands and more efficiently works. activities-*- . Egually doesjnan s nature this demand ^religious&quot. have their full revenge. and it accepts that. founder taught and affi rmingjjvhat denying he denied. the natuje^iich knows itself as dependen (which goes fortbjn reverence and adoration. notwithstanding theoretical doubts and questionings. J$or will he. it guddhism^as^come its full cycle. however expressed. teaching and satisfaction. and he Thus in science also does the hypothesis which for the time works gain acceptance.Developments of Buddhism fairly_ clings. clings^ to this name or that. and the scientific student. all which I The I presuppositions._renounce what he thusjias^savjyis he finds the higher name and the sounder^ doctrine which better rneeta-lns craving and bears better. but upon the nature of iman. g^ajight_salvation^ m Nir- 1 the Shin-shu authorities put it in the Western ^ ^ana Paradise. 133 to it answers his need.. as the craving is satisfied and the teaching works. \^He taugbt^flight from th^world as neces- jary they permit all human relationships and .

if_its_essence is to be found in a cosmology or in the denial of a metaphysics. or in the knowledge of his j name. He refused IMW^^^ fAmida/ and an immortal gotten. for the salvation of 1 humanity. that his &quot. Even his name is for and bis historic title is applied to another. may the followers . and in his place the fable of one/ all. in theology or in ethics. -TKE^^taMMMK^KZHgMN^ ^*m * . but they have again a god. . then indeed But if the essential these sects have denied the faith. I &quot.134 even war. after have Land forfeited their right to a share in the Buddhist name? Are they in his intent separated! from the founder of the religion pose? If and pur-j Buddhism.lt.. thing in Buddhism is the loving heart which seeks to s temptation the / bestow salvation. and if in Gautama truth which stands forth is really the root of the matter. if_jts historic continuity depends upon the preservation of the story of its founder. and in the prayers and teachings of sect there is no mention of himv^ The line which *\ that in the Shin temples there connects modern is Buddhism with the is historic founder ! cut completely. alone. whojhas never visited our earth. below. consists of positive doctrine. even in himself . soul. homage Vgroclaim salvationj)y_faith to God and belief in a soul. 135. attainment was not for himself but viz. Religion in Japan / He forbade faith. then See p. or in the worship_ of his person. the sectaries of the Pure Yet. so is &amp. no image_of_Gautama__ but of Amida alone.

A. letter.. but his will works on. able to save to the His method and his doctrine they repudi but in his heart they put their trust. for to them. which uttermost. Its Jounder^jTichiren. nor \ self-. p. rites is not metaphysics. . when a youth.sacrificing] and ceremonies. perishes. they did ofj not seem to have any further use for the image Sakya-muni.gt. which they were using as a plaything. the greatest thing in the world asceticism. but In the_thirteenth century another important sect arose in protest ^against the doctrines of the Sbin-shu.Developments of Buddhism 135 of the Shin^ sect claim to be his brethren of the spirit. and v starting f now on a career of reform. S. the T. xxii. not their own. 1 He is the God of gods. as to him. is a virtue. and so had allowed the children to play with it. \y He was a member of the Tendai sect. and was told that since the founder of j&amp.. ures.hin-_shu the_jutility of all &quot. For in this spirit they too share in larger measure than others self for who are truer to the its the world and He gave him and they believe in salvation. 438. Shocked at such strange profanity. he made its script Saddharma-Puridarika. the basis of _his own In this Lotus of jths True Law Buddha is teaching. nor love. the called by divine names. &quot. had demonstrated Buddhas except Amida. His name ate.&quot. he remonstrated.observed some children dragging about an image of Sakya-muni.

Had and gnosticism triumphed in the Christian Church. Beal.&quot. As is has been pointed out by another. eternal. et 9 S. &quot. in place of the New Testament had differing docu ments been substituted as authoritative in different would have been the same.. of whom the historical Sakya-muni and the rest are_ but reflection. p. in place of the historic Christ had Mous many and various been worshipped. the 8 preme Nature of the First Cause. the Self -born one. Introd. all-wise: - He is else &quot.x I the world no longer appears as self -existent. S.is the source of all phe exist nomenal existence. teaches a chain of imperfect Buddhism therefore cause and effect. 442. but as caused. In this. sects.. 331.&quot.Su where referred to as the cause of existence. Catena.. p. xxii. to the_ belief in a creator-God is mani. nor as an illusion produced by ignorance. B./ by him. A.136 Religion in Japan Father of the world. all the Nichiren-shu teaches. and ence has its in whom phenomenal being. 1 we may note as a profound difference. the Chief and 1 Saviour of all. T.. The true Buddha. the result then. 3 the transient The approach fest . xxi.-xxvi. . E. true Buddhism The teaches us that the effect is the first link in this chain of cause and Buddha of Original Enlightenment.. that in the xxv. the Mahayana Buddhist gnosticism. passim. almighty.

it the Tokugawa was at once During pampered and forsook it rendered powerless. and yet vast ised religion. and entered too deeply into the life of the nation to be lightly overthrown. itself to Now it it has adjusted it the new conditions. . sending to fit its accommodate the new its priests abroad to study. One Japan. methods of Christian missions. the Shin sect attempt to conditions. and while can never expect to hold its old position. hesitates to forecast the future of It has Buddhism in met too many vicissitudes. men for At was the restoration of the disestablished.Developments of Buddhism West with 137 the historic continuity has been preserved. seeking doctrines to the new learning. and it the person. who can tell? is The enterprise does not seem hopeful. work. Imperial rule in 1868 it and its leaders lost hope for a time. and teaching of the Christ have remained known and are confessed to be supreme. regime. and exhibits signs of new life. has regained a de Especially does itself to gree of religious confidence and zeal. while educated philosophic Confucianism. the power of organ faith to it and the services rendered by the Japan in the past may still make possible for a career in the years to come. and beginning It adopts the missionary enterprises in foreign lands. Whether the new wine can be poured into the old bottles. endured too many transformations.

are unhesitating in recount ing all which is remembered. This statement contradicted indeed plainly enough by the early records which.&quot.LECTURE V. Shinto contains &quot. Japan Confucianism supplied polity As we have seen. no moral code. the Kojiki being as frank in recording evil as are the though unlike them Surely it Old Testament Scriptures. like most primitive chronicles. Ethical Religion. does not rebuke and punish sin. Its century A. are Emperor. and that therefore the lack of ethics in the early records show the pure-mindis edness of the Japanese. civilised FOB and ethics. Confucianism as Polity and Ethics. we are not to imitate the advocates of Pure Shinto in arguing from the text. only precepts so late as the seventh Fear the gods and reverence the is So marked this feature that the men pure Shinto in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries turned it to the the revival of who attempted account of their scheme by proclaiming that only the evil-minded need morals. and in attempting to 138 .D.

For long before 712 the Confucian ethics had come to control conduct. when our sources were com had become authoritative.Confucianism as Polity and Ethics 139 all prove that the want of evidence establishes the want of moral sense. was so undeveloped that morals were all the other sciences and the overpowering impression felt. ethical qualities The Japanese were when reflection permits the from the stage supremacy of the moral still far sense to be perceived. as in organised forms of life. Religion was a sense of adoration and depend ence. and nature thus worshipped is not ethical. The relation of ethics to religion is one of the most it difficult of topics. that the ancient ethics. that in the prim and worship were by no means . primarily dynastic itive religion ethics second. first. nor is it our purpose to discuss here. further than to remark that our evidence all tends to show that in in the beginning Japan the two were separate. identical . like the ill ancient polity. those purposes being. . was found of things piled. and these emotions were not directed toward but toward the mysterious and the powerful in nature. adapted to the new state which already. made by with the the world beyond the sea was full tide of civilisation Then and came in also ethics. The social state not systematised until. as we have seen. and third. but it is apparent. that the ethical element was not essential to the purposes of the men who compiled our sources.

as that chief modifications of of eating flesh. courts of law. and the requirements for the ethics of China. the etiquette of social the government of the Empire. in a certain detail in contempt for life in general. . ii. and the inherent contradiction in the two systems clear. yet with modifications of its own. however accepted formally. Children learn his sayings by heart. for his teachings have become a part of the texture of Chinese civilisation. all alike acknowledge his infallible authority. their life. the scholars of an hundred generations have devoted themselves to elucidation . 233. no other land its so completely and perfectly represents master. its code of transcendental it religious. as.&quot. For millenniums he has been supreme.. but the rather favoured. Does China The supernatural sanctions showed themselves soon after the establishment of Buddhism. for example. the by no means conduct. 59. Nor was hindered by Buddhism. Meanwhile Buddhism had ethics for the &quot. for had made terms with Confucianism. 111. that remaining a task was not yet made for undone centuries. 1 Yet one may ask. ethical But the of the system were from the genius of the Japanese their social organisation. N. 114. and for the laity taught the practical morals of Confucianism. with other instances. and in such prohibitions. 1 satisfied needs or controlled the China is indeed the land of Confucius.140 Religion in Japan the authority of the great this it name of Confucius.

Confucius himself does not profess to be an origin but a transmitter. but is the true ancients. The In It its interest of Confucius was confined to China. and its perfec tion in As had been attained in the reigns of Yao and Shun. as they were the infallible inter preters of nature. . 1. Its en lightenment and its civilisation represented the ulti of mate long history he found confirma tion of his fundamental principles. He hands down. China had existed in uninterrupted continuity since the dawn of human life upon the globe. and he seeks not to destroy but to traditions his fulfil..Confucianism as Polity and Ethics embody tion 141 the spirit of Confucius. world. for our evidence will not permit discrimi nation between his teachings and the doctrine of the His answer to the question would be un hesitatingly he has originated nothing. limits he lived and moved and had his being. : disciple of the Sages. the twenty-fourth and twenty-fifth centuries B. or of its life ? is he the incarna and representative ator. for outside was it for him coterminous with the was only a fringe of outer barbarians. its and in of the principles of criticism and reverent of antiquity. matter of fact. unchanged. l day were already of imme morial antiquity. vii. we are allowing the longest time 1 Analects. Knowing nothing truth. which in Nor are we prepared to say that his profession is mistaken.C.

5-7.. but they Man. tradition of an immemorial antiquity to become B.. up his parable and His presuppositions have to do with the identifica tion of China in its ideal state with the fundamental universe. for conduct is strictly all of life. and in him the interest is only ethical. established. China has no external of progress. and yet long enough before Confucius B. and Confucius in this nature. ii. final in exist so is it established. nor are they agreements. and hence learning ests. carea Op. .. tit. whose chief expression they are. and one man.C.. He lived in the sixth century in a time of disorder. a lover of though reverent of antiquity and 1 it. xvii. does not invent them.C. xix. is is is for him learning is the chief thing. learns them.8. are of nature. typical.. Thus Confucius. and therefore prophesied. is his self- nor does its it know is Wholly contained. As are the laws of eternal universal in application. They when are not inventions. principles of the tory. unquestionable and with the laws of Chinese society. we grant that it begins in the twelfth century a thousand years after the Golden for the Age. ence. is it l But not speculation. nor wide its in its inter interest It wholly pragmatic. but he therefore. when old things seemed about to he took pass away. conservatism the natural result..142 Religion in Japan if possible to history.15.

24. for these contain the priceless treasures of the To these the ages past.23. and the individual.. . for these determine at once the constitution of the state. ity. not with curios When we come to study man. In so far as these affect conduct vitally let them have a hearing. after the Master have added all the writings ascribed to him or to his But the method of study disciples.2.16-17. The physical world merely affords a stage for the development of human life and activ. the Book of History.. theology or philosophy in better case.. the family. nothing for history as a mere chronicle of the past or It is of value only as it. ctt. the objects of study are Book of Poetry. is of Thus. but beyond this very moderate admission of their possible consequence they are not to be noticed.ii. but as to his natural relationships. xvi. and the Kules of Propriety. all study morality and else is without value. in general. the Book of Changes.13. the Specifically. 1 Op.. but in itself has neither value nor interest nor is .xv. it is ity as to his psychology or physiology. the principles of conduct are derived from and a if man may With understand an hundred generations he knows the present this intense and pragmatic interest in man as the sole study of man. 3 xiii.Confucianism as Polity and Ethics 143 as a collection of great deeds. other knowledge becomes alto 8 gether unimportant.. vii..

is 4 It expression in reciprocity. xii. wisdom. of 1 But Confucius would not in its man humanity Op. and success of secondary.. vii. careful in speech. 3 and should be grasped. 8 and Thus virtue the chief thing... Humanity is the its and love to parents is foundation. 14. xiii. There result the propriety.27. the mind self. as we require the younger brother to serve us. xv. 2. by no means bookish. and frequents the society of men of principle that he l may be Thus improved. But the latter is really the essential thing.6.. 4. Brotherly love is joined to filial duty in the text. i. means the service of one s father as we require the service from a son. is set on study and then on the five virtues. as meeting the require- cit. xix. the service of a prince as we re to serve the elder brother quire a servant to serve us. is for the &quot.21. is human sincer righteousness. superior man who does not seek satiety in food. cherished.. nor comfort in his dwelling. but earnest in action. i. may be at first called a friend of study. 2 full sense. 3.. doing is it is our business. But even the of knowledge it the highest virtue and the love are rare. 8 Doctrine of the Mean. control of ity. 4 .2. and chief virtue finds enlarged. 3 vi.144 is Religion in Japan &quot. and to offer first to our friends 6 what we require from call himself a them. left to which It not sentimental nor chance expression. ity..

that of husband and is &quot. iv. it.5. to employ the people as to others as assisting at a great sacrifice. not to do to to you. behave abroad as if receiving a guest.. But no inferior if man is possesses it remote however. indulgence. 33. but obtains his name by 4 it and in all emerg ences cleaves to It is not it. for the strength of every one is sufficient for but folks do not attempt it Eighteousness stands opposed to profit and forms the essential fucius was part of the superior man. earn The superior man never for estness. sincerity. 3. 6. omitting the fifth which was supplied by others.. 6 10 . sakes it. and Con troubled when hearing it of righteousness is he could not attend to 1 Valour exalted by Analects. vii.&quot. but 5 desired near at hand. 1 loyalty is the chief expression of humanity. noteworthy that Confucius here gives only four rela tions. It includes dignity. 4 5 iv.Confucianism as Polity and Ethics ments of the law in these four 1 145 (It is relationships. and have no murmuring against you in the country or in you would not have them do Thus it the family. reverence. though and friends and generally may be practised towards inferiors in the service of others.. vii.) The great precept of to hu * manity It is to Subdue thyself and return if propriety. wife.. and kindness.

its inner qualities without straining. is it intruder. but that is the confession It is that the times are out of joint and of final defeat. a &quot.146 and 1 Religion in Japan to it. with everything in season. it is sign that Analects. which they follow is . it is because things are out of place natural. When there is need of exertion.Way&quot. noiselessly. field for exercise in and no such virtue as the monastic is recognised. and not to belong to the well ordered family and state is to have no opportunity for virtue. Evidently these virtues find their the family and in the state. know the right without doing it is cow ardice. nor is tegral part of it his mere instrument. without effort. earthquakes. Thus man his own simply the chief part of nature. flee It is true that the &quot. but he is an in and the highest Now nature acts reg its actions expressing ularly. and peace and : exist in quietude are normal. and disease. For Confucius can conceive of man only as a social being. in place. and when all is right all is peace and content When we 1 strain and 24. when nature it is supreme and content thus naturally cold in winter and warm in summer. strive.. So is it with men they ranks and in relations. ii.superior man &quot. the denial of nature. . for all things. and has He is not an alien or an highest place in it. may from society. and un there is For like storms. and in order.

So was in the Golden Age when the Sages reigned every one was in his own place. The individual finds himself then in these relationships and his chief duty is to set himself right. the Sage. but by nature. . 1 But only the holy man.Confucianism as Polity and Ethics nature lias is 147 given place and that the unnatural obtains. every one did his duty. his instinctively is knows not that he all omniscient but it. ple applies in the family be son. let father The same princi be father and son wife. 11. which has set men in states and families. let husband be husband and wife be with all in rightful 8 Thus are all the place and all content relations of life marked out and determined. ruling as nature rules without exertion. 9 . 1 and thence may proceed xii. Analects. Thus first he learns to govern self. Such an one is naturally Emperor.. for when the Sage. Society normal and natural when each one is in his rightful place and performs It is its duties. is in the place of power the nation it fol lows his desire as the water shapes itself to the vessel in which it 1 is placed. with folded arms enrobed. to govern the family. knows own place and that pertains to and that his conduct perfectly manifests his knowledge. and Okina Hondo. not by our wills or the will of mankind. and does that he his duty. is But when this is : principle is supplanted all wrong. and there was universal peace and content. and the empire destroyed.

13.148 Religion in Japan be exalted to rule in the province and 1 in the finally Empire. and yet have seen. and the re1 Analects. organism been so and it Japan was soon to compete again with other forms of organisation more potent. not- withstanding thousand years. inculcation through text-books for a has never held first place. work in transforming it As we Now plished large the Confucian system bases all filial upon the family. ing. and to the rules of importance is attached For nothing is left to chance and all is fixed propriety. of social Nowhere else has the patriarchal form out and so long preserved as in completely carried it had scarcely come into full be But in China. . xiii. The virtues are thus natural. Therefore the child be unfilial or the inferior insubordinate. as its it is natural for the child to love parent. the superior is to self examine him and ask.. to Japan was not very system transported it accom well adapted to its new environment. in a rigid part of framework of conservatism. its Hence filial obedience. immense to study. and if for the inferior to reverence the superior. and for the larger men rites and rules become more important than estates this inward and principles. How am I in blame that these do not render me what nature impels them to render ? But as all men save the Sage are ignorant. for obedience is the type of virtue.

&quot. for the tradition sword. pt. A. 192 et seq. . 1 The family was slowly cording to its provisions. xxx. as we have seen. could not accept the theory. the insig nia of officials. The state itself. became . the &quot. and when the peace was broken in the twelfth century. way of the 1 warrior. representative. with the Chinese laws of con sanguinity in place of the ancient confusion. . Nor could peace be the facts and the were too opposed to it Hence the sys tem did not represent the people fashion as on the continent and in such thorough-going obedient disciple. the ranks of society. the etiquette of social intercourse. Korea was a far more Yet Confucianism profoundly in was the only system of ethics with it was taught to all. courts of law. and the result The of 645 was noticeably distinct ages of peace which succeeded the reformation and the adoption of Chinese civilisation were marked by Buddhistic rather than by Confucian forms. S. ii. and the era of the feudal wars ensued. Nevertheless to the end the spirit differed.Confucianism as Polity and Ethics lationships 149 have not taken their rightful Chinese order. the field to itself.. T. It was in Cf. The word not only in casuistry but in reorganised ac It and of the Master was final. the moral ideals of preachers and teachers and students. fluenced Japan. for the Emperor ruled not by virtue but by the ideal. all this and more was affected. Bushido. Propriety took on a Chinese aspect the style of dress.

See the series of illustrations in the Shundai Zatsuwa. sequence. . men who. nature of the Japanese and overcomes the theoretical and Chi &quot. refused to give up their al unjustly condemned. of far-reaching &quot. ployed. . nature of Confucius. The con substitution thorough-going and &quot. divorced wife. refused l . pt. et passim. S. xx. and instead of the family with piety as norm there is the feudal with loyalty unto death as the highest is ideal. Still are the Confucian terms em But to the Master. and still is reverence given now state instead of peace there its filial is war. used extraordinary means for the obtaining of an and orphans and education. themselves. The stories of the Chinese works of ethics have to do with good boys who supported their parents at and of studious boys who great pains to themselves. but came disaster of their unjust and defeated lord . possessions . But the Japanese works on ethics have to do with martial merits men who gave up all for the sake of lord and clan men who. in order that 1 T. righteous samurai. pp. 98 ff.&quot. i. A.. for in it the true asserts itself.150 Religion in Japan this period that the characteristic ethics of the Japanese were wrought out. employment by who debauched children. drove away and wasted their substance in low pleasures. any other and &quot. when their lord lost position. nese &quot. and of exemplary wives model sovereigns. yet forward in the last hour to share the legiance..

Confucianism as Polity and Ethics they might throw their 151 enemy off 1 his accomplish their deed of vengeance. &quot. was conferred on them by the author of the Shundai Zatsuwa.&quot. 104. the only See that you in know nothing for which the victor knows no peace. The title.&quot. Righteous Samurai. and to its instinct of loyalty.pt. 1 S T.. to its capacity for selfsacrifice. trial. to its worship of the powerful and the wonderful.When in the Then will s you be prepared for : you may trade is 4 meet. and stirs them to a like devotion. p. go as never expecting to enter it through again. . guard and All this ap pealed to the Japanese heart. 62. of their husbands and children are and all taught that they are to endure all hardship sufferings in order that they may be prepared for the hour of morning you pass the gate. 4 8 p.. so that mothers have slain themselves may and their children in order that they not live under the same heaven with the killers and brothers . which now became its governing power. A.&quot. S. ii.xx. Gi-Shi&quot. And game the converse u any adventure There is such of it.. Eighteousness and humanity come to possess con notations which seem the opposite of their primary The famous story is translated in Mitford s Tales of Old Japan.p. a thing as trade. This ideal powerfully affects the women also. 130.

the opposite of &quot. loyalty was carried It was in vain that irreproachable proverbs resulted. Yet the riddle not hard to read. and yet in the preceding paragraph he names the forty-seven ronin.&quot. describes or justice&quot.&quot. but permitted and enjoined stratagem and the enemy. tolerant of the errors of private instant. frank and honest.cunning artifice. for his relationships con stitute his being. The virtues. artifice in the struggle with The is righteousness was that of the sollife. manly virtue. forbade private gain. &quot. the men who went guard. which obedience. as has been exclusively perpendicular. its virtues. that the effect upon right of rebellion the superior was disastrous. In himself he is nothing.Bushido&quot. qualities. for it We is the ethics of the organisation. but requires complete. and unquestionable have then the Confucian system transformed and nevertheless an essential principle preserved.152 Religion in Japan significance. as interpreted by the samurai. was denied.rectitude A recent writer on as &quot. are duty so of the inferior. . and the claim The of the Imperial house made divine . and of the in fulfils dividual only as he the duties of his station. d ier.a &quot. and within the lower spheres of author to such extremes that tyranny ity. The system has is the defects of its Its emphasis so supremely upon the said. as its all lengths to throw their enemy is off his exemplars.

p. no most holy place which but daughter and son are to to all lengths for the sake of parent or lord. T. fill their pages with lamentations because precept 3 fails and sin prevails. Moreover. pt. like their fellows the world over. xx. ii. A popular preacher can take as illustration of the very consummation of holiness a daughter who sells herself to a house of ill fame so as to procure medicine for her father 1 who is ill. but the system overcame them. S. pp.... on ethics.. the empire of the empire. pt. making cor duty. rule himself..&quot. See also xx. i. Let the people. 153 and that the fundamental Confucian doctrine teaches the father to act as a father. ii.. xxx. A. A. 49 et passim. For there is in the individual may go not be violated. ruler first &quot. the Lord of the empire never forget that the is empire of one it is not the empire These and many more set forth the man. . pt. 2 T. 93.Confucianism as Polity and Ethics stated the duty of superior to inferior.Let and the Emperor as Emperor. S.. with the exaltation of self-sacrifice and the thorough-going subordination of the individual to the organisation. the value of the individual is de preciated and a vigorous personality is not developed. p.. then he may rule his &quot. without a word of reproach for the 132^. The entire record of Arai s connection with the Court of the Shogun is filled with accounts of the financial corruption and profligacy of the higher officials. Cf.&quot. Hence the writers ruption in high places the rule.

to get like. i. result that in 1 no small measure among the peasants &quot.p. A. debauchery and degradation are sanctified ethics.Kighteous Samurai &quot. It might be even funds to pay for the father s dissipation and the Bushido. and the masses were left to their own devices with the to the teachings of the Buddhist priests. Shin-gaku Michi no Hanashi. p. S.. and left the man to mere obedience. And and inferior once more. and in the story of the &quot.. the Confucian ethics both in China Japan exalted the superior man.154 parent Religion in Japan who accepts the gift l . tremendous emphasis upon the sacri comes at last to glorify suicide for even for no purpose at all. but finds an opportu nity to destroy himself in a conflagration though his 8 death benefits none. p. He could not under stand.. 2 T. fice of by the purpose to avenge one s lord. Hence. xix. T. was enough that he should do as he was told. The with its oneself. insignificant objects. 109.. Indeed so strong was this spirit that in the seventeenth century it was necessary to impose heavy penalties upon the families of the rai samu 8 who committed in hara-kiri when their lord died. A. yet the greater virtues of the samurai were for him and only. S. 528. xx. 27. though the books of maxims were industriously it taught.pt.&quot. . or Thus one praise a of the most famous writers on ethics can his man who refuses to serve any one when lord has been defeated in battle.

98 # 8 Bushido. and martial courage takes first place. pt. painted them. A. to go hungry. xx.Confucianism as Polity and Ethics 155 the ethics of prehistoric times remained. insensibility to death. i. S. by a philosopher of high repute In the olden time Sekko fancied dragons. but the bravery of the philosopher who knows the right and dares in war. while fit for high duty. . to despise belonged to merchants the samurai was to be luxury and even comfort which and other humble folks.. its to do it. but the conditions prevail over the doctrine. pp. Again. and spent days and nights in loving them. A 1 T. pp. its and readiness to undergo pains might be carried is illustrated : told &quot. to endure cold and privation. So the boy was to trained to endure physical suffering.. the trans formations which have gone on around and above them.* How far the in the story duty. with ancient superstitions and customs little affected by. and. He and Mencius s. the maxims are taken 1 over into Japan. and there exert a profound influence. With him it is not brute courage. to visit fearsome forests at midnight. has nothing to say of courage conception of the virtue finds highest illustration in the minister who fearlessly reproves his sovereign. wear slight clothing in winter.. 30 ff. in general. it Confucius exalts courage in precept and exemplified in his life.

but Sekko fled panic-struck Among scholars of the East and the West are some true men. In Kaga I had a friend. you : but I must not be sleepy when I commit hara-kiri to morrow. and thought. On the morrow he arose early. relled lord his son Kujuro. and before he could be drew his sword and cut the boy down. a samurai of low rank. The officer in charge gave him a farewell feast the night before he died. . lost his self-control. but he showed no fear and his words acts were calm beyond his years. but most of them are proud and vain. While s the wounded boy was under the surgeon care Kujuro was and in custody. In illustration of my meaning I will tell you a story of thirty years ago. After some days the boy died and Kujuro was condemned to hara-kiri. Learn ing without the practice of virtue is like swimming in a field. Their daily admiration is like Sekko s devotion to dragons. &quot. took ceremonious farewell of his keeper and all in the * I regret to leave house. and then said to the guests all and should like to stay and talk till daybreak. so I 11 go to bed at once. named Sugimoto. all being filled with admiration as they heard him snore. Do you stay at your So he went to his room and ease and drink the wine. Should they meet a living Sage real it if I visit ! &quot. de sirous only of reputation and applause while professing to love the Sages. bathed. quar with a neighbour s son of the same age over a game seized of go.156 Religion in Japan dragon heard of to painted dragons. they could not look him in the face. fell asleep. While absent in Adzuma with his who was fifteen years old. He calmly wrote his mother. if he is so devoted him how he will love me! So straightway he put his head through the window.

A.. S. At the beginning of the affair I wrote to his father Though Kujuro commit hara-kiri he is so calm and &quot. and then. also Bushido. But there is another reason also. : * collected there need be no regret. pp. pp. No one who saw it could speak of it for years without tears. Therefore examine yourselves with the thought. cf. * The transformation of Confucian ethics could not well be more complete... i. who as adviser of the 1 T. As the proverb says: * Only such as I have told you this that such sons. and yet burst into tears when it feels the heat. pt.. 40^. killed himself. Kujuro may be remembered.Confucianism as Polity and Ethics 157 dressed himself with care. xx. In another fashion the same courage is illustrated in the statesman Arai Hakuseki. &quot. self-possessed samurai could have excelled him. and yet be less &quot.&quot. But Sugimoto read the letter he remarked: *A child often will be brave enough as others encourage it before the moxa is applied. 120 ^ . Were I and all who study tions. brave than this child Kujuro. trained. No old. quiet and composed. the words and mimic the actions of the an cient Sages to meet a living one different from our no we should be like the child who cries as he feels the moxa applied. Surely it were shameful to study for years. made all his preparations with perfect calmness. My child is so young that I cannot be at peace until I hear that he has done the deed with bravery. attain the name of a philosopher. It would be shameful were it to be forgotten that so young a boy performed fathers have such a deed. Be at peace.

&quot. .. ranks with the inferior part of duty is unhesitating obedience father. elder brother. and when widowed. child s Heaven and the husband is the wife s. The father is the husband 9 A never but owes .p. The woman merged herself and in clan. It is as mother that she is vene rated. to her son. tunes. S. or to her incarnate Heaven. In Japan this too took on a martial tinge in the repre in family sentative family. it is with courtesy and mercy. nor could she She participated in a feminine way in the samurai and there are many stories of her unhesitating training. moved readily by appeals to the Confucius has nothing to say of the duties of husband and wife.&quot.. and when her in part is performed and she furnishes an heir great function she is held in honour. p.158 Religion in Japan carried his point Shogun by if his fierce resolve to slay l his opponent and himself he were defeated.&quot. 195. pt. similarities to Spartan notwithstanding many training and to Stoic ideals. 1 T. the Japanese are emotions. is woman independent. 156.. and the later writers supply the deficiency only Woman exists for the family. ii. and her great &quot. c#. to her father... xxx. for. and in full sense is subject to man who rules over her. A. husband. She did not desire to survive its misfor think of an individual destiny. For the rest she creation. Such true. Op. to her duties -when unmarried. readiness to slay oneself was tempered. She has no control over soul and body. when married.

p. it is true. xxx. . 192. was carried extreme in Japan not by the 8 the men.. But so became a second plexing. 152 ff.&quot.. as statesman. But her in retiracy charm was and self-effacement The women of the Court. pp. xiv. T. thorough was the training that obedience to etiquette nature. neither burdensome nor per Essentially feminine as we esteem it this ex treme regard for the minutiae of conduct. The cut of a garment. 159 On occasion she could destroy herself with the composure of her soldier husband.propriety. for the people have a genius for organisation and for minute detail. s Bushido. but this was exceptional.Confucianism as Polity and Ethics self-devotion. she lost herself in others. 1 ever. chap. which ranks among the greater virtues. the ethical ideal found most complete embodi ment Living a of life of privacy without concern in the activities life. A. the ornaments of a sword. the colour of a girdle. ii. She thus became a model of &quot. S. to its l women but by Op. In Japan this was carried to high perfection. by the refinement which belongs self-effacement.. choice of words in spoken or written assumed portentous importance. and a careful training 2 feminine accomplishments. knew how to influence the Gov ernment and to defeat the schemes of the highest In woman. and was to in characterised gentleness.. pt. the address. tit.

husband. story of feudal Europe. As we have seen. Nor did Buddh on chastity. It indeed commended the monastic life. save as it emphasised the necessity for woman s obedi ence.emphasis which has had sad results. the same exaltation of mili the rights of tary prowess. Nor was Confucianism more efficient than was of society. To the people in gen was natural and late to be gratified like other desires. to hold nothing sacred in herself. eral this relation condemned the sexual passions and put no special emphasis on self-restraint in this particular. ninety-five cent. Christianity in changing the structure .160 Religion in Japan the &quot. the same insistence upon of commercial the superior. and in popular literature faithfulness was exacted from the mistress as from the ism insist wife. It is evident that Japan. which constitute the most serious blemish on Japan s fair name. the classical teachings of Shinto do not distinguish between wife and concubine. and the same disregard ethics. on the whole.inferior classes&quot. Among per that is. but it only as all others. and Only the the property of some free. of the population the Confucian teaching did not affect materially the relation of the sexes. The development of the family the sexes also in a negative way left woman was to consider herself man father. brother. repeated the There was the same relative subordination of woman. an over.

yet the samurai were not his offspring.Confucianism as Polity and Ethics Affect large it 161 it did. and accept which they condemn in dogma. supreme sacrament. Confucius was held to be the though and the soldier infallible Master. tion lips honoured as is lord. giving new But ideals. The scholar takes precedence of the man But of wealth. is held in contempt. in Japan. and lasting effects. with the written word as sacred symbol. Thus in the beginning did ancient Buddhism compromise with the cosmical theories. Such compromise characteristic of systems as of It is not given to all to perceive the contradic between professions and conduct. so that simultaneously held life men may deny in in ethics that what they sincerely believe in creed. though his tablet was worshipped in the great schools. triumphed over the doctrine of The sword was him whom the men. and able to accept as guide ii we have noted that men were Buddhism as religion and Confucianism practical to the duties of life. and also make room for the activities. and though his words were final authority. their symbol. nor between beliefs. in our analysis and producing it was the feudal system and not Confucianism which con stituted the actual code of morals. Ingenious . common We have traced the results of these compromises. is In China learning in the supreme place. and the spirit of feudal with war as chief occupation and death as Japan.

excepting only karma. i. is The good man the good fight. S. and alliance alliance when the with the at first must be broken up So was it between Buddhism and Confucianism. may come a time when the ideals of the two teachings are seen to be contradictory. true which p. the abnormal. 22. there is. but is only like the mist which sub gathers on the surface of the mirror. 1 It is to be remedied. and that the realities. is in a return to propriety to the established laws. in China and later in Japan. and that misery is inseparable from existence.1 62 Religion in Japan and exegesis. go far to satisfy even the critical and the doubting. A. if need be Thus he his at fulfils his destiny. . the maxim that the extreme teachings are counsels of perfection. not to be taken seriously in the present evil world. is nothing T. leaving stance unimpaired. . Buddhism teaches that the world is evil. the un usual. the interruptions of our ordinary relationships.. performs and once self. and there But such reasoning satisfies only in part.. but against nature it is confusion. ordained by fights Heaven. stands in his lot which its duties. and our salvation that is. is Confucianism teaches that nature essentially good. that all things pass away. too. natural relationships are it types of eternal Change there is. xx. special pleading. not of nature. its Evil. pt. careful reconciliations. and finds himself..

its was obscured because the system. transforming it into a thorough-going system of metaphysical religion. as tions and speculations we shall see in the next lecture. the polemic being on . Confucianism. because it supplied other needs currency precisely than those to which he ministered. its own religious elements and worshipped declared. therefore demons. had &quot.Confucianism as Polity and Ethics else than his place in the organism. and with this accomplished they broke decisively and finally with the Indian faith. and from the introduction of Buddhism. 163 Flee the world he may. The as of contradiction brought to China. with its immediate appeal to the religious nature. Chinamen found it possible to be enthusiastic followers simultaneously of both systems. indeed.&quot. But in the eleventh and twelfth centuries of the Christian era a group of schoolmen arose who supplied to Confucian ism elements which it had lacked. Now it is evident that in all this Confucianism contradicts Buddhism in its essential teaching. but as its Master is too cold and distant.&quot. they [the In his time and common people] turn to gods and later his doctrines by no means had the field to themselves. no longer magnified the doctrine founder.Heaven Heaven. but only as the sign that the times are out of joint and that it is impossible to set them right. but substituted for his words the tradi It gained wide of other men. &quot.

To retain The wise man looks evil.. to forsake and may be the result of selfishness. for 1 now at last the contradiction was perceived. A. : Question self and lust. death. husband. and outside of them it has no meaning.. heart in the position to which he is Indeed. He did not fully know the truth. Obedience C/. to fail is ism forsook parents. T. ject or prince. S. pp. and can be excused only on the ground of ignorance. and empire in the This was to wander on the mountain side without guide or light. Buddha forsook Every man rank to is to follow the way with unshaken born. wife. Answer An opinion derived from one-sided his empire and became Buddhism. child. To the a Conf ucianists such asceticism is the act of a madman. 5 ff. He cares only to rank. obey the way not the forsaking or possessing anything. forsake may be alike with unconcern on all. son. friend. search for salvation. . The founder of Buddh destruction. The con tradiction is thus set forth &quot. him. life.1 64 Religion in Japan moral grounds. sub is to perform one s rightful duties To succeed is life and joy and the task set before us. peace. as we have seen. pt. To be and father. To in the Confucius. Lust is disobedience. virtue is found only human relationships. i. Confucianism insists that we be rid of Must we not forsake the world in order to attain purity ? &quot. poverty. no rank all are alike to and do his duty.. xx. Wealth.. hermit.

so that the monasteries are the seat of depravity.Confucianism as Polity and Ethics is 165 virtue are virtues. a blind leader of his it is to be fled as the voice of the charmer . light for vol. child.faith. and truth.the put good for 1 power evil and of another.&quot. and for it Hence good purpose. and what must look deeper s JSuddha^was born darkness. &quot. What else can be expected? natural passions are denied their legiti mate gratification. Be obedient.and may that even the slayer of a parent may go This is to heaven through &quot. So far have the Buddhists gone that in utter degradation they teach that a man natural relationships be saved who by violates the &quot. the indulgence of unnatural vice s For when man results. * garb. Okina Hondo. and station. sinful. identified religion with flight from the world. his ignorance His followers participated in and lacked Buddhism has become men. in a time of Doubtless his intentions were good but his ignorance was great. a false guide. wife. pp. Why is a palace polluting or a cell virtue is What there in the ascetic condemnation in silken robes ? We than this goodness and vice are in the motives and not in the things. 1-13. and the hermit s life is ennobling . and wealth and power Be disobedient. in a barbarous land. . iv.. It is not surprising that the facts are as evil as the theory. To think certain acts virtuous is the error of the ignorant and heretical. . and men are exhorted in its name to forsake parents.&quot. indeed to darkness evil for good.

. In short. With its from &quot.xx. iv.^ For Religion in Japan for light.i66 and darkness mislead. With so the adoption of the Buddhistic if all principle. Hence men come with their &quot. &quot. commands Stand of earth. for the your is place and fight ! He who thus fights has with him the powers of Heaven and good mighty and 1 shall prevail. and to Depend upon prayers and rites and charms. Priests deceive the common own ends. Okina Hondo. and fleeing the world are people for their more worldly than before. A. * pp. seeing the evils. 1-13. S.. vol. p. to despise the five relationships five duties.. 121. It sees the . fundamental truth disappears.&quot. so far is the system able to worship of the men come if to regard the Buddhas as the chief thing. disappear is lost ance man will sink until his distinctive nature and he cannot be distinguished the brutes. 120. 68-71. i. * 3 T.. Way &quot. world and its remedy is Flight : while Con in fucianism. and are overwhelmed with fear and remorse they permit a they deface an image while literature of the religion is classics as charcoal themselves unworthy and brutish in dulgences. pp. for things change must the &quot.. Buddhism would and the destroy at once the family evil in the 4 state. of the Sages. vile.pt. 3 The very comparing with the Confucian to snow. p.

The most telling criticisms .Confucianism as Polity and Ethics 167 This polemic against Buddhism won. group went from town to town and established in the large cities. upon to it essential &quot. in ethical ideals. and the national development reached a temporary end. while the terms are retained. though Buddhist phrases so abound that the school is often described as Buddhistic.still enrolled as parishioners. when Japan was once more made accessible to foreigners. and it was left to the ignorant and the lowly as a religion. One attempt teaching the of teachers it is true was made to make the higher common property of the people. Buddhism became a system of funeral rites for samurai. Samurai were Hence. which exalted the true heart of man and bade obedience Essentially the conceptions are those of later Confucianism. But the Buddhist doctrines are caricatured and denied. was a great gulf fixed which none could pass over. . human nature was &quot. Thus was the separation between gentleman and commoner made Between the two complete in legal rights. but they looked upon the priests with contempt and did not take the trouble to understand the teaching they forsook. A permanent centres A doctrine based set forth. and finally in religion. in hereditary position. outside of the priesthood it was difficult to find an educated man who professed to know anything of the established religion.

and heaven are mentioned. in the Chrysanthemum. in part perhaps themselves were not of the stuff because the preachers of which prophets and martyrs are made. conduct is is all of life. They found ridicule the most potent argument and hence though strong to pull down. The exaltation of While hell the world to come and of of the religious life is only a device by means entice which the founders of the sects men to virtue. Just because this present use * world so fleeting we must it nobly. After a generation or two the school ceased to attract hearers. etc. At and their teachings one.1 68 Religion in Japan are put in the mouths of priests. they were unable to put strong motives in the place of that which was destroyed. little influence. leaving behind a few Various translations of these sermons have been made in Mitford s Tales of Old Japan. in my Japanese Life in Town and Country. and finally vanished. misunderstand the purpose and substitute form for substance. They ap But the teaching had pealed to the sense of humour in their hearers and they were not overnice in their choice of illustrations. who are represented as giving the essential doctrine and casting aside the husk. it is made apparent that sorrow and happiness are within us and not of external circumstances. their heart all religions are one. 1 . while men and women who take the doctrines at their face values and earthly relationships suppose that the may be ignored.

.Confucianism as Polity and Ethics 169 volumes of sermons which are models of a preaching style so be it the preacher is without a message of life and death. but of Europe and the United States. With this the ethical teaching came to development of the Chinese an end. for Japan was no longer to remain isolated. but was to influence once come under the not more of foreign thought. now of China and India.

furnishing the motive power to the national ethics. polity of the state and for fore is represented in separation between religion and ethics Chinese by the ordinary native classification. . Shinto. In Japan Shinto has patriotism for its substance. and Confucianism in another. Thus Taoism. Buddhism. Confucianism there was the system which made rules at once for the This the order of society. Ethical Religion. of later years. and Buddhism. in China and in Japan the separation between religion and ethics seemed complete. The World s Parliament of Religions. Christianity are put in one class. Confucianism as a World System. pp. as formulated in the eighth century. a division 1 which commends itself not only to the Chinese scholars but also to foreigners.LECTURE VI. and Buddhism supplied only rules for men who chose the religious life. 170 i. 375-380. is without BOTH an ethical code. in the Shin sect.. has found a way through the doctrine of faith for the thorough-going adoption of the Chinese teaching of the 1 Cf. and.

Yet even so the separation between religion and ethics is still made. Shang-ti. with spirits. the distinction between religion and ethics is clearly developed. as a set of rules let powers for the government of down out of the super natural world into the natural world. Confucianism is not Its ethics is not the its a supreme deity. set forth Ethics may be regarded. ritual obedience being as important or more important than moral rectitude. The Emperor worships him with the and autumn. Confucius refers to him only in a single passage and that by reference to an ancient system without deduction or command of any kind. From this point of view religion has to do with our relationships with the unseen world. indeed.Confucianism as a World System five relations. nor are code promulgated by moral sanctions in the punishments and rewards of a future life. on what seems . Confucianism indeed recognises a supreme ruler. as the code by invisible their realm. and only a secondary duty to man. Judged now by such a a religion. standard. with gods and with Heaven. the supreme duty being owed to God. and ethics finds a place in religion only in a subordinate capacity. to be disobeyed only under the penalty of a divine punishment. Worship is not placed first and there is no duty towards God recognised. Certain of our modern scholars. 171 Yet here too. Worship is its chief attribute. evidently. but beyond this offerings of spring he has no part in the system.

i. p. or. it is certain that Confucius himself ruler of the was not a worshipper universe. 2 Vide Faber. as they 8 are unable to conquer his determined mind. T. One can never trust his use of the English words spirit&quot.. xx. so also he accepts the prevalent belief in deities and demons. attitude was not that of an agnostic. knowing a higher and greater truth.. is indifferent For the followers of Confucius..god. with ministers of the left Chu and right in association with himself. 57-60. As thus Confucius refers to Shang-ti without deny ing his existence or inculcating his worship. The desire to support this notion makes statement in the text is the chief blemish in the very excellent translations by Legge. how away from this earlier and purer faith. S. 47. of God as creator and The greatest commentator on Confucius.&quot. he tells his be worshipped 2 His but that they are to be kept at a distance. and &quot. A. Doctrines of Confucius. 1 ever that may be. .172 Religion in Japan to us the smallest evidence. greater than the gods or greater. and that Confucius fell But. demons. if he be not he at least is independent of them. but of the man disciples that deities and demons are to who. 1 For not strong enough the notion The of an original monotheism in China seems to be against all the evidence we possess. expressly denies the existence of a supreme ruler in the sense of a heavenly emperor. assert that the Chinese were originally monotheistic. &quot. 3 pp. As in antiquity he found precedents. Hi. man is to the less.

. Confucius s Analects.&quot.&quot..there no place for and a great representative of Confucianism in Japan teaches us with the utmost frankness that it is only righteousness. and truth which appeal to Heaven and win is success. Confucius taught and very greatly promoted the worship of ancestors. A. iii. prayers. 13. and reverence by the term which of the we use for the worship Supreme Deity is to confound things which essentially differ. not pos nor originated and ruled over by itself the a god. i. &quot. true to the teaching of their great Master. possessing powers and The essential followers of Confucius in Japan. pp. pt.. his own practice illustrating his doctrine. but. 2 At the most. 63-68.. 9 T. forms of priestly When is punished by said Confucius. &quot. S. none the less. recognise rites all and ceremonies and prayers and interposition as superstitious. This is indeed the centre of the re very ligion of the multitudes in China.Confucianism as a World System Confucius. regarding the immortality of 1 the soul. Confucian worship an act of grateful remembrance service.. but in and of values. and humanity. Heaven. xx. The bowing before the tablet of the Sage involves no more than the lifting of the hat as we stand before a tomb of a hero of the To call this past. nature sessed is 1 73 by a spirit supreme being.

xi.. p. . s Chinese Classics. 23.. 99. then we should believe that our destiny in the spiritual world is decided not by deeds done in the in all the body but by the conduct of our descendants 1 Analects. pt. as already indicated. 8 This negative attitude has characterised his followers save that they have been in some instances more de cided in denying conscious immortality than was the To Chu Hi conscious existence after death is Master. A.Religion in Japan is teaching negative. it is clear that the Confucian ethics do not rest upon the belief in an immortality. for were his &quot. 11. i. Note 49. an absurdity inconsistent with all that is known of 3 man s nature.. In response to a direct question by &quot.. * people to believe their ancestors were consciously neglectful of the intelligent. S. In any case. the living . i. after death. the well known response: pupils he made do not yet know life. p. for it is far easier to argue living that the destinies of the dead depend upon the than to prove that the converse is taught in the Con Were we to suppose ourselves conscious fucian books. the living would no longer make offerings to them. how then can we know We And on another occasion he told them death ? that he was unwilling to commit himself. were worship of the dead while on the dead to be thought unconscious. xx.. Quoted in Legge T. would be the other hand.

Confucianism as a World System
generations to come.
1

175
to set

It

was

left to

Buddhism

forth in vivid colours the terrors of a

and

to invoke the

powers of
life.

fear

judgment day and hope as in

ducements

to a religious

Surely it is not surprising that Confucianism has been termed non-religious. Without a Creator, with
only a reference to a Supreme Kuler without a doctrine of heaven, hell, or immortality without a conception
;
;

of sin against

God

;

without a

felt

need for

rites,
;

cere

monies, sacraments, hymns, prayers, and priests

with

out even so

much
it

as a cosmology or a
of
all

an ontology,

seems devoid

mythology or contents and

characteristics to

which the term religious belongs.
Confucianism
is

Yet none the

less

a

religion.

It is

not a collection of rules nor a mere system of ethics.
If

by

ethics

we mean

in this connection the recognition

of the rules of the social

life, as something formed, let us say, by mutual consent, as in the theory of Hobbes,

or imposed

upon men by the arbitrary
ethics

will of a despot,
;

or even
if

something which, thus formed through the will of men, may be amended or re1 Thus Faber, Sys. Digest., pp. 50-51. But he is mistaken in describing the scheme as "immoral." To conceive of the dead as dependent upon the living may furnish a sanction as potent as in the teaching that they suffer the penalty of their own

by we mean by

the action of the majority of the people or

is further to be noted that Confucianism does not support the contention of those who suppose that ethics is

deeds. It

dependent on post-mortem sanctions.

176

Religion in Japan

scinded or changed, then emphatically Confucianism It does not thus conceive of ethics. is not a

system

man

in his relationship to

men and

nature.

Nor

is it

concerned with the visible world

after all as the chief

and eternal sphere. Behind the world it too places the super- world yet not as distinct from the world, but manifested in and through it The real world is
;

like the blue

the sky which remains unchanged though storm-clouds completely cover its face. Let the mists

and storms disappear and heaven remains unchanging So too has heaven the same relationship as before.
to
all,

without distinction of great or small, of near or

distant, of

we may, its arch is do as we will, it still looks down upon still above us It is far beyond our reach: would we injure it, us. we cannot would we cause it pain, we cannot would we benefit or help it, we cannot As thus heaven
high or low.
;

Go

whither

;

;

bounds the

visible world, so does the spiritual
fill all

Heaven

bound and

things, visible and invisible, material,

mental: earth, sky, heavenly bodies, animals, birds,
plants,

men.

1

These are

unchanging and infinite of our ourselves, and yet constitutes the very essence From this essential being, the spiritual Heaven, being.
be removed. It may every trace of the physical shall that It is not a God be described best negatives.

upon the surface of that and eternal Power which is not
all

by

1

T. A. S., xx., pt. ii., Ri, Ki,

and Ten.

Confucianism as a World System
is,

177
not

an individual like a
it

man

;

it is

not material,

it is

dynamic,

is

not

like

our passions, nor like our
it

knowledge, nor like our spirit or mind or soul; cannot be described in terms of cause and effect it
;

pre

ceded even the negative and positive principles by whose interaction the universe has been formed.
Formless, from
it

has come
;

all

form powerless, from
;

it

all change power and yet is norm and governor of all. This supreme, which we cannot yet call object, name less and adjectiveless, may yet best be described

has come

all

it

remains through

changeless,

by

that

which

stirs in

the soul of
essence,

man
as

as righteousness. 1
it

Eighteousness

is its

and

develops

it

re

veals itself in the five virtues, practised in the five
relationships.
Its true nature is to

be discovered only

in the period of perfect development,

when

it

is

em

bodied in the phenomenal world, in the well ordered state, the well ordered family, and the well ordered
life.

Hence
man,

ethics, far
is

from being ephemeral or of the
itself.

will of

the best conceivable expression of the
It is deepest in

inner nature of the universe
ourselves and constitutes our

own

truest being.

We

have therefore the two great elements of that

fashion of religion called

by

Tiele

"

"

2

theanthropic.

Freed completely from
1

all theocratic

elements, in

no

8

Okina Hondo, passim. Cf. T. A. S., xx., pt. i., pp. Elements of the Science of Religion, sub voce.
12

14, 50-52.

178

Religion in Japan

wise corresponding to the forms of supernatural re ligion which, are dependent upon the sensuous imagi
nation,
it is

a clear representative of that class which

conceives of the supreme as immanent, and of sal
vation as the recognition of the unity of the infinite

with the

self.

All religion

may be
:

well brought

under these two great divisions

the religion of

men

who

conceive of God, themselves,

and the world as

distinct

and

separate,

with an intercourse between

God and man which may culminate in an admittance to the very presence of God himself, seated upon his throne and the religion of men who conceive of God
;

under the forms of thought as an all-embracing In finite or Absolute in which all things live and move

and have
as

their being,

and in which we

find salvation

we come

to recognise that our essential being is not
is

in our changing ego of present consciousness, but

in

our unity with the universal It These two types of religion may be divided in an
other way, with a classification that cuts across both.

For example, we may have in the theocratic religion
the conception of a

God

in

whom power

is

supreme,

and who
sacrifice,

chiefly desires
praise,

from his worshippers, through
his

and prayer, the recognition of
it

overwhelming might. With him

service of our fellow
is

men

is

acceptable only because

rendered con

sciously as the doing of his will.

Or we may have the

A. the thought of the Infinite may centre in pure being. so with the Con- fucianists study and reflection hold large place. of metaphysics may be set forth not in 1 but in those of ethics. and the worship is not formal but The holy man is an incarnation of right practical. but in its fulness there is Yet salvation only for him who both knows and acts. this all-embracing Supreme. p. the terms object of our reverence. It is true that the way of righteousness is not apart from though they know not the truth yet they may practise it. contemplation. but purity in the inward parts. and salvation may be obtained through meditation.Confucianism as a World System conception of 1 79 as the ruler of supreme righteous from his people not sacrifice nor ness. God who desires theanthropic type. asceticism. on the contrary. or power. i. In Confucian ism we have such an ethical religion of the theanthropic In it there are at once veneration. and salvation. eousness in the service of humanity. praise. worship. . 1 In the great religions these distinctions cross and recross back and forth with confusing results. As in all theanthropic religions. 8 T. pendence. substance. essence. 72 &quot. S. or metaphysical abstraction or. Otherwise even with practice (the Way) we do not . Yet the invisible on which the visible depends is not something abstract but embodied. and a minister So likewise in religions of the ing life to fellow men.. de type. . xx. : Only as we truly know it can we truly do it.. service. the ignorant and humble .

make the truth of the heart the founda will attain.. we do not know at all as we ought is do to know. S. T. no. increase in learning. My article in the American Journal of Theology. the heart of it is righteousness. and the colours of the spectrum by seeing them.. but Heaven covers all and embraces know. for learning If we life. i. the * The Orthodox Philosophy of Chinese. vol. pp. As we know the taste of wine by tasting it. and at last you fucianism in this form has its thorough-going ontology but. A. 43.&quot. apart from it. never of God is the heart of apart from us. 61. xx. a dealer in verbal but refinements. so do we know the five relationships as life of we 9 exercise the five virtues in the actual man. P. vii. 1. not to embody the truth in a student merely of the eye and ear. 36-40-44. 1 To know truth is know it as something primarily in ourselves. . a man who prates much of the Sages could never recognise one in to life. precisely a matter of every-day not know this.&quot.&quot. Cf. P. from life. and even in doing it we find no profit. and the sounds of the musical scale by hearing them. There is nothing all. &quot.180 vain Religion in Japan is learning for the man whose knowledge is life is merely theoretical To know a multitude of books and yet to be a learned fool. And p.. &quot. : . nor is it possible for a man to say that he has no time for investigating and for this study. 52 Examine yourselves. after all.. Con tion. 52. for the temple 3 There is no such thing as true study apart man.

him in the death of his well- T. He is confident of his own u &quot.. 3 confident in the protection of Heaven. our hates. 9 8 p. 71.. but they have no place in the relations of the purity and thought. lying ing. he will not listen to them. and salvation. is. play The outward circum 1 stances of life. rising up. all is well. He also feels that Heaven afflicts i. are all embodied within it and when we forth are in harmony with This is nothing can hence is disturb us. meant by and escape from hell. Analects. He. sleeping. toiling..Confucianism as a World System and when once is it 181 is recognised and our place in it known. destiny because it &quot.&quot. iii. our loves and this truth. A.. Heaven. as Providence indeed. Analects. then there comes to the soul perfect peace . paradise. our and successes. is to use Confucius as an alarm bell a that to arouse the sinners to repentance. has been shaped by Heaven. it is has been read into his words. thus set forth. man of As we take this Confucian system. waking. S. And when his disciples would dissuade him from an errand involving danger. he says. . 24. regards Heaven and virtue as the essential nature of man. down. which all which are symbols of the priest who appeals to the ignorant. 5. dying. it and compare plain that much with the sayings of Confucius. living. like the transient disappointments inward hopes and fears. ix. xx..

1 ! It is plain that Confucius lived in a world instinct with righteousness. earth. p. and worships in its presence. and 1 listens for the indication of xi. * Thus a Japanese writer. and which brought upon sinners. Heaven is destroying me &quot.1 82 Religion in Japan and he &quot. Heaven is not a dead. xx. its will. When men in are rebellious and the Heaven responds sorrow. unnatural and drought manifest its suffering. quakes. know the heart of Heaven. and earth eclipses. righteousness affliction in his own which responded to the soul. cries. brought into great promin Just as the parent feels the misdeeds of his son. The scholars of the West are wise indeed in measurements and outward appearances. 8. beloved disciple. The reverent soul is ever mindful of the unseen. but they do not ren face. and as the sorrow in the parent s heart may cause disease in his body. Both he and Mencius teach that when there are calamities in the empire the rulers are to examine themselves. shooting-stars. They who would measure the features are like child of a parent s but cannot understand the parent s mind. A. comets.. Analects. unfeeling thing. i. T. rain. S. . and stands in awe before it.. so is it with our great parent the Heaven and the guilty. 168.. and it is the dread of such false belief which causes a protest against Western science. and is in later Con fucianism this element ence..

and the interpretations of the Master. first Thus it became the accepted it Rivalling idealistic in influence. cannot be denied the term religious. introduced into Japan in the seven system there were teenth century. is supreme and that conduct con This interpretation of Confucius was the established orthodox doctrine in Japan during the Tokugawa It was taught in the great schools and other period. it quickly made conquest of the in tellect of the nation.Confucianism as a World System Surely the 183 men who stood thus reverent. Within this varying schools. but from our own The very essence of truth is . but all agreeing in this. how was a thoroughly place system taught in the by a writer of the seventeenth century. This comes from the world around us. nor from books. For this system here described has been predominant in China since the twelfth century of our era. varying as to the ontology that righteousness stitutes all of life. the so-called Omi Seijin. greatly mistake if we suppose that a mere system of ethical rules has satisfied the religious natures of the scholars of the Far East for the last We thousand years. souls. worship ful. and obedient in the presence of a nature whose essence is righteousness and whose Heaven is a Provi dence instinct with feeling. training for gentlemen. ever. systems were forbidden. and. He insists upon the intuitions of the mind to us not as the source of knowledge.

Clearly perceiving this truth and acting in it accordance with is obedience to the Way. this lays greater stress upon of the sacred books. we dip out the water big or small. immaterial. not indeed of equal strength. is There its neither time nor being without no beginning nor end. to the highway where there weak and strong. are It is like the great men and women. out ward circumstances matter not. The clear perception It is long life Way includes all blessedness. and is image.&quot. One of the chief differences &quot. Such re obedience lations to is like the great sea. For truth is in all with only distinctions which are old and young.184 Religion in Japan the knowledge that I am one with the universe and the gods. and the various our fellows are like vessels with which . so the water shapes itself. For him the Way the pivot of his existence. round or square. man is it. but on the same path and travelling of this same goal. but it is all alike the water of the great sea. but their intuitions after all are not other than our own. The learning of the Sages indeed may 1 bring this intuitive knowledge into consciousness. Even without outward sorrow all there no peace. An evil heart in cludes is all curses. for if the heart be at rest. as it the orthodox school exalts the authority . and 1 sights and sounds are is painful. learning. and wealth and peace. spirit This Way dwells It has in the universe as the dwells in man.

False learning proud. self- and the observance is of the five relations. and there shall be no failure.Confucianism as a World System Learning is 185 disregard of self. As . envious. There was no vision earth. is Its eyeball humility. much was made of a of meditation and contemplation. do with obedience. obedience to the Way. so that seeking. are learned with the heart reading which conforms to the heart of the Sages. Not only was the deeper self recognised as far beneath all conscious activity. nourished in quietness and in darkness. who obey but cannot read. gaze to the past. whereas humble It has nothing to folk. influenced by the Zen sect. the more one has the worse he is. as a drop mingles with the sea. Hence The charm of the system was in its world view. and if even an approximation to the old golden age of Yao and Shun could not be attained. as fire disappears in fire. there was an explanation in the decrees of fate. but. its No on great purpose animated followers. Man s true self is far beneath his changing self of act and thought and desire and will. kingdom it of God to be established here its Confucianism forever directed the most priety. and could recommend was a return to pro it brought forth no ideals of liberty or of progress. This religion in both schools tended to quietism. Let this deeper self be nourished. and at death man returns to the all-pervading spirit as the vapour in the sky melts away.

and there are many who follow it. after long study a point is reached whence the universe principle. So Mencius compared it to the * It is not difficult to under great highway and said But stand it. and that all differences and distinctions are relatively illusory. and I grieve that men go not therein. more difficult it is to agreement concerning it. the intellect than When now such a view can lead the individual to trust and to the recognition that his own true self is one with the universal principle. : easily followed and obeyed. Discussion becomes more and more refined and the points at issue more and more intangible.1 86 Religion in Japan in other thorough-going philosophical in Hinduism and systems. Hence the later scholars introduced their discussions. By and by there arise men who reject the principle itself in the interests of the prac tical life. he finds a peace which is deep and abiding. The Way of the Sages readily understood and it is thoroughly obeyed. So was it in Confucianism. and brings forth great virtues. making . the profounder the principle the attain Besides. is &quot. But such attainment is indeed difficult In these systems it is much easier to be orthodox in doctrine than in spirit Hence there are constant complaints of multitudes of scholars who are merely learned in the outward appearances. is seen evolving according to a single greater fascination for Almost nothing has this. but who have never sub mitted themselves to the fundamental truth.

. i. This is cult before the virtues.. A whole school arose which charged the philosophers of the eleventh century with substituting alien systems for funda mental truth. 187 and obeyed. and learning was sec ondary. In this philosophy differs from the Way of was no doubt indebted and the the criticism Moreover. xx. The watchword of this new school was Back to Confucius! They would discriminate his teaching even from the words of Mencius. This is what I mean by too high and too distant and too difficult. in analysis. put progress in knowledge as the first thing.. too minute and in the end misses the plain and chief meaning. there progress and a gradual advance toward per But the philosophers of the Sung dynasty.&quot. pp. with their * limitless and great limit. and of the 1 T. Thus is fection. A. reverence.. and set forth fine. the Sages. Their easy method was like the highway. complicated literary discussions as the foundation of learning. too distant. to put that which is useless and diffi It is too profound. With the Sages filial obedience.Confucianism as a World System it difficult. &quot. and truth were the foundation. Confucianism in this developed system to both Buddhism and Taoism. hard to be understood In this they differed from the original teaching of Confucius and Mencius. loyalty. 174-175. and made the purification of the heart through contemplation the foundation of right conduct. which describes it as departing from Way of the Sages is justified. even the fool might readily know and follow it. S. too high.

Even when the Buddhist doctrine had lost the teaching with its vitality. for man s other activities organisation Thus before the Buddhist Church the unorganised Shinto faith could not stand. more from the doctrines of the alien faiths. we have seen. unite in maintaining forms since lost their vital power. to the few. A. pp. power teachings and of property.. and third. isation holds the sacredness of worshipping memories. xx. Learned Men &quot. parent from the The interests of asso fast its formulae. i. the orthodox doctrine- had few sincere followers remaining. it was embodied in the organisation. S. .!88 Religion in Japan still great commentators. 170-171. so that when modern learning at the time of the [Reformation was introduced into Japan and freedom of thought it and expression was given to &quot. truth which is inculcates. 1 Though these critics were never their words were given positions in the schools. yet not without effect. the organisation carried First therefore was doctrine . Exalted as it it is. unable therefore to maintain For is religion as essential. as Eeligion of this type appeals.. itself. which have long T. the learned world. it which the organisation carried the doctrine from had sprung. then second. it and profound as is the forms no organisation and itself. like the hero bearing his decrepit Such an ecclesiastical organ flames..that of the appeared that the Way is to say. the ciation.

Transplanted into Japan.Confucianism as a World System But 189 in Confucianism. The good enter Nirvana. The patriarchal form of society in China was well adapted for its preservation. it is true. In the teachings of Confucius also the problem of con scious immortality is left unsolved. The common people.&quot. prop it. the forms of ancestor wor ship were adopted. having no place in early Shinto. leaving &quot. yet the more itself ancient ancestor worship of the Chinese asserted and Confucius yielded willingly to its influence. erly speaking. can believe that on the the departed are anniversary of the dead the spirits of . and evil It would be only the imperfect who continue in connection with the living. In these lectures from time to time mention has been made of ancestor worship. can Buddhism admit for in Southern Buddhism there is no soul. The incongruity of ancestor worship is apparent. but the substance was changed. Only by a strange is inconsistency. or are fixed in the Western Paradise. when the philosophy of the Chinese scholastics was ignored in the schools. it was not original with the Japanese. no organisation remained and it perished. As we have seen.not a wrack behind. or the Absolute. and they perhaps in brutal or even devilish form. and in Northern Buddh ism the soul absorbed in the Absolute. since in the family are centred all the elements of the social life.

and on them the same eternal truth of a spiritual ancestry looks 1 down. says not a word. James version of the Epistle to the Hebrews by &quot. The ing is perhaps rendered intelligible to us by the use of the familiar words of the St.. this superstition is a firm reliance upon a transmitted virtue. A. The philosopher. we forget.. 185) gone by. 1. us lay aside every weight and the sin which doth so easily beset us. seeing we also are compassed about let so great a cloud of witnesses. and let us run with patience the race that is set before l us. Patriots feel themselves one with innumerable mul feel who have loyally lived and served..&quot. we seem if to see the reflection of the forms and faces of the past. yet it speaks . S. 8 Heb. xii.. recalls the ages (see p. xx. T. 125-127. : Wherefore. for all the men of the past. As we look upon the moon and Though it it think of the things of old. from an important and beneficial in There fluence has been exerted by ancestor worship. pp. the heroes in the and martyrs acting titudes struggles of the living. so fre quently quoted compares his oneness with the generations to the reflection of the moon on in these pages.190 Religion in Japan present in a quasi-physical fashion. a belief not dif But apart ferent from that of the peasantry in China. the present. the face of the flowing water. and the future are all like the flowing water. 3 The meaning i. .

.. 3 them the civil- Thus in the past also.. they attempted to narrate.&quot. the visible. invisible. i. but their explanations were meagre and their definitions inadequate. This is the inner meaning of the Japanese worship of the dead. Cf. and to explain.We have concluded our survey of religion in Japan. and the audible. and the family of heroes is pre To be childless in the body is to beget mul served. pp. ancestors of the Imperial &quot. T. Fidelity makes the and nature of benevolence and righteousness this is its seed.. 103 ff. titudes who are children of the spirit. cried. Tokugawa. A. xxx. who not slew herself and no child. woman has no seed is still ! But he have 1 replies Not having seed to seed. In the beginning the simple-hearted people. iv..Confucianism as a World System he explains in another passage. xx. there was brought to T. Heaven s Nature. A.&quot. were stirred to worship of the wonderful by the presence and the mysterious.The &quot. heroic so. S.. . where one of his ciples. : &quot. and of the ascription of victory to the virtues of the house. Thus the example of the hero begets heroes. S. to define. they discovered some thing intangible. While still undeveloped. which they had no words to express and no logic to define. dead in China of was victory ascribed to the virtues of the and in Japan to the ancestors of the House ii. In the tangible. 191 dis lamenting the death of a noble woman. as reason awoke. left &quot. and inaudible. By and by. living in the present.

and its religion. and the rites. was its debased in substance. while behind the visible world the unseen universe. and ocean and heaven. and found their own tiny world expanding vastly in time and space. its philosophy. and the Absolute above the concrete. disguised as truth. Only the meditative and its contemplative elect. seemed to stand forth form and substance. Their feelings of awe and dependence were heightened. admission of charms and debasing . in its long migrations through Thibet came The worship of and China. The thought of India. changed their own. be rock and tree. with its splendours. the very few. herself. after in which they had dimly felt. and mountain and sun. and re glorified in its worship and in its forms.192 isation Religion in Japan of the continent. Koom was of the multitude in weak comprehension thus made for falsehood and superstition. was ab sorbed in the worship of the Absolute and the Eternal. Nature reasserted world cast out came back again. the ligion. its science. were employed for the education of the masses. which. could appreciate inner meaning. and their religion took on loftier forms of worship and profounder modes of thought. But this religion could not maintain purity. It exalted the supernature itself in its above nature. The people responded to this foreign influence. Hence its usage was adapted to the symbols and parables and allegories.

By this between and by the fundamental contradiction system and Buddhism was discovered in China and thence imported into Japan. life man proclaimed the was to stand in his lot and It exalted human nature and the of every day. great truth that each fulfil its duties. career of de so that Buddhism entered upon a new velopment and conquest In neither form did religion furnish the rules of conduct for the ordinary introduction of the life.Confucianism as a World System Meanwhile. faith. while Buddhism was left for the comfort of the ignorant and lowly. Simultaneously with the Confucianism was brought in to teach men how to live It from day to day in their ordinary relationships. Henceforth the religion of gentlemen was to be the reformed Confucianism. Behind the temporal it was con In the midst of change it could . and declared that eternal righteous ness could be found only in the particular and the concrete. Through the his fictitious vow of the fabled Amitabha and Paradise in the West. earnest 193 men. an appeal was religious instincts made to the and aspirations of the multitude. 13 scious of the Eternal. Hindu faith. recognising the impos the sibility of salvation through way of philosophical thought and religious found a means of salvation in original asceticism and contemplation. In Confucianism the religion of the Far East reached its highest point.

ii. ness. Itself forever the same. relationships. Man s spirit find the changeless. We incarnations. without name or definition.. 1 and truth. and finally to the worship of benevolence. or as substance. as the reflection in the quiet pool answers to the light of the &quot. in conduct..&quot. known social and its realisation is in the Japan pass through successive stages from the recognition of that which is imme diately perceptible as the highest and noblest. . was not conceived as pure being moon. xx. yet finds are its application in every time and place. A. its As the highest righteous its realisation is not in contemplation nor It is understanding through metaphysics. p. made known T. answered to the great principle of the universe. This eternal. but it was described as righteous This at once constitutes the inner nature of man and the inner nature of the world in which man dwells. we where is have everlasting peace. changeless principle. and man in his spiritual and moral nature was its representative. and it nise this truth and realise in we recog our own lives. ness. to the in Thus did man apprehension of ideas conceived only by the mind as constituting the Absolute.. S. righteousness. so that in the ages it of the Sages its it was intuitively perceived.194 Religion in Japan All nature was bound together with a golden chain of life. 52.

in society. be chiefly thought and China. more influential. so will be with the new enlightenment. and the state. 2 Bushido. These two works idealise the past and describe a Japan which never existed in the fashion here set forth. the ethics of the gentleman. adopted and transformed the civilisa it tion of Asia. Both schools recognise. A group of young men and would find the future 1 Japan in a return to the worship of the Absolute. is a fine specimen of this class. Another group. set forth a glorified Bushido. What may be may not attempt of the future of religion in Japan one to foretell. It will not return to India and to it turns to it As in the past Europe and the United States. by Kakuzo Okakura. by Inazo Nitobe. philosophy. for they reveal the dreams the young men dream dreams to be realised some day in some better form than yet hath entered man s heart to conceive. holding fast to what they conceive as best in the religions of days gone by. as the hope of salvation. that in the modern world the conditions do not obtain which for these forms of religion in the past. seek to combine with the noblest truth of our modern that science. made A third it group. 195 and realised in the family. Christianity is And 1 of this new enlightenment is a part. and religion. But they are none the worse for that. This group admirably represented in The Ideals of the East. sets forth the Asiatic ideal. however. .Confucianism as a World System to us through conscience. but Japan henceforth will under the influence of modern ways of Certain it is life.

&quot. Japan. the history of religion ! how different has been And yet. India. who can know ? its under truth. its differing forms one. China. As in water face answereth to So the heart of man to man.196 Religion in Japan and the future is Its influence already stirs Japan. and which knows no race or place. remains the same. * 1 face. Europe. but how changed by that how absorbed by the Yet this we know. as we trace its slow development in any one of these diverging lines. 19. Proverbs xxvii. humanity still is new environment and Japanese spirit. with it.. the words of the ancient Oriental sage haunt the memory : &quot. .

103. 112} . 83. characterised. primitive 91. 12 . [51 note Asceticism... G. 97 .. 89 sq. succes Buddhas. contrasted with Confucian ism. 85 sq. the plants Gautama. 92 Birds. 82-sq. D. W.kami 21 Brinkley. F. 189-191 Arai. 68 178. Books. 97 Ancestor worship (See also Confucius and Confucian ism) 27. 112 Ame-no-toko. 118. xvi. 59 victory. be comes a god. 120. 81 Brinton. Buddhism. its miracles. 189. or Amitabha. 18. 96-101. 1-2. Hakuseki. and Aston. causes of victory. 87. sustained by govern its intel . Binzuru. with the gods. 97. Acvaghosha. 18 ment. 22 Buddha. sq. 106. sup sive labours. E. 38 Ame-terasu-no-Mikoto. is the Absolute. . (See Goddess). Amida.primitive&quot.. 84.. 131 sq. (See Lectures III and IV. Lecture III. 37 note Beasts. lectual influence. sacred do not claim Absolute. 173-1 75. Shinto gods his in carnation. 64. K. denied dha. Ame-no-uzumi-no-Mikoto. believed in. 134 original Buddha. 195 sq. xv. .89. sects (See Sects ).Lits struggles . modified.. 42. 38 197 Mahay ana .^2. introduced into Ta- Asakawa... why . Shinto uses. G. . 114 by Bud _EaJii-. 134. 119. 93 . Sun Buckley.Greater Vehicle 95. 84-97 temp tation and attainment. 11. 161 sq. Bargains. 90 . 31 note 2. definition of &quot.INDEX. described. 194. 157 Buddhism. 115. 66-67.SiuaiarJMLsg. quoted.tachi-no . 95 114. 153. (speak like men). 3-4.). 95-96. 20. 81.. 192. inspiration. Book of Changes. con trasted with.

116 sq. theanthropic. 61 destroys faith offSaimiraij Buddhism. 183..). 92. place for originally 172... C Chamberlain. 47 its sq. effect. man s relationship to mis sq. 50 sq. 102 sq. propriety. xv. 96 sq. 179 sq. 68.. 142. interpretation. 3-4. 172. its late idealistic 148 sq. in 162 sq. istence after death. meaning Confucian duced into Japan. 54 175 . Basil Hall. worship. 38 Centralisation. Index. China identi with the universe. 102-103. 180-181. of righteousness.. meaning its persecutions. 161. popularise its 167 sq. its essential features. 13.: not Charms.. its essentially religious Christianity. the holy man. 154 note. | sionary 118 its nature.. 162^.. 83 sq. . its comprehensiveness. 149.1 2 1 . 147.. 143. no prayer. 51 sq. man the object of ethics. 91. 106. and rites. 144 . 143. its defects. 118. quietism. modified. lacks various re ligious doctrines influence sq. 115-116. the meaning of humanity.eeiEo doetrines . 167. spirit. 177 sq. theory of government. divergencies and unity. its corruption. enlightenment intro monotheistic. the Sage. (See Lectures V. 185. the Chi wealth and luxury.. 176 sq. 195 note fucianism. 14lTFiitrg~ ho-ben . nese Five Classics. contradicted by Con duced into Japan. disestablished..198 Buddhism Continued. its asstheticism.. importance of learning. 195 Chu Hi. 88. 138. 95. 145. fied 98. 139. . 174 Confucianism. i^autfi6rrtyjnj[apan. 117. importance of learning. 146. in Kojiki.. 140.. 96. supplies polity and 183 sq. denies creator. 106. its . question of immortality left undecided. perience. 175 sq. Bushido. ethics the chief study. 143.. (See Metaphysics. 1 1 9. 46-47. characterised 3. future 137. 173. denies conscious ex character. 173-175. thei BtnperoF 147. 152 sq. 117 Chinese. denies Buddhism. of 173. its learning. Lesser Vehicle. Hinayana. 115. the Virtues. 133 sq.. Sects ). 142-143. 144. 149. and VI. mean ing of Heaven. 148. 181. of the people. 133. its religious ex .

139. 139. modern times. atti tude toward deities and demons.Index. 32-33. 16. 78. defects in Japanese ethics. 186 sq.. 65 . Creation. established.Ko/~r\m*iC a 64. 99. Ernest. a transmitter. or sea-monster. 160. not a god in god. 26. 140. becomes 64. 171. 149 feudal Creator. 17. taught by Nichiren. Japanese il lustrations of. 152 sq. not a worshipper of Supreme God. 183 / * Confucius. 46-47. 79 Faith (See Salvation) Faber. . 170intellectual 199 41 Dreams. 175 Family. 136 Crimes. powers. 145. not de pendent on immortality. . 141. a religion. charm. Ethics. 150 $q. Confucian. 63. High . not different from gods or men. 65-66. 173. Emperor. feudal of 22. one ap pears. Priest. Dai Nichi. sepa ration from religion. 16 Crocodile. Japanese. byU China only. 58 sq. 19-20 Demons. its weakness and decay. Chinese and Japanese 150 155 sq. (See cession) Suc Empire. 185opponents. 120 Dances. . 41 Divine Age. (Emperors). genealogies. its beginning. Confucian concep tion of. compared. RA &quot. 9 175 note Evolution. influence in China. 66 Confucian ideal of. 160. primitive 5. 49 primitive. 173. . 40 186 .. 46-47 Courage. 63 note ethical training. feudal system determines. work of. sq. 38 Death. 92 perors). 18 Europe and Japan com pared. Divination. 174 Conquest. its . in no moral distinctions loyalty characteristic sq. 18.. 13 sq. the religion. no mention of a. 147 supreme. his worship. 172. 188-189. follows Buddhism. o divine right. denned Dependence. 172 to him nature in . Ema. IV. worship of Ancestor ancestors (See Worship). 170. 46-47. 161 . primitive theories of. interested 141. 21. 35 Development 8-9 in religion.

definition 63 of evolution quoted 9 .). 94. 41. Inconsistency. W. 34. like earth. Karl. Chinese influence upon. of. Revelation) Kami. 59. 59-62. 96.. Izanagi. 106.gods&quot. 25.. E. 82-83 Knowledge. 98 Kojiki. 56-57. 38 Jimmu Tenno. 58 sq. 136 Gods. its Matters). 18-31. 72 Gautama. origin unknown. Harakiri. 34. its frankness. 46 note. 4. 32-33 significance of . K Kalpa. 24. 63 Jingo. 33.. not always intelli gent. 66. 21-22. 138 Korean. 34 . how Le Conte. (See Confucianism) Hinayana.. social. 123. Joseph. 20 Izanami. xv. 17-18 Kwannon. (Kami) denned. 19-20. 15 32 Fishes. 34. defined. sources. 154 like earth. far truthworthy. its pur pose. 18 Florenz. Even Pass Heaven. date. 14. 22 Groups. 161 Folk etymology. 25. 19-20. beginning. 127 names of.. 55-56. sea. xv. Horde. H Hades. Japanese.200 Index. 24 note. 12 sq. (See Mahaydna) Griffis. 62 17-18. doctrine of. 104. 31 note. not primary in religion. 14. taught by Nichiren. 28 sq. (See 28 sq. 22: god-body. (See Buddha). 123 J God. (See Di vination. primitive. 82. 13. 101. 17-24. 23 Funeral rites. 94. 62. 39. 109-110 Kobo-Daishi. 39. Jewels. xvii. how be gotten. like objects of nature and men. 114. not necessarily good. (Little Vehicle). 12 primitive description of. &quot. Greater Vehicle. 130 Hirata Atsutane. 95. 41. 97. 57. 15-16 Karma. 48. rain. 92 91. Fear. (Records of Ancient xvii. sq. priests. 72 14. god of war. 74 History. 20.

81. 134. 46.. its 65. Legends. 107 monk. 46-74.Index. 96 ^note. Mahayana.. 22 sq.its place in Buddhism. com Gnosticism. xv. 90-91. 119. meaning. 112. Max. 126. undistinguished from matter. mar founding of the Empire. 63 Misery . 19. folk etymology. 164- Omi Seijin. 42. 24 Legge. 35-38. 80. 91. 183-185 symbol of Sun God Phallic worship. 22 note Power. 90. 90. 112-113. how derived. 37 necessity in Okakura. 19 Nirvana. 172 Lesser Vehicle (See Hinaydno. Okina Mondo. 84. Moon. 27 note. 100-102. 36. Kakuzo. proof of divinity. 121. origin. 105 its Offerings. 131. 31. sq. Discourse. 34 Prayers. xvii... M tiller. 12 173-175 Primitive. 123-128. M Magic. 54. development of doc trine. Mystery. 172 26. 103 note Monotheism. 92 81. 36 sq. 48 136. 112-113 Marriage. 58 sq. of the 20 1 of . worshipped as divine. an. (shrine). 52. 121. 135 Loyalty (See Ethics. 88 Nature and supernature. 60.) N Names. 27. 116-118. 173. .) of creation. 89. 38. dess. Mya. pared with 95-96. etc. 166-167. 65-66 Mencius. 23-26. 96-97. 82. 83. 104Mind. Epitaph. 19 Mirror. 106 93 sq. 186-187 Metaphysics. xvi. 166. 13 Matriarchal. Mythology. 105. (See Norito) Priest. Lotus of the True Law. 62 Motowori. 129. 195 note Buddhism. Nichiren (See Sects) Nihongi. 11. 66. riage. 14 Matter. 63-64 Lloyd A. 39 Nara. 69 33-34. 92. Myths. 23 15. 58. origin. 67-69 date. 135-136. 177 53-90. 129 Norito..

106 sq. 112. .. 12-13. society of the ation.) Index. (See Buddhism) Religious consciousness. . b. 13-14. 16. prayers. reasoning. . 91. 35. Religion. ism} (See Confucian Reverence. de philosophy and science. 35. meaning of God (Kami). relation to rites and sq. family and marriage. 40-42 divina 41. . a. Shingon. future of. A. Buddhistic. (See Norito) Rock. dreams. 102. 8. 154. 1-4. dogmas. 7. purification and tabu. 17-20. many. 31-32. fucian. 9.. Con 128-132. sciousness. social. review and summary. pendence. reverence. rites. 105 sq. 38-39. 90. Supernatural (See Lectures III and IV). 6. . development. 15. 21-23. Zen. 189-191 Revelation. 176-177. 36 Ritual.. 170 Religion of Japan.D. Samurai. 32 as ador as depen 33 sq. xv. religious con tion. 32. 100 sq. history and poetry. 42. 98. 6. 81-86 . 17-18 Sects. Shintoist. 24 Primitive religion. 45 as wonder. Salvation Reformation of 645 51. 134-135. origin. 5.. and 7. 122 sq. 81 . Sir Ernest.. ings. objects of worship. ethics. 4. as feeling.202 Primitive beliefs and (Lecture !. worship of power. 30. 195- 196 Religion. .. 150-151. 110 sq. 33-34. 167 Satow. defined. 93. 8. 39-40. 18 Punishments. 16 Pure Land. 122 sq. nature discussed. 35. state. 30-31 dence. 27-30. d. xvi. 35-37 offer charms and magic. xvii. separation from ethics. 10. c. ori gin. 87. distin- . 36. . knowledge. Sea. religion theology. Pure land. 7. Japanese. itive. 37.. 88. 49- by faith. revela tion. (See Kojiki) Sacred Books of the East. 35. prim 44. 9. defined. 42 sq. 9. ethics. Ten Dai. 78-79. 180-185. 156 sq. 98-99. 17-20. 40 Propriety. 99-101. 191-195. relation to 32-33. (See Sects) Pure Path (See Sects) R Records of Ancient Matters. emotions. 101. Science.

96. . (See 30 tera and mya). 27. Mya) Sin. Sun. 81 19. 94 note. 155 160 Shang-ti. Transmigration. Shrine. ism. modified. P. Tokugawa. 78. itself to f. 55- Temple. the. Tiele. &quot. . 65 suppiaa^d by Buddie . 191 Torii. 18 Servants. its divergence. 22 Superstition. 39. its its . xvii. 62 Temmu. . 26 note. cosmogony . Theocratic. 177 sq. 122 . 124. adapts ditions. 1. 108.. 3. C. . 69 sq. 115. 37. 103 sq. religion and. 131 51 sq. 183. 69-74 . (See Lecture characterised. present position. 92 Theanthropic. Tribe. 56. 22. 15 sq. 80. 103. 66. xvi. State.o-no. 65. (See Goddess). 77 relation to patriotism. 4. 154 Shintai. 101. its oneness in spirit. 172 Sympathetic magic. 74-76 its prayers and rites. 81. James. 28. its sanctions. Storm. 103 note Soul. 177 68.) Shinto. . 119. 68 sq. 75. birth of. 82. 89 note. as court cere monial. 15. 14. 15 Sexes. 7-8. 46 109 Troup. 58-63 second stage.Index. 124 with its agreements sq. Asiatic Society of Japan. 41 Shin-gaku-michi-no-Hanashi. 135-136 Serpents. 39. 44 Sutras. 177 sq. 133 sq. 27 apologetics. 39-40 II.Mikoto. primitive Buddhism. 123. entombed alive. xvii. 55 . 125 Sword. e. Shin. 203 29 Spirits. their relationship. substance. 75 its . 21 theology. Tera (temple) 80. 158. its .. . new con Nichiren. its its sacred books. 125 sq. 78-79 (See Transactions. 131.. 55 note. 33. 19 Succession.&quot. and myths. 51 Taka-haya-susa-no. (See God-body) Tabu. 118. 130. Theology. Emperor. its Thunder gods. 137. revived. guished from sects of Pure Path. its cause. Buddhist Scriptures. 67-68.pure. 122. 64-65.

the wonderful. and 18. the. 39-40 W Western Paradise. of the peasantry. 88. 34. 158. 151. (See Sects) . 31-34 Yamato Dake. 171 sq. 134. its objects. 28-29. 106 sq.. 24 Woman.2O4 Index. 92.. 76. as object of worship. 159 Worship. 129- Wonder. u Umashi-ashi-kabi-hiko . 130 Wife. Z Zen.ji-no 30-31. 32 sq. 92-93 kami. her position duty. 13 124.. 189 sq. of power. 66. 21 Unclean..

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PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE FROM THIS CARDS OR SLIPS POCKET UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY BL 2201 Knox. George William The development of reli gion in Japan .JAM 1573 BINDING SECT.

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