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Ramos EgyE221

Final Exam

03-21235 Prof. Rizalinda de

Leon

MS EE

Residential Load

I. Problem Statement

Design a solar hot water system with storage for a residential load whose

load profile is given in two ways; one is average daily hot water consumption for the

whole 12 months of the year and the other one is annual hourly hot water

consumption for the whole 24 hours of the day. The graphs for the two ways of

presenting the load profile are shown below for both the high home and low home

use. The location was set to be in the Quezon City, Philippines.

II. Design Methodology

The Design Methodology will consist of (1) getting the solar radiation and

temperature data for the Quezon City, Philippines location, (2) formulating the

model and necessary assumptions and (3) selecting the design method to be used.

in MJ/m2 .

(Source: Duffie, J.A.,Beckmann, W.A., Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, 2nd Ed.)

(Source:http://login.studentsoftheworld.info/pageinfo_pays.php3?Pays=PHL&Opt=climate)

II.B Proposed Model and Assumptions

Shown below is the proposed model for the solar water heating system

with storage. For this model, a minimum useful temperature must be

specified by the user. The other necessary requirement of operating the

system at a constant coefficient of thermal performance is met since the

load is hot water. The storage tank is assumed to be pressurized so that

energy dumping does not occur. It is also assumed to be very well-insulated

so that tank losses are negligible. Heat exchanger is designed such that

losses are also negligible. A separate auxiliary system is in parallel with the

solar system and makes up any energy deficiency of the solar system. It will

be responsible for bringing the water temperature to the desired levels

whenever the solar system falls short of delivering the required water

temperature.

Here are the additional assumptions and initial estimates for the

storage tank.

2) Tank Temperature set to be equal to Tmin which is in turn also set to

be the temperature of the hot water supply = 60°C

For the collector(β = 14.6°), here are the selected specifications and

initial estimates.

II.C Design Method Used

Looking at the ways the load profile was presented, there are several

methods that can be used to design the system. The designer chose the ϕ-f

chart method since there is a load profile given in daily averages and the

solar radiation and temperature data are given in monthly averages which

also favor the calculations for the parameters needed in the ϕ-f chart

method. Further, ϕ-f chart method caters the design which requires finite

storage and so it was determined to be a better method to use.

Here are the equations needed to carry out the ϕ-f chart method:

Where ρg (ground reflectance) is assumed as 0.2 and,

hour angle.

time hour angle.

time hour angle.

0.5.

Now, we only need R to complete the ratio Rn/ R in the equation for ϕmax.

Where

After solving the value of ϕmax , we can now solve for the dimensionless

variables ϕmaxY and X’ and determine the f value which is the fraction of the

total monthly load that is contributed by the solar water heating system.

of operation of the collector in one day

Where Rs is the ratio of the standard storage heat capacity per unit of

collector area of 350 kJ/m2C to the actual storage capacity.

simplify the equation, the actual storage capacity was initially assumed to be

418 liters so that

further simplified.

Microsoft Excel spreadsheet was used to tabulate the monthly data using the

ϕ-f chart method. A C-program was created to perform the numerical

analysis using Newton’s Method to solve for f.

Given the initial assumptions of Ac = 5m2 and storage capacity of 418 liters,

the data obtained for high home and low home use were as follows:

Figure 3.1

It can be seen from the graph above that except for December, the solar

energy can provide the larger part of the load requirement. The other part

will now be contributed by the auxiliary heating system.

Figure 3.2

It can be seen from the graph above that most of the months have an excess

in energy supplied by solar energy. It depends on the designer’s point of

view but the designer can opt to make a design different from that of the

high home use to just allow a little excess or deficiency with respect to the

load requirement. The designer can do it by varying Ac (sizing down the

collector) or adjusting the tank storage capacity

Figure 3.3

From the f values, it can be seen that under the same assumptions and initial

estimates (and essentially the same design), the performances as reflected

on the graph significantly vary. It can be seen for the high home use that the

solar energy harvested by the system can provide the full contribution for

the month of April. However, its contribution drops to its minimum of 42.7%

during December. On the other hand, for the low home use, the f values

indicate that for the same design, in almost all the months except for

December, the solar energy harvested by the system exceeds if not meet

the load requirements for the particular month.

f-values for both the high home and low home usage have a relation to the

climate of the Philippines. High values of f from the month of March to May

indicate high solar insolation which happens during the summer months. f

values starting June decreased because of the start of rainy season and

further drops during the cold months up to December.

There are many more factors that come into play when designing a

solar hot water system with storage. One major factor is economics of the

design. One designer may consider the result of Fig. 3.1 as not enough

because some f-values do not meet the 80% mark. But the designer can also

take into account the cost of additional collectors or mounting fixtures that

will be incurred. He can also take into account for the side of the investor,

the rate of return on investment such that he might be putting up a design

that is too costly so that it is not possible to recover the investment in a

shorter period of time. On the other hand if the performance is more

prioritized than cost, then Fig. 3.2 can be seen as a good design as the

designer may look at in a way that is the savings that is obtained from

depending less on electricity from the auxiliary supply will in the long run

cause a break even in the cost of putting up the additional materials for

greater solar energy collection. The other consideration is also space such

that because of space constraints, sizing up of the collectors and storage

tanks may not be possible.

APPENDIX

C – Program for f Computation by Newton’s Method

#include <math.h>

#include <stdio.h>

int main(void){

double fx,fpx,x,x_new;

int i;

double phiy[13],xprime[13],phiyl[13],xprimel[13];

phiy[1] = 1.03;

phiy[2] = 0.75;

phiy[3] = 1.08;

phiy[4] = 1.25;

phiy[5] = 1.17;

phiy[6] = 1.17;

phiy[7] = 0.7;

phiy[8] = 1.02;

phiy[9] = 0.84;

phiy[10] = 0.73;

phiy[11] = 0.7;

phiy[12] = 0.45;

phiyl[1] = 1.86;

phiyl[2] = 3.84;

phiyl[3] = 3.87;

phiyl[4] = 3.66;

phiyl[5] = 5.68;

phiyl[6] = 4.66;

phiyl[7] = 2.71;

phiyl[8] = 1.87;

phiyl[9] = 1.36;

phiyl[10] = 1.9;

phiyl[11] = 1.75;

phiyl[12] = 0.87;

xprime[1] = 2.83;

xprime[2] = 2.44;

xprime[3] = 2.38;

xprime[4] = 2.7;

xprime[5] = 2.81;

xprime[6] = 2.40;

xprime[7] = 2.53;

xprime[8] = 3.01;

xprime[9] = 3.08;

xprime[10] = 2.73;

xprime[11] = 2.75;

xprime[12] = 2.87;

xprimel[1] = 5.12;

xprimel[2] = 12.42;

xprimel[3] = 8.54;

xprimel[4] = 7.88;

xprimel[5] = 13.66;

xprimel[6] = 9.53;

xprimel[7] = 9.76;

xprimel[8] = 5.54;

xprimel[9] = 5.00;

xprimel[10] = 7.06;

xprimel[11] = 6.83;

xprimel[12] = 5.54;

printf("f values for high home use\n");

for (i=1;i<=12;i++){

x = 0.9;

fx = phiy[i] - 0.015*(pow(2.71828,(3.85*x))-1)*(1-pow(2.71828,(-0.15*xprime[i])))-x;

fpx = -0.015*(1-pow(2.71828,(-0.15*xprime[i])))*(pow(2.71828,(3.85*x))-1)*3.85-1;

x_new = x - fx/fpx;

while (fabs(x_new-x)>=0.0001){

x = x_new;

fx = phiy[i] - 0.015*(pow(2.71828,(3.85*x))-1)*(1-pow(2.71828,(-0.15*xprime[i])))-x;

fpx = -0.015*(1-pow(2.71828,(-0.15*xprime[i])))*(pow(2.71828,(3.85*x))-1)*3.85-1;

x_new = x - fx/fpx;

}

printf("month[%i] f:%2.6lf\n",i,x_new);

}

for (i=1;i<=12;i++){

x = 0.9;

fx = phiyl[i] - 0.015*(pow(2.71828,(3.85*x))-1)*(1-pow(2.71828,(-0.15*xprimel[i])))-x;

fpx = -0.015*(1-pow(2.71828,(-0.15*xprimel[i])))*(pow(2.71828,(3.85*x))-1)*3.85-1;

x_new = x - fx/fpx;

while (fabs(x_new-x)>=0.0001){

x = x_new;

fx = phiyl[i] - 0.015*(pow(2.71828,(3.85*x))-1)*(1-pow(2.71828,(-0.15*xprimel[i])))-x;

fpx = -0.015*(1-pow(2.71828,(-0.15*xprimel[i])))*(pow(2.71828,(3.85*x))-1)*3.85-1;

x_new = x - fx/fpx;

}

printf("month[%i] f:%2.6lf\n",i,x_new);

}

return 0;

}

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