MMPI-2 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS Level Extremely High Very High High Moderately High Average Moderately Low Very

Low • Uniform T-Score 85-90 75-80 65-70 55-60 45-50 35-40 30 Percentile Equivalent >99.8->99.9 98->99 92-96 73-85 34-55 4-15 <1

• • •

MMPI-2 Manual Elevation Levels: o Very High ≥ 76 o High 66-75 o Moderate 56-65 o Modal/Average 41-55 o Low ≤ 40 3,4,5,6,9,0 = character scales; 1,2,7,8 = symptom scales Acute: Elevated symptom scales, high F (out of ordinary distress), low K (feel helpless in dealing with increased stress) Chronic: Lack of elevation on symptoms scales (or 1-8 > 2-7), moderately low K (T= 45-55), lower F (T<60)

VALIDITY SCALES • Interrelationships of Scales: o Hi F, Lo L & K: Client is admitting to personal and emotional problems, may be asking for help, unsure of abilities to deal w/ problems, good tx prognosis o Hi L & K, Lo F: Client is attempting to deny problems and feelings, underreporting of problems, attempt to present self in most positive light, most likely using primitive defenses, problems usually chronic and therefore may be built into personality, adequate social adjustment to see world as either good or bad o L < F < K: Appropriate resources to deal w/ problems and not experiencing much stress o L > F > K: Client is naïve and unsophisticated but trying to look good, not distressed by problems, usually uneducated or low SES, poor tx candidate

make cautionary statement about some inconsistent responding present. use more caution 40-64 Profile valid Pt able to understand and respond consistently 30-39 Profile valid Responding particularly cautious & deliberate • Hi VRIN – also expect F to be highly elevated. As T on VRIN approaches 79. cooperative. Invalid. if F also high. do not interpret (Graham) Reasons for Elevation Reading difficulties Severe psychopathology Lack of insight Uncooperative Obsessive Items not relevant for pt Selective item omission Interpretation Examine percentage of items answered on each scale 11-29 Some scales may be invalid 0-10 Probably valid Items not relevant for pt Examine content/scale of omitted items. if F low. willing to respond VRIN (Variable Response Inconsistency) – pairs of similar or opposite items T-Score Level ≥ 80 (Raw score ≥13) ProfileValidity Profile invalid Reasons for Elevation Reading difficulties Confusion Intentional random responding Recording error.? (Cannot Say) Raw Score ≥ 30 ProfileValidity May be invalid (MMPI Manual). don’t interpret scale with ≥ 10% of items omitted Examine omitted item content. probably reporting consistently true psychopathology Profile valid. characterized by some inconsistent responding . increased likelihood of inconsistent responding. careless Carelessness Occasional loss of concentration Interpretation Profile uninterpretable 65-79 Profile likely interpretable.

may indicate invalid protocol. attempting to proclaim overly positive self-presentation T-Score Level ≥ 70 Clinical ≥ 75 Nonclinical ProfileValidity May be invalid Reasons for Elevation Faking good Pervasive nonacquiescence Interpretation If TRIN >79F. examine S subscales to identify particular areas of defensiveness If TRIN w/in 65F-79F. invalid/uniterpretable. All True Partial acquiescent response set Interpretation Profile uninterpretable Profile valid. protocol characterized by pervasive pattern of nonacquiescence. and S – scores may be artifactually deflated d/t response set 50-64T or 50-64 F (raw score 612) 65F-79F Profile valid Profile valid. pay particular attention to L. If TRIN WNL. K. 1 false for each pair) T-Score Level ≥ 80 T (raw score >12) 65T-79T ProfileValidity Profile invalid Reasons for Elevation Acquiescent response set Yeasaying. pay particular attention to L. underreporting. high S reflects defensive testtaking approach. and S – scores may be artifactually elevated d/t response set Profile uninterpretable S (Superlative Self-Presentation) – Defensiveness. K.TRIN (True Response Inconsistency) – pairs of items with opposite content (should have 1 true. All False Profile interpreted w/caution. characterized by some acquiescence Profile interpreted w/caution. elevation on S likely reflects moderate pattern 70-74 Nonclinical May be invalid Moderate defensiveness Moderate . characterized by some nonacquiescence Partial nonacquiescent response set ≥ 80F (raw score <6) Profile invalid Nonacquiescent response set Naysaying.

(2) serenity. If TRIN WNL. greater likelihood profile may not accurately represent existing psychopathology.nonacquiescence of nonacquiescence. (4) patience and denial of irritability and anger. not faking good. higher S. examine S subscales to identify particular areas of defensiveness ≤ 69 Clinical Likely valid ≤ 69 Valid Nonclinical • 5 Factors: (1) belief in human goodness. (5) denial of moral flaws • Positively correlated with K and L in normative sample . elevation on S likely reflects moderate pattern of defensiveness. (3) contentment with life.

pt overreporting psychopathology in attempt to appear more disturbed than he/she is Consider exaggeration of sx’s. confused.” psychotic. dissatisfied. difficulty completing inventory (reading problems. restless. (true is deviant answer) T-Score Level ≥ 100 Inpatient ≥ 90 Outpatient ≥ 80 Nonclinical ProfileValidity May be invalid Reasons for Elevation Random/fixed responding All True Severe psychopathology Faking bad – presenting problems even inpatients don’t Interpretation If VRIN/TRIN > 79. severe neurotic. person is used to their symptoms and not in acute distress (poor treatment indicator) Higher F indicative of: o Emotional turmoil. rare responses. moody. L. seeking to place self in unfavorable light. accurately reporting a number of psychological problems. depression o Feeling sad. If VRIN/TRIN WNL and Fp >100. good insight. socially or politically deviant. esp. T 60-64 deviance in some area of life Consider faking good Socially conforming Defensive Free of Disabling psychpathology 80-99 Inpatient 70-89 Outpatient 65-79 Nonclinical May be exaggerated. including anxiety. random/careless responding). unpredictable Pt. likely valid profile reflecting severe psychopathology (disoriented. If VRIN/TRIN & Fp WNL. perhaps “cry for help. likely valid Exaggeration of existing problems Resistant to testing procedure 55-79 Likely valid Inpatient 55-69 Outpatient 40-64 Nonclinical ≤ 54 Inpatient May be defensive ≤ 54 Outpatient ≤ 39 • • • Examine defensiveness scales. profile invalid/uninterpretable. hopeless o Disturbed sleep o Feel unable to cope with strains of life . clearly psychotic bx). distress. to determine whether pt may be denying/minimizing problems Implications for treatment: T 50-59 good for therapy.F (Infrequency) – tendency to claim highly unusual attitudes and behaviors as a function of severe psychopathology. help-seeking Indicator of distress/chronicity: if F is low in 6-8 profile.

show clearly psychotic behavior If valid. suspicious. pt. confused. Exaggeration of . If VRIN/TRIN WNL. hostile. give up easily See selves as insecure. angry. introverted. overreporting psychopathology in attempt to appear more disturbed than he/she is Consider exaggeration of 70-99 Likely exaggerated.o o o o o o o o o o Often feel like failures Pessimistic about future No create favorable first impression Socially awkward. consider serious psychopathology Consider serious psychopathology Average Consider faking good 80-100 Consider profile invalidity 65-79 50-64 50 Fp (Infrequency-Psychopathology) – items even more pathological than inpatients with severe psychiatric disorders T-Score Level ≥ 100 ProfileValidity Likely invalid Reasons for Elevation Random responding Faking bad Interpretation VRIN/TRIN >79. few or no friends See families as lacking in love Tend not to have strong motivation to achieve Easily frustrated. resentful Fb (F-back) – F scale for items 371-567 T-Score Level ≥ 100 ProfileValidity Consider profile invalidity Reasons for Elevation Random All True Faking bad Malingering Exaggeration of problems Interpretation Psychiatric patients may be disoriented. interpersonally sensitive Often feel getting raw deal from life Characterized by others as histrionic. invalid and uninterpretable profile.

(false is deviant answer) T-Score ProfileValidity Level ≥ 80 Clinical Likely invalid or Nonclinical Reasons for Elevation Faking good Pervasive nonacquiescence Interpretation If TRIN >79F. lack of awareness faking good doesn’t make good impression. accurately described current mental health status Designed to detect infrequent responding in settings characterized by relatively high base rates of serious psychopathology and psychological distress may be valid existing problems L (Lie) – naïve attempts to place self in morally/culturally favorable light by denying moral imperfections.≤ 69 • symptoms. high L reflects very strong pattern of faking good. likely invalid test protocol . reluctance to admit common shortcomings. naïve defensiveness. protocol characterized by pervasive pattern of nonacquiescence. If TRIN WNL. impression management. perhaps “cry for help” Likely valid Pt. invalid/uninterpretable.

greater likelihood that scales not accurately represent existing psychopathology Pt likely minimized psychological/bx difficulties. moralistic o Poor tolerance for stress. moralistic. elevation on L likely reflects unsophisticated pattern of faking good. not faking bad. elevation on L likely reflects moderate pattern of nonacq.65-79 Clinical 70-79 Nonclinical May be invalid Moderate faking good Traditional background Moderate nonacquiescence 65-69 Nonclinical Questionably valid Overly positive selfpresentation If TRIN w/in 65F-79F. perhaps d/t belief that in his/her best interest ≤ 64 Clinical 60-64 Nonclinical Likely Valid Likely Valid Unsophisticated defensiveness Traditional background ≤ 59 Valid Nonclinical • T>60: Conventional. concrete. rigid. unsophisticated. inflexible in problem solving o Rigid. repression. inflexible/rigid. and repressing o Tend to claim virtues to greater extent than most people o Little or no insight into own motivations o Little awareness of consequences to others of their bx o Overevaluate own worth o Conventional and socially conforming o Unoriginal in thinking. If TRIN WNL. primitive • Implications for treatment: Higher L indicates participation/responsiveness. unoriginal. poor stress tolerance. underestimation of problems Pt denied minor faults & shortcomings most ppl acknowledge readily. pressure • Lo L descriptors (T < 50): o Probably frankly responding o Confident enough about selves to be able to admit to minor faults and shortcomings o May be exaggerating negative characteristics . higher the L. unwilling to hear feedback • Hi L: faking good will artificially lower scores on other scales to make individual appear better psychologically adjusted • Hi L descriptors (T >55): o Trying to create favorable impression of selves by not being honest in responding to items o May be defensive. lack insight. perfectionistic. denial (“defended”). denying. conforming.

independent. high K reflects defensive testtaking approach that may indicate invalid protocol If TRIN w/in 65F-79F. elevation on K likely reflects moderate pattern of nonacquiescence rather than faking good. low K may be d/t faking bad. discomfort. self-reliant and independent Seen as strong.o o o o o Perceptive and socially reliant. elevation on K likely reflects moderate pattern of defensiveness. control. If TRIN WNL. protocol characterized by pervasive pattern of nonacquiescence. protocol characterized by pervasive pattern of acquiescence. If TRIN WNL. 40-64 Clinical & Nonclinical Valid <40 May be invalid Balanced selfevaluation. invlaid/uniterpretable. uninsightful. well-adjusted (capable of dealing w/everyday probs). invalid. intelligent. enthusiastic Faking bad All True Pervasive acquiescence Exaggeration Self-esteem issues If TRIN >79T. natural. intolerant. hesitant about becoming emotionally involved 65-74 Nonclinical May be invalid Moderate defensiveness Moderate nonacquiescence Denial. more sophisticated/subtle defensiveness. (false is deviant answer) T-Score Level ≥ 65 Clinical ≥ 75 Nonclinical ProfileValidity May be invalid Reasons for Elevation Faking good All False Pervasive nonacquiescence Interpretation If TRIN >79F. but only if elevations on Infrequency scales . effectiveness. reluctant to admit symptoms. higher the K. wide interests. greater likelihood profile may not accurately represent existing psychopathology 56-65: trying to give appearance of adequacy. If TRIN WNL. denying problems. relaxed Function effectively in leadership roles Communicate ideas effectively May be described by others as cynical and sarcastic K (Correction) – tendency to control and limit disclosure of distress. and problems relating to others.

determined to think well of self/others. preoccupation on physical more for medical functioning intervention – not therapy 60-80 Somatic concerns. looking breakdown. socially awkward. socially conforming/compliant with authority. pessimistic. MMPI-2 Manual lists different levels Scale 1 – Hypochondriasis (Hs): tendency to manifest physical symptoms as expression of emotional discomfort. not much to work with in therapy. may have above-average ego strength and other positive characteristics F – K (raw scores): If difference is ≥ 10. unhappy. cynical. < 40: plea for help. may be seriously disturbed psychologically. lack May develop somatic Moderate/High energy. demanding. ineffective in dealing w/everyday probs.. sx’s in times of stress complaining/whiny.• • • • • T <50: Dissatisfaction w/ self & others. fear of physical somaticize. consider somatic delusions. but have little awareness. Avoid feelings. likely fake-bad CLINICAL SCALES* *Using Graham’s T-score levels. to reject nonmedical (i. immature 40-59 Average No interp <40 Low No interp • Legitimate physical illness may add 1 SD (10 T-score points) . little insight. cynical. Lo K – willing to admit/discuss problems Positively correlated with SES/educational level 56-65: If clinical scales elevated. if not seriously disturbed psychologically. to be preoccupied w/ one’s health. asserting positive mental health.e. psychological) explanations for sx’s T-Score Level Interpretive possibilities Treatment Implications >80 Very High Extreme/sometimes bizarre somatic concern. sleep disturbance. suspicious about motivations of others Indications for treatment: High K – not open. dissatisfied. critical of self & others.

restricted range of interests 40-59 Average No interp <40 Low No interp • 2-7 profile is high indicator of current distress • High 2 with moderate 9: high risk of suicide – has enough energy to do it SUBSCALES: D1-Subjective depression: unhappy. life no longer worthwhile D5-Brooding: lack of energy to cope w/probs. feelings of unworthiness/inadequacy Treatment Implications SI. somatic c/o’s. brood. depressed. difficulties w/concentration. feel losing control of thought processes Scale 3 – Hysteria (Hy): tendency to develop physical symptoms under stress (conversion). vegetative sx’s. uneasy in social situations D2-Psychomotor retardation: lack energy to cope w/everyday activities. pessimism. deny good health. tension. feel emotionally immobilized. inhibition. cry. lack energy for coping w/prob’s of everyday life. not interested in what goes on around them. memory. worried. intropunitiveness. withdrawn. to deny social friction or discord w/ others. feel inferior. feel inferior. physical discomfort. anxiety. pessimistic/hopeless. attention. preoccupied w/guilt. dysphoria. lack self-confidence. avoid others. no energy/motivation. report variety of specific somatic symptoms D4-Mental dullness: lack of energy to cope w/probs of everyday life. low morale. lack energy. ruminate. and problems in thinking. psychiatric/Rx eval. introverted. life no longer worthwhile. little enjoyment out of life. helplessness w/pessimism about techniques Some elevation indicates distress and motivation for Tx 60-70 Moderate depression/dysphoric. lack selfconfidence. death. Moderate/High dissatisfaction w/life situation. suicide. suicidal ideation T-Score Level Interpretive possibilities >70 Very High Serious clinical depression. distress. lack self-confidence. .Scale 2 – Depression (D): aspects of symptomatic depression. deny hostile/aggressive impulses/actions D3-Physical malfunctioning: preoccupation w/own physical functioning. psychological distress. to experience pain.

physical complaints are way of getting attention. gregarious. feelings of unhappiness Hy4-Somatic complaints: multiple somatic c/o’s. trouble w/law (men) Treatment Implications Mandated. hostile. impulsive. conforming. poor frustration tolerance. feel sensitive about how others respond to them Scale 4 – Psychopathic Deviate (Pd): alienation. problems w/anger expression (avoid. not easily influenced by social standards and customs Hy2-Need for affection: strong needs for attention/affection from others. authorities. lack Moderate/High insight concerning causes of symptoms. self-centered. want attention. sleep disturabance. others are honest. antisocial behavior. SA risk. don’t handle stress well. inhibited. demanding. poorly developed conscience. critical thinker/logical SUBSCALES: Hy1-Denial of social anxiety: social extroversion. social disinhibition. and lack of internalized moral standards. low energy. deny expressing hostility toward others Hy5-Inhibition of aggression: deny hostile and aggressive impulses. reasonable – deny negative feelings about others Hy3-Lassitude-malaise: uncomfortable. naïve. exploitation. weak/fatigued. difficulty tolerating anxiety 60-80 Somatic symptoms. lack insight. sensitive. react to stress by developing somatic symptoms. repress) T-Score Level Interpretive possibilities >80 Very High Consider conversion reaction. symptoms may disappear when stress subsides Treatment Implications Difficulty w/deep issues. not necessarily worries about physical symptoms 40-59 Average No interp <40 Low No interp. self-confidence. fears that needs will not be met if honest about feelings/beliefs. lack insight. maturity. feel sad/anxious.histrionic/indiscriminant socialization. acting out – not sitting down and tolerating anxiety . suggestible. use denial. extreme somatic complaints. immature. misconduct. sensation seeking. tendency to come into conflict w/ family. difficulties concentrating and sleeping. not in good health. admission of social maladjustment w/social poise. defensive. denial. comfortable interacting w/others. judgment compromised. acting out T-Score Level Interpretive possibilities >75 Very High Asocial. and others thru rebellion.

broad patterns of interests. admit to having been in trouble in school or with law Pd3-Social imperturbability: not useful b/c only 6 items and not possible to obtain score >65 Pd4-Social alienation: feel alienated. “macho” Not good therapy candidate. impulsive. get raw deal from life Pd5-Self-alienation: uncomfortable and unhappy. depressed. creative. angry/irritable/uncooperative (women). and sentiments that tend to follow gender stereotypes T-Score Level >75 Males Very High 60-75 Males High 40-59 Males Average <40 Males Low Interpretive possibilities Consider serious sexual problems Lack traditional masculine interests No interp Traditional masculine interests. feel families are/have been critical and not permitted adequate freedom and independence Pd2-Authority problems: resentment of societal and parental standards and customs. believe others don’t understand them. unconventional. understanding. extroverted. raw deal in life” dissatisfied. isolated. use nonprescription Externalizing – “I get a Moderate/High drugs (men). stand up for own beliefs. attitudes. discussing relationships Treatment Implications >80 indicates narcissism >75 Females Very High 60-75 Females High 40-59 Females Consider serious sexual problems Lack traditional feminine interests No interp . express regret. self-centered 40-59 Average Independent. superficial relationships. energetic. support. activities. estranged. poor judgment. definite opinions about what’s right/wrong. not find daily life interesting/rewarding. may feel bored. not interested in disclosure. assertive <40 Low No interp SUBSCALES: Pd1-Familial discord: describe family as lacking love. family/marital probs. empty. rebellious toward authority.60-75 Trouble w/law (women). impatient. energetic. guilt. remorse for past deeds Scale 5 – Masculinity-femininity (Mf): sex-role identification.

hostile/argumentative. defensive towards test administrator • <35: callous. hyperalertness – sensitivity. psychotic symptoms. intentions. blame others. mistreated. delusions/ideas of reference Pa2-Poignancy: more high strung and sensitive than others. tendency to construe actions. delusions of persecution. persecuted. selfdefeating Scale 6 – Paranoia (Pa): personal/moral rigidity. dependent. hostile/angry/resentful Ditto.Average <40 Females Low Traditional feminine interests. or hostile. grandiosity (center of others’ thoughts/behaviors). withdrawn. not interpersonally sensitive SUBSCALES: Pa1-Persecutory ideas: describe world as threatening place. fell misunderstood/unfairly treated. selfdeprecating. or controlled by others. extremely sensitive. resentment. may seek out risky or exciting activities to make themselves feel better Pa3-Naivete: unrealistically optimistic attitudes about others. guarded. Moderate/High suspicious. ideas of being misunderstood. concerned about safety. paranoia. having high moral standards. angry/resentful. trust issues. distrustful 60-70 Paranoid predisposition. resistant. present selves as trusting. may be androgynous May be ultra-passive. and motives of others as unfair. fell lonely and misunderstood. argumentative. interpersonal sensitivity. emotionally labile 45-59 Average No interp <45 Low Very low score may reflect paranoia d/t extreme guardedness/vigilence. degrading. even therapist. feel mistreated. ideas of reference Treatment Implications Think everyone working against them. suspiciousness T-Score Level Interpretive possibilities >70 Very High Consider paranoid psychosis. and not having hostile/negative impulses . disturbed thinking.

difficulties in concentration) • Defenses not working. self-criticism. obsessions. insomnia. deemphasize rational thinking about problems Some anxiety may be motivation to work in therapy. inertia. turmoil. eccentric behaviors. abnormal fears. crisis oriented. apprehensiveness. unable to concentrate. concentration difficulties. disturbing thoughts. anxiety. alien impulses. self-contempt. perfectionistic. rumination. may have brief psychotic reaction under stress. tension. feels unaccepted. social alienation/interpersonal difficulties. distress T-Score Level Interpretive possibilities >75 Very High Treatment Implications Tendency to intellectualize. generalized fear/anxiety. impaired contact w/reality 60-75 Schizoid life style (internally focused). compulsions. exhaustion. and fears of losing control. shy/introverted 40-59 Average No interp <40 Low No interp • Inability to resist specific actions or thoughts regardless of their maladaptive pattern (e. OCD tendencies. obsessive-compulsive symptoms (rituals. distressed phase of illnes Scale 8 – Schizophrenia (Sc): severe alienation. willful and inflexible efforts to control such sx’s. Moderate/High lack self-confidence. Treatment Implications Problem-oriented focus. fatigue. bad dreams. low ego-strength • Tends to be correlated with scale 2 • 7>8: tenuous.Scale 7 – Psychasthenia (Pt): tendency to express stress thru tension. mental and emotional confusion T-Score Level Interpretive possibilities >75 Very High Consider schizophrenic dx. feelings of unreality. distress. meticulous/indecisive. depression. agitated 60-75 Moderate anxiety. global dysphoric thoughts/concerns. obsessive. overwhelmed. worry. psychotic sx’s. anxiety. compromised judgment and impulse control. paralyzed. openness to therapy Extreme fear. psychological turmoil.g.. Moderate/High unusual beliefs. ruminating. indecisive. tension. magical thinking). cognitive disruption. motor and sensory impairment. phobias. apathy. stabilization/support. concrete. depression. unusual sensory experiences/delusions. distress may motivate for therapy . potentially psychotic individuals can hold it together with rituals just enough to manage life • 8>7: psychotic. confused/disorganized thinking. fearful. confused. physical health concerns. fear of losing mind. guilt. misconceptions.

impatient 70-80 High 60-69 Moderate . shows maintenance of cognitive control SUBSCALES: Sc1-Social alienation: feel mistreated. vulnerability. flight of ideas Excessive energy. conative: life is a strain. distractible. episodes of not knowing what they are doing – can’t later remember what they’ve done Sc6-Bizarre sensory experiences: feel bodies are changing in strange and unusual ways. report skin sensitivity and other unusual sensory experiences. unloved. cognitive: report strange thought processes. at times feel losing their minds Sc4-Lack of ego mastery. feel depressed. undercontrol. have hallucinations. aloof. restless. submissiveness. hyperactive. misunderstood. others are trying to harm them. talk too much Active. manic type. respond to stress by withdrawing into fantasy and daydreaming. creative. wish they were dead Sc3-Lack of ego mastery. rebellious. defective inhibition: feel not in control of emotions/impulses. hyperactivity. lack direction. grandiosity). seeks excitement. periods of laughing/crying can’t control. somatic complaints 40-59 Average No interp <40 Low No interp • Overlap with F. stimulation-seeking. hyperarousal. excessive fantasy and daydreaming. feel sad. scrupulousness. euphoria. depression T-Score Level >80 Very High Interpretive possibilities Consider bipolar disorder. unusual thought content. features of hypomanic disturbance (activity level. apathy. energetic. less cooperative. unrealistic self-appraisal. low frustration tolerance.bad dreams. depression. enterprising Treatment Implications Less insight-oriented. manic symptoms. avoid social situations/interpersonal relationships Sc2-Emotional alienation: feel fear. wish they were dead Sc5-Lack of ego mastery. hallucinations. worry excessively. slowness. confusion. restless. delusions of grandeur. rebellious impulses. uninvolved. imperviousness. extroverted. difficulties in concentration and memory. bossy. excessive purposeless activity. impulsive. excitability. ideas of reference Scale 9 – Hypomania (Ma): hi scores = rapid and energetic personal tempo. gregarious. feelings of unreality. conceptual disorganization. low scores = lethargy. correlated with K • 7-8 within 10 t-score points: less likelihood of psychotic d/o.

verbally fluent Well Below 40 Very low: immature. restless. impulsive. difficulty establishing relationships 40-59 Average No interp <40 Low Extroverted. uncomfortable in new situations Si2-Social avoidance: great dislike and avoidance of group activities and being in crowds. outgoingness. superficial. attentionseeking. derive vicarious satisfaction from manipulative exploits of others Ma2-Psychomotor acceleration: accelerated speech. insecure. avoidance of contact w/ other people . values. competitive. reliable. thus feel justified in behaving in similar ways. easily bored. dependable. passive. self-reliant. can indicate low energy level. social comfort and skill. overcontrolled. Action-oriented. low score = extroversion. profess little concern about opinions. insight-oriented manipulative. slow Moderate/High personal tempo.40-59 Average <40 Low Energetic. indecisive Treatment Implications Difficulty expressing feelings. feel tense. guilty. compliant. sociable. ill at ease in social situations. thought processes. attitudes of others Ma4: Ego inflation: unrealistic evaluations of own abilities and self-worth. excited. social avoidance. competitive. easily embarrassed. values work. self-confident No interp. shyness. social intrepidity. outgoing. lack self-confidence. not able to disclose emotionally (like scale 3) SUBSCALES: Si1-Shyness/self-consciousness: feel shy around others. depressed. dishonest. submissive. feel comfortable interacting w/others. not energetic. depression SUBSCALES: Ma1-Amorality: describe others as selfish. assertive. gregarious. undercontrolled. lack interest. opportunistic. reticence about relationships. social stimulation-seeking T-Score Level Interpretive possibilities >75 Very High Extreme withdrawal. friendly. social anxiety. social timidity and awkwardness. feel resentful when others make demands on them Scale 0 – Social Introversion (Si): hi score = introversion. and motor activities. seek out risk/excitement/danger to overcome boredom Ma3-Imperturbability: deny social anxiety. inhibited 60-75 Introverted/shy/timid.

question own judgment. rumination. 6. externalization 9: Denial. 612-626. repression. inappropriate channeling of aggressive impulses (high) 6: Projection. rationalization. Journal of Personality Assessment. rigid denial (high elevation) F: Lack of effective defensive functioning (high F. channel conflicts into vague physical complaints 4: Externalization. incapable of determining own fate. fearfulness. acting out (especially 4-9) 0: Avoidance. apathy. repression. distraction. high K & L) Management of Anxiety Using Defenses: Elevations on symptom scales when defense mechanisms are insufficient to bind anxieties aroused by difficulties • 1: Displacement. denial (low F. withdrawal o 8>7: fragmentation o 6>7: gross projections (delusions) Management of Aggression and Hostility: • Direct expression: o 4: Diffuse focus o 4-9: Act out w/o regard for consequences . F. rationalization L: Primitive. repression. R. withdrawal K: Guardedness. nervousness. (1983). acting out. intellectualization 5: “Feminine” – sublimation (mild to moderate level). acute distress • 8: Defenses deteriorate to great extent under stress (severe decompensation) • 3-2-7: Intensified attempts to repress anxiety • 2-7.B. suppression (high elevation) “Masculine” – assertive behavior (mild to moderate). indecisiveness. 47 (6). rituals. self-critical. magical thinking. & Kilgore. or 9: Neurotic decompensation • 6-8-0: Psychotic decompensation o 8-0 > 9: social/emotional isolation. suspiciousness of others DEFENSE MECHANISMS* *Trimboli. Defense Mechanisms Indicated by Scale Elevations: 3: Repression.Si3-Alienation-self and others: low self-esteem/confidence. A psychodynamic approach to MMPI interpretation. unwilling to acknowledge psychological weaknesses. with 4. channel emotional concerns into somatic complaints • 2: Elevation is best single index of breached defenses • 7-2: Less efficient uses of repression. low L & K).

greater risk when paired with poor impulse control (4. leads to anxiety o 2-7: Suicide risk. especially with increased 9 o 3: Inhibiting effect on 4 Indirect expression: o 3: Repress direct expression. specific others o 4 and 6 potentiate each other: dangerous because act out against others directly. covert expression o 1-2-3: Use physical symptoms to punish caretakers o 3-6: Less transparent – more overt expression (though individual is unaware of anger they’re expressing) o 3-4: Intense aggressive impulses (3>4: passive aggressive. 9) or poor judgment (8) o 5-8: primitive identification with aggressor . 4>3: overcontrolled with brief episodes of violent acting out) Aggression turned toward self: o 2: Lack capacity to discharge aggression in adaptive/effective way.• • o 6: Focused anger.

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