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System

Oded Doron and Lucian Wielopolski,

Brookhaven National Laboratory,

Environmental Sciences Department,

Upton, NY 11973

Abstract

Inelastic neutron scattering (INS) is a new method for carbon analysis in soil, in the field, that is completely non-destructive and uniquely measures large volumes of ~0.3 m3. It is based on fast 14 MeV neutrons

undergoing inelastic neutron scattering with carbon nuclei and inducing the emission of 4.43 MeV gamma rays. The fast neutrons are produced by a (d,t) neutron generator (NG) with the induced gamma rays being

detected by an array of NaI detectors. The transport of neutrons and gamma rays in the soil is affected by the bulk density and moisture content. While variations in the bulk density affect both the neutron and the

gamma rays’ mass attenuation coefficients, the moisture affects mainly the transport of neutrons due to elastic scatterings with hydrogen nuclei. Changes in the transport properties of the soil might affect the carbon

signal yield from various depths that would affect the calibration and sampled depth and volume. A probabilistic Monte Carlo method is utilized to model the system. The entire system is simulated, following the paths

of particles from their creation to death thus enabling modeling accurately this complex system and economically replacing complicated experiments. The code used here is the Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code

Version 5 (MCNP5) developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This work assesses the magnitude of the expected change in the carbon signal yield due to variations in the soil parameters; bulk density and

moisture content.

5-14 MeV Neutron Flux versus Depth and Bulk Density Shielding

1.00E-04

Detectors and Bulk Density

1.00E-05

Source

}

φ (n/cm /source n)

Shielding

} bulk density range bulk density range

2

1.00E-05

0.25 g/cc

2

0.5 g/cc

0.5 g/cc

0.75 g/cc

0.75 g/cc

1 g/cc

1 g/cc

1.25 g/cc

1.5 g/cc 50 cm 1.25 g/cc

1.5 g/cc

2.0 g/cc

2 g/cc

1.00E-06

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 1.00E-07

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

Depth (cm)

Depth (cm)

20 cm

An isotropic 14 MeV neutron point source was modeled to emit 0

cm 250 An isotropic 4.43 MeV gamma point source was modeled to

into a 250cm by 200cm by 50cm soil volume with a carbon emit from different depths of a 250cm by 200cm by 50cm soil

content of 2% by weight. The fast neutron flux, 5-14 MeV, in volume with a carbon content of 2% by weight. The carbon

the soil is plotted versus bulk density and moisture content region of interest gamma yield, 4.43 MeV, at the detectors is

variations. System geometry and soil volume modeled in MCNP5.

plotted versus bulk density and moisture content variations.

5-14 MeV Neutron Flux versus Depth and Moisture Content 4.43 MeV Gamma Ray Yield at the Detectors versus Depth

1.00E-04

and Moisture Content

1.00E-05

Gamma Yield (γ/cm2/source γ)

1.00E-05

φ (n/cm /source n)

2

0% Water (1.4g/cc)

5% Water (1.47 g/cc) 0% Water (1.5 g/cc)

10% Water (1.56 g/cc) content. Assuming that a given soil volume remains constant with 5% Water (1.47 g/cc)

1.00E-06 20% Water (1.75 g/cc)

50% Water (1.4 g/cc)

the increase of moisture content, i.e. pore space allowing, and no 10% Water (1.56 g/cc)

100% Water (1 g/cc)

swelling occurs, the increase in the bulk density of the given soil 20% Water (1.75 g/cc)

50% Water (2.8 g/cc)

ρ(bulk dry) = 1.4 g/cc volume is dictated by equation 1. 100% Water (1 g/cc)

ρB

ρ(bulk dry) = 1.4 g/cc

1.00E-07 1.00E-07

ρB =

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

old

Depth (cm) (1) Depth (cm)

new

1− X

4.43 MeV Gamma Ray Yield at the Detectors versus Bulk Density Where: ρBold = old bulk density previous to addition of Volumes contributing to 90% of the Total Carbon Gamma Ray

5.00E-08

moisture Flux Intercepting the Detectors versus Bulk Density

ρBnew = new bulk density with added moisture

0.7

4.50E-08

X = the weight fraction of moisture added

Gamma Yield (γ/cm /source particle)

0.6

4.00E-08 0.5

2

Volume (m3)

0.4

3.50E-08

0.3

3.00E-08

Conclusions 0.2

2.50E-08

0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2

• Soil bulk density affects the neutron and gamma transport 0.1

0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2

Bulk Density (g/cc)

through soil thus affecting the gamma yield at the detectors. Bulk Density (g/cc)

An isotropic 14 MeV neutron point source was modeled to emit

into a 250cm by 200cm by 50cm soil volume with a carbon The volumes contributing to 90% of the total carbon inelastic

• Moisture content affects the neutron and gamma transport

content of 2% by weight. The carbon region of interest gamma gamma ray flux intercepting the detectors and the maximum

through the increase of bulk density, rather than the increased

yield, 4.43 MeV, at the detectors is plotted versus bulk density depth associated with the volumes are plotted versus bulk

presence of the hydrogen introduced into the soil volume.

and moisture content. density variations.

4.43 MeV Gamma Ray Yield at the Detectors versus Moisture Content • The 4.43 MeV gamma ray yield at the detectors increases with

4.70E-08 increasing bulk density, as a result of the increased number Maximum Depth of Volumes contributing to 90% of the Total Carbon

density. Gamma Ray Flux Intercepting the Detectors versus Bulk Density

50

4.50E-08

• The volumes contributing to 90% of the total carbon gamma ray

Gamma Yield (γ/cm2/source particle)

45

4.30E-08

flux and the maximum depth of these volumes decreases with

increasing bulk density. The decrease can be attributed to the 40

Depth (cm)

4.10E-08

fraction of the gamma ray yield will come from a more shallow 35

depth.

3.90E-08

30

3.70E-08 25

3.50E-08 20

0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

Bulk Density (g/cc)

Mositure Content (wt%)

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