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The Use of Mega Vitamin Therapy

in Regulating Severe Behavior Disorders,

Drug Abuses and Frank Psychosis
G. von Hilsheimer, B.D., S. D. Klotz, M.D., F.A.C.A., F.A.A.A., F.A.S.I., G. McFall, D.O.,* H.

Lerner, M.D., A. van West, Ph.D.,and D. Quirk

Participant/observer Study of East Coast Education, Green Valley School, held in Cocoa Beach,
Migratory Farm Labor Florida, Jan. 30, 1970.
Deficiency Diseases Observed in Children
This study was made during the summer of
1960. In nine weeks as many separate groups In 1961 we organized a child care center in a
were thoroughly evaluated for a number of Florida agricultural base town (von Hilsheimer1).
variables by means of 24-hour-a-day Deficiency diseases were again observed. As a
participation with the group and simple evening means of reducing professional cost in an
clinics, workshops and formal and informal extremely poor area, vitamin injections and oral
questioning. The team had been trained to supplements were given across the board to all
participate in the life of the migrants as the more than 300 children (ages 6 days to 6
naturally as possible and had spent preparatory years) who entered the center in a year, as well as
time in the home base communities of these to their parents. Multi-Purpose Food (Meals for
workers. the Millions, Santa Monica, California) was also
A surprising finding for the medical specialist used to supplement a high protein and fat diet.
was the occurrence of frank deficiency diseases We were interested to observe that not only did
long regarded as absent in America— the frank malnutrition symptoms recede in
kwashiorkor, pellagra, beri-beri and frank obvious cases; but that a great deal of
vitamin B deficiencies. hyperactivity, irritation, crying and other
indications of distress disappeared in children
who had no gross signs of mal-nourishment.
A Feasibility Study for President Kennedy's
Committee for National Voluntary Services
This study was carried out in 1963. The initial
data was replicated and a survey of service
committees and other programs with migrants
This paper was presented at the Fifth Annual Conference
indicated that both frank
on Behavior Therapy, American Society of Humanistic


F.A.A.A., F.A.S.I.
Senior Physician
Par Avenue Clinic
Orlando, Florida 32804
G. von Hilsheimer, B.D.
Superintendent Green Valley
School Orange City, Florida

S. D. Klotz, M.D., F.A.C.A.,

deficiency symptoms and behavior problems 4. Vitamin and mineral supplements.

seemed to improve under an enriched intensive 5. High proportion of sprouts, young shoots and
diet and across the board vitamin supplements other green and leafy as well as yellow
(von Hilsheimer2-3). vegetables.
Continued in the Slums of Manhattan 6. Frequent availability of food, freshly and
lightly cooked.
In 1964 we continued this line of inquiry into
work in the slums of Manhattan. Programs for This diet is designed to give a high proportion
infants and older children, as well as adults of vitamins, particularly the B complex and to
indicated that across the board doses of eliminate readily accessible glucose in large
vitamins, in large multiples of the MDR were amounts in the blood stream, as well as to
useful in behavior control. provide a high percentage of protein and fat.
While the effect of diet cannot be separated
Child Diet Control Program from the beneficent effect of reduced stress,
During the same year we opened a residential elimination of superstitious adult centered
center for children and began a program of strict contingencies and other novel features of our
diet control. residential program, it seemed clear that a
Our diet policy had a number of elements : substantial portion of our success could be
credited to our dietary interventions (von
1. Serving no foods contaminated with Hilsheimer4).
commercial fertilizers or insecticides (since
we had been convinced by the gross effect of A Small Core of Frank Schizophrenics
these substances on the health of pickers in In the first three years of this program a small
large doses, that less obvious allergic core of unreachable patients began to be noted.
responses were likely in the lower quantities These were frank schizophrenics, with cyclical
available in most foods). acute episodes. These patients had an early onset,
2. Serving only breads milled freshly from high no diagnostic disagreement among referring
protein wheats, preserving the whole grain; institutions and professionals with very grossly
serving only unpolished rice and no highly bizarre behavior, hallucinations and other
processed or low protein bread or pastries at features of the severely psychotic illness.
all. These patients had responded as manageable
3. Eliminating easily digested soft car- through sleep therapy, close directive
bohydrates and sugars from the diet. management, traumatic or relief from aversion
conditioning, marathon exhaustion


G. McFall, D.O. A. van West, Ph.D.

(now deceased) Senior Psychologist
General Medical Consultant Dade County Juvenile Court
Green Valley School Miami, Florida
Orange City, Florida

D. Quirk
H. Lerner, M.D. Senior Psychologist,
Specialist, Nutritional Adult Services
Deficiencies (private practice) Clarke Institute of Psychiatry
Boston, Massachusetts Toronto, Ontario, Canada

sessions and other techniques developed from were required.

behavior, reality or direct therapy. They were We then experimentally delivered mega dose
not responsive to phenothiazines or other niacin with supplements to a substantial portion
tranquilizers except in massive doses. They of our staff, both to consider subjective effects
could by no means be considered improved and to give us a base line for biological variables
except in their manageability. in more or less normal subjects. A survey of the
literature convinced us that no negative results
Introduction to Megavitamin Therapy had been reported for the use of mega dose
In the summer of 1967 Dr. Lerner introduced niacin. This was confirmed by our normal
us to the work of Abram Hoffer and his population.
associates (Hoffer5). We began by testing a 19-
Application of Niacin Therapy
year-old male schizophrenic, first diagnosed at
age 11, who had been in residence for 10 months Niacin therapy is now routinely used in our
with improvement only in toilet control, setting in a number of ways:
reduction of obsessive talking and suppression 1. For all drug abusing or alcoholic patients.
of hallucinations. The boy was extremely active, 2. For all patients reporting a great deal of
developed twirling and lost toilet control anxiety, distress or dysphoria.
whenever travelling, had a touching compulsion
and other bizarre behaviors, almost never slept, 3. As a standard placebo given by the first aide
was drug resistant and incredibly active. He had station.
a fixation for shoes and if he could not find his 4. For all psychotics.
own would wear shoes much too small even 5. Experimentally for a wide variety of
though they appeared painfully uncomfortable. individuals.
Danny (a pseudonym) was begun on 1000
mg. nicotinic acid four times a day. He initially Tentative Findings
flushed for several days, but subsequently did We are not prepared, at this time, to publish
not flush when the dose was increased to 4000 detailed findings since it is our opinion that
mg. four times a day. The dose was buffered numbers of cases under 200 are not useful
with magnesium trisilicate and 1000 mg. of scientifically.
ascorbic acid and supplemented with minerals
However, a number of tentative and useful
and B complex vitamins.
conclusions are possible:
Improvement was noted immediately. In a
patient of this severity no subtle diagnostic tools


1. In alcohol and drug abuse mega dose niacin SAFETY

with supplements relieved the intoxicated
crisis, reduced the post intoxication reaction, Long term mega doses of niacin have now
and rapidly established physical tonus and been delivered to more than 50 patients in our
well being in the recuperative. residential center. Routine blood chemistries have
reported no damages but two elevated SGOT
2. The safety of niacin is indisputable (Hoffer6, (liver function) readings have been revealed.
Kohn and Montes7, and Kaufman8). These readings have normalized within two days
of cessation of niacin. One case has been restored
3. Niacin is an effective placebo which has
to treatment with no sign of elevated SGOT.
effects significantly stronger than placebo
Biopsies were not done in these two cases.
routines in which it is absent.
Kohn and Montes7 report only one case of
4. Mega dose niacin with supplements can hepatic fibrosis in a survey of the literature,
relieve acute psychotic and character despite widespread rumors of such damage. This
episodes and apparently effects substantial patient had received three years of 3 gm. daily
improvement in severe psychoses and aluminum nicotinate as an adjunct to
behavior disorders after long term mega dose anticoagulant therapy. They report that "rarely"
treatment. has evidence of liver damage been reported. In
their case all indications of toxicity disappeared
5. A number of other disorders seem responsive
following cessation of Nicalex treatment and the
to the niacin therapy.
patient had died of coronary disease two years
later, when the biopsy was made (op cit).
Alcohol and Drug Abuse Constant monitoring of CLIN-ALERT* has
Since 1957 we have been involved in crisis failed to reveal other reports of damage.
centers for alcoholics and drug abusers, in a
large number of urban "street" programs. Placebo
Supportive care, including administration of
In September, 1967, our first aide routine
vitamins, has been used during all of this period,
established the use of 200 to 1000 mg. nicotinic
with injectable B complex preferred if a
acid, 500 mg. ascorbic acid, 500 mg. calcium
physician is available— because of ease of
lactate, 25 mg. thiamin, 500 mg. magnesium
administering in an acute crisis, to drive placebo
trisilicate and one multivitamin tablet as the
effect and accelerate distribution of the vitamins
placebo routinely given for all minor sick call
in the bloodstream.
complaints after inspection, assessment,
Since 1967 mega dose niacin has been recording of pulse, temperature and blood
recommended to all centers and on all con- pressure as well as the presenting symptoms and
sultations. Particularly in the case of LSD complaints. Bed rest, liquids and re-examination
psychoses, the use of niacin has dramatically is also a part of the routine. The patient, on niacin
succeeded in detoxification and reduction of placebo, is told to lie down
post intoxication reaction. Maintenance on
niacin has assisted in discouraging recidivism. *CLIN-ALERT is a service of Science Editors, Louisville,
These effects have also widely been reported in Ky., monitoring the literature and supplying physicians and
many thousands of individual cases for alcohol institutions with immediate reports of any side effects to
crises, post inhalation psychoses and other forms drugs or therapies.
of drug abuse.


and to cover up, that he will shortly become very the same, except for the B vitamins and
warm and flushed and that this will be the action suggestions related to the flushing. We are,
of the medicine as it flushes out the poisons and therefore, inspecting a variable based on different
germs. compositions and it appears that niacin, at the
very least, accelerates the suggestion effect in this
Evaluation setting.
There is, by the way, no evidence that the
For evaluation purposes we selected 1500 giving of niacin before hypnosis increases
sick calls during the period from September, hypnotizability.
1967, to October, 1969, and compared these It is clear that brief mega doses have no
with 1500 sick calls in the two years harmful effect.
immediately preceding:
1. In the niacin placebo group 31% had no Acute Episodes
second complaint within two weeks and From September 1967 to September 1969, 32
appeared normal on routine re-check. patients in acute psychotic episodes or in the
2. In the pre-niacin group only 24% had no aftermath of acute crises which did not appear to
second complaint within two weeks. be psychotic in nature (serious suicide attempts,
serious runaways to very disintegrated social
3. 74% of the niacin placebo group had no third
settings with concomitant physical and mental
deterioration, various outbursts of antisocial
4. 57% of the pre-niacin group had no third behavior and sudden depressions) not related to
complaint. drug abuse, have been given heavy mega doses
5. 12% of the niacin placebo group had more with maintenance on doses up to 6 gm. of niacin
than three complaints within two weeks and four times a day.
6% were referred to a physician (some before All of these patients have responded with
the third complaint—all of which are reduced dysphoria, subjective reports of
included in the more than three complaints improved feeling states, improved perception,
figure). control of behavior and general improvement in
6. 23% of the pre-niacin group had more than tonus, orientation and appearance of health.
three complaints within two weeks and 8% Several severe psychotic patients seem to have
were referred to a physician for further recovered as a direct function of niacin therapy.
treatment. This is particularly true for the category in which
In both groups (niacin and pre-niacin) only our unresponsive patients formerly were grouped.
4% of those referred to a physician were found While the number of these patients is still quite
to be suffering from a disorder related to the small, the general survey of both clinical
complaint verifiable by laboratory analysis. impressions and precise measurements indicates
that this population becomes quickly responsive
It would appear that the actual health status of with niacin therapy.
the two groups did not significantly differ. Some
problems were eliminated for the purposes of Other Disorders
this study (injuries, psychiatric and convulsive
disorders, gross crises). No other significant An interesting concomitant of these studies is a
differences could be demonstrated for the two large number of unusual disorders which have
groups. cleared up during mega dose niacin treatment for
The pre-niacin placebo routine was exactly unrelated causes:


1. Apparently insulted nerves or chronic post niacin for more than 10 years, 62 of whom were
traumatic back pain. statistically expected to die; as of 1967 only six
2. Migraine headaches. had died.
Hawkins, Borton and Runyon10 have provided
3. Vaginitis and vaginal warts. a very careful study of four years' experience
4. Reduction of glucose tolerance curve and with niacin therapy in all of the patients of a
apparent improvement in hypoglycemia. psychiatric hospital and with carefully controlled
5. Reduction of allergic reactions. surveys in outpatient clinics including more than
2000 patients.
6. Normalization of sleep irregularity.
Our own conclusions are much more sug-
7. Reduction of chronic infected sores, impetigo gestive when viewed in the light of these
and related staphylococcus infections. independent studies.
8. Mixed urethritis. Moreover, unlike many researchers in this
field, our centers do not use phenothiazines, have
Effects of Niacin Therapy no facilities for electroconvulsive shock and do
not practice any known form of psychodynamic
We suggest that these observations may not
therapies. As our data emerge, any conclusions
clearly be related to the direct effects of niacin
will very thoroughly evaluate the biological
therapy; however, the evidence begins to be
aspect of the issue.
compelling. Moreover, it is abundantly clear that
intensive research in the area of physical Of course, we do expect some of the more
disorders with a high stress component is simple minded critics to suggest that the entire
thoroughly justified given the safety, economy success here may be placebo effect. Since the
and apparent effectiveness of niacin therapy. reports indicate a substantial improvement over
existing knowledge of placebo effect and over all
Moreover, Boyle's9 reports of work with
reported forms of therapy now practiced with
cardiac patients at the Miami (Fla.) Heart
similar patients—including our own past
Institute indicates that the generalized effect of
experience— this argument seems untenable.
niacin therapy is extremely powerful. This
Even if, however, such were the case, the
Institute has given mega doses of niacin (4 gm.
"placebo" is inexpensive, safe, easy to administer,
daily) for hyperlipemia, hypercholesterolemia
and seems to hold up for a considerable period of
and for occlusive vascular disease in well over
1000 cases. In 160
post coronary patients maintained on mega dose


1. VON HILSHEIMER, G.: Child care and the migrant City, Fla., Humanitas Curriculum pamphlet, 1966.
farm hand. J. of Nursery Ed. 18:21-26, 1963. 5. HOFFER, A.: Niacin Therapy in Psychiatry. Springfield,
2. VON HILSHEIMER, G.: Migrant Service Corps: pilot 111., Charles C Thomas, 1962.
project. New York, Ford Foundation, 1963. 6. HOFFER, A.: Safety, side effects and relative lack of
toxicity of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide.
3. VON HILSHEIMER, G.: Grave administrative
Schizophrenia 1:78-87, 1969.
problems: migrant farmers and the forgotten American
dream. New York, Fund for the Migrant Children, 7. KOHN, R. M. and MONTES, M.: Hepato-
1963. Continued on next page
4. VON HILSHEIMER, G.: Children in trouble. Orange


toxicity. Am. J. Med. Sci. 258, 1969. Second Communication to A.A.'s Physicians,
8. KAUFMAN, W.: The Common Forms of Joint Bedford Hills, N.Y., 1968).
Dysfunction. Brattleboro, Vt., R. L. Hilldreth & 10. HAWKINS, D. R., BORTON, A. W., and RUN
Co., 1949. YON, R. P.: Orthomolecular physiciatry: niacin
9. BOYLE, E.: Niacin and the heart. Paper delivered and mega vitamin therapy. Paper presented at the
at Int. Conf. Alcoholics Anonymous Physicians, Third Int. Conf. of Psychosomatic Med., Buenos
New York, 1967 (excerpted in A Aires, 1970.