This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
DITM 2113 – Multimedia Systems
is the creation of the illusion of movement by assembling a sequence of still images These pictures are composed of a series of static images that affect the eyes at the rate of 12 to 24 images per second The illusion of movement is caused by a physiological affect known as 'persistence of vision' Animation can be built in 2 or 3 dimension.
The Computer Animation Dictionary (1989) defines animation as… "producing the illusion of movement in a film/video by photographing, or otherwise recording, a series of single frames, each showing incremental changes in the position of the subject images which when shown in sequence, at high speed, give the illusion of movement.
individual frames can be produced by a variety of techniques from computer generated images, to hand-drawn cells."
You can install it into the computer. You can also move people and shooting a picture frame by frame so it can be moved without any motion (rotoscope). Animation is an art of making things real.DEFINITION OF ANIMATION The word animate comes from the Latin verb animare. Have you ever watched South Park? It is produce by cutting out a piece of paper and we move it piece by piece. 4 .” Traditionally. for instance Beauty and the Beast. You can also make a model and move it like The Nightmare Before Christmas and Chicken Run. animation can be defined as a process of producing images that show a motion object and then we can play the image in a fast mode. The result? We can see from the movement. They are all form a different shape of animation. meaning “to make alive or to fill with breath. It can be drawn like Snow White and The Seven Dwarft. How to make it looks real can be done by multiple ways. like Toy Story and Final Fantasy.
Considering that each second of animation contains 24 frames (film). one can only imagine the tremendous amount of work that has to go into creating even the shortest of animated films. 5 . all frames in an animation had to be drawn by hand. A couple of different techniques were developed for creating animation by hand.TRADITIONAL ANIMATION METHOD Before the advent of the computer animation.
the material which was used in early motion pictures. and refers to the transparent pieces of film used in hand-drawn animation Each character is drawn on a separate piece of transparent film. when it comes to shooting the animation. the different characters are overlaid on top of the background in each frame. A background is also drawn on a separate sheet of opaque paper. The word 'cell' comes from 'celluloid'. but rather just the parts that need to change such as individual characters. CELL ANIMATION 6 . The artists do not have to draw in entire frames. Then.
Later. After a storyboard has been laid out. They are the key points of the animation. the senior artists go and draw the major frames of the animation. These major frames are frames in which a lot of change takes place. This way. thus cutting down on the time needed to get a final product out. Work can be done simultaneously by many people. the workload is distributed and controlled by the key frames.KEY FRAMES The drawing or painting is usually done by more than one person. a bunch of junior artists draw in the frames in between. in conjunction with 'tweening'. 7 . Key frames. are still used in many forms of computer animation.
ROTASCOPING Involves using images from moving video or film as the basis for an animation. It is a lot easier to draw the motion and shape of the frog in the different parts of the animation when you have some reference. With the help of rotascoping. one can animate some complex scenes that would be very hard to visualize. Example:To animate a frog jumping. 8 . such as video. as opposed to imagining it in your head.
FLIP BOOK ANIMATION This is also known as 'frame-based' animation and is the simplest kind of animation to visualize. It consisted of a series of progressive drawings. Within the computer environment. flip-book animation means displaying a sequence of independent graphics files. one on each page of a book. 9 . through which the viewer flipped thus creating the illusion of movement.
a person's hands) or otherwise transforming their shape. color or brightness coloring the images to create a realistic look 10 .COMPUTER ANIMATION Computer animation is a term that covers a wider area than cell or keyframe animation.g. The computer can fill various roles in animation: synchronizing motion of the graphics with sound controlling a physical movie camera to record an animation sequence or following a virtual camera program editing and synchronizing animated film at the postproduction stage creating the basic images to be animated (digitizing or created with graphics editor) plus backgrounds adding motion to prefabricated images by generating trajectory paths for whole objects (in-betweening) or motion of components of objects (e.
mov suffix). 11 . Improves the speed and ease with which each frame is created.avi or . The final animation is assembled from a sequence of frames (bitmaps) and is in a form of a movie file (usually with .FRAME-BASED ANIMATION A frame-based animation imitates the original animation techniques of drawing each frame carefully by hand. The software used to create the animation does is automatically upon your choice of "Create a movie" or similar command.
12 . The name derives from a technique of using celluloid layers to overlay the active elements in an animation frame on a static background. Often the process of creating such an animation is greatly automated by computer .you just specify the two positions of an object and the computer will create frames approximating the movements of the object between these positions (this is the case when you are working with Adobe Director).CELL-BASED ANIMATION A cell-based animation evolved from frame-based animation techniques as a way to speed up the production.
You might be able to rotate.OBJECT ANIMATION An object animation (also known as Sprite. Object animation usually involves moving an unchanging object along a path. program or title. Path and Vector Animation) is the simplest of the three. Instead of creating animation files that you import to your presentation. resize or add filters to it as it moves. you animate objects within the title-building software (such as AfterEffects). 13 .
These might be procedures that use the laws of physics (Physically . An example is a motion that is the result of some other action (this is called a "secondary action").based modeling) or animator generated methods.PROCEDURAL ANIMATION Procedures are used that define movement over time. for example throwing a ball which hits another object and causes the second object to move. 14 .
g. This can be done in two or three dimensions. i. skin over a body or facial muscles. complex objects composed of connected rigid segments. e.REPRESENTATIONAL ANIMATION This technique allows an object to change its shape during the animation. There are three subcategories to this: The first is the animation of articulated objects. The third is morphing which is the changing of one shape into another quite different shape. 15 . The second is soft object animation used for deforming and animating the deformation of objects.e..
such as in particle systems. water falls. etc. Behavioural Animation is about Objects or "actors" that are given rules about how they react to their environment. Examples are fireworks. Examples are schools of fish or flocks of birds where each individual behaves according to a set of rules defined by the animator.STOCHASTIC AND BEHAVIOURAL Stochastic Animation uses stochastic processes to control groups of objects. fire. 16 .
2. Storyboarding – pre-production Modeling Animation Scene layout setup Rendering .3D ANIMATION Consist of 5 categories: 1. 3. Lighting & Shading 17 . Texture Interfaces. 4. 5.post-production production Materials.
18 is a It . consists of a series of panels that contains in visual form the scenes and shots specified in the screenplay.1. STORYBOARDING Storyboard visual interpretation of the screenplay and contains many images and production notes.
camera positions. Production Storyboard Guides the production of an animation project. The document that everybody involved in the production process (very detailed & precise) 19 . motions & scenes transitions) Presentation Storyboard Used to show a detailed visual summary of the project to individuals with decision making authority (client-supervisor).3 CATEGORIES OF STORYBOARD Conceptual Storyboard Used to develop the basic ideas(actions of characters.Includes important scenes.
MODELING PROCESS The modeling stage could be described as shaping individual objects that are later used in the scene There exist a number of modeling techniques. but not limited to the following: Constructive solid geometry (Boolean operators to combine objects) NURBS modeling(Non Uniform Rational B-Spline ) Polygonal modeling Subdivision surfaces (the limit of an infinite refinement process) 20 .2. including.
diffuse and specular shading components May also include various activities related to preparing a 3D model for animation 21 .g. May also include editing object surface or material properties (e. color.. luminosity.
3D Viewing Right View Front View Perspective View Top View Bottom View Left View 22 .
ANIMATION The 12 principles of animation (1930s-Walt Disney) Squash & stretch Anticipation Staging Pose-to-pose action Follow-through action Slow-in & slow-out CLICK HERE 23 Arcs Secondary action Timing Exaggeration Solid modeling & rigging Character personality .3.
SCENE LAYOUT SETUP setup involves arranging virtual objects. Scene 4. lights. black) HSL (hue. lightness) Color models 24 . saturation. blue) CYMK (cyan. green. yellow. cameras and other entities on a scene RGB (red. magenta.
THE CAMERA Types shots of camera Point of view shots Low angle & high angle shots Reverse angle shots Close-up shots Medium & Wide shots Waist shot & knee shots(medium) Full bodies (wide) Long shots 25 .
LIGHTING & SHADING Types lights sources of Point light Spot light Infinite light Area light Linear light Ambient light 26 .
Basic components of the light source Position & orientation Color & intensity Beam angle Glow & cone light Shadows Umbra Penumbra the portion of shadow that blocks direct light altogether the area in the edges of the shadow that blends with other lights in the environment Softness 27 .
A technique for simulating a large amount of surface detail by mapping images (textures) onto polygons. Displacement mapping 2D Procedural Texture mapping 3D Procedural Texture mapping Transparency mapping 28 .SURFACE TEXTURES Bump mapping Textures mapping a normal-perturbation technique used to simulate wrinkled surfaces.
Flat shading: A technique that shades each polygon of an object based on the polygon's "normal" and the position and intensity of a light source. 29 .Popular reflection rendering techniques in 3D include: REFLECTION Cel shading: A technique used to imitate the look of handdrawn animation. Gouraud shading: a fast and resource-conscious vertex shading technique used to simulate smoothly shaded surfaces. Phong shading: used to simulate specular highlights and smooth shaded surfaces.
RUN & EXECUTE) Get model Place camera Define light sources Define surface characteristic Choose shading technique Render Save file & output 30 . RENDERING The overall rendering process consists of 5 major steps: (INTEGRATE.5.
produced soundtrack. Animation is a long and expensive process. This is where animation process started. 31 . can also be known as planning stage Director will evaluate story. Therefore detail planning is crucial to meet the budget. layout and drawing background. storyboard.STAGES OF ANIMATION PRE-PRODUCTION Pre-production stage.
32 . This line test enables animator to check the quality of animation line while it is made. After every step. drawing will be shot. Animation is produced by three steps: i. Assistant animator will draw in-between drawing. iii. Rough Draft – The time for key animation will be set as well as scene for every action. Animation is clean up and ready to be colours. ii. PRODUCTION We need longer time at this stage. a part of the drawing is the key animation.
the last preparation that needs to be done is a packaging design. synchronize with the music and send to the specific company to cut the negative and printed photo. 33 . animator will send the complete film to the distributor or customer. POST-PRODUCTION Animator must edit the film. At this stage. When the film is fully completed. things to be promoted and sales strategy.
Eg: animation provide a simulation and even dramatize to visualize concept or process.Eg: 3D Rotating/Transforming objects • To show design prototype .Model of Patient’s brain based on MRI (Magnetic Resonance Image) data. • Extremely effective learning medium .Example of uses for animation in Multimedia • Animation plays a huge role in entertainment (providing action and realism) and education (providing visualization and demonstration). . • To attract user attention .Eg: House/machine design • To build data model .
Advantages Present / visualize ideas / concept effectively Disadvantages Requires extensive memory and storage Requires special equipment Does not effectively illustrate the real situation such as video or photograph .