DITM 2113 – Multimedia Systems

 Animation

is the creation of the illusion of movement by assembling a sequence of still images  These pictures are composed of a series of static images that affect the eyes at the rate of 12 to 24 images per second  The illusion of movement is caused by a physiological affect known as 'persistence of vision'  Animation can be built in 2 or 3 dimension.



The Computer Animation Dictionary (1989) defines animation as… "producing the illusion of movement in a film/video by photographing, or otherwise recording, a series of single frames, each showing incremental changes in the position of the subject images which when shown in sequence, at high speed, give the illusion of movement.
 The

individual frames can be produced by a variety of techniques from computer generated images, to hand-drawn cells."


 It can be drawn like Snow White and The Seven Dwarft.  You can also move people and shooting a picture frame by frame so it can be moved without any motion (rotoscope).  You can install it into the computer.” Traditionally.  Have you ever watched South Park? It is produce by cutting out a piece of paper and we move it piece by piece. The result? We can see from the movement.DEFINITION OF ANIMATION  The word animate comes from the Latin verb animare. How to make it looks real can be done by multiple ways. Animation is an art of making things real. They are all form a different shape of animation. like Toy Story and Final Fantasy. meaning “to make alive or to fill with breath. You can also make a model and move it like The Nightmare Before Christmas and Chicken Run.    4 . for instance Beauty and the Beast. animation can be defined as a process of producing images that show a motion object and then we can play the image in a fast mode.

 Considering that each second of animation contains 24 frames (film). all frames in an animation had to be drawn by hand. one can only imagine the tremendous amount of work that has to go into creating even the shortest of animated films. 5 .TRADITIONAL ANIMATION METHOD  Before the advent of the computer animation.  A couple of different techniques were developed for creating animation by hand.

and refers to the transparent pieces of film used in hand-drawn animation Each character is drawn on a separate piece of transparent film. but rather just the parts that need to change such as individual characters. A background is also drawn on a separate sheet of opaque paper. the different characters are overlaid on top of the background in each frame. the material which was used in early motion pictures. CELL ANIMATION 6 .     The word 'cell' comes from 'celluloid'. Then. when it comes to shooting the animation. The artists do not have to draw in entire frames.

KEY FRAMES  The drawing or painting is usually done by more than one person. are still used in many forms of computer animation. the workload is distributed and controlled by the key frames.    7 . These major frames are frames in which a lot of change takes place. They are the key points of the animation. After a storyboard has been laid out. Work can be done simultaneously by many people. This way. Key frames. the senior artists go and draw the major frames of the animation. thus cutting down on the time needed to get a final product out. Later. a bunch of junior artists draw in the frames in between. in conjunction with 'tweening'.

as opposed to imagining it in your head.  8 . one can animate some complex scenes that would be very hard to visualize.ROTASCOPING Involves using images from moving video or film as the basis for an animation.  With the help of rotascoping. such as video.  Example:To animate a frog jumping. It is a lot easier to draw the motion and shape of the frog in the different parts of the animation when you have some reference.

Within the computer environment. flip-book animation means displaying a sequence of independent graphics files.   9 . It consisted of a series of progressive drawings. through which the viewer flipped thus creating the illusion of movement.FLIP BOOK ANIMATION  This is also known as 'frame-based' animation and is the simplest kind of animation to visualize. one on each page of a book.

color or brightness coloring the images to create a realistic look 10 .g. The computer can fill various roles in animation:    synchronizing motion of the graphics with sound  controlling a physical movie camera to record an animation sequence or following a virtual camera program  editing and synchronizing animated film at the postproduction stage  creating the basic images to be animated (digitizing or created with graphics editor) plus backgrounds adding motion to prefabricated images by generating trajectory paths for whole objects (in-betweening) or motion of components of objects (e.COMPUTER ANIMATION  Computer animation is a term that covers a wider area than cell or keyframe animation. a person's hands) or otherwise transforming their shape.

FRAME-BASED ANIMATION A frame-based animation imitates the original animation techniques of drawing each frame carefully by hand.  The final animation is assembled from a sequence of frames (bitmaps) and is in a form of a movie file (usually with .  Improves the speed and ease with which each frame is suffix).  The software used to create the animation does is automatically upon your choice of "Create a movie" or similar command.  11 .avi or .

12 .CELL-BASED ANIMATION    A cell-based animation evolved from frame-based animation techniques as a way to speed up the production. The name derives from a technique of using celluloid layers to overlay the active elements in an animation frame on a static just specify the two positions of an object and the computer will create frames approximating the movements of the object between these positions (this is the case when you are working with Adobe Director). Often the process of creating such an animation is greatly automated by computer .

you animate objects within the title-building software (such as AfterEffects). Instead of creating animation files that you import to your presentation. You might be able to rotate. Path and Vector Animation) is the simplest of the three. program or title. 13 .OBJECT ANIMATION    An object animation (also known as Sprite. Object animation usually involves moving an unchanging object along a path. resize or add filters to it as it moves.

14 . for example throwing a ball which hits another object and causes the second object to move.based modeling) or animator generated methods.PROCEDURAL ANIMATION  Procedures are used that define movement over time.  These might be procedures that use the laws of physics (Physically .  An example is a motion that is the result of some other action (this is called a "secondary action").

e.g. complex objects composed of connected rigid segments. This can be done in two or three dimensions. There are three subcategories to this:   The first is the animation of articulated objects. skin over a body or facial muscles.e..  The second is soft object animation used for deforming and animating the deformation of objects. 15 . i.REPRESENTATIONAL ANIMATION  This technique allows an object to change its shape during the animation.  The third is morphing which is the changing of one shape into another quite different shape.

fire.STOCHASTIC AND BEHAVIOURAL  Stochastic Animation uses stochastic processes to control groups of objects. Examples are fireworks. such as in particle systems. etc. Examples are schools of fish or flocks of birds where each individual behaves according to a set of rules defined by the animator. water falls.  16 . Behavioural Animation is about Objects or "actors" that are given rules about how they react to their environment.

Storyboarding – pre-production Modeling Animation Scene layout setup Rendering . 5. Texture Interfaces. production  Materials. Lighting & Shading 17 . 4. 2.3D ANIMATION Consist of 5 categories: 1.

consists of a series of panels that contains in visual form the scenes and shots specified in the screenplay. STORYBOARDING  Storyboard visual interpretation of the screenplay and contains many images and production notes. 18 is a  It .1.

The document that everybody involved in the production process (very detailed & precise) 19 .Includes important scenes. camera positions.3 CATEGORIES OF STORYBOARD    Conceptual Storyboard  Used to develop the basic ideas(actions of characters. motions & scenes transitions) Presentation Storyboard  Used to show a detailed visual summary of the project to individuals with decision making authority (client-supervisor). Production Storyboard  Guides the production of an animation project.

including. but not limited to the following:  Constructive solid geometry (Boolean operators to combine objects) NURBS modeling(Non Uniform Rational B-Spline ) Polygonal modeling Subdivision surfaces (the limit of an infinite refinement process) 20 . MODELING PROCESS  The modeling stage could be described as shaping individual objects that are later used in the scene There exist a number of modeling techniques.2.

g. diffuse and specular shading components May also include various activities related to preparing a 3D model for animation  21 . color.. May also include editing object surface or material properties (e. luminosity.

 3D Viewing Right View Front View Perspective View Top View Bottom View Left View 22 .

ANIMATION  The 12 principles of animation (1930s-Walt Disney)  Squash & stretch  Anticipation  Staging  Pose-to-pose action  Follow-through action  Slow-in & slow-out CLICK HERE 23  Arcs  Secondary action  Timing  Exaggeration  Solid modeling & rigging  Character personality .3.

cameras and other entities on a scene RGB (red. SCENE LAYOUT SETUP setup involves arranging virtual objects. magenta. saturation. Scene 4. black)  HSL (hue. lights. green. yellow. lightness)   Color models 24 . blue)  CYMK (cyan.

THE CAMERA  Types shots      of camera Point of view shots Low angle & high angle shots Reverse angle shots Close-up shots Medium & Wide shots Waist shot & knee shots(medium)  Full bodies (wide)   Long shots 25 .

LIGHTING & SHADING  Types lights sources       of Point light Spot light Infinite light Area light Linear light Ambient light 26 .

 Basic      components of the light source Position & orientation Color & intensity Beam angle Glow & cone light Shadows  Umbra   Penumbra  the portion of shadow that blocks direct light altogether the area in the edges of the shadow that blends with other lights in the environment  Softness 27 .

A technique for simulating a large amount of surface detail by mapping images (textures) onto polygons.SURFACE TEXTURES  Bump mapping   Textures mapping  a normal-perturbation technique used to simulate wrinkled surfaces. Displacement mapping  2D Procedural Texture mapping  3D Procedural Texture mapping  Transparency mapping  28 .

Popular reflection rendering techniques in 3D include:  REFLECTION Cel shading: A technique used to imitate the look of handdrawn animation.  Phong shading: used to simulate specular highlights and smooth shaded surfaces. 29 .  Gouraud shading: a fast and resource-conscious vertex shading technique used to simulate smoothly shaded surfaces.  Flat shading: A technique that shades each polygon of an object based on the polygon's "normal" and the position and intensity of a light source.

5. RENDERING  The overall rendering process consists of 5 major steps:        (INTEGRATE.RUN & EXECUTE) Get model Place camera Define light sources Define surface characteristic Choose shading technique Render Save file & output 30 .

This is where animation process started. can also be known as planning stage  Director will evaluate story. storyboard. layout and drawing background.STAGES OF ANIMATION  PRE-PRODUCTION  Pre-production stage. 31 .  Animation is a long and expensive process. produced soundtrack. Therefore detail planning is crucial to meet the budget.

Animation is clean up and ready to be colours. iii. a part of the drawing is the key animation. Rough Draft – The time for key animation will be set as well as scene for every action. Animation is produced by three steps: i. drawing will be shot. ii. After every step. This line test enables animator to check the quality of animation line while it is made. PRODUCTION        We need longer time at this stage. Assistant animator will draw in-between drawing. 32 .

 At this stage. synchronize with the music and send to the specific company to cut the negative and printed photo. animator will send the complete film to the distributor or customer. things to be promoted and sales strategy. the last preparation that needs to be done is a packaging design. POST-PRODUCTION  Animator must edit the film. 33 .  When the film is fully completed.

• To attract user attention .Eg: animation provide a simulation and even dramatize to visualize concept or process.Eg: 3D Rotating/Transforming objects • To show design prototype . • Extremely effective learning medium .Example of uses for animation in Multimedia • Animation plays a huge role in entertainment (providing action and realism) and education (providing visualization and demonstration). .Eg: House/machine design • To build data model .Model of Patient’s brain based on MRI (Magnetic Resonance Image) data.

Advantages  Present / visualize ideas / concept effectively Disadvantages  Requires extensive memory and storage Requires special equipment Does not effectively illustrate the real situation such as video or photograph   .