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1. Introduction :
1.1 Overview of Television Media : Television has gained a very significant role in information sharing and generally among people’s daily life during its short history. Nowadays, TV is one of the most watched media all around the world. On average TV is viewed in Europe 3 hours and 33 minutes per person daily. Reasons for its popularity are several. TV is a compelling media due to its media and information richness. It requires little from the viewer (ease of use) and provides possibilities for social interaction among viewers both during and after watching. It can be used both for entertainment purposes and information absorption. The single most important change process in TV’s near history - digitalizationhas started during 1990’s. Process started from digitalization of the production and distribution infrastructure. Now the development has reached the viewer level. The transfer period will last at least until end of this decade . This development has wide-ranging affect on all players in TV industry from content owners to viewers. These changes are for example better picture and sound quality, more channels, more attractive content and possibility to use interactive services (e.g. information services, e-commerce etc.). An important issue facing business today is how to disseminate information to employees in an engaging and meaningful way. One effective way is to distribute multimedia content via an Ethernet network. A converged network allows you to deliver live or recorded video and audio , conferencing, distance learning, and animated presentations to any computer connected to the network. The concept has been around for a while, but the technology to implement it in practical applications has recently become mature enough to make it a reality.
________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) 1.3 Television Broadcasting : Television is generally broadcast using three methods - terrestrial broadcasts Using VHF (Very High Frequency) or UHF (Ultra High Frequency) radio waves , satellite broadcasts using microwaves and cable broadcasts using coaxial cable. There are new methods currently in development. Powerline transmission transmits data to the viewer through the power grid and xDSL (Digital Subscriber Line) technology allows television pictures to be digitally transmitted down telephone lines. A form called ASDL (Asynchronous Digital Subscriber Line) was used in an interactive TV trial in Ipswich and Colchester by British Telecom three years ago , but it is not being used commercially as equipment that must be installed in the telephone exchange is currently too expensive. Cable, satellite and terrestrial are currently undergoing a transition from analogue to digital. Terrestrially digital transmission allows either six slightly higher than normal quality channels or one HDTV (high definition television) channel to be placed in the space of one analogue channel.
1.4 The Internet : The Internet is a network of networks spanning the globe. It could achieve communication using a technology called packet-switching. When two computers communicated, instead of forming a direct dedicated connection (circuit-switching - as with the current telephone system), they would send the data in little packets which would be routed through the network whatever way possible to arrive at there destination. If any intermediate connections were destroyed the data would be routed around. The Internet’s killer applications were e-mail and the world-wide web. This enabled people to publish pages including pictures which could be viewed very simply by anyone around the world. It comprised HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) and HTML (HyperText Mark-up Language). HTTP specified a protocol that allowed the
________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) transmission of the pages, and HTML specified a file format for the pages that allowed them to be viewed on any type of computer using software called a browser.
1.5 Video Streaming Video streaming is a method of sending video through the Internet. It is known as streaming as the video is displayed as the data arrives at the viewer's computer, rather than being received in its entirety and viewed afterwards. The main problems in Video streaming relate to the Internet bandwidth (speed of transmission) and QoS (Quality of Service - reliability). Digitized video takes a lot of space - 1 minute of television quality video takes approximately 1,900 megabytes (million characters) of space per minute, while an average home connection to the Internet can transmit approximately 300 kilobytes (thousand characters) per minute and the Internet is already quite congested. Streamed video must also arrive at the destination reliably if some packets of data do not arrive or arrive too late the player will 'stall' - it will not have any pictures to display on the screen.
1.6 Digital Transmission of Video Whatever medium is used for transmitting digital video, the size must be reduced. The size of the picture or the number of frames per second can be reduced. However this isn't a satisfactory solution if the aim of the video is to replace television - ideally the size of the picture should be increased. The most powerful solution is compression, of which there are two types. Lossless compression removes patterns of data and replaces them with symbols which can be substituted back on decompression , for example "195555555555874" could be represented by "19[10×5]874". The decompressed data is identical to the original data before it was compressed . Lossy compression involves removing data that wouldn't be missed by the viewer (or would be least missed by the viewer).
________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV)
Standards for video compression are set by MPEG (Motion Picture Experts Group). Their standards are used in the recording of video on CDs (MPEG-1) and digital television transmission (MPEG-2), though these media have a much higher bandwidth than the Internet (approximately 9 megabytes per minute for CDs and 30 megabytes per minute for digital television). These use a form of compression called DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform). All the companies developing video streaming software (which will be mentioned later) have developed proprietary CODECs ( Compressor-DECompressor algorithms) that enable video to be transmitted over a normal telephone line. The quality of these is very poor - the only real solution to the problem is to use a broadband (high bandwidth) connection to the Internet. There are a few ways to do this - primarily cable modems and xDSL (Digital Subscriber Line) technology. Cable modems allow computers to connect to the Internet through the cable system, though the cable company must upgrade their equipment for them to work. They typically allow a maximum of 15 megabytes per minute, which is more than good enough for television quality video. XDSL technology allows computers to connect to the Internet at a faster rate through its existing copper connection to the telephone system. It allows a maximum of 75 megabytes per minute, but requires costly upgrades at telephone exchanges and it requires the viewer to live within a certain distance of the exchange. There are other methods of connecting to the Internet in between these capacities and traditional modems, such as ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network), but their capacity isn't high enough for television quality video. If many people viewed video at this bandwidth the Internet itself would come to a standstill due to the amount of data - the main backbones ( the high bandwidth connections that make up the Internet across the world) have a limited, albeit always increasing, capacity which already causes the Internet to slow down during peak hours. A solution is multicasting - broadcast of Internet packets from one source to many, selected destinations. This is as opposed to unicasting ( from one source to one destination - how Internet transmission normally takes place) and broadcasting (from one source to every
along with a set top box programmed with software that can handle viewer requests to access media sources. uses a two-way digital broadcast signal that is sent through a switched telephone or cable network by way of a broadband connection. We can compare traditional methods of broadcasting with the Internet using the following criteria.any missing packets are merely 2. Currently it is not supported on most routers. An alternative to TCP is UDP ( dropped. As each packet is quite small a few missing packets shouldn't make much difference to the viewer's image.it is better just to skip the missing information. To work multicasting must be supported on routers (the devices that route information from one point to another on the Internet). • • • • • • • Image/Audio Quality Cost Content Choice Client Hardware Interactivity Availability User Datagram Protocol). IP defines the structure of the packets and TCP is a method used to make sure they arrive at their destination (involving sending retransmission requests for packets that go missing). Most data is transmitted across the Internet using TCP/IP ( Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol). or IPTV.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) single destination). TCP is unsuitable for video streaming as by the time the packets are retransmitted they are of no use . What is IPTV ? Internet protocol television. QoS can be improved by using different protocols to transmit the video. but this is rapidly changing. which is used by video streaming software) . A television is connected to the set top box that 5 .
the meaning of IPTV is occupied by "server based techniques".________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) handles the task of decoding the IP video and converts it into standard television signals. that the transmission technologie is IP based. But the meaning of IPTV is going to change to a synonym for "TV via broadband". "IP" also indicates. At the moment.e. without "hotline queues". The Switched Video Service (SVS) system allows viewers to access broadcast network channels. IPTV is no analog or digital one-way-street like before ! The customer can "interact" immediately ( and he / she can "buy" ). as generic term. like all other Internet technologies. no matter how the technical realisation is done. So with "IPTV" here the new meaning "TV by Internet" is meant. 6 . subscription services. i. it is based on the general Internet protocols ( IP protocols ). and movies on demand.
To deploy IP-TV. In the IP-TV model. tightly managed network that results in a superior entertainment experience. IPTV is generally funded and supported by large telecom providers who have undertaken the mission of creating a competitive replacement product for digital cable and satellite services . and IPTV provides an efficient solution for delivering high quality video.specialized video encoding schemes (MPEG-2. several channels of content would be available and easily accessed using a client running on a desktop computer or some specialized appliance . several technologies are leveraged such as quality of Windows Media Video 9). IPTV currently broadcasts Mpeg1 encoded video. More instructors will be developing video components for their courses as digital camcorders and video editing software become cheaper and easier to use. The IP refers to a method of sending information over a secure.multicast protocols. This reduction in bandwidth requirements allows a much higher quality video stream to be used.and specialized servers and clients. and other active multimedia content across a network much like television is deployed today. The “multicasting” technology allows a single video stream to be viewed by many users on the network. that doesn't mean people will log onto their favorite Web page to access television programming. audio. which exponentially reduces the amount of bandwidth required. it can send a single 300 Kbps stream that can be viewed by 25 viewers. which is the same format used in video CD’s (VCD’s). • IPTV is not TV that is broadcast over the Internet.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) IP-TV is a recent concept that promotes methods of distributing video. So instead of a server sending out 25 individual video streams requiring 300 Kbps each.Microsoft 7 .While the "IP" in its name stands for Internet Protocol. service (QoS). IPTV is a method for broadcasting a “multicast” video stream over the campus network.
• IPTV covers both live TV (multicasting) as well as stored video (Video on Demand VOD).264.1 IP television can be watched on different types of viewing devices such as • • • • standard televisions with adapters dedicated IP televisions multimedia computers mobile telephones. WMV (Windows Media Video 9 and VC1).________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) 3. Video Compression formats used for IPTV include MPEG-2. • The playback of IPTV requires either a personal computer or a "set-top box" connected to a TV. This control ranges from instant service activation to real time television on 8 . • The primary underlying protocols used for IPTV are IGMP version 2 for channel change signaling for live TV and RTSP for Video on Demand. IP television service allows viewers to have more control of Internet television services. Protocols using peer-to-peer technology to distribute live TV are just starting to emerge. Their primary advantage over traditional distribution models is that they provide a way of sharing data delivery workloads across connected client systems as well as over the distributor's own server infrastructure. MPEG-4. DivX. XviD. which drastically decreases the operational costs for a stream provider. 3. and Ogg Theora. IPTV requires broadband connections to be distributed. IPTV Architecture • Due to the bandwidth requirements of video. H.
anywhere television extensions. 4. you start using the service by dialing into the CS Internet network with your ordinary 56K modem. How IPTV Works And IPTV NETWORK Example (TURBONET) After having installed the iPTV equipment on your PC. global television channels.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) demand controls. Some of the advanced Internet television features such as personal media channels. While surfing 9 .
________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) the Web. The NOC then requests the content from a web-server and beams it to a Thaicom satellite. located at CS Internet. iPTV can be used as a Proxy server to relieve timeconsuming bottlenecks when high speed Internet access is required. During transmission. Turbo Internet Network Diagram 10 . the request goes to the Satellite service's Network Operations Center (NOC). The web page is then passed to your PC through a satellite receiver. when you click a link to request a different page. iPTV provides additional value-added services which allow content providers or television program providers to transmit data to satellite receivers directly using IP Multicasting. Internet data will be converted into MPEG-2/DVB streams. Users may subscribe to receive content such as TV programs and future applications directly from the provider. Furthermore. from where it is forwarded to your satellite dish. For corporate users. instead of making the request directly to a web-server.
Limited hard drive space causes quality on a DVR to be noticeably lower than normal television. IPTV works the same as VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol). A new technology. and into a set-top 11 . In addition. The signal is broken up into data packets and sent over the internet to a home user’s high-speed internet connection. if the shows are aired in the same time slot. or have you wished that you could start and stop your favorite programs? digital Video Recorders like TiVo offer a partial solution. allowing consumers to record a limited amount of video and watch it when they so desire. the user can only choose one to record. and also limits the amount of content that may be accessed at any given time. except with a television signal instead of a voice signal.IPTV (Internet Protocol TV) may be the solution to all of these problems.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) Working of IPTV : Have you ever wished that your favorite show was in a more convenient timeslot.
Because IPTV allows data packets to be transferred in both directions.. rather than visiting a video store. as the lines to each house are slower than a cable line. which is useful for targeted advertisements. more channels. Because the packets containing the television signal are only sent when requested. where the movie is streamed over the internet on demand. This technology would also allow for online movie rentals. get their e-mail. has plans to use IPTV technology for much more than just television and movies. online games. regardless of whether or not the subscriber is watching that channel. the largest online game service provider in China. Mp3s. and faster internet access to their subscribers. IPTV will be offered at equal or higher quality than current TV quality broadcasts. Other services such as customized weather and news.5 million subscribers in China by 2007. an enormous amount of bandwidth is saved. not only from provider to consumer.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) box. This also allows phone companies to make an attempt to break into the market. Cable TV providers send every channel to every user. Satellite companies are expected to first use a “hybrid” service in which a single set-top 12 . this transmission can go both ways. Radio broadcasts. Saving bandwidth is not the only benefit of IPTV for providers. cable companies will be able to provide. or even has their TV on in the first place. higher quality video and sound signals. Unlike normal television. Some companies use an alternate name for IPTV. and offer many services that would normally require a PC to access. where the acronym stands for Interactive Personal TV. novels. Without having to constantly broadcast all channels. and traditional TV and movie programs through their television sets. providers would have an amazing amount of feedback about the programs being watched by their subscribers. In current TV systems. The major obstacle for IPTV providers is finding partnerships that would enable them to provide sufficient content to compete with a Cable or Satellite TV service. Shanda Interactive Entertainment Ltd. Consumers can enjoy chess and card games. This type of service is expected to have 13. or even configure their IPTV set-top box to record a show from a remote location. Although the technology is similar. as well as ratings feedback are possible as well. Users may be able to pull up statistics on a sports player if they are watching a game.
providing subscriptions. Microsoft claims to already have software ready to power IPTV services. Role of Microsoft as IPTV solutions Provider Microsoft has been heavily involved in trying to break in to the IPTV market. much as they did with the desktop PC market. However. Advertisers will certainly have to adapt to the new landscape of television. This will allow for their current programming to remain the same. and is awaiting the day when they can cash in on their investment. Microsoft has been investing in IPTV about ten years ago. Gates claims that this type of service has had an amazing consumer response. and this type of forward thinking has helped them get a jump on the IPTV market. when TV providers saw the technology as too flimsy and futuristic to bother pursuing. 5. However. Video games served online through IPTV seem to be suffering limited interest. and providers will slowly add features afterwards. as only 10 percent of people polled said they would pay for such a service. while giving the option to add more on-demand services on top of the old service. as well as text. consumers already understand the idea Video on Demand. Bill Gates believes that at some point.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) box works both as a cable/satellite receiver and an IPTV receiver connected to the internet. but they could end up gaining from IPTV services rather than having a more difficult time reaching consumers. hardware. IPTV services are due to first come out in the US later this year. or video conference with their friends while they are viewing a program together from remote locations. using an entirely internet based service rather than the hybrid approach that most Cable and Satellite providers will probably adopt. however one problem with the service is explaining to consumers why they would want it. and software to make the networks work. so IPTV will probably first arrive as a service that only provides for Video on Demand. so having 13 . recent “interactive” programs on TV in which viewers can vote online or via their cell phones have been seeing more and more participation. Gates and Microsoft have been successful in predicting trends in the past. Microsoft holds a more pristine vision of IPTV. viewers should be able to control the coverage of different media events.
better feedback. but as we have seen with p2p networks on the PC. and more services to sell for providers. as Quality of Service and bandwidth will be greatly increased. Hollywood fears that IPTV could lead to widespread piracy of movies and TV shows. and cheaper costs. just as music has widely become available on the internet. 14 . In addition. IPTV is definitely something that will reach consumers in some way or another in the near future. Gates also argues that many users pirate things for convenience and would be willing to pay if the content was easily accessible online through a legal pay service. This conversion will prove to be a benefit both for providers and consumers.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) the ability to interact with a program from the TV remote could be seen as a large benefit for IPTV providers. the new infrastructure being installed in preparation for IPTV will have positive side effects for all other internet based services. Hollywood fears that IPTV users may log on to a movie filesharing network to get movies and television shows for free. whether by a hybrid service or a completely internet based service. Bill Gates has been a regular visitor to Hollywood. Of course this activity would be illegal and movie studios will have the power to sue users who participate. however there are those who oppose it. it can be very difficult to police the internet . Video on demand is almost assuredly the most promising feature of IPTV. offering increased control and more choices for the user. to insure that his software will provide sufficient copyright protection features to prevent this sort of activity from happening.
15 . or multimedia computers that are connected to a high speed data network (broadband Internet). the IPTVSP sends messages to gateways via the Internet allowing television channel to be connected to IP televisions. a computer keeps track of which customers are active (registration) and what features and services are authorized. These gateways transfer their billing details to a clearinghouse so the IPTVSP can pay for the gateway's usage. When call requests are processed. In this diagram. The IPTVSP then can use this billing information to charge the customer for access to television programs and other media sources.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) 6. analog television adapters (ATVA). Internet Television Service Provider (ITVSP) This figure shows that IPTVSPs are primarily made of computers that are connected to the Internet and software to operate IP television and other services.
8 Mbps to receive an IP television channel. 16 . This means the broadband modem must be capable of providing 5.1 IP Video to Multiple Users This figure shows how much data transfer rate it can take to provide for multiple IP television users in a single building.4 Mbps to allow up to 3 IP televisions to operate in the same home or building. This diagram shows 3 IP televisions that require 1.8 Mbps to 3.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) 6.4 Mbps to 11.
This means the IPTV service providers will be focusing on premises distribution equipment that can use existing wiring systems if possible. IPTV service providers desire to sell services where the customer can self install the equipment avoiding the need for the service provider to send installation workers (no need for a truck roll). The broadband modem is connected to a router 17 . wireless LAN. Countries like the United States have a large percentage of installed coax while other countries such as the United Kingdom have a larger percentage of customers that still receive their television via RF broadcast. This diagram shows that an IP television signal arrives at the premises at a broadband modem. We were surprised to learn that different countries have different types of home distribution systems. The common premises distribution system used for IPTV distribution include telephone wiring. optical cable. power line distribution and wired LAN. Televisions are not typically located near a data connector and getting the signal to media appliances in the home may require rewiring and/or additional equipment. Premises distribution systems can use copper (wire or coax).________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) 6. coaxial cable. or wireless (radio or IR) to transfer communication of signals within a customer's facility or home.2 Getting IPTV to the Television in the Home Premises distribution systems are playing an important part in IPTV networks. Figure4 shows the common types of premises distribution systems that can be used for IP television systems.
data cables or even via wireless signals to adapters that receive the packets and recreate them into a form the IP television can use. which is available over coaxial lines and satellite airwaves. It is also called MPEG-4 Part 10. jitter-free.MPEG-4 Simple Profile (SP) and Advanced Simple Profile (ASP) were developed for streaming video over Internet connections. to deliver broadcast-quality. MPEG-2 requires 2 Mbps of bandwidth. 7. digital video. who have previously produced the H. H. MPEG-4offers a software method to compress and decompress video 18 .26x and MPEG-x standards.263 to the next level has been addressed over the last several years through a combined working group of the ITU-T and ISO/IEC organizations.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) that can distribute the media signals to forward data packets to different devices within the home such as IP televisions.1 Video Coding Standards MPEG-2. respectively. or MPEG-4 Advanced Video Coding (AVC). telephone lines. coaxial lines.264. The following table summarizes the development of these standards and their intended applications. The new standard has emerged as H. 7. This example shows that routers may be able to forward packets through power lines.264/MPEG-4 AVC: The IPTV Enabling Technology Standard The need for an advanced video coding standard that evolves MPEG-2 and H. has been the industry standard digital video broadcast codec for many years for high bit rate applications. a hardware-based technology.
This allows them to offer customers a bundled triple play service from a single supplier.1 The Triple Play The term triple play has recently crept into the Telecom vocabulary. Bundling has been shown to reduce customer churn and consumers like to have a single bill and provider to deal with. while maintaining broadcast quality for video-ondemand (VOD) and high-definition television (HDTV) needs. Commercially we have revenues form voice and data services that are increasingly flat and ever increasing competition to the providers from cable TV companies 19 .________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) over a network that provides only a best-possible connection with a wide range of data rates. Triple play means offering three services • voice • data • video or IPTV and the reason for the interest is that providers can see the commercial opportunity of being able to provide voice and video or IPTV services alongside existing voice and data services. H. leading to lower data rates. Technologically we have the growth in availability of broadband services.264/MPEG-4 AVC addresses the needs for greater compression. Video over IP DSL : 8. The timing for this developing interest in video and IPTV services is fuelled by a combination of technological improvements and commercial pressures. the increasing number of set top boxes on the market and ever reducing prices. So triple play offers providers the opportunity to reduce churn and at the same time secure for themselves additional revenue from the new services. therefore bring the offering into the realms of technical feasibility. but enough to offer interesting services and enhance the richness of the Internet experience. 8. and the improvements in video encoding that reduce bandwidth requirements to 2 to 3 Mbps per Video channel for a quality service. The result is not what viewers have come to expect from their televisions. the availability of software to enable video/TV applications over broadband networks.
Consumers pay a monthly fee for voice services. video. along with protocols like IGMP ( Internet Group Management Protocol) and Quality of Service (QoS) techniques.three. 8.3 Attraction of Additional Services Adding additional IP-based services to the voice network can realize two. and data over the same media. Cable companies have begun to provide data services across cable lines using cable modem technology and Telecoms are providing highspeed Internet access via xDSL technology. Competition is also emerging from satellite dish providers offering Internet access. New technology has paved the way new service offerings and the application of new technologies including high-speed Internet access. Consumers can get voice. 20 . Net to Net believes that it is important for service provider to leverage the existing fiber and copper infrastructure as cost effectively as possible. high-speed Internet access. Gone are the days when the Local Exchange Carrier provides telephone services and the region’s cable company delivers television. To stop losing customers.2 Service Provider’s Challenge – Increase Revenue and Reduce Expenses Carriers face a number of business challenges in today’s world of convergence technologies. Competition is now fierce between these two utilities as cable providers are increasingly offering voice services and traditional voice carrier s are looking to find additional sources of revenue and protect their current markets. service providers can offer cable TV like services. traditional telephony and other value added services over their existing fiber and copper infrastructure. or four times current revenues per subscriber. and on one bill. This means that providers need to offer a competitive alternative or risk losing some of their existing customer based. The techniques carriers and service providers can use to increase monthly revenue beyond traditional POTS without building an entirely new infrastructure.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) particularly in the US and in selected areas of Europe. 8. LECs need to compete by offering multiple services over their existing infrastructure. from the same company. “Package deals” develop. By capitalizing on technologies such as IP video and xDSL.
analog to MPEG encoders. and virtual Personal Video Recorders (PVR). IP network today provides a low cost solution with adaptability for future requirements. the carrier can support directed advertising through ad-insertion. Many of these services can only be implemented cost effectively using IP-based video. service providers can increase monthly revenues per subscriber for highspeed. or sharing a head-end with other providers can increase revenues.DSL Access Multiplexers (DSLAM) . using a broadband access infrastructure supplied by Net to Net Technologies.1 The Head-end The term head-end describes the location where video content is aggregated and managed. the head-end needed to be strategically located to reach as many consumers as possible. The head-end is comprised of many components including the video services management system. For example. additional monthly revenue can occur from adding services like pay-per-view. Building a video head-end. a video 21 . video on demand (VoD). additional monthly fees can be collected for broadcast TV. the head-end can be located almost anywhere. Convenience and transport costs can be used to determine the location. Building an Ethernet-2 of 12 based. Using the existing Ethernet-based system. the video traffic (transported as data) can be injected into the system from almost anywhere.Core IP switch/routers and fiber transport system .The home network 9. Refer to figure 1 for a breakdown of reoccurring monthly revenues. and other pay movie and specialty channels. In the cable TV industry. Therefore. 9 The Network : The xDSL and video transport system is made up of the following components: . Beyond consumer revenues. With an IP video head-end.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) For example.S. We have found this to be the current rate for high-speed access in the U.The video head-end . always on Internet access using xDSL technology. enhanced TV channel packages. The service provider can add additional video services without changing the Net to Net DSLAMs or IP backbone.
Viewers will prefer a true picture quality due to digital encoding over traditional analog signals that degrade over distances. and encodes the signals into MPEG frames. 22 . 9.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) server. Some encoders are able to encode MPEG-2 and transmit at 2. The encoder then grooms the signal to provide a constant bit rate and transmits the data using preassigned multi-cast IP and MAC addresses. At the customer’s home.5 Mbps with similar quality at a slightly higher price.2 MPEG Encoders : The MPEG encoder receives video feeds from content providers. and a broadband application server. digital turnaround. the video is viewed by via a set-top-box that utilizes an interactive client system. This rate provides a higher quality digital picture than legacy analog systems. The encoders today typically use MPEG-2 encoding that transmits at a constant rate of 3 to 3.5 Mbps per stream. Encoding technology is advancing quickly and it is expected that encoders will be able to stream high quality video at one Mbps within a couple of years.
The primary function is to demultiplex DVB-ASI streams (Digital Video Broadcast . and VCR-like capabilities. 9. The MPEG encoded movie is then transmitted via a unicast IP stream. Using IP-based VoD gives the home user control over the movies. and stored advertisements. rewind.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) 9. and transport each program into its own IP multicast stream. viewing time. or fast-forward the movie. The turnaround will take the multi-program transport stream. and encoded again to work with the IP network. separate the channels.3 Digital Turnaround The digital turnaround or MediaGateway is used to take already digitally encoded video streams and transport it on the IP network. The digital turnaround is much less expensive than multiple video encoders and maintains the quality of the MPEG video. only a start time and an ending time. There are many advantages to this system. This allows the viewer to have virtual VCR functionality. PVR space. This is an advantage over movie systems on cable or analog systems. 23 . It does not have to be decoded.4 Video Server To provide Video on Demand (VoD). video content stays in the original digital format. People can select a movie from the onscreen display and choose when they want to view the movie. A service provider can offer their own unique services such as interactive games and on-screen bill displays. By using DVB-to-IP.Asynchronous Serial Interface) from satellite or terrestrial sources and redistribute them over an IP network. They can pause. These video streams are usually already encoded into the MPEG format and are sometimes sent as multiple television programming channels within one stream.5 Application Server The application server provides the interaction systems for the user and allows for storage of web services. the provider uses a video server to hold a large database of movies. 9. stop. With these legacy systems. there is no customer control. start.
Channel information . From the client.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) Using an application server can bring out the entrepreneurial spirit of the service provider by providing a building block for new services.Interactive Program guide .Subscribers can store channel preferences and favorites . From the network end.Parental controls .Movie guide . The management server works with each set-top-box to provide the following types of functionality: .Channel packages . It also has the channel information. the STB decodes the data stream and hands an analog feed to the television set. the STB issues IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) join and 24 .7 Set-Top-Box The job of the set-top-box (STB) is multi-fold. 9.6 Management Software and Service Administration The management software system allows the provider to configure the channel guide and client information.Billing data . displays the interactive guide and is used to change channels.Acts as the “gateway” to additional services 9.Pay-per-view .Password protection .
10 . or DTM. It then receives the new MPEG-2 stream. it goes through a boot process.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) leave messages and sends membership reports to the core network. The optimal backbone to support this type of traffic is Ethernet routers supporting IGMP on the edge with a high-end fiber transport system in the core. 25 . is scaleable. DWDM.1 Fiber Core The fiber core should be a technology that is IP and Ethernet-based. When the STB starts up. SONET. the core should also support redundant links. acts as a self-healing ring or mesh technology. can support high bandwidths. This information includes the channel guide and IGMP information. it downloads configuration information from the management system. SDH. For network integrity. specifically channel to multicast group associations. Core IP Routers and Fiber Transport System The video traffic is transported as IP multicasts. When the user changes channel. During this process. Typical technologies include Gigabit Ethernet. and supports IGMP for IP multicasts. the STB notifies the network that it doesn’t need the old multicast stream and need to join a new video group. 10. decodes the stream and sends the analog video to the TV.
000 feet. and support a high quality of service (QoS).5 Mbps per multicast stream.1 Mbps. G. For these reasons the switches should support layer two technologies like 802. At 2. The combination of high downstream bandwidths coupled with superior reach is crucial to reach the majority of consumers. which connect to the DSLAM. 10.1d switching.SHDSL. the access multiplexer will connect directly to a layer three switch or router. or MPLS.1 Mbps upstream.5 Mbps and upstream bandwidths of up to 1. the home user is able to receive three channels simultaneously.1Q VLANs. SVP. VDSL offers a higher downstream bandwidth. Some of Net to Net’s customers have experienced 10 Mbps at distances of less than 10. The switch is distributing traffic from a high capacity backbone to a lower capacity access network. 26 .3 DSL Access Multiplexer The recommended transport of choice today for video over the local loop is ADSL. 802. but limited distance.5 Mbps per stream. use the telephone and still has plenty of bandwidth for high-speed Internet access. and a type of QoS like DiffServ.1p traffic prioritization and support layer three functions like subnet routing. Other customers have achieved a maximum reach over 25. Typically. Today’s Net to Net ADSL can offer a downstream bandwidth of up to 10.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) 10. At 3.SHDSL offers good distance. the home use r can watch two different channels. but limited downstream speeds. IGMP.2 Edge Switches and Routers The access network is key when designing the network. Other technology options include VDLS and G. Therefore.000 feet with a lesser bandwidth. the switches need to have efficient switching. Usually. and 802. Typical ADSL speeds are about 8 Mbps downstream and 1. a Layer 3 switch is used as the edge routers.
The Ethernet port on the modem should support a full duplex Ethernet port.4 IP DSLAM The Net to Net DSLAM provides up to 288 ADSL access lines. 10.5 The Home Network The ADSL modem acts as a bridge forwarding all requests to the DSLAM and forwards data from the DSLAM back to the STB or PC. the DSLAM supports technologies like IGMP. It forwards all queries. 10. and only forwards leave messages as needed. The chassis can link to the IP core via Gigabit Ethernet . Fast Ethernet. It is essential that the DSLAM support IGMP. POTS splitter. data uploads will not interfere with downstream multicast traffic. Multicast traffic is only sent to the ports requesting the channel. the DSLAM tracks the memberships of each port (user) and will only forward multicasts to those ports requesting membership to a particular group. Further. This way. join and membership reports. DS3 Ethernet over SONET or E3 Ethernet over SDH. and sometimes an Ethernet switch make up the home network. The ADSL modem. For the purposes of video and high-speed data services. That way the video traffic does not saturate the entire network. and QoS.1Q VLANs. The Net to Net DSLAM delivers the desired multicast stream to the appropriate user through IGMP Snooping. The DSLAM monitors IGMP messages being sent from each host and forwards these messages to the IGMP router when necessary. 802. The modem should also support the 27 .________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) The access network is made up of the DSLAM.
Hosts (set-top-boxes) will respond to these requests with membership reports. The DSLAM will add this port to the new multicast group. The DSLAM will remove that port from the multicast group and will only forward the leave group message if that user is the last user in the multicast group.5 Mbps at distances less of 6. This allows the modem to sync at 10. it establishes a connection (unicast) with the management system.yy. If the router receives the leave message. The membership reports are used as a join message.yy. channel [x] = yy. the set-top-box will first send a leave group message to that multicast group. If this is not the case.When the set-top-box is initialized. pay-per-view. the router will send general queries to keep its multicast tables updated. 28 .e.000 feet or less. The DSLAM will forward these messages to the appropriate host or router. Each set-top-box and each PC needs its own connection to the Ethernet switch. Sometimes the modem will have a built-in Ethernet switch. Periodically. Each set-top-box will then send a membership report addressed to the group that It wants to belong (the new channel). The uplink will be connected to an IGMP router. To distribute the traffic. it will send a group-specific query to the group being left to ensure membership.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) S=1/2 full-rate ADSL standard. etc.yy multicast group. The reports will be directed to the address of the multicast group. It will also download information regarding multicast groups. One report will be sent for each group to which the host belongs.11b wireless network. It will download all of the channel information like the on-screen TV guide. Alternates to an Ethernet network include Home PNA or 802. there needs to be a home network attached to the ADSL modem. The DSLAM will add that port to the multicast group and forward the report to the uplink. the modem should connect to an Ethernet switch. the set-top-box will send a membership report when it wants to establish the connection with that channel (multicast group). 11. i. When a channel is selected. When the channel is changed.11a or 802. Multicast Video Overview Every channel is associated with a multicast group in the MPEG encoder.
29 . support the broadcasting of streams in the Internet. The Internet is bidirectional.2 Streaming via digital TV Also Internet protocol packets (IP) can be embedded in the transport streams of the digital television (DTV) by means of the standard Multi-Protocol Encapsulation(MPE).1 Streaming Media and Principle and broadcasting Streaming Media is a term of the Internet world. Protocols. It comprises the broadcasting of audio and motion pictures as continuous data flow. Whether the stream is transmitted from a server or on-the-fly generated by means of live encoders does not play any role. These IP packets can transfer all types of Internet contents.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) 12. In contrast to that. 12. Streaming Media only requires a buffer storage of a limited size in the terminal for the media player. The feature of Streaming Media is that the viewer may join a current connection and does not have to wait until the end of the transmission. the delivery of Streaming Media via digital broadcasting structures requires some special features: • The bi-directional protocol for the request of a stream has to be changed by means of a proxy program to an unidirectional connection. documents and similar are always transmitted as complete files. as the Real-Time Protocol (RTP) or the Real-Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP). The transmission parameters bandwidth and quality are individually “negotiated”. The access on resources in the Internet is always carried out on the basis of a demand. An access is possible only after the transmission – the common problem of the response time in the network. However. Live Internet TV via digital TV 12. web pages. programs. pictures. Streaming Media enables the set-up of a connection between the media player and a server so that the content is indicated (video animations) or is made audible (audio) already after buffering a small quantity of data.
shall not The synchronisation on a running transmission has to be possible. Here. a stable standard for the multicasting still does not exist. 30 . The MediaRouter provides the broadcasting and the QoS of the programs via a DTV system capable for broadcasting. Apart from this. It is optimised for an individual point-to-point communication.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) • • • The bandwidth for the transmission has to be “negotiated” and aligned The simultaneous transmission of TV and several streams requires a The streaming format has to be robust against transmission errors and lead to an abortion of the presentation. The last requirements are ensured by the Internet Streaming Protocol. connection management to ensure a guaranteed Quality of Service (QoS). The gateway from the Internet to the digital TV network (DTV-IP-Inserter) is able to tunnel the multicast connections as one single unicast connection to the streaming server via the Internet. the transmission of the same contents to many receivers. The first three requirements are ensured by the Rohde&Schwarz StreamConnector and the Mediarouter. 13 . an overload of servers and networks is today a normal situation. The Protocol Independent Multicasting (PIM) shall provide a remedy. What is more obvious than integrating a real broadcasting system for the broadcasting of Internet TV. Even if IP supports the multicasting. The multicast problem Many companies work on making the wire conducted Internet also fit for television applications (WebTV). the main problem is the fact that the Internet has not been originally capable for broadcasting. with the transmission link of the DTV. Digital TV reaches all its audience without bottlenecks and without a dependence on the number of viewers.
________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) 14. instant messages. North America. The Microsoft TV division provides software solutions that help digital TV operators create new services that delight consumers. the services may be accessed and shared via any number of IP-enabled household devices. Leading telecommunications providers are conducting trials of Microsoft TV IPTV Edition in Europe. digital video recording. The Microsoft TV platform works across a full range of set-top boxes and TV devices. PCs. and advertising to the consumer. video on demand. data and other advanced services and applications over a single network connection. highdefinition TV and on-demand programming. Microsoft is busy developing a total solution to bring IPTV to the masses via software and hardware technologies for broadcasting and viewing digital video IPTV over broadband internet connections. Designed to help cable providers and telecommunications companies derive more value from digital video and network infrastructure investments. Additionally. subscription. Microsoft TV IPTV Edition also provides strong security features and efficiency in delivering standard and high-definition TV programming to multiple TV sets in the home over the fiber-enhanced network. IPTV Potential Offerings The Microsoft TV as the IPTV services platform provider recognizes Microsoft™ leadership position in the rapidly emerging IPTV industry and the benefits it will bring to customers. while leaving ample bandwidth available for ultra-fast Internet access and VoIP services. The platform allows operators to display caller ID information. such as TVs. DVR hardware. Switzerland. It of course offers the broadcasters to deliver complete channel navigation. set-top boxes. and Asia. the Microsoft TV product family supports a range of digital video services including interactive program guides. Microsoft TV IPTV Edition also provides a 31 . e-mail. or SMS on the TV . by using IP technology to deliver video.even notify consumers about TV schedule changes as they occur. and Canada to bring IPTV services to the consumer through it's Microsoft TV IPTV Edition platform. At this time Microsoft has already made several deals with some of the communication giants in the United States. PDAs or phones. voice.
which streams only the content the customer requests instead of broadcasting all channels to everybody at once.IPTV Applications and services: 32 . The PIP feature enables users to preview other shows and channels while the primary channel runs in the background . 15 . Channel surfing becomes easier because you can continue to watch your program while viewing live previews of other shows using innovative picture-in-picture (PIP) technology. The IP-based TV service is planned to include instant channel changing. SBC companies plan to use a switched video distribution system. Some additional potential applications include: Using two-way broadband networks. event notifications. companies could be able to send alerts and notifications to customers watching TV in new ways. digital video recording. content protection features and more.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) comprehensive security system including subscriber and end-to-end digital rights management technology to protect the content across multiple devices. video on demand. The Microsoft TV IPTV Edition platform could enable new services and applications such as tuner-less picture-in-picture functionality. Photos could be easily shared from a networked computer and played back through the TV. customizable channel lineups. Some examples include the ability to alert a customer of upcoming favorite shows. multimedia interactive program guides. or Caller ID and instant messaging right on their TV screen. This cutting-edge technology frees up large amounts of bandwidth for other applications. To enable optimal use of bandwidth.
________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) IP/TV eliminates the headache involved with physical media. IP/TV video systems make it easy to deliver up-to-the-minute stock market trends. financial news. Internet applications : Webcam communities. which can be easily implemented with IP/TV solutions. TV to the Desktop Organizations include knowledge workers who need instant access to international business or financial developments. (ex. corporate communications are only a mouse-click away from any faculty/staff member. video telephony. filesharing. web conferenzes. not-returned. Marshall and other institutions of higher education offer tele-courses to network-based students. degradation. copies. 33 .) Some implementations will even allow the student to access it over a standard Dial-Up Connection. etc. Training Employees in an organization need a centralized training system. webphones. Corporate Communications Are there changes in the Marshall benefit plan? Are you introducing a new production? Is everyone on the same page? Is everyone getting consistent information? With IP/TV video systems. Distance Learning Are you developing content designed to reach students outside campus walls? Use Cisco IP/TV video systems to implement a distance learning curriculum. or satellite broadcasts to knowledge workers right at their desktops. This will reduce the time and money wasted in far away training centers.
television shows and newscasts. This enables the service provider to offer additional revenue-generating services. which the user would select from a movie library available at the Service Node • Stored programming content. which can be viewed at a later time. Digital Broadcast TV . broadcast) to the subscriber home. Unlike traditional cable/satellite payper-view services where a limited number of movies are broadcast and on fixed timeslots.e. where all channels are simultaneously delivered (i. cable and satellite TV. Europe and Asia. enables IPTV as a compelling and competitive alternative. stages with a number of telecom service providers in North America. or planning. IPTV only delivers those channels which are being viewed by the subscriber and has a potential to offer practically an ‘unlimited’ number of channels. ADSL2+ and VDSL. such as sports events.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) Business applications: • Distance learning • Company--wide seminars • Video conferencing • Video and audio archiving • Internal closed circuit television Video on Demand (VoD) These applications enable service providers to begin offering the “triple play” – video. such as: • Movies on demand. 34 . IPTV/VoD service would give users more choices and the flexibility to watch movies anytime at their convenience. The video-on-demand application provides individual subscribers the ability to select a video content and view it at their convenience.The advent of higher-speed DSL technology such as ADSL2. voice and data. which can be enabled after the IPTV infrastructure is in place. IPTV is currently in testing. Additional video applications.
transmitting data to your PC at speeds 8 times faster than by an ordinary Internet connection. • Digital Data Broadcasting technology allows you to receive broadcast data from content providers. are: • Video telephony and Video conferencing • Remote Education.1 Additional Services Provided on IPTV : Conference Calling Long Distance Charges Pay-Per-View Video on Demand Virtual PVR (Personal Video Recorder) Advanced Interactive Services Ad-Insertion (directed advertising) Gaming 16. IRC. ICQ and more.Http.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) PTVDISTRIBUTIONINHOMENETWORKS Other compelling IPTV applications and potential revenue-generating services. • Supports all standard Internet Protocols . making it possible to download large files in a very short time. and • Home Security/Monitoring Cameras 15. Data can be bundled with digital TV streams in MPEG2/DVB format and broadcast to end-users 35 . FTP. SMTP (POP3). which can be enabled once the initial IPTV infra-structure is in place. Benefits Of Iptv : • One-way high-speed Internet access via satellite.
You might be able to get the Surgeon General to guest lecture at one of your Health 1000 classes. • Large courses with many sections and instructors can share video materials easily. but chances are he won’t do all 30 sections this semester. Supports all standard Internet Protocols . 36 . FTP. ICQ and more. you could have that video put on IPTV (as longas you had rights to do so with the publishing company) and then all ten sections could view the video at one time.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) • Extensive caching at our Network Operations Center (NOC) will help guarantee high-speed delivery and reduce bottlenecks normally found in the Internet access network. Extensive regional access and connectivity: Turbo Internet is available in all 76 provinces in Thailand.Http. SMTP (POP3). This saves wear on the tape. Data can be bundled with digital TV streams in MPEG-2/DVB format and broadcast to end-users Extensive caching at our Network Operations Center (NOC) will help guarantee high-speed delivery and reduce bottlenecks normally found in the Internet access network. Digital Data Broadcasting technology allows you to receive broadcast data from content providers. So if your department owns an instructional video that needs to be seen by ten sections of a course. making it possible to download large files in a very short time. and removes any scheduling conflicts. Extensive regional access and connectivity: One-way high-speed Internet access via satellite. transmitting data to your PC at speeds 8 times faster than by an ordinary Internet connection. IRC. or each instructor could schedule a broadcast for their section. • • Appearances by valuable guest lecturers can be recorded and used for multiple courses semester after semester.
So video his lecture and share it for years to come through the magic of IPTV. Often this is in parallel with the subscriber's Internet connection. supplied by a broadband operator using the same infrastructure but over a dedicated bandwidth allocation. either on or off campus (note that Real Media is not a multicast system. as broadband is now available to more than 100 million households worldwide. and has a limited bandwidth capacity). • IPTV is not a protocol itself. • IPTV is expected to grow at a brisk pace in the coming few years. IP Television Challenges -Content Distribution Rights -Data Transfer Rate Capability -Media Player Compatibility -Channel Changing Time 37 . • • Orientations that are given to a large number of people on a regular basis can be taped for viewing on IPTV. Videos broadcast through IPTV are automatically archived in Real Media format and stored on a Real Server. Problems : • Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) has become a common denominator for systems where television and/or video signals are distributed to subscribers or viewers using a broadband connection over Internet Protocol. 17 .________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) and probably won’t come back at all next semester. This gives you the option of allowing students who could not view the broadcast to watch the same video.
they either need the Set-up Box to convert the IP signal or they cannot receive TV. In addition to that. Why is IPTV ready to take off? There are several reasons explaining why the IPTV market is about to take off: Improved compression solutions : Improvement in MPEG-2 compression. the usage of common open protocols. the IPTV service providers have been able to provide clients with a higher quality of service mostly due to improvements in equipment’s and processing. and newer Windows Media technology (Windows Media 9) a better compression standard than MPEG-2 and even MPEG-4. the integrity of the embedded software in the IPTV client. • Security issue: Security improvement will be necessary to fully secure the IP packets. However. which is shared with other applications.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) -Industry Standards 18. The main areas that introduce security risks are: the standardized infrastructure. The price will certainly continue to fall as volume rises. the cost of the customer premise equipment (CPE) such as the set-up box has dramatically fallen. • Greater willingness by the film studios to agree content deals. the IPTV space still has to face several issues: • No analog channels can be provided: For viewers with regular TVs. and the attraction of pirates to the high value digital content Technical incompatibilities: The real issue is whether video services will continue to be based on open standards. or whether proprietary platforms will succeed. introduction of MPEG-4. Many 38 . • Hardware is improving while costs are falling: Costs for set-top boxes are coming down (from more than $700 to less than half of that price in the past four years. The IPTV space still has to face major issues: In the past few years.
com. Thus operators may recognize the benefits of a single solution. Universal) will be a key successful factor for telcos. Telcos need more content relationships for pay-TV in order to increase their revenues: Partnering with ISPs (Real Networks. com) and media giants (AOL. Movielink. • DRM issues: Service providers have to protect themselves against piracy by using digital rights management (DRM) software to control distribution and use of broadcast TV content. Sony. 39 . But if Microsoft solution becomes widely adopted. CinemaNow. it will certainly avoid the issues of integrating separate systems.________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) operators are cautious about being tied to a sole supplier like Microsoft. Disney.
________________________________________Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) 19 . it truly has some very compelling applications that can help businesses and organizations today. improve the level of communication. create a medium for conferencing. In the mean time. improved collaboration. and even provide entertainment to clientele. and provide a way for employees to advance their careers. IP-TV can deliver it over an existing Ethernet network. Wherever on-demand access for multimedia content exists. IP-TV can deploy multiple channels of active or archived multimedia content to provide training. Moreover . the benefits of IP-TV are very tangible because on demand access to information can increase productivity. 40 .Conclusion : IP-TV is a technology that is just emerging and someday will be as common as a regular television.
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