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CONTENTS Introduction Preliminary survey Notifications Documentation Storage Transport Mixing on site Use of explosives Code of signals Shot firing Competence of shot firers General precautions Electrical shot firing Detonating cord Shot firing using safety fuse Tunnelling and shaft sinking Scaling down faces Misfires Electrical shot firing misfires Safety fuse misfires Records Disposal of explosives References 8C–3 8C–3 8C–3 8C–3 8C–4 8C–4 8C–5 8C–5 8C–5 8C–5 8C–5 8C–5 8C–6 8C–6 8C–6 8C–7 8C–7 8C–7 8C–7 8C–7 8C–8 8C–8 8C–9 8C .2 December 2010 .
Communication can be by post or fax. documents and implementation are satisfactory as this is obviously a highrisk operation. 0276. it is anticipated that the information will enable Sub Contractor’s method statements and risk assessments to be assessed.3 . Section 8A of this manual entitled Demolition and section 15 entitled Quarries associated with construction operations. COSHH and manual handling concerns are lesser risks which need to also be considered. Further guidance on the use of explosives is given in BS 5607:1998 "Code of Practice for safe use of explosives in the construction industry". BS 4142: 1997 entitled. Network Rail. must appoint someone with sufficient knowledge and experience to oversee this work. The legal framework underpinning this section is The Manufacture and Storage of Explosives Regulations 2005 and The Control of Explosives Regulations 1991. storage. a detailed survey should be made of the site and its adjoining areas. Application for licences (over 30Kg) and registration (for Risk Assessment The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 requires that every Employer carries out a risk assessment of the work under his direct control. are given the power to protect the community at large against noise which amounts to a nuisance. The risk assessment is basically a planning process to ensure the safety of employees and other persons who could be affected by the works. It is appropriate that engineers. Therefore. Under the Control of Pollution Act 1974 (see Section 34 – Environment). Where earthworks. Prior notice of the intention to use explosives should be given to all those who may be affected. “Rating industrial noise affecting mixed residential and industrial areas” provides advice on the process. In addition to the explosives certificate the person ordering or taking delivery of explosives must have a "recipient competent authority" which can be obtained from the Explosives Section of the Health and Safety Executive. should be carefully considered. directly connected with the work with explosives. 0323 or 0381. Applying for one of these documents involves the production of the Police explosives acquire and keep certificate. Tel 0151 951 4025.” Code of Practice for Site Investigations” gives guidance on this matter. Complaints are likely to occur were the noise created by blasting operations is more than 10dBA greater than the background noise and therefore knowing what the background noise level is at the receptors from which complaints are likely to arise is important. for example the Principal Contractor. noise. Where more than five persons are employed by the business the assessment must be written down. tunnelling or demolition are involved. including underground and over ground services. This is usually referred to as the "acquire and keep" certificate. have at least the same training as shot-firers. Appointments Before any work involving explosives is planned and carried out the person responsible for the site. An Explosives Certificate may be issued for both acquisition and storage of explosives or for acquisition only. Documentation Under the Control of Explosives Regulations 1991 (COER) as amended by the Manufacture and Storage of Explosives Regulations 2005 (MSER) explosives may be acquired. A check should be made to establish whether such powers exist in areas where explosives are to be used. local authorities. These and the hazards and precautions associated with the work process will all form elements of the written assessment. etc must all be included along with “environmental issues such as vibration. relevant information may be obtained from British Standards 6031. the Explosive Policy Section’s fax number is 0151 951 3891. NB Explosives cannot be purchased without this documentation. the highways authority. The survey must include the taking of photographs particularly where there is already evidence of movement or damage. release of toxic fumes and flying particles. local residents (consultation only). transportation and use of explosives in the construction industry. first time applicants should include a covering letter explaining the situation as this speeds up the administrative process. the business actually carrying out the work with explosives must ensure that Supervisors and Shot firers are competent to carry out their work. but contractors are given the right to apply to local authorities for consent to carry out work by a particular method. granted under Acts of Parliament. Certificates permitting acquisitions only should be obtained where it is intended to use explosives on the day they are delivered to site. electricity and telephone authorities. Explosives are used extensively in the quarrying industry and this section also draws on the Health and Safety Commission’s Approved Code of Practice and Guidance. transfer. etc. keeping. BS 5930:1999 entitled. guarding. the water. Notifications Certain local authorities have special powers of control over the use of explosives. For example. The main risks associated with the use of explosives are an unplanned fire and explosion. Even when a sub contractor will carry out the blasting the Supervisor appointed by the principal contractor must satisfy himself or herself that the planning. maintenance of machinery. The assessment must be suitable and sufficient and it is vital that it is completed by persons who really have adequate knowledge and experience to properly understand and plan the work. Advice on the explosives used in cartridge operated fixing tools is given in BS 4078 Part 1 (also see Section 13 of this manual – Portable Tools). fire and rescue service and airports. Local authorities may specify their own requirements for limiting noise. Renewals will require the production of the old "RCA". saying what steps they propose taking to minimise noise. the police. An Explosive Certificate is not required for the acquisition or storage of cartridge operated tool cartridges which carry the following UN numbers: 0275. The affect on utilities. mixing of explosives. in this respect. Preliminary survey Before any work involving the use of explosives is started.EXPLOSIVES Introduction This subsection aims to give general guidance to Site Managers on the acquisition. 6164 and 6187 respectively. Similarly. Having this information will also inform discussions with the Local Authority’s Environmental Health personnel. transport. or stored only by persons who hold a valid Explosives Certificate issued by the police. The training of both engineers and shot-firers involved in this work is detailed in the Code of Practice for the Safe Use of Explosives in the Construction Industry. The requirement to obtain a RCA comes from the “Placing on the Market and Supervision of Transfers of Explosives Regulations 1993” (POMSTER). The competence and training of Shot firers is dealt with later in the section. Special attention should be given to the character and structure of the geographical strata to ensure that they are not likely to transmit ground vibration to areas where it is likely to cause damage. In addition. storage. gas. December 2010 8C .
but it does mean that a Principal Contractor must check that a Sub-contractor has an Explosives Certificate before providing the Sub-contractor with explosives. 3. The issuing of explosives should be restricted to persons who have been authorised in writing by the Site Manager. There are explicit exemptions from licensing and registration for temporary storage of up to 7Kg of explosives for 24 hours maximum but the persons involved will still be required to comply with the regulations for prevention of fire and explosion. Schedule 2 of MSER gives separation distances depending upon the type of explosive. on successful completion of which they will be awarded a Vocational Training Certificate. HSE for the manufacture and/or storage of more than two tonnes or for the storage of less than two tonnes where prescribed separation distances cannot be met. and the type of construction of the store. It is essential to ensure that detonators are stored separately from other explosives. Further transport of explosives on site must be in a vehicle provided solely for this purpose and be under the control of the shot firer.30Kg or less) are made to the relevant licensing authority. Explosives stores must be kept clean and free from grit. Note: The local authority. This does not prohibit employers from giving explosives to their employees. A separation distance must be maintained between the explosives building and neighbouring inhabited buildings to ensure that risks to those living or working in the area are kept to an acceptable level. the local authority or.4 December 2010 . the Transport of Dangerous Goods (Safety Advisers) Regulations 1999 apply where explosives are carried on the public roadway. the requirement to take all reasonable steps to ensure safe and secure carriage. the requirement for the marking of vehicles and containers. Transport The transport of explosives on public roads is subject to the Carriage of Explosives by Road Regulations 1996. 8C . Rubber Overshoes must be kept in each store and worn by people who are not wearing rubber soled footwear and have to enter the store. Vehicle operators must ensure that drivers have received adequate instruction and training on dangers which may arise. Advice may also be obtained from the manufacturer of the explosives which are to be used. explosives which have already been fitted with detonators must not be carried in any vehicle. The local authority for storage of up to two tonnes of other explosives (primarily fireworks). Detonators should be separated from explosives by at least 1m during carriage. the Health and Safety Executive (Inspectorate of Explosives) See the Approved Code of Practice and Guidance LI 39 entitled. Section 23 of the Explosives Act 1875 requires that anyone storing explosives takes all reasonable precautions to prevent unauthorised access to the explosives. the requirement for vehicles to be suitable. Full details of the information to be recorded by people who acquire or store explosives is contained in Schedule 3 to the Control of Explosives Regulations 1991. action to be taken in an emergency and on their duties under HASAWA and the Carriage of Explosives by Road Regulations. this normally follows a public hearing. it is worth noting that where a site has more than one store it is the total amount stored on site that will be assessed for licensing and not the maximum amount stored in any one store. The local police should be contacted on the security aspects of storing explosives on site. quantity limits for various types of explosives are also imposed. No iron or steel implements should be taken into explosives stores and no naked lights or other means of ignition should be taken within 25m of them. in broad terms these are: 1. In Scotland and Wales the local authority is the Unitary Authority. District Council or London Borough. With certain exceptions a license is required for the storage of explosives. and there must be a formal procedure for accepting delivery of explosives and for checking that they conform to the contents of the advice note. and protect persons in the event of a fire or explosion. for example because of the tight confines of the site and the location of the proposed store with adjoining occupied structures explosives may have to be delivered and used on the same day and in this way storage will be avoided. having regard to the type of explosives (as defined in the Classification and Labelling of Explosives Regulations 1983) and quantity of explosives carried. It naturally follows that the loss or theft of explosives must be reported immediately to the police. The movement of explosives into and out of the store must be recorded. Where it is not possible to achieve safe separation distances. 4. 2. Drivers must attend an approved course. The Police for storage up to two tonnes where any of the explosives to be stored require an Explosives Certificate (mainly blasting explosives and gunpowder). Guidance on the construction of storage facilities and relevant safety matters are available from the licensing authority. this includes the police. Storage The Manufacture and Storage of Explosives Regulations 2005 require the following: Anyone manufacturing or storing explosives must take appropriate measures to prevent fire or explosion. restrictions on the carriage of loads of mixed explosives. in certain areas will be the Fire and Rescue Authority while in others it will be the County Council. “Manufacture and Storage of Explosives Regulations 2005”. which place various duties on operators of vehicles including: 1. 5. specified information about the load to be kept on the vehicle. density of building. Drivers must carry these certificates. HSE may not grant a license for manufacturing of explosives until the local authority has given its assent. will normally bear down on the supplier who should be organised so that he delivers directly to the explosive store on the day when blasting is taking place. which require the safe system of transport to be prepared by a person with training and knowledge of the health and safety implications of carrying explosives. to limit the extent of any fire or explosion should one occur. 2. The storage facilities will be inspected and therefore it is important that the guidance and advice is complied with. the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (Driver Training) Regulations 1996 apply (see p1-42). communication of fire/explosion and to protect people from the effects of fire or explosion. Finally. Subject to exclusions for certain groups and quantities of explosives. In most cases “stores” holding less than two tonnes of explosives are either licensed or registered by the local authority or police. No person may transfer explosives to another person unless he is satisfied that the transferee has an Explosive Certificate certifying him to be a fit person to acquire explosives. These regulations. Finally. except where small quantities of certain types of explosives are carried. the requirement for written.. Detailed guidance on quantities of explosives which may be carried. where a significant amount of explosives are stored. HSE license the larger stores and any manufacturing facility. The vehicle should be clean internally and carry a red flag to indicate the presence of explosives. the construction of vehicles and containers and the documents involved is contained in HSE booklets L91 and L92 (see References). 3.
. depth and diameter. Approved Code of Practice. The preparation of Explosives Rules.Shot holes should be minimum of 3mm larger than the cartridge diameter for normal holes and 13mm for deep holes. gypsum. only sufficient explosives for the work in hand should be drawn from the explosives store. The rules and system of work must include: . such as Explosives Engineers.10 and 4. applicable specifically to that site. Mixing on site Before explosives mixtures are manufactured on site an application for an exemption from the Ammonium Nitrate Materials (High Nitrogen Content) Safety Regulations 2003 is required.7 under the heading "Method Statement" where it refers to the charging plan.The establishment of a suitable exclusion zone . Explosives should be protected from the weather during transit.Part 4. Approved Code of Practice set out the training requirements for Shot Firers. the exemption relates to the detonation resistance requirement. a written system of work. etc. these must be adhered to if safety is to be achieved. where these are pictorial signs they must comply with the Health and Safety (Safety Signs and signals) Regulations 1996. shaft sinking.The use of only wooden rods for charging and stemming shot holes.g. consideration should be given to the following matters: 1.The provision and maintenance of warning signs. position. Use of explosives The Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 2007 . This is a legal requirement in quarries. “Code of practice for the safe use of explosives in the construction industry”. Time delays (detonators) and sequencing will also be described. should be established. The blast design will inform the blast charge schedule.2. which may be detonated by a drill. December 2010 8C .2. General precautions Before explosives are used on any particular site. The responsibilities of persons with specific duties. . with no metal parts that will come into contact with the detonators. Before charging. "No Smoking" restrictions and a ban on the use of CB radios and mobile telephones in the immediate vicinity must be strictly observed. 2. clay. Supervisors. The British Standard (BS 5607) is very useful as it provides detailed guidance in relation to general explosive matters and specifically works involving tunnelling. the charge and stemming. e. When the system of work is being prepared.Cartridges should be inserted into the holes one at a time. underwater blasting and land excavation. Specific details of the quarries requirements can be found in section 15 of this manual. accidental or random compressive action must be prevented. . Visual signs should take the form of clearly painted notices posted on all access roads and sited outside the danger area. Shot firing Competence of shot firers Both BS 5607:1998 and the Quarries Regulations 1999 (revised). .5 . Site Rules and clearly visible Signs affixed at the entrances to the site. type and weights of explosives. a small amount of record keeping is required. both audible and visual signalling systems. (These requirements must be strictly followed in a quarry). In addition. Regulation 30 requires that "suitable and sufficient" steps be taken to ensure that nobody is exposed to risk of injury from the use of explosives in construction work. This can be obtained from the Health and Safety Executive Tel 020 7717 6205. These must be explained and publicised through the site Induction Training. sand.The Shot Firer should make sure that the drilled hole pattern and the charging and stemming conforms to the blasting plan. as these may contain explosives or detonators. including flying material. Matters that could be included in the rules are contained in the Quarries Regulations 1999 (revised). In practice this means that the “explosives engineer” or other competent person will produce a blast design taking into consideration the risks identified in the site survey. The design will also set out the number of shot holes. it should be kept locked until access is required. shot holes should be proved clear by inserting a stemming rod to the bottom. Sentries should be posted with clear instructions as to when they can stop access to the site and when they can allow access. BS 5607 deals with this matter in section 4. (these requirements must be strictly followed in a quarry) they can be found on page 15 of this manual. unguarded dangerous parts of machinery and the rupture of large diameter compressed air hoses. It may be appropriate to carry out a trial blast to confirm how the target responds to the blasting regime being considered. which have a distinctive sound. matches and naked lights within a radius of 10m from explosives and detonators. giving warning of blasting operations. The actual mixing process itself is very simple although the manufacturers advice should be sought as to the provision and use of suitable equipment and the appropriate mixing ratios. and the vehicle carrying the explosives should go directly to the shot holes. exposure to any deliberate.12 of BS 5607. . Audible warnings should consist of a series of readily recognisable signals. . The development of the Blasting Specification. . Guidance on safe transport of explosives on site is contained in sections 4. demolition. should be prepared.The banning of cigarettes. Code of signals Before any blasting takes place. When explosives are brought onto a site where there is no lawful storage facility. Shot firer and Sentries should be detailed in writing. dust from the drilling process.Detonators should be kept in a suitable container. liaison may be necessary between the supplier making the delivery and site management on such matters as emergency arrangements and the provision of safe parking away from obvious sources of ignition and other dangerous goods.The prohibition of drilling into old sockets. the geology of the material to be blasted.As high explosives are initiated by the application of a powerful localised shock.The shot firing circuit must be tested (electrical initiation only) . When explosives are being transported on site. persons undertaking the drilling of shot holes must be protected from the dangers associated with work at edges from which there is a risk of falling. Some further guidance on this subject can be found in BS 5607:1998. based on the safe system of work. and stemming should be completed only with suitable material. (as outlined under "Documentation").The posting and duties of sentries . the exclusion zone to be achieved and any blast protection required. In addition. Appendix 2 of the Quarries Regulations (revised) and their Approved Code of Practice may be used as a source of guidance in this respect. These are normally chained at the coupling to prevent them snaking about in the event of a burst. written in a manner that can be easily understood by the workforce.
Users of electric detonators are recommended to discuss this matter with the manufacturer or supplier of their detonators. which is secured by crimping on to the fuse. On no account must any other form of pricker be used.g. a complete check is made to ensure that no misfires or other hazards exist before the all clear is sounded. The making up of primed charges should normally be undertaken by the shot firer immediately prior to charging. Advice should be sought on the minimum distance permissible between an explosive charge and an overhead electric cable. Shot firing using safety fuse In surface blasting applications. e. Covering the ends of the cord with waterproof tape may prove effective. Detonating cord must not be kinked or knotted. who will advise on transmitters in any area. This testing procedure must be carried out only after all persons have left the shot firing area and the shot firer himself is in the firing position. The removable handle of the exploder must be kept in the shot firer’s possession at all times.The shot firer must also satisfy himself that the danger zone is clear before firing a round and that. Commercial radio transmitters may be potentially dangerous as the wavelengths used are often similar to the overall length of the proposed blasting circuit. repeated stretching or the imposition of a sustained load. Detonating cord should always be protected from friction and heat. Electrical shot firing Electrical detonation allows shot firing from a remote location and also controls the precise instant of firing. nor any shot in a round be fired by fuse less than 1.g. with the risk of serious injury if subjected to impact or shock.A procedure for the disposal of unwanted explosives -. The length of safety fuse must allow the shot firer and assistants ample time to walk to a place of safety after ignition. All legally operating transmitters are licensed by HM Government. However. A non-ferrous pricker must be used for piercing the explosive.25m in length. metal objects. Safety fuse is used in conjunction with a plain detonator. Information is also available from broadcasting authorities. Breakage of cord can also result from excessive tensioning. in very wet conditions). However. the shot firer must test the continuity of the circuit with a suitable. connecting wire and shot firing cables is essential. The possibility of uncontrolled detonation should not necessarily prevent the use of this type of firing method. A primed charge is made up by inserting the detonator into a hole prepared in the primer cartridge. A shot firer must not attempt to ignite more 8C . rails. The power core of detonating fuse is liable to detonate. the general public. the manufacture/supplier must be consulted to ensure that the firing initiation system is appropriate for the circumstances. The need to notify the police. cables etc. thus increasing the safety factor. The following distances may be used for guidance: 11-70kV 20m 132-400kV 61m Premature ignition of electric detonators by electromagnetic energy from radar. or any other sort of danger. Television transmitters are not generally a hazard as they transmit horizontal beams from a high mast.. an erratic timing sequence would result. so care should be exercised when using a stemming rod otherwise the cord may be broken or damaged. In addition. radio and television transmitters is a possibility which should always be considered and this is why CB radios and mobile telephones should be excluded from the shot-firing area. Where it is not possible to achieve safe conditions at the charging place (e. resulting in a misfire in the shot hole which it is serving. after firing. The fuse is inserted into the open end of the detonator. safety fuse may be used where it is considered dangerous to use electrical detonation due to the presence of nearby electrical hazards. which may have been illegally modified to increase their power. The method is generally used as a number of shot holes can be connected together and fired as a group. . These signals must be simple and well publicised. or occupiers of adjacent properties of shot firing times. This is a dangerous occurrence under RIDDOR . Detonators must be firmly secured to the primer cartridge in such a manner as to prevent the detonator or wire becoming detached or damaged. However. No single shots should be fired by fuse less than 1m in length. When detonating near overhead electrical cables. Good connection of the detonator leads. All rock surfaces. Detonating cord Detonating cord is a very reliable initiator and its use for firing large groups of charges is free from some of the drawbacks of electrical shot firing such as current leakage problems. before allowing people to return to the area.6 December 2010 . it will be necessary for priming explosives to be transported to the charging place. adequate investigations should be made and suitable precautions taken. the appointed shot firer must inspect the area of the blast for misfires.The need to have an audible means of giving warning that a shot is about to be fired and to sound the all clear. The handle may be inserted into the exploder immediately prior to firing only and it must be withdrawn immediately after firing. as on detonation a branch line may be severed. the Civil Aviation Authority and British Telecom. This is because accurate timing cannot be achieved and. The correct crimping tool must be used. are potentially dangerous at much larger distances. Beamed transmitters. the use of CB radios on sites should be banned by notices placed at all entry points. the use of sealing compounds may be necessary. otherwise transmission failure may occur. detonating cord must be protected from rain and ground water as moisture penetration can cause transmission failures. who may be able to make the cables dead for a limited period. making it ready to receive the detonator. the use of timing delay detonators in the firing circuit significantly reduces the levels of vibration. .The procedure for notifying the HSE in the event of material being projected beyond the boundary of the site.Rules for dealing with miss-fires . The ends of the detonator leads must remain twisted together until all holes have been charged. Home Office. must be considered as potential sources of stray current and great care must be taken to prevent detonator lead wires coming into contact with them. detonating cord passes down the outside of explosive cartridges to the bottom of the shot hole. In any event. it is essential to ensure that branch lines do not cross over the main line. the use of safety fuse is virtually restricted to single shot-firing operations such as the "popping" of large boulders. The Ministry of Defence may advise on military installations. Such procedures will require additional careful planning. but if conditions are very wet. Modified car transmitters and CB radio transmitters. After the shot has been fired. if used in a group. such as navigational aids and military installations often operate at a high power and. Electrical means of detonation must not be used during storm conditions when there is thunder and lightning in the vicinity. Before attempting to fire a shot electrically. calibrated instrument before he connects the firing cable to the exploder. consultation should take place with the electricity supplier. if the station is in direct line of sight of blasting operations. In use. but portable walkie-talkie equipment and unmodified car transmitters up to 5W in output should not be taken within 10m of any blasting operation. When laying out detonating cord.
recovery of the misfired charge may be attempted by firing shot relieving holes at a distance of at least 300mm from the misfired charge. sloping rock beds in tunnelling are concerned. These can fall and have been known to cause injury and in some cases. and within 9m of the face prior to charging. specifically designed for the purpose. Transport Explosives should be transported to the tunnel face in a clearly marked special mine car. Bare wire connections should not be allowed to dangle in water. it must be remedied. 2. This may initially require gas testing with a stain tube detector or some other suitable testing device to establish the timescale at which fume dilution is such that it is safe for the workforce to return to the face. Only fuse lighters. Remove the handle from the shot firing apparatus and keep it on his person. Before the all clear is given. Any explosives remaining in them at the end of a shift should be returned to the licensed explosives store or magazine. the shot firer must adopt the following procedure:1. Another hazard is from portable electric lighting cables. if the cause of the misfire is December 2010 8C . the shot firer must ensure that all fume has been adequately diluted or has dispersed. which greatly increase its electrical conductivity. This testing must be repeating as the work progresses and written records kept to ensure that the re-entry timescales are appropriate.7 . It is essential that drilling into such sockets be avoided and this is why the careful inspection of the face after a blast is important. water stemming under pressure. A similar procedure should be adopted if a misfire is found after a blast has been fired. These must therefore be removed or stabilised before any work involving an approach to the face. Plastic water stemming. can begin. Dangerous static charges can also build up in compressed air equipment. examine and re-test the shot firing cable and connections for any defect. Reserve stations are not authorised storage places.If material in the vicinity of the misfired hole is not dislodged by the blast. 8.Do not allow persons to approach the shot-firing area or face until he is satisfied that it is safe. Power to drilling and other equipment should also be switched off. where there is a risk from falling material. proper reserve stations should be excavated and fitted with steel doors.Where misfires are encountered after firing a round. the minimum distance from the face to the firing point should be at least 300m. the circuit should be split in half and each half should be tested in turn to locate the fault. Drilling and charging Drilling patterns should adhere to the agreed profile. lined with timber and having top or side lids fitted with padlocks. Any dangerous conditions must be rectified before the shot firer deals with the misfire. the dangers from ricochets and fumes must be assessed. Return to the firing point and make a further attempt to fire the shot. the remainder of the circuit should be connected in series. the fault can be located. nor be allowed to hang against a wet rock face. Sockets left after blasting The most common cause of severe accidents with explosives in tunnelling results from drilling into sockets containing explosives which were not fired in the previous round. Tunnelling and shaft sinking The following additional precautions are relevant to tunnelling and shaft sinking: Storage Where it is necessary to store explosives in the tunnel between blasting operations.than six individual shots in a round. the modified circuit should be fired. No explosives or blasting accessories should be conveyed to the face until all drilling operations for the round to be charged have been completed. 9. Once the faulty detonator has been located. the face or structure is likely to be fractured and weakened. Explosives must not be carried on the driving locomotive itself. After re-testing. In straight tunnel work. Electrical faults and hazards Short-circuiting or current leakage from the circuit to earth is more likely to occur when conditions are wet. except those drilled for cut shots and easers. Dislodged material should then be searched for any undetonated cartridges. The leading wires of the faulty detonator should be connected by string to a suitable marker to facilitate recovery of the primer cartridge after firing. All such tests must be affected from the firing shelter. Safety fuse misfires In the event of a misfire. If the presence of gas is suspected. 3. omitting the faulty detonator. in such cases. 12. A shorter distance may be acceptable where a crosstunnel or special refuge provides protection but. or completely isolated. when explosives and detonators are in the vicinity. Recovered explosive material must be kept in a safe place with detonators being kept separate from explosive materials. Misfires Electrical shot firing misfires If an electrically initiated charge fails to fire. 5. and it is essential that such equipment should be positively earthed. or water gel capsules reduce dust and toxic fumes. Ensure that no one approaches the shot firing area until at least 30 minutes have elapsed. Shot firing Serious shock and flash wave effects can be experienced in tunnel blasting work. If this second attempt to fire is unsuccessful. explosives with non-toxic characteristics should be used in tunnelling operations. The risk of premature explosion during electric storms is particularly high in tunnelling work. the shot firer must follow the following procedure: 1. A cherry picker will provide a useful platform for scaling down and the Shot firer should not allow anyone to approach a face until he is satisfied that the face has been inspected and loose material cleared. At the expiration of the 30-minute period. Disconnect the cable from the shot firing apparatus. The faulty half should then be split in two and again each half should be tested separately by continuing this process. Miners are likely to be working on a bonus system and therefore re-entry may require a strong level of control! Scaling Down Faces All shot-firing operations are likely to leave fragments of loose material on the face. where inclined. After waiting 5 minutes. such lights should be removed to at least 9m from the face when preparing or charging blasts. 11. Ground water from rock fissures often contains mineral salts. Reserve stations should not be nearer than 300m to the tunnel face. 2. If one is found. should be used. 4. tests should be made at the mouth of each shot hole. 7. death. All shot holes should terminate at the same vertical plane. If possible. 10. 6 Advise his superviser of the situation. inspect the safety detonation fuse and.
In addition. or water. Disposal of explosives The Manufacture and Storage of Explosives Regulations 2005 require that explosives are disposed of safely and in a designated area. Records of misfires Records should be kept of any misfires. All empty explosive boxes must be thoroughly examined by the shot firer. This is entitled. Load and fire the relieving hole in the normal way.clearly evident. or apparently deteriorated explosives. rectify the fault and make a second attempt to fire the round. and burned. After either of these procedures has been followed. a joint publication by the HSE and The Explosives Industry Group (EGI) has been produced. the shot firer may adopt one of the following procedures: (a) Remove the stemming by compressed air. using a non-ferrous or rubber blowpipe.8 December 2010 . explosives should be returned to manufacturers or suppliers although substances such as gelignite can be burned Manufacturers guidance is essential in this respect and the persons involved should avoid the fumes as they produce severe headaches. Guidance is also contained in booklet HS (G) 36 Disposal of explosives waste and the decontamination of explosives plant. 3. a most careful search must be made of the debris for detonators and unexploded explosives. Therefore extreme care must be taken in the disposal of unwanted. “Guidance for the safe disposal of explosives”. Misfires are also reportable under the RIDDOR Regulations 1995 as a dangerous occurrence. taken to a safe place. Insert a primer cartridge into the hole. in the case of a Quarry this should be in accordance with Regulation 28 of the Quarries Regulations 1999. 8C . Information about this publication can be found on the EIG web-site. or (b) Drill a relieving hole at least 300mm away from the misfired charge. If this second attempt to fire is unsuccessful. taking care to ensure that this hole is drilled parallel to the misfired hole. at least 50m from the store or magazine. re-stem and fire. In general.
Training A list of training establishments offering courses on the use of explosives is given in BS 5607 Appendix B.uk HSE Guidance booklets: HS (G) 36 Disposal of explosives waste and the decontamination of explosives plant HSE/EIG Guidance for the Safe Disposal of Explosives HS (G) 114 Conditions for the authorisation of explosives in Great Britain HS(R) 17 A guide to the Classification and Labelling of Explosives Regulations 1983 HS(R) 27 A guide to the Dangerous Substances in Harbour Areas Regulations 1987 L10 A guide to the Control of Explosives Regulations 1991 L13 A guide to the Packaging of Explosives for Carriage Regulations 1991 L91 Suitability of vehicles and containers and limits on quantities for the carriage of explosives. c/o BTB Mailflight Ltd.uk/explosives/index.9 . Approved Code of Practice. CIS 45 (revised) Establishing exclusion zones when using explosives in demolition. HSE Leaflets: IND (G) 115 An introduction to the Control of Explosives Regulations..gov. Hudson Road. Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations (RIDDOR) 1995 Ammonium Nitrate Materials (High Nitrogen Content) Regulations 2003 Manufacture and Storage of Explosives Regulations 2005 Guidance HSE Website hse.htm EIG web-site www.eig.org. Bedford MK41 0QB Tel: 0870 078 4400 Fax: 0870 078 4401 e-mail sales@cip-books. (Metrication and Miscellaneous Amendment) Regulations 1984 Health and Safety (Safety Signs and Signals) Regulations 1996 Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 Manufacture and storage of explosives regulations 2005 Packaging of Explosives for Carriage Regulations 1991 Placing on the Market and Supervision of Transfers of Explosives Regulations 1993 Quarries (Explosives) Regulations 1999 Reporting of Injuries. All of the above reference material is available from: Construction Industry Publications Ltd.com Approved Codes of Practice Dangerous substances in harbour areas Health and safety in quarries. L92 Approved requirements for the construction of vehicles for the carriage of explosives by road.REFERENCES Legislation Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (Driver Training) Regulations 1996 Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (Safety Adviser) Regulations 1999 Carriage of Explosives by Road Regulations 1996 Chemicals (Hazard Information and Packaging for Supply) Regulations 1994 Classification and Labelling of Explosives Regulations 1983 Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 2007 Control of Explosives Regulations 1991 Control of Pollution Act 1974 Sections 60 & 61 (neighbourhood noise) Dangerous Substances in Harbour Areas Regulations 1987 Explosives Act 1875 and 1923 (this is gradually being replaced by more modern legislation) Explosives Act 1875 etc. 2B Viking Industrial Estate. L118 Manufacture and Storage of Explosives Regulations 2005 L139 Suitability of vehicles and containers and limits on quantities for the carriage of explosives (HSE booklet L91) Approved Requirements for the construction of vehicles intended for the carriage of explosives by road (HSE booklet L92) British Standards BS 5607 BS 5930 BS 4142 BS 6031 BS 6164 BS 6187 BS 6657 Code of practice for the safe use of explosives in the construction industry Code of Practice for Site Investigations Rating Industrial Noise Affecting Mixed Residential and Industrial Areas Code of practice for earthworks Code of practice for safety in tunnelling in the construction industry Code of practice for demolition Guide to the inadvertent initiation of electro explosive devices by radio frequency radiation December 2010 8C .
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