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**The 1n4001 and 1n4003 ar e speci f i c r ect i f i er di odes?
**

Fi gur e 1

Sol ut i on

The peak out pu t vol t age f or ci r cui t (a) i s

I

P( out)

= I

P( IN)

− 0 .7 I = 5I −0.7 I = 4 .30 I

w her e I

P( out)

= peak out put vol t age

I

P( IN)

=peak i nput vol t age

The peak out pu t vol t age f or ci r cui t (b) i s

I

P( out)

= I

P( ìn)

− 0 .7 I = 100I − 0.7 I = 9 9.3 I

The out pu t vol t age w avef or ms ar e show n i n Fi gur e 2. Not e t hat t he bar r i er pot ent i al coul d have

been negl ect ed i n ci r cui t (b) w i t h ver y l i t t l e er r or (0.7 per cent ); but , i f i t i s negl ect ed i n ci r cui t (a), a

si gni f i cant er r or r esul t s (14 per cen t ).

Fi gur e 2 out put vol t ages f or t he ci r cui t s i n f i gur e 2. Obvi ousl y, t hey ar e not show n on t he same scal e.

2. Det er mi ne t h e peak val ue of t he out put vol t age f or f i gur e 3 i f t he t ur ns r at i o i s 0.5.

Fi gur e 3

Sol ut i on

I

P( p¡ì)

= I

P( ìn)

= 1 56 I

The peak secondar y vol t age i s ( I

P( scc) )

,

I

P( scc)

= nI

P( p¡ì)

= 0.5( 156 I) = 78 I

The r ect i f i ed peak out put vol t age i s

I

P( out)

= I

P( scc)

− 0.7 I = 78 I −0 .7I = 7 7.3 I

Wher e I

P( scc)

i s t he i nput t o t he r ect i f i er .

3. (a) Det er mi ne t h e peak val ue of t he out put vol t age f or f i gur e 4 i f n=2 and I

P( ìn)

= 312 I ?

(b) What i s t he PIV acr oss t he di ode?

(c) Descr i be t he out put vol t age i f t he di ode i s t ur ned ar ound.

Fi gur e 4

Sol ut i on

I

P( p¡ì)

= I

P( ìn)

= 31 2I

a) The peak secondar y vol t age i s

I

P( scc)

= nI

P( p¡ì)

= 2 ( 312 I) = 6 24 I

The r ect i f i ed peak out put vol t age i s

I

P( out)

= I

P( scc)

− 0.7 I = 6 24 I − 0.7I = 623.3 I

Wher e I

P( scc)

i s t he i nput t o t he r ect i f i er .

b) PIV = I

P( scc)

= 624 V

c) The out pu t vol t age i f t he di ode i s t ur ned ar ound w i ll give negat i ve hal f -cycl es r at h er t han

posi t i ve hal f cycl es

4. (a) show t he vol t age w avef or ms acr oss each hal f of t he secondar y w i ndi ng and acr oss RL w hen a

100V peak si ne w ave i s appli ed t o t he pr i mar y w i ndi ng i n f i gur e 5

Fi gur e 5

Sol ut i on

(a) t he t r ansf or mer t ur ns r at i o n= 0.5. The t ot al peak secondar y vol t age i s

I

P( scc)

= nI

P( p¡ì)

= 0.5( 100 I) = 50 I

Ther e i s a 25 V peak acr oss each hal f of t he secondar y w i t h r espect t o gr ound. The out put l oad

vol t age has a peak val ue of 25 V, l ess t he 0. 7 V dr op acr oss t he di ode. The w avef or ms ar e show n i n

Fi gur e 6

Fi gur e 6

(b) Each di ode must have a mi ni mum PIV r at i ng of

PIV = 2I

P( out)

+ 0 .7 I = 2(24.3 V) + 0.7 V = 49.3 V

5. Det er mi ne t h e peak out put vol t age f or t he br i dge r ect i f i er i n f i gur e 7. Assumi ng t he pr act i cal

model , w hat PI V r at i ng i s r equi r ed f or t he di odes? The t r ansf or mer i s speci f i ed t o have a 12 V

r ms secondar y vol t age f or t he st andar d 110 V acr oss t he pr i mar y.

Sol ut i on

Fi gur e 7

The peak out pu t vol t age (t aki ng i nt o account t he t w o di ode dr ops) i s

I

P( scc)

= 1.414 I

¡ms

= = 1 .41 4( 1 2 I) ≅ 1 7 I

I

P( out)

= I

P( scc)

− 1 .4 I = 17 I − 1.4I = 15.6 I

The PIV r at i ng f or each di ode i s

PIV = I

P( out)

+ 0.7 I = 15.6 V + 0.7 V = 16.3 V

6. Descr i be t he out put vol t age w avef or m f or t h e di ode l imi t er i n Fi gur e 8

Fi gur e 8

Sol ut i on

The ci r cui t i s a posi t i ve l i mi t er . Use t he vol t age-di vi d er f or mul a t o det er mi ne t he bi as vol t age.

I

BIAS

= |

R

3

R

2

+ R

3

1 I

S0PPL¥

= |

220 Ω

100 Ω+ 220Ω

11 2 I = 8 .25 I

The out pu t w avef or m i s show n i n Fi gur e 9. The posi t i ve par t of t he out put vol t age w avef or m i s

l i mi t ed t o I

BIAS

+ 0 .7 I.

Fi gur e 9.

7. What w oul d you expect t o see di spl ayed on an osci l l oscope connect ed acr oss R

L

i n t he l i mi t er

show n i n Fi gur e 10.

Fi gur e 10

Sol ut i on

The di ode i s f or w ar d bi ased and conduct s w hen t he i nput vol t age goes bel ow -0. 7 V. so, f or t he

negat i ve l i mi t er , det er mi ne t he peak out put vol t age acr oss RL by t he f ol l ow i ng equat i ons:

I

p( out)

= |

R

L

R

1

+ R

L

1 I

p( ìn)

= |

1 .0 kΩ

1 .1 kΩ

1 1 0 I = 9 .09 I

The scop e w i l l displ ay an out put w avef or m as show n i n f i gur e 11.

Fi gur e 11 out put vol t age w avef or m f or f i gur e 10

8. What i s t he out put vol t age t hat you w oul d expect t o o bser ve acr oss RL i n t he cl ampi ng ci r cui t of

Fi gur e 12? Assume t hat RC i s l ar ge enough t o pr event si gni f i cant capaci t or di schar ge.

Fi gur e 12

Sol ut i on

Ideal l y, a negat i ve dc val ue eq ual t o t he i nput peak l ess t he di ode dr op i s i nser t ed by t h e cl ampi ng

ci r cui t .

I

ÐC

≅ −(I

p( ìn)

− 0 .7 I) = ( 2 4I 0.7 I) = −2 3.3 I

Act ual l y, t he capaci t or w i l l di schar ge sl i ght l y bet w een peaks, and, as a r esul t , t he out put vol t age w i l l

have an aver age val ue of sl i ght l y l ess t han t hat cal cul at ed above.

The out pu t w avef or m goes t o appr oxi mat el y +0.7 V, as show n i n f i gur e 11.

Fi gur e 13. Out put w avef or m acr oss R

L

f or f i gur e 12

( ) 3.7 = 77. = ( ) = 0.Figure 3 Solution ( ) = ( ) = 156 The peak secondary voltage is ( ( ( ) )) . = 312 ? Figure 4 Solution ( ) = ( ) = 312 a) The peak secondary voltage is ( ) = ( ) = 2(312 ) = 624 . (a) Determine the peak value of the output voltage for figure 4 if n=2 and (b) What is the PIV across the diode? (c) Describe the output voltage if the diode is turned around.7 = 78 − 0.3 Where ( ) is the input to the rectifier.5(156 ) = 78 The rectified peak output voltage is ( ) = ( ) − 0.

7 = 623. b) PIV = ( ) = 624 V c) The output voltage if the diode is turned around will give negative half-cycles rather than positive half cycles 4. (a) show the voltage waveforms across each half of the secondary winding and across RL when a 100V peak sine wave is applied to the primary winding in figure 5 Figure 5 Solution (a) the transformer turns ratio n= 0.7 = 624 − 0.5. less the 0.The rectified peak output voltage is ( ) = ( ) − 0. The waveforms are shown in Figure 6 Figure 6 . The output load voltage has a peak value of 25 V.3 Where ( ) is the input to the rectifier. The total peak secondary voltage is ( ) = ( ) = 0.5(100 ) = 50 There is a 25 V peak across each half of the secondary with respect to ground.7 V drop across the diode.

(b) Each diode must have a minimum PIV rating of PIV = 2 ( ) + 0.4 = 17 − 1.6 V + 0. what PIV rating is required for the diodes? The transformer is specified to have a 12 V rms secondary voltage for the standard 110 V across the primary. Assuming the practical model.3 V 5.414(12 ) ≅ 17 − 1.4 = 15.3 V 6.7 = 15.7 V = 16. Describe the output voltage waveform for the diode limiter in Figure 8 Figure 8 .7 = 2(24.7 V = 49.3 V) + 0. Determine the peak output voltage for the bridge rectifier in figure 7.6 = The PIV rating for each diode is PIV = ( ) + 0.414 ( ) = = 1. Solution Figure 7 The peak output voltage (taking into account the two diode drops) is ( ( ) ) = 1.

for the negative limiter. The positive part of the output voltage waveform is limited to + 0.7 V. Figure 10 Solution The diode is forward biased and conducts when the input voltage goes below -0. = = 220 Ω 12 100 Ω + 220Ω = 8.Solution The circuit is a positive limiter. Use the voltage-divider formula to determine the bias voltage. Figure 11 output voltage waveform for figure 10 . 7.09 ( ) = ( ) = + 1. determine the peak output voltage across RL by the following equations: 1.7 .0 Ω 10 = 9.1 Ω The scope will display an output waveform as shown in figure 11. Figure 9.25 + The output waveform is shown in Figure 9. What would you expect to see displayed on an oscilloscope connected across RL in the limiter shown in Figure 10. so.

a negative dc value equal to the input peak less the diode drop is inserted by the clamping circuit. Figure 12 Solution Ideally.7 = (24 0. The output waveform goes to approximately +0.7 V. Output waveform across RL for figure 12 .8.3 Actually. and. ≅− ( ) − 0. Figure 13. What is the output voltage that you would expect to observe across RL in the clamping circuit of Figure 12? Assume that RC is large enough to prevent significant capacitor discharge.7 ) = −23. as a result. the output voltage will have an average value of slightly less than that calculated above. as shown in figure 11. the capacitor will discharge slightly between peaks.

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