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BEGIN

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CHEMICAL FORMULA
AND
EQUATION

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RELATIVE ATOMIC MASS
Relative atomic mass (Ar)of an element:

the average mass of one atom of the element when


compared with 1/12 of the mass of one atom of carbon-12

Relative atomic mass of an element=


The average mass of one atom of an element
1/12 x the mass of an atom of carbon-12

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ELATIVE MOLECULAR MA
Relative molecular mass,Mr of a molecule is :

the average mass of the molecule when compared with 1/12 of


the mass of one atom of carbon-12

Relative molecular mass of a molecule=


The average mass of one atom of one molecule
1/12 x the mass of an atom of carbon-12

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ELATIVE MOLECULAR MA
Molecular substance Relative molecular mass

Hydrogen gas,H2 2 x Ar of H = 2X1 =2


Ammonia,NH3 Ar of N + 3(Ar of H) =
14+3(1)=17

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ELATIVE FORMULA MASS
Ionic substance Relative formula mass
Sodium Ar of Na + Ar of Cl =
chloride,NaCl 23+35.5=58.5
Hydrated Ar og Mg + Ar of S + 4(Ar of
magnesium O) +14(Ar of H)+7(Ar of
sulphate, O)=24+32+4(16)+14(1)+7(1
MgSO4.7H2O 6)=246

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THE MOLE
AND
THE
NUMBER OF
PARTICLES

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LETS RECALL
BACK!!
Click to edit Master text styles
Second level
● Third level

● Fourth level

● Fifth level

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mole
A mole is an amount of
substance that contains as
many particles as the
number of atom in exactly
12g of carbon-12

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mole
1 dozen cookies = 12 cookies
1 mole of cookies = 6.02 X
1023 cookies
1 dozen cars = 12 cars
1 mole of cars = 6.02 X 1023
cars
1 dozen Al atoms = 12 Al
atoms
1 mole of Al atoms = 6.02 X
1023 atoms
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VOGADRO CONSTANT,NA
Defined as the number of
particles in one mole of a
substance

1 mole of substance
contains 6.02x1023 particles

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AMEDO AVOGADRO

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EXAMPLE
A closed glass bottle contains
0.5mol of oxygen gas, O2

a)how many oxygen molecules, O2


are there in the bottle?

b)how many oxygen atoms are


there in the botlle?
(avogadro constant:6.02 x 10 23)

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SOLUTION
a) the number of oxygen molecules, O2
in 0.5 mol of gas
= 0.5 mol X 6.02 X10 23 mol-1
=3.01 x 10 23

a) Each oxygen molecule, O2 consists of


two oxygen atoms. Therefore, the
number of oxygen atoms in 0.5 mol of
gas
=the number of oxygen molecules x 2
=3.01 x 10 23 x 2
=6.02 x 10 23
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EXAMPLE
Find the number of moles of molecules in
a sample containing 9.03 x 10 23
molecules of carbon dioxide, CO2.
(avogadro constant:6.02 x 10 23

Solution:
The number of moles of 9.03 x 10 23
carbon dioxide, CO2 molecules
= 9.03 x 10 23
6.02 x 10 23 mol -1
= 1.5 mol

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MOLE vs NA
X NA

No. of moles No. of particles

÷NA

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MOLAR MASS
Molar mass of a substance is
defined as the mass of one mole of
the substance

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MOLAR MASS
Element Relative mass Mass of 1 Molar mass
mol
Helium 4 4g 4gmol-1
Sodium 23 23g 23gmol-1
Water,H2O 2(1)+16=18 18g 18gmol-1
Ammonia,NH3 14+3(1)=17 17g 17gmol-1
Sodium 23+35.5=58.5 58.5g 58.5gmol-1
Chloride,NaCl

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NO.OF MOLES vs
MASS OF A SUBSTANCES
X Molar
Mass

No. of moles Mass (g)

÷Molar Mass

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VOLUME OF GAS
The molar volume of any gas
is :
-STP (same temperature
and pressure)22.4dm3
-room condition is 24dm3

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VOLUME OF GAS

X molar volume

Volume of gas
No. of moles
(dm3)

÷molar
volume

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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN:
X NA X Molar
mass

No.of No.of Mass(g)


particles moles

÷Molar
÷N mass
A
X ÷
Molar Molar
volum volum
e e
Volume of
gas (dm3)

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CHEMICAL FORMULA
Chemical formula is a
representation of a chemical
substance using letters for
atoms and subscript numbers
to show the numbers of each
type of atoms that are present
in the substance

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CHEMICAL FORMULA
The letter ‘H’ The subscript 2
shows the shows that there
symbol of are two hydrogen
hydrogen H2 atoms in a
atom molecule of
hydrogen gas, H2
The letter ‘H’
shows the There is no
symbol of the subscript here.this
elements H2 means there is only
1 oxygen atom
O
The subscript 2
atom in a water
molecule
shows the
number of
hydrogen atomss

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EMPIRICAL FORMULA
The empirical formula of a compound
gives the simplest whole number ratio
of atoms of each element in the
compound

The example:
C6H12O6
6:12:6
1:2:1 -simplified

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EMPIRICAL FORMULA
Example :

A sample of aluminium oxide


contains 1.08g of aluminium
oxide contains 1.08g of
aluminium and 0.96g of oxygen.
What is the empirical formula of
this compound? (RAM:O, 16;Al,27)

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EMPIRICAL FORMULA
Element Al O

Mass of element (g) 1.08 0.96

Number of moles 1.08/27 0.96/16


=0.04 =0.06

Ratio of moles 0.04/0.04 0.06/0.04


=1 =1.5

Simplest ratio of 2 3
moles

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MOLECULAR FORMULA
Molecular formula of a compound gives
us the actual number of atoms of each
element that are present in a molecule
of a compound

MOLECULAR FORMULA=(EMPIRICAL
FORMULA)n

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MOLECULAR FORMULA
Compoun Empirical Molecular n
d formula formula

Water H2O (H2O)1=H2O 1


Ethene CH2 (CH2)2=C2H42

Glucose CH2O (CH20)6=C6H 6


12O6

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IONIC FORMULA
Cation Formula Anion Formula

Sodium ion Na+ Cloride ion Cl-


Potassium ion K+ Bromide ion Br-
Zinc ion Zn2+ Iodide ion I-
Magnesium ion Mg2+ Oxide ion O2-
Calcium ion Ca2+ Hydroxide OH-
ion
Iron(II) ion Fe2+ Sulphate ion SO42-

Iron (III) ion Fe3+ Carbonate CO32-


ion
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Copper (II) ion Cu2+ Nitrate ion NO3-
IONIC FORMULA
Name of compound: Zinc
Bromide
Cation: Anion:
Zinc ion. Zn2+ Bromide ion, Br-
Positive charges:
1x(+2)=+2
Negative charges:2x(-
1)=-2
Total charges:
=0
Formula of compound:
ZnBr2

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MING OF CHEMICAL COMPOUN

Cation Anion Name of ionic


compound
Sodium Chloride ion Sodium chloride
ion
Calcium Carbonate Calcium carbonate
ion ion
Barium ionSulphate ion Barium sulphate

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MING OF CHEMICAL COMPOUN
Fe2+
ion

Iron (II) choride


Iron(III) chloride

Fe3+
ion

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MING OF CHEMICAL COMPOUN

‘ide’ is
HCl-Hydrogen added to
chloride the name
HBr-Hydrogen of the
bromide second
element

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MING OF CHEMICAL COMPOUN

CO – Carbon
monoxide
CO2-Carbon dioxide
SO3-Sulphur trioxide

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CHEMICAL EQUATION
Chemical equation is
description of a chemical
reaction
C (s) + O2(g) CO2(g)

Reactan Product
t
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CHEMICAL EQUATION

C (s) + O2(g) CO2(g)


to
give carbo
solid reacts
with oxyge n
carbo
n gas dioxid
n
e gas

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RITING CHEMICAL EQUATIO
Chemical equation must be :
• Balanced

•Always be the same number of

atoms of each element on each


side of the equation

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RITING CHEMICAL EQUATIO
1

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