ABSTRACT

With the advent of technology a lot of equipment uses electromagnetic signals for their operation. The devices intentionally or unintentionally interfere with the operation of other circuits and effect their performance. For the proper functioning of the devices this interference needs to be avoided at least suppressed. The various electronic/electrical systems are forced to work in the close proximity. So the effects of EMI are highly influencing the circuit operations. Our project deals with the electromagnetic interference and its nature. Also the methods of suppressing EMI. We laid emphasis on shielding method of suppressing EMI. At high frequency shielding is effective method. The shield must completely enclose the electronics and must seams, slots or cables. The shielding effectiveness of different metals like Copper, Aluminum for various thicknesses and results are dealt with in the project. The shielding effectiveness is estimated up to 10MHz. have no penetrations such as holes,

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure No.

Name of the figure

Page No.

1.1

Noise path

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3.1

Total loss is the sum of absorption loss and reflection loss

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3.2

Absorption Loss of different materials

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4.1

Shielding Effectiveness of Aluminium for variable thickness

26

4.2

Shielding Effectiveness of Copper for variable thickness

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CHAPTER- 1

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INTRODUCTION In the environment the electromagnetic interference (EMI) in the equipment is originated by physical phenomenon. For example any time varying voltage source or current source generates electromagnetic waves which propagate in space with time.EMI is caused by undesirable radiated electromagnetic fields or conducted voltages and currents. that carries rapidly changing electrical currents such as an electrical circuit. radiation. EMI is somewhat arbitrarily defined to cover the frequency spectrum from 10Hz to 100GHz.1 Examples of source. filtering. The coupling path may involve one or more of the following coupling mechanisms like conduction. To eliminate EMI we go for Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) which includes several methods like shielding. and victim 3 . 1.EMI can be generated from power transients. Depending on the environment a wide variety of interferences can be encountered. Hence it is required to isolate or shield high powered sources and also equipment of high sensitivity. For radiated emission a lower frequent limit of 10 KHz is often used. Table 1. coupling path. capacitive. The disturbance may be any object. grounding. radio frequency interference. electro static discharge and power line electric and magnetic fields. All electric and electronic devices or installations influence each other when connected or close to each other. On the other hand these signals will be received by any other circuit or system. This will intercept it and causes interference. artificial or natural. The electromagnetic environment will be variable from place to place.1 Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Electromagnetic interference is a disturbance that affects an electrical circuit due to either electromagnetic conduction or electromagnetic radiation emitted from an external source. Electromagnetic interference can cause disturbance and distortion in signals namely in distribution of line carrier high speed VLSI circuits. The interference is produced by a source emitter and is detected by the susceptible victim via a coupling path. inductor. This is how useful signals are received by receiving antenna. although EMI can exist in many equipment and systems below this frequency. Most of the systems require at least some shielding for proper operation.

transmission lines and substations.1. a) Continuous interference Continuous. from very low frequencies up to around 20 KHz. Frequencies up to 100 KHz may sometimes be classified as Audio. Audio Frequency. interference arises where the source regularly emits a given range of frequencies.1. nearby power supply wiring. and as a whole is sometimes referred to as "DC to daylight".1 Types of EMI Electromagnetic interference is divides into several categories according to the source and signal characteristics.1 Noise path 1. 4 . This type is naturally divided into sub-categories according to frequency range. Sources include: o Mains hum from power supply units. or Continuous Wave (CW).Source Lightening RF transmitter High speed data trace Coupling path cables Antennas Power lines Victim IC RF receiver High speed data trace EMI can be transmitted by the following path Fig.

Sources include: o o • Wireless and Radio Frequency Transmissions Television and Radio Receiver Broadband noise may be spread across parts of either or both frequency ranges. from 20 KHz to a limit which constantly increases as technology pushes it higher. with no particular frequency attentuated.• Radio Frequency Interference. Sources divide broadly into isolated and repetitive events. as a result of two charged objects coming into close proximity or even contact. 1. include: o o Electric Motors. o • Sources of repetitive EMP events. Gasoline engine ignition systems. including inductive loads such as relays. or electric motors. RFI. sometimes as regular pulse trains.1. solenoids.1.1. although it often excites a relatively narrow-band damped sine wave response in the victim. b) Pulse or transient interference Electromagnetic Pulse(EMP) also sometimes called Transient disturbance. • Sources of isolated EMP events include: o Switching action of electrical circuitry.2 TYPES OF EMI based on the spectrum division 5 . Sources include: o o Solar Activity Continuously operating spark gaps such as arc welders 1. Electrostatic Discharge (ESD). arises where the source emits a short-duration pulse of energy. The energy is usually broadband by nature.

Make the coupling path as in efficient as possible. EMI can be either narrowband or broadband interference. They may also result from galactic and solar noise. pulse generators and intermittent ground connections. The magnitude of narrow band radiated emissions is usually expressed in terms of volts per meter (v/m). 1. thermostats. 1. lightening electromagnetic pulses and by radio frequency pulses associated with electrostatic discharge. We can prevent the EMI by three ways • • • Suppress the emission at its source. Broadband signals are further divided into random and impulse sources. a) Narrowband emissions A narrow band signal occupies a very small portion of the radio spectrum. voltage regulators. continuous or intermittent in occurrence. motor speed controls. thyratron circuits.2. computers. Examples include unintentional emissions from communication and radar transmitters electric switch contacts. The magnitude of broadband radiated emissions is meter per MHz (V/m/MHz). FM & SSB fall into this category. b) Broadband emissions A broadband signal may spread its energy across hundred of megahertz or more.2. Spurious emissions such as harmonic outputs of narrow band communication transmitters.1.3 Effects of EMI 6 . These may be transient. Make the receptor less susceptible to the emission. power line hum. signal generators. communication transmitters such as single channel AM.EMI can be classified by its spectrum distribution.Such signals are usually continuous sine wave and may be continuous or intermittent in occurrence. This type of signal is composed of narrow pulses having relatively short rise and fall times.1. 1.1. local oscillators. test equipment and many other man made sources are narrow band emissions.

its electronic design. For high levels of electrical fast transients general mal function observed in computers and printers is “system hanging”.2 Electromagnetic Compatibility Electromagnetic compatibility means that a device is compatible with its electromagnetic environment and it does not emit levels of electromagnetic energy that cause EMI in other devices in the vicinity. and the type of interference source. and interconnect to software control. 1. PCB. A malfunction occurs because of this EMI. such as from chip level integrated design.Most of the electronic instruments get affected by the electromagnetic interference. Display shaking. • Susceptibility or immunity refers to the correct operation of electrical equipment. depending on the particular system. In order for correct operation of equipment EMC pursues two different kinds of issues • Emission issues are related to unwanted generation of EM energy by some source and the counter measures to be taken to reduce such generation and to avoid the escape of any remaining energies in to the external environment. propagation and reception of electromagnetic energy with reference to the unwanted effects that such energy may induce. Computer system and monitors generally get affected by electrical fast Transients. module or enclosure. Paper not advancing. referred to as victim. The different forms of EM energy that can cause EMI are conduction. EMC can be achieved from different design levels. in the presence of unplanned EM disturbances.In monitors and printers some common EMI radiation susceptibility problems are • • • Display memory corruption. 7 . radiation and electrostatic discharge (ESD). Different design techniques are developed for various EMI problems. It is a branch of electrical sciences which studies unintentional generation. In addition to that wire buses cables and electronic of the I/O accessories plays an important role in finding EMI environment. where monitors manifest “display jumping”.

It does not cause interference with itself. It does not cause interference with other system. 2.1 Need for EMC The purpose of electromagnetic compatibility is to keep all the side effects caused by interference under reasonable Control. Maintaining the development and product announcement schedule. 1. The primary advantages of EMC are 1. 2. Minimizing the additional cost required by suppression elements or redesign in order to satisfy the regulatory requirements.2. It is also needed for the reduction in the unintentional generation of electromagnetic energy. It is not susceptible to emissions from other systems.A system is said to be electromagnetically compatible with its environment if it satisfies three criteria 1. 3. 8 . EMC is needed for the correct operation of different electrical and electronic equipment which involve electromagnetic phenomena in their operation in the same environment. EMC designates all the existing and future techniques and technologies for. 3. Ensuring that the product will operate satisfactorily in the presence of inevitable extreme noise sources at its location.

motors and generators. engines and igniters.1 Inherent EMI Inherent interference is noise within a piece of electronic equipment. ship. Functional EMI 1. however.2 Man-Made EMI Man-made EMI is produced by a number of different classes of electrical and electronic equipment. power lines. rain particles. such as snow storms. It can cause problems with RF communications and older data links between shore.) 1.3 Natural EMI Natural interference is caused by natural events. (This noise is usually noticed as the background noise heard in a radio receiver when it is tuned to a frequency between stations. This type of interference is commonly called static or atmospheric noise. such as electrical storms. rain particles and solar and interstellar radiation. They include.1. caused by thermal agitation of electrons flowing through circuit resistance. and air.EMI can be caused by natural phenomena. Inherent EMI 2. Natural EMI 4. These devices can cause severe EMI. but are not limited to: transmitters. The discussion of EMI will be directed to the recognition and elimination of the manmade EMI that you are apt to encounter ashore or afloat.3 Sources of EMI They can be broadly classified into four categories 1. Man Made EMI 3. and solar radiation.3. welders. 1.3. lighting. which can degrade the operation of shipboard or shore based data processing equipment.3. it does not cause many problems with modern digital data equipment. 9 . and electrical controllers. electrical storms.

This is commonly along the power supply lines. high voltages can occur. which may be AC can therefore induce harmful currents in electronics.4. b) Magnetic fields There is another form of electromagnetic radiation. If the current is charging or the conductor is moving or vibrating.3.4.The large currents going into the motors. c) Conducted interference The other way that interference can get in to the electronics is by conduction through the wires that the electronics uses. 1. but can be through any of the electronic signal wires also. then the currents an be induced in the conductors situated near by. conducted interference 1. 10 . 1. radio frequency interference. which can interfere with the radio control of the robot as well as inducing harmful voltages in any other electronics situated closed by.3.3. a) Electric fields When a current flowing in a conductor is suddenly switched off.1. Electrical arcs such as these emit electromagnetic radiation in the form of an electric field across a wide band of the spectrum. which if large enough can cause sparking.4. magnetic fields. The functional sources of the EMI can be originated from the sources like electric fields.3.4 Functional EMI EMI can originate from any source designed to generate electromagnetic energy and which may create interference as a normal part of its operation. EMI can also be generated from power transients. Electrostatic discharge and power line electric and magnetic fields. the magnetic field which is produced by high currents flowing in conductors.

1 Filtering The noise (EMI) needs to be eliminated while not eliminating the desired signals. 2. Grounding 3. Methods to suppress EMI There are several methods to suppress electromagnetic interference. Most EMI filters include components to suppress both common and differential mode interference.1. 3 Use special shielding techniques. It may be used to suppress the interference generated by the device itself as well as to suppress the interference generated by other equipment to improve the immunity of a device to the EMI signals present within its electromagnetic environment. An EMI filter is a passive electronic device used to suppress conducted interference present on any power or signal line. Filters can also be designed with added devices to provide transient voltage and surge protection as well as battery backup. Most filters are 11 . The most common methods to suppress EMI are 1. Filtering 2. Move components on the printed circuit board (PCB). So they will have less of an effect on other devices. That means filter looks like a much higher resistance to higher frequency signals. Some of them are 1. 2. Shielding 2. This high impedance attenuates or reduced the strength of these signals.CHAPTER – 2 METHODS TO SUPRESS EMI 2. Change circuit components-less noisy components. This is generally solved by using a filter to select out the offending noise and allow through the good signals.1 Working of EMI filter An EMI filter has a high reactive component to its impedance.

In most generated sense a ground can be defined as an equipment surface or point which serves as a reference voltage for a circuital ground is connected to the earth through a low Z path. All ground connections are connected to this point. 2. the multipoint grounding is one in which a ground plane is used in one of the individual return wires for each circuit.e. The grounding principles covered here are just as applicable to large complex electronic systems as they are to individual circuits on a single printed wiring board. can solve a large percentage of all noise problems. in combination. The accumulation of static grounds and other access grounds such as navel deck. • • • The construction is easier. In single ground point a single physical point the circuitry is the defined ground reference. Floating ground system is a method to electrically isolated circuits or equipments. The ground plane must be a equipment chassis or a ground wire. flight decks are the main advantages. Proper use of the grounding and shielding. Floating grounds depend for their effectiveness on true floating. The multiple ground approach has the following advantages. i. Ferrites can act as filters and absorbers. A good grounding system must be designed just like the rest of the circuit. At. Thus the cost is higher and the connection is complicated. Grounding is one of the primary ways minimize the unwanted noise and pick up. There are two basic objectives involved in 12 . The standing wave effects in the ground system are avoided at high Frequencies. Filtering usually needs longer capacitors or inductors to be connected in the circuit.. Therefore.2 Grounding Grounding is one of the important ways of minimizing the noise and interference generated from within the system and from outside. it can then be called an “earth ground”. carried throughout system. three fundamental grounding concepts are used they are: • • • Single point Grounding System Multiple point Grounding System Floating point Grounding System These three grounding systems can be used individually or in combination in any system. high frequencies to which the equipment ground plane dimensions of cable length approach wavelength.frequency specific. With reference to EMC design. the single point ground system is not practical.

To prevent the emissions of the electronics of the product or a portion of those electronics from radiating outside the boundaries of the product. etc. Shielding enclosures that are properly designed and installed can be a very effective means of attenuating radiated emissions and protecting products from external source of interference. When the earthing is not readily achieved. The second is to avoid creating ground loops which are susceptible to magnetic fields and differences in ground potential. The first is to minimization of the noise voltage generated by currents from two or more circuits flowing through common ground impedance. it is difficult to suppress the EMI effectively using the methods of shielding and therefore the application is limited. These include the distance from the energy source. environmental conditions during operation. a metallic enclosure with no apertures. videogames etc. The shielding effectiveness of a material is determined by measuring the unshielded field intensity and then. The shield must completely enclose the electronics and must have no penetrations such as holes. discontinuities in the material.3 Shielding Shielding can be described as a conductive or ferromagnetic material which either reflects. Many factors play a role in defining the (SE) for an actual electronic product in operation. the type of radiating field involved. cell phones. This ratio is then the shielding effectiveness (SE) of the material. the thickness and the conductivity of the shielding material. seams. External factors such as the temperature. can be characterized as follows. seams or cable penetrations can typically reduce radiated emissions and improve radiated immunity by 40 dB or more. Schematically. operational voltage. absorbs or carries electromagnetic interference to ground. recyclability. 13 . on a plastic substrate. Computers. the effects of a shielding material. help to determine the suitability of alternative shielding material choices for a given application The term shield usually refers to a metallic enclosure that completely encloses an electronic product or a portion of that product. Shielding is more efficient and less expensive to deal with suppression at the source. Virtually all high speed electronic devices employ shielding in some form. 2. Infact. humidity. mechanical durability of the material.designing good grounding systems. There are two purposes of shielding 1. slots or cables. A reliable way of earthing is needed for desirable effects in shielding. Any penetration in a shield unless properly treated. may drastically reduce the effectiveness of the shield. the field intensity under the same conditions with the shield included.

Total shielding Effectiveness is SE=A+R+B Where S. The specific ability of a given material to control the unwanted electromagnetic energy can be defined as its shielding effectiveness (in dB of attenuation) by the following general equation. This value is actually the ratio of the field strength without the shield to the field strength with the shield and is given mathematically as follows For electric field S = 20 log E0 dB E1 H0 dB H1 For magnetic field S = 20 log Where E0 (Ho) is the incident field strength. For low impedance magnetic fields.2. Thus attenuation is a measure of the reduction in the intensity of the electromagnetic field and is normally reported as decibels (dB). In the other case. To prevent radiated emissions external to the product from coupling to the electronics products. more energy is absorbed and less reflected because the impedances of both the metal and the field are similar. CHAPTER-3 SHIELDING EFFECTIVENESS 3.1 Shielding Effectiveness Shielding effectiveness is typically measured as an attenuation of the electromagnetic signal after a shield is introduced. R is the reflection factor expressed in dB. the wave impedance of an electric field is very high. is the shielding effectiveness expressed in dB. so most of the energy is reflected. this may cause interference in the product. Metals have fundamental impedance that is inversely proportional to their conductivity.E. E1 (H1) is the transmitted field strength The shielding effectiveness of a material is determined by a variety of factors in relation to the characteristic influence of the wave itself. 14 .

2 Absorption Loss Absorption loss representation for the planewaves is given as. A = 3. B is often negligible for E-field and plane wave situations Fig. however at low-F (f< 1KHz) . This can be a positive or a negative value and is generally less important when the E-field or plane wave region is dominant.A is the absorption term expressed in dB. absorption loss is very small and reflection is dominate.34 t fu r σr Notes: Usually at high-F (f > 1 MHz) absorption loss is predominate.2 Absorption loss of different materials. 15 . both “A” and “R” have effects Fig 3. 3. and B is the correction factor due to reflections from the far boundary expressed in dB B represents the possibility of re-reflected wave energy inside the shield. When 1 KHz < f < 1MHz.1 The total loss is the sum of the absorption and the reflection losses 3.

and the wave impedance (i.3. therefore R = 168 + 10 log( σr ) dB µr f Therefore. 3.1 Electric Conductivity and Relative permeability of different materials S. characteristic impedance).3. the greater the reflection loss is At very low frequency (means in near field of H field).3 Reflection Loss Reflection loss is dependent on the type of field. substituting Zs = 3.68 x10 ur σr f . The reflection term is largely dependent upon 1. however at high-F.1 Reflection loss to plane wave −7 Zw = 377 ohms. the lower the shield impedance. R is the reflected wave radiation and is related to the E-field properties of the shielding material.No Metal Electric conductivity 1 2 3 Aluminium Copper Gold 62 100 71 Relative permeability μr 1 1 1 16 .e. magnetic material like steel makes a better magnetic shielding than does a good conductor like copper. it’s opposite Table 3. Its value represents the wave intensity lost as a result of reflection of the EMI wave. The surface impedance of the shield. The relative mismatch between the incoming waves 2.

1. SE(n)=A(n)+R(n). title('shielding effectiveness Vs frequency for 1mm thickness for Aluminium'). end subplot(3. plot(f. xlabel('Frequency(HZ)'). n=1. for q=1:1000:10^7 A(n)=3. ylabel('SE(dB)'). for f=1:1000:10^7 A(n)=3. R(n)=168+(10*log10((62)/q)). xlabel('frequency(HZ)'). %axis[(0 10^7 0 250)] title('shielding effectiveness Vs frequency for 0. n=1.34*10^(-3)*0.3.1. n=n+1. ylabel('SE(dB)'). figure subplot(3.34*10^(-3)*1*(sqrt(q*62)).4 Source Code clear all clc clear n=1. SE(n)=A(n)+R(n).1). R(n)=168+(10*log10((62)/f)).5mm thickness for Aluminium'). end f=(1:1000:10^7).2). 17 .5*(sqrt(f*62)).SE). n=n+1. plot(f.SE).

4.SE). title('shielding effectiveness Vs frequency for 1. ylabel('SE(dB)'). RESULTS The experiment made on shielding effectiveness for variable conducting metals for variable thicknesses are estimated and are presented in the table and the graphs of shielding effectiveness is estimated by considering both absorption loss and reflection loss for variable thicknesses. SE(n)=A(n)+R(n). xlabel('frequency(HZ)').34*10^(-3)*1. The shielding effectiveness is estimated up to 10MHz. end subplot(3.1. R(n)=168+(10*log10((62)/s)). The experimental values of shielding 18 .3). plot(f.5*(sqrt(s*62)). n=n+1. For good EMC design the shielding effectiveness must be as high as possible.5mm thickness for Aluminium').for s=1:1000:10^7 A(n)=3.

5 milli inche are tabulated Table 4. 4. PLOTS: Fig. 1.8 223.0 milli inch. 0. copper of thicknesses 0.5 milli inch 240.6 276.7 2.1 Shielding Effectiveness of Aluminium for variable thicknesses 19 . Aluminium 157. 1.1 1.NO METAL Shielding Effectiveness (A+R) in dB at10MHz.4 5. Copper 170.5 milli inch 1.5 1.5 milli inch.1 Experimental Values of Shielding Effectiveness of different metals. S.effectiveness of Aluminium.0 milli inch 199.

2 Shielding Effectiveness of Copper of variable thicknesses 20 . 4.Fig.

CONCLUSION 21 .5.

it is the better one for suppression. we present suppression techniques of EMI through shielding.In this project. by this we came to know that Copper is the better metal for suppression of EMI through shielding. The shielding effectiveness of above mentioned metals are calculated and plotted by using MATLAB. The metal which has high shielding effectiveness values. In shielding we use different metals to enclose the system to suppress the EMI In this project. Shielding is one of the best techniques to suppress EMI and also cost effective. REFERENCES 22 . So. we studied the shielding effectiveness of Aluminium and Copper up to 10MHz. At high frequency shielding is effective method. 6.

Burgoon.ce-mag.111123. and K.R. Jr.. 3rd Edition. 1970.. Prentice-Hall. 3. 23 .G. Englewood Cliffs. Issue-4.com 2.1. Pearson Education. August. Insulation/Circuits.20-40. Circuits and System Magazine. Jordan. 5. 1968. Volume-9.C.. IEEE. “Fundamentals of Electrical Shield Design”. J. E.Balmain “Electromagnetic Waves and Radiating Systems”. Second Edition.J. pp. pp. 2000.”Matlab for Beginners” by Chapman.. N. 4. www.

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