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Six Sigma is the single most effective problem solving methodology for improving business & organizational performance. The world’s top corporations have used it to increase their profits collectively by more than $100 billion over the past ten years. Simply stated, Six Sigma is about applying structured, scientific methods to improve any aspect of a business organization, process or person. It’s about engaging in disciplined data collection & analysis to determine the best possible ways of meeting your customer’s needs while satisfying yours & minimizing wasted resources & maximizing profit in the process. Six Sigma Practitioner tools are of two primary types. Process Optimization Tool & Statistical Analysis Tool.
Process Optimization tool:
The tool enables you to design ,simulate & optimize work processes .These include tools for creating process & work flow diagrams, building cause & effect matrices, constructing fishbone diagram, developing SIPOC diagram, assessing process capabilities. The goal of these tools is help you see how work is performed & identify where the source of problem is.
Statistical Analysis tool:
The tool enables you to analyze data collected either from the real world performance of a product or process, or as the output of simulation or experiment.These include basic statistics tools & tools for analyzing variance, conducting regressions, performing design of experiments (DOE) & building control charts, plots, table & graphs. The goal of these tools is to help you turn data into knowledge such that you can make informed decisions.
Fishbone diagram Create a high-level C&E in the form of a tree structure. the timing of activities. FMEA (Failure Mode Effects Analysis) For any activity or item. _______________________________________________________________________ _ CT (Critical to) Tree Critical to…tree. inspection and delivery. Process Tool The SIPOC Role Suppliers-Inputs-Process-Outputs-Customers Create a high-level process map with a few key details about each of the key contributing elements. A method for capturing potential causes and inputs to a process. defines all the contributors. errors.Process Optimization Tools The term “Process optimization” is used as a catch-all to describe both the subject area – processes-and the purpose-optimization. define the potential failure modes. Simulation Simulate the flow of work and material through a process based on the model and analyze the results of the simulation for overall effectiveness and efficiency. Find defects. Plans Use the outputs of simulation and analysis to define how data will be collected and how the processes will be controlled and audited. Capability and Complexity Analysis Analyze the tradeoffs between product complexity and process capability and define the proper configuration of each to achieve desired outcomes. including the likelihood of occurrence. Modeling Define and design processes. and the ability to detect and characterize the effects of those failures. with categories for each major type of contributor. C&E (Cause-and-effect) matrix For the outcomes of any process. bottleneck. . variation and non value-added elements. and determine the significant contributors to the outputs. resources consumed and points of decision. weight their effects.Identify. organize and display parts of the process according to areas of critical importance. including the flow of work or material.
identifying the key sources that contribute most significantly to the problem or Process being addressed. or impact . Process failures result in poor products.Dem` fishbones: It is a brainstorming tool used to explore and display sources of variation or Influence on a process. FMEA: Failure Mode Effects Analysis Failure is a nasty business. With it. you can quickly create the inputs to a C& E Matrix. The failure Mode effects analysis is a key to reducing or eliminating the risk of failures. and you can evaluate your design and control plans for their robustness to failure. Product failures can mean everything from unhappy Customers to harmful outcomes. The concept was first developed in the aerospace industry. The FMEA provides you with a structured approach to identifying the potential ways a Product or process can fail how readily you can detect the failure and the effects of those Failures. it is therefore universally referred to its Acronym form FMEA. so you can reduce the risk of either their occurrence. you can further prioritize the actions to be taken to reduce failure risk. Using FMEA.or both. It is invaluable in the applications where processes or products have safety or . It also serves as an affinity mechanism for relating and Categorizing inputs.
Software FMEA. FMEA is a structured yet simple way of simulating the risk associated with a particular event occurring . for analyzing product designs prior to release into production. ____________________________________________________________________ _ Primary Elements of the FMEA FMEA Element Severity of impact Probability of occurrence Likelihood of detection Definitions Assign a normalized score to the severity of the impact in the event of a failure. One of the primary indicators is the risk priority number (RPN). manufacturing. support.Its an excellent tool to funnel down the most likely contributors or X`s to process optimization efforts.security implications. Product FMEA. The analysis phase of the FMEA is the process of determining probabilities and ranking the results. RPN = Severity rating * Probability rating * Detection rating.The RPN is simply the product of the three elements. distributing. Applications of FMEA include Design FMEA. The DFMEA is conducted early-well in advance of first builds-with a focus on Product functionality. services. for analyzing design. assembly. addresses failure modes possible in products or projects. Evaluate and assign a probability score to the likelihood that the failure will occur. for analyzing failure modes in software applications. ProcessFMEA. and other processes. Assign a probability score to the likelihood that the current controls will detect the . but its equally applicable to any process or product where failures have impact on customer satisfaction or measurable business success.
Stats Tool Basic stats Role The basic and descriptive statistics. Pareto charts. and variance and so on. The output is a graphical picture of the various relationships. decomposition. moving averages.causes and therefore prevent either the failure itself or its effects Statistical Analysis Tools Statistical Analysis tools enable the six sigma practitioners to first analyze practical problems statistically. ANOVA (Analysis of variance) Analyze variances. DOE (Design of Experiments) Systematically investigate the process or product variables that affect product quality. ranges. Plots and charts Time Series Histograms. test for equality of variances. Tolerance analysis The analysis of margins and tolerances to determine optimal design specifications. such as analysis. Specific tools for analyzing results of data collected over time-trends. Reliability & Survivability Accelerated life testing. Regression Determining the strength of the relationship between a response variable(Y) and one or more predictors (Xs) Multivariate Analysis The Analysis of data from multiple measurements on various items or subjects. control charts. and determine whether there is a valid relationship between variables. used routinely in Six sigma . growth curves. lifetime characteristics analysis. and then to craft statistical answers that enable breakthrough practical solutions. averages. The statisticians who pioneered Six Sigma forged the developmental application of these tools through grit and determination.
fully nested ANOVA(estimating the variance component for each response variable). including personnel.MANOVA(multi-variate analysis of variance. ANOVA tools include such analytical marvels as: one-way and two-way analysis’s(variance testing with classification by one or two variables). They cost money and time.also sometimes referred to as the General Linear Model. They consume resources. Experiments are vitally important tools.Without DOE you’re reduced to performing what we call OFAT experiments. they deserve the care and attention that any project or program would receive. Experiments are critical risk reducers and confidence builders. . They permit us to prototype. Design of Experiments: DOE DOE is a highly educational activity. It’s statistically used to investigate the variables that influence a process and the resulting quality of products and services in an experimental setting. And because so much is riding on the results. which stands for one factor at a time.Analysis of Means (test the equality of population means).balanced ANOVA(accounting for data collected by different designs or procedures)._______________________________________________________________________ _ Analysis of variance: ANOVA Because variance is one of the fundamental principles of Six Sigma. equipment and materials. evaluate and test our hypotheses in controlled settings before unleashing them in the real world. They are foot bridge between models and reality. for simultaneously testing the equality of means from different responses). Experiments are mini projects unto themselves. A DOE also allows the practitioner to simultaneously understand the effects of changing the settings of multiple variables.OFAT`s cannot detect the interactions that occur between variables. the analysis of variance is a major field of Six Sigma application.and the test for equal variances(determines the variance differences between samples from populations of different means).
Develop the plans Thoroughly analyze the environment. . Design the experiment Using the many available DOE tools. Define the objectives Be certain that your experiment is focused on yielding specific. practical and useful information. the background and the conditions that will guide and constrain the experiment and develop a plan that will meet the objectives with the time and resources allotted. Define the problem Strictly define-in quantitative terms-the nature of the problem that you intend the experiment to clarify or solve. Develop a data Collection Plan that ensures you have the measurement systems in place to capture all the required information and a Data Analysis plan that ensures you have accounted for the work required to properly interpret the results. design a robust experiment that will satisfy the objectives.