Michael Garbutt & Kerry O'Sullivan

National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research
.J,'- .. ~ _

IELTS: Strategies for Study Updated edition

Published and distributed by the National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research Macquarie University Sydney NSW 2109

or transmitted in

© Macquarie University 1991 Reprinted with corrections February 1995 1..1 pdated edition 1996 Reprinted 1998, 1999,2000,2002 Copyright All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced any form, or by any means, without the publishers permission.

National Library of Australia Cataloguing-in-Publication data Garbutt, Michael D lELTS strategies for study: reading, writing, listening and speaking at university and college. Updated cd. ISBN 1 86408 182 I. I. English Language - Examinations. 2. English Language - Textbooks for foreign speakers. 3. International English Language Testing System. 1. O'Sullivan Kerry, 1952. II. National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research (Australia). Ill. Title. IV Title: International English Language Testing System strategies for study

The National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research (NCELTR) was established at Macquarie University in 1988. The National Centre forms part of the Linguistics and Psychology discipline at Macquarie University. Ligare Pty Ltd, Riverwood NSW 22] 0 Cover design hy Simon Leong Design
The authors take no responsibility for the factual accuracy of, or the views expressed in, reading passages in this book.






Test Description Preparing , : ,

, "

1 1 .4

for the IELTS Test and Tertiary Study

Reading Test Description General Training Module Academic Module


8 8 9 9

Sample Reading Tasks Reading Strategies Overviewing Understanding Understanding Interpreting Understanding Checking a passage the main points relationships diagrams, in passages , " .. , , , :

12 13 17 22 , 25 34 35 38

tables and graphs of a passage , you need , ,

the organisation


Finding the information Evaluating Matching information information unknown

, words

.40 44 .47

Understanding Further Study

Finding appropriate Developing


47 48 48 , , 51 51

a study program

Exercises with a study partner Test-Taking Strategies Materials for Further Study



I ._".. IELTS: STRATEGIES FOR STUDY ---~ I I .... ...ling tasks tasks Information-matching Open-question Gap-filling tasks vi tasks _..eneral Training Module Academic Module Sample Writing Tasks Writing Strategies Stage I: Analysing the task Stage 2: Preparing a plan Stage 3: Collecting relevant information Stage 4: Writing up Stage 5: Checking your writing Assessing Your Writing Diaguostic Tests Further Study Test-Taking Strategies Materials for Further Study · .-" .. .UNIT 2: WRITING Writing Test Description C. 53 S4 54 54 55 58 58 - 62 66 70 79 79 88 93 95 95 UNIT 3: LISTENING Listening Test Description Anticipating What You Will Hear Anticipating IELTS listening situations 97 98 98 99 100 101 102 102 104 tasks 107 108 109 i I I -' Listening for information Listening Task Instructions Listening Strategies Picture-based Form-fi. . - .

117 your confidence t he skills required Materials for Further Study UNIT 4: SPEAKING Speaking Test Description General Training Module 119 120 120 121 121 123 124 125 127 . . .. 131 "- Stratcgies for the IELTS Interview Predicting the topics .... .. Test-Taking Strategies Further Study Finding appropriate Increasing Practising 111 113 ... listening passages in listening by the lELTS test 114 114 114 115 . Understanding the questions Asking for clarification Responding appropriately answer Giving an organised Asking questions Playing a role correctly 134 138 141 143 : Finding the right words Assessing Your Speaking Test-Taking Strategies Preparing for the interview 143 144 144 On the clay of the interview Materials for Further Study TRANSCRIPT : 145 ANSWER KEYS 155 Contents vii . .. ..Understanding Lectures and Talks. ..

_.. Henderson-Sellers the generous The authors gratefully acknowledge permission Macquaric University Calcndar 1991.-' - ~ ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like to thank the following people for their professional and personal support throughout the writing of this hook: Susan Benson Jackie Bonham Liz Campbell Tan Teong Eng Betty Garbutt Stuart Holle Rohan Mead David Nunan Mavis O'Sullivan Martin Sitompul We would also like to thank the students of the National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research... .1 .. The tape accompanying this book could not have been made without assistance of our colleagues: Lynne Allen Anne Burns Maree Delofski Helen Ferrara Linda Gerot Mark Gregory Liz Parkinson Jenny Tindale Diana Simmons Margaret Whetton to publish an extract from the and Economics. They would also for permission to include material Auslralio by A. Business Law like to thank the New South Wales University Press drawn from The Grecnhouse Effect: Living ill a warm and R. Macquaric University for their invaluable feedback. We are particularly grateful to: Yuflinawati Away.. Rlong. Adiwar..Kerry O'Sullivan Mic/tael Garbutt Macquarie University Sydney II I :1 [I 'I :/ !i !i III - II viii IELTS: STRATEGIES FOR STUDY ~ ----------------------------------------- : _.



The purpose of this book is to help you focus on the English-language skills that you need in the JELTS test and the ways in which you can develop these skills.


The IELTS test (the International English Language Testing System) assesses your level of skill in reading, writing, speaking ancllistening in English. The test's four sections are administered Listening Reading Writing Speaking in the following order:

40 minules

60 minules 60 minules 11-14 minutes



Each of the sections contains a variety oftask~.de5igl1edto test your English-language proficiency Although the range of tasks will vary from test to test, the strategies presented in this book are intended to develop a level of English-language proficiency which will enable you to deal with a wide range of different task types. It is important to note that there are two clifferent types of test. If you are planning to study at university you will be required to take the IELTS Academic Module. If you are planning to undertake a non-tertiary course or non-degree training yon will be required to take the IELTS General Training Module. The format of both modules is identical but the reading passages and writing tasks in the General Training Module do not reflect tertiary study requirements. If you intend to take the General Training Module, you should pay particular attention to the General Training Module Sections on pages 8, 47, 54,94 and 98, and in the Practice Test Boo/? on page 45. The General Training Module is designed for students who intend to enter nontertiary or non-degree courses. The format of this module is identical to the Academic Module, but the reading passages and writing tasks do not reflect tertiary study requirements. General Training Module candidates take the same Listening and Speaking sections as other candidates. If you intencl to take the General Training Module, you should pay particular attention to the General Training Module sections on pages 8, 47, 54,94 and 98, and in the Practice Test Bool, on page 45. The range of academic and professional fields in which candidates taking the JELTS Academic Module intend to study is, of course, very wide. You might be intending to study dentistry, or landscape architecture, mathematics, engineering, economics or

Introduction _I


literature. Whatever your intended field of study, you will take the same test as all candidates. As a result, the Academic Module does not require and does not test specialist knowledge.

The IELTStest does not assess
• general knowledge • technical knowledge The scores you achieve in the test will provide a description of your English-language proficiency. These scores will enable the institutions where you have applied to study to decide whether your English-language proficiency will enable you to perform successfully in tertiary study.

The IEL test assesses TS
• your ability to read, write, listen and speak in the kinds of situations which are commonly encountered when living and studying in English-speaking .I.. countries. Your basic aim, therefore, should be to become familiar with these kinds of situations and the language used in them. Studying in English-speaking • writing assignments • listening to lectures • participating in tutorials and seminars countries may involve

• reading books and journals

Reading boob and journals In tertia,y study you need to be able to
• read a wide variety of recommended • find the information and other relevant books and journals you require in texts, tables and diagrams

• critically evaluate what you read In the IELTS Reading section you will have to read several passages which may be accompanied by tables and diagrams, understand the main points, locate specific information, and evaluate what you read.
_, _.,.
-" .






.., -~-,-,'-------------------------------.----







Writing assignments In tertiary study you may be required to • analyse the set question or task • read recommended and other relevant texts • organise a writing plan • write in your

words, showing that you have read widely

In the IELTS Writing section you need to analyse the question or task, organise a writing plan, develop an argument and then write it up Listening to lectures In tertiary study you need to be ableta • understand rapid speech • understand a variety of accents • identify the main points • take notes In the IELTS Listening section you may he required to listen to a radio news item, for example one in which you hear native speakers using a range of accents. You need to he able to understand the main points and write them down. Participating in tutorials and seminars need to be able to

In tertiary

• read recommended texts • prepare to discuss the texts • understand questions asked by the teacher and other students • ask questions • contribute to the discussion In the lEtTS Speaking section you will have to understand and respond to questions asked by the interviewer and ask questions yourself. For more details refer to the new lELl'S Speaking Test insert. Living in an English-speaking country may involve

• reading newspapers, notices, signs, instruction manuals, etc. • writing to institutions and individuals • listening to the radio, instructions, casual conversation, etc. • speaking about yourself: your background, home country, study plans, etc. These activities are relevant to all candidates, but are particularly important for General Training candidates, as they usually form the basis of reading passages and writing tasks in the General Training Module.



'._' _.' ._. but a knowledge of academic requirements will help you to focus your program of study for both the test and your future studies._/ __. • Is there a pre-reading list? from the coming year expected to be? • Can the institution supply you with a list of assignments or previous years? How long are the written assignments • How is assessment carried out? Arc there written exams. and record your own speaking to analyse vou r performance. 4 IELTS: STRATEGIES FOR STUDY ------. as these vary according to institution and discipline. PREPARING Your research FOR THE IELTS TEST AND TERTIARY STUDY The tertiary study tasks listed above may not necessarily reflect the specific tasks you will be required to do../ NClVspojlCl's aiu! magazines can help you to develop your grammar and vocabulary. Although bilingual dictionaries can be useful you should try to get used to using a l11ol1olingual dictionary. 111 the IELTS test you arc not expected to know the answers to these questions. _. _. You can lise a wssette recorder to listen to pre-recorded materials. can the institution • How is formal teaching organised? Are there lectures? seminars? tutorials' laboratory work? field work? practicll sessions? This is a major research task which you need to begin before commencing tertiary study. available. interview native speakers. a video recorder can help you to practise for the TELTSSpeaking section. as this will extend your vocabulary and reading skills. . In particular.' .. Writing and Speaking sections.. practicals. continuous assessment or a combination of these methods' • Will you be expected to give oral presentations' supply examples of these tasks? If so.-----------------------------... 93._.. to practise your reading strategies and to familiarise yourself with topics of general interest which may be relevant to the Reading. 117 and 144../ As you work through this book and identify the language areas which you need to develop.------- • .. oral exams. .f . you should build into your study program a selection of appropriate tasks from t he wide range of English-language textbook. Your study program You need to collect as many resources as possible._ - . A selection of useful newspapers and magazines is given on page 47. A list of relevant textbooks is given on pages 51... You Gill usc a vic/eo recorder in a similar way. . . A selection of monolingual dictionaries is given on page 51. You should contact the tertiary institutions that you are planning to study at and ask about the tasks you will have to carry out in the first semester or term. record radio and television programs.. The following questions arc designed to focus your research.

' " You should usc illlcrnuliOlw/ r({dio p. Lislenilig and Speaking. It IS assumed you currently have at least an intermediate level 01 English-language proficiency. As in the test itself. documentaries and current affairs programs. vide support. such as interviews. writing and speaking. They may have clubs and activity groups which you can join. This book is designed to help you identify your language needs and to provide a framework for your study program.. including books." ~:. The passages presented in the book re!lect the diversity 01 subject matter used in the IELTS test. that will enable you to find the information you require in these passages - Introduction 5 . The units can thcrclor« be studied in any order. ANSWER KEYS Tasks which have an answer key arc marked with an asterisk. the key' provides some sample answers. you can write to the stations themselves. The strategies presented in each unit relate to and reinforce each other. . The material is suitable for both independent study and classroom use. '. A regular arrangement motivation and feedback. find a study purtntT. TASK 271 Some tasks 111ay have 1I1Ore than one answer. you should contact an English-speaking cultural centre and ask them lor suggestions. You can also place an advertisement offering to teach your language in exchange for \Ccuning English. e. II you arc unable to obtain these guides Irom the consulates and cultural centres of English-speaking count rics. If possible. newspapers. Writing. to study with a partner can pro- Native spcal<crs are also a valuable resource for practising speaking and listening. These centres generally have extensive libraries.'. the subject matter of a particular passage may be unfamiliar to you. not technical knowledge. No recommended number of hours of study is given for the four units because individual learners will have different needs. You should also contact cultural centres of English-speaking countries. that lELTS: SlnHegics fen Study contains four units: Reading. you should check with your teacher or a native speaker of English.uidcs to select appropriate programs. such as the British Council. In these cases. news bulletins. - . If you do not know any native speakers. journals and video and audio tapes . It is the use of appropriate st raicgics. of English Using this book This book is designed to be used by all candidates for the lEtTS test. If your answer is not included among these sample answers.g. for getting feedback about your reading. and for learning more about English-speaking cultures.

"'F : ••• _o.' _. " -6 IELTS: STRATEGIES FOR STUDY - .•• t_.

~ UNIT 1 Reading

This unit contains

Reading Test Description
General Training Module Academic Module Sample Reading Tasks

8 9 9

Reading Strategies
Overviewing a passage ' Understanding the main points . . . . . . . . . . . .. . Understanding relationships in passages Interpreting diagrams, tables and graphs Understanding the organisation of a passage Checking references Finding the information you need Evaluating information Matching information Understanding unknown words. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. .

12 ~13 17 22 25

35 38 40 44

Further Study
Finding appropriate passages Developing a study program Exercises with a study partner

47 48 48

Test-Taking Strategies Materials for Further Study

51 51


'l couldn't believe my eyes when I opened the Lest paper and saw that there was a passage about laser physics, with a really complicated diagram. [ don't nnow (lnything a/JouL laser physics. I'm a systems engineer!
German IELlS cundid.uc IOI1,t;.'

" ran out

0/ tim('

in the T~cadil1g sectiol1. The passages arc too

Thai IELTS candidate




In the Reading Section, which lasts 60 minutes, candidates are required to read three p,lssages and answer a total of about 40 questions. The passages, some of which may include diagrams, tables and pictures, range in length from approximately 300 to 1400 words in the Academic Module and from 20 to 1000 in the General Training Module. The test instructions indicate the amount of time you should spend answering each set of quest ions. Because IELTS questions assess the kinds 01 reading skills required in tertiary study, a wide range of question types is possible. Although the precise format of the fELTS Rcading section cannot be predicted, it is likely to contain: multiple-choice questions gap-filling exercises matching questions open questions Examples of each type are given on pages 9, 10 and 11. This unit presents and practises a range of reading strategies relevant to all possible question types.



Passages in the General Training Module are shorter and less linguistically complex than those in the Academic Module. Examples of General Training passages arc presented in the Pracucc Test Bool? in Practice Test 4, on page 45. Note that the passages are less academic in style and content and reflect the kinds of passage you are likely to read in everyday life in an English- speaking country For example, passages could include: • newspaper advertisements for accommodation • cinema guides • college timetables • information • regulations about opening a bank account regarding driving licences for a compact disc player

• operating instructions

Most of the passages in this unit are more academic in style and content than the ones you will Tind in the General Training Module and are therefore more linguistically demanding. The tasks, however, are designed to help you read more effectively and you should do them all, paying particular attention to the strategies which are practised. 8 IELTS: STRATEGIES FOR STUDY




MODULE passages about?

What are the reading

The reading passages cover a very broad range of topics of general interest. They might include passages about education, technology, the environment or other contemporary issues. The important thing to remember is that you do not need any specialised background knowledge to read these passages and carry out the tasks successfully. Many candidates, such as the German systems engineer quoted earlier, believe it is impossible to answer questions about passages which deal with unfamiliar subjects. Remember that the test assesses your ability to use the effective reading strategies needed for any academic reading. Even though the passages may deal with subjects which you arc not familiar with, you do not need any specialist knowledge to answer the questions. The test is not designed to assess your academic or professional knowledge of a particular subject. SAMPLE READING TASKS

The five tasks presented below will familiarise you with the kinds of questions you may be required to answer in the Reading section of the lEtTS test. In order to answer Sample Reading Tasks 1--'-5you willnced to re-read the Re;:rding Test Description on pages 8 and 9.

SAMPLE READING TASK 1 *: an example

of a gap-filling


The paragraph below summarises the section on this page called 'What are the reading passages about?' Five words or phrases have been left out. By referring to the section, find one or two words which fill the gaps. Write your answers in the column on the right. Unfamiliarity with a .... .. ay make candidates feel it is .... .....o answer the Lm ?t questions about the reading passages. It is important to note that the purpose of the test is not to ...?.....technical knowledge ...7. required for academic reading in general. but your ...~ use the

Write your answers here:
1... topic.

4 ..
5 ..

2.. '

'" With answer key

UNIT 1: Reading


Some candidates believe it is impossible which deal with unfamiliar subjects..· Your answers: 1... 2 . 40 minutes SAMPLE READING TASK 3*: an example of a multiple-choice What is the main point of the section appropriate letter in the space provided.. .. . 3. Your answer: . C.... . SAMPLE READING TASK 2*: an example of a gap-filling task letter in the space How long does the Reading section last? Write the appropriate provided. entitled 'Academic task Module'? Write the A. Many candidates are very concerned of a reading passage. task and SAMPLE READING TASK 4*: an example of an open-question The reading test description on page 8 refers to four kinds of questions exercises.. The test assesses reading ability.. . Paragraph A candidates are required to read In the Reading Section. The subject matter is relevant toa candidate's area of study. which lasts 60 minutes.. B. 60 minutes Your answer: ~ . .. D.. B or C) corresponds 'Question Types'? Write your answer in the space provided.... conl! 1111Cc/ on page 11 10 IELTS: STRATEGIES FOR STUDY - . 300 minutes B.. 4.... .. What are they? Write your answers in'the space provided.. 45 minutes D.. _... '~ SAMPLE READING TASK 5*: an example of a matching task to the heading Which of the following paragraphs (A. ~:' . A. to answer questions about passages if they are unfamiliar with the subject C. not technical knowledge.

B Because questions assess the kinds of language skills required in tertiary study. ' ~h)]lg Kong student or psychology at a British l tnivcrsu y This student had clillirulty because he did not understand t hcrclorc did not lise appropriate reading strategies.. a wide range of question types is therefore possible. Two minutes latu she us/u'cl (or comments. some of which may include diagrams. UNIT 1: Reading 11 r . The test instructions indicate the amount of time you should spend answering each set of questions. C Remember that the test assesses your ability to use the effective reading strategies needed for any academic reading. From the first word to the last should 'What am 1 reading about Why am 1 reading? How am I reading? EX. The test is not designed to assess your academic or professional knowledge of a particular subject.. READING STRATEGIES 'The /u/or /wndn/ ou/ (/ photocopy oncl (/s/. 0 0 • 0 •••• Paragraph Paragraph _. range in length from approximately 300 to 1400 words in the Academic Module and from 20 to 1000 in the General Training Module. a magazine ask yourself three questions 7 the purpose or the task and or journal article. Although the precise format of the IELTS Reading section cannot be predicted.~h it ([uicWy so we could discuss it.. Your answer: .\ IviPU:: Reading ° a novel thriller. Wlwt? Why 7 How? A murder For pleasure.('(/ the closs to rcud thl()!l.... Befnre heginning to read any text .a book. it is likely to contain ... an LELTS read- ing passage .SAMPLE READING TASK 5*: continued from page 70 three passages and answer a total of about 40 questions. Even though the passages may concern technical subjects which you are not familiar with.. Some people lwei fil1ished Cll1cl I was stifl 011 the nrst paICIg/(Iph. tables and pictures. The passages. you do not need any specialist knowledge to answer the questions.

'i. '. EXAM PLE: Reading newspaper What? Why? How? job advertisements Job vacancies. To do this. These are described in the section below. his strategy was inappropriate and he was unable to complete the task.. an article or a two-page IELTS reading passage. OVERVIEWING A PASSAGE Whatever your purpose for reading. This is just one of a number of different reading strategies. for example. section. giving recommendations? 12 IELTS: STRATEGIES FOR STUDY - . The student of psychology quoted on the previous page was trying to understand every word in the passage he was reading. you should never take more than two minutes. making a comparison. After overviewing. describing a process."\ •. you should know the topic: what is the passage about? You should also know the writers purpose: is the writer. By locating the job advertisement quickly to find suitable jobs.\1. Looking for a job. The aim of ovcrviewing is to see the 'forest' before you start to look at the 'trees'.··~.t. graphs and illustrations • don't read word by word at this stage and don't follow the text with your finger or a pen • don't worry about words you do not understand Whether you are overviewing a book. . How to overview • read the title and headings to understand what the passage is about • look at the titles of any diagrams. what do you read? How do you read? Many students are only familiar with the 'from the first word to the last word' strategy. you should always begin by getting a total picture or overview of the passage.·.. and reading those advertisements TASK 1 You have just bought a video cassette recorder and you want to know how it works. looking through the section more carefully to find specific information such as qualifications needed and salary. Since his purpose was only to understand the main points. In the Reading section you need to use a variety of different strategies to answer the questions.. tables.

EXAM PLI~: The title of the passage you are going to read is 'Hope on the horizon for cancer patients'. What do you think it is about? Simply from reading the title, it is possible to predict that the passage will • describe a new discovery • discuss implications (a drug? a surgical technique") whom/the discovery was made of the discovery benefits/risks • describe where/how/when/by

for cancer patients:

From the following which follow them? titles/headings, Rising what can you predict 7. Abstract 8. The Emergence of the Tiger Economies: the Pacific Century 9 .. Immigrants Is of Studying 10 Positive [orEconomy Giants Disc Player War of Technology about the passages

1. Science Student Numbers
2. The Overselling on Television

of Candidates

3. Summary 4. What Economics

The Challenges Abroad

11. Using Your Compact 12. College Regulations


Study Abroad: a Manual for Overseas Students

Choose a magazine or book. By overviewing the cover page(s), predict as you can about the contents. Check how accurate your predictions looking at the list of contents. as much were by

From the list of contents, select one article or chapter. Overview this in no more than two minutes. After you have finished, read all of the article or chapter to see how accurate your predictions were.

In each paragraph of a passage there is often a summary sentence which contains the main idea of the paragraph. The other sentences in the paragraph expand, illustrate, UNIT

I: Reading







,. ;'

...- . .~




-., .......

and/or explain this main idea. The summar)! sentence is frequently, though not always, the first or second sentence of the paragraph. If your purpose is to understand the main points of a passage you should locate and underline this sentence in each paragraph.
1\, \1\1 PI I:

a) It is difficult to make a distinction between food additives and food Ingredients. Sugar, which is a natural product, is generally considered to be an ingredient whereas saccharin, an artificial sweetener, is usually termed an additive. One method of distinguishing between additives and ingredients is to classify them according to [unction. Additives are used in food production to enhance flavour and colour, to prolong shelf life and to preserve or enhance nutritional value. These functions are non-essential and hence it is possible to classify the substances which perform them as additives rather than ingredients. b) Improved sanitation is not the only factor which accounted for the decline ill morbidity and mortality rates. [n the period following the Second World War the use of the pesticide DDT had a profound effect on public health. DDT was used to control the pests which spread diseases such as sleeping sickness, malaria and typhus. Used throughout the developing world, over one billion people were liberated [rom the threat of these diseases. Following the wide-scale employment of DDT in Sri Lanka in 1947, the number of deaths resulting from the disease fell from over 10,000 a year to zero ill the early '60s. Ten years later, as a result of a reduction in the DDT spraying campaign, over t\Vo million people were infected with malaria. c) lt is probable that the characteristics of the annual growth layers or rings formed by trees reflect the physical conditions which existed at the time of their formation. As similar variations are found to occur in the annual growth layers of numerous trees in a given location it can be assumed that the common external factors which have caused these variations are related to climate. As a result, the analysis of annual growth layers, a science known as dendro-climatology, provides a historical record of the climate. d) After entering the body, the virus may lie dormant for up to six weeks. When it becomes activated, the body's immune system responds and the first symptoms may appear as a result. These usually consist of a rise in temperature which may result in a fever and associated aching muscles and debilitation. Glands may become enlarged while the upper respiratory tract becomes inflamed. This constitutes the most dangerous phase for sufferers.

In each paragraph, I. Oceanographic underline the sentence which gives the main idea. nodules are present in large
011 page

surveys indicate that manganese













I'lI,I',C /.,


on the se~a-b-;e(-I-S-(-11-· -c,-'c-',::cc,,-n-. r-)'-\l-t-il-.1c-~S-' -(~ll-· -n-l'-lr-lg~lI1l'C:C precipitate


lrom sea water and adhere to sand or rock fragments, gw\ving around the nucleus to form onion-shaped structures up to 10 centimetres in length. In shallow waters, nodules may grow up to one millimetre per year whereas in deeper waters the same growth may take a thousand years. The must conservative estimates suggest that half a million tons of manganese is located in nodule form on the lloor of the Pacific Occ.m 2. The report reviewed three studies on the economic found that immigration generally provides some nation in the form of an increased labour pool and clusion, the report argued that, although the positive 11l'significant, immigr.uion did not have a dcuimcntal

impact of economic consumer economic cllcct 011

immigration. It benefits to the market. In coneffects may not Ihe ccon (1 III y.

Endemic goitrc is commonly caused hy an iodine-deficient diet As a result of iodine deficiency, the functioning of the thyroid gland is impaired The gland Illay then become enlarged and produce a swelling in the neck. A severely inhibited thyroid function may lead to a lower metabolic rate, stunted gro\vth and the possible impairment of mental lacnltics. The disease is particularly C0I111110n in mountainous regions 01 western China and northern India where the local soil and water are low in iodine When the study populations were classified according tll World Health Organisation criteria for hypertension. a similar pattern to that described above emerged. Definite hypertension was more prevalent among urban populations for both ethnic groups and sexes than rural populations. Polynesian females had higher prevalence of definite and borderline hypertension than Caucasian females in the rural areas. Among urban males, hypertension prevalence was very similar for both ethnic groups, whereas among rural males prevalence 01 definite hypertension in Polynesians was only about half that in Caucasians.





Overview the passage below and be prepared Word-Association

to discuss Tests

the main points.



The Bachground
Nineteenth-century associationist theories postulated that the mind functions in terms of association, forming sets of concepts and experiences. Associationists argued that mental contents could he studied by
pu,l!,c 16

UNIT 1: Reading


involuntary movement or other symptoms of disturbance. 'bott le'.. indeed. the response time for the reaction word is very short. The tester notes the subject's response timc for each of the words with thc usc of a chronometer.l!. taken place and that the friend had sued the subject Ior damages resulting from injuries he had received. a subject is presented with a list of about 100 words as stimuli. -' . A Case Study In a test carried out by Donald D. stuttering. exhibited similar responses to the same stimulus words. Pavlov's notion of conclitioning is itself based on the associationist theory that one stimulus becomes associated with another. colltilllledIlO1ll pa. If a bell is rung each time a dog is given food... contrast and proximity which exist in an individual's thought and behaviour patterns.. Interpretation <. reactions to significant words may also include hesitation. and 'fight'. a subject was observed to exhibit delay and disturbance in response to the words 'friend'.. a pioneer 01 word-association tests. He argued that this indicated a failure to achieve individuation and was symptomatic of the potentially negative dynamics that exist in family relationships. word-association tests became sensitive instruments for the detection of emotional concerns.. in particular mothers and daughters and husbands and wives. Jaffe suggested that the subject had been involved in a drunken fight with a friend in which a window had been broken. showed that family members.c 14 noting the links of similarity. . who used word-association tests in the early part of his career.. Each word is read out by the tester andthe subject is required to respond with the first word which comes into his or her mind on hearing the stimulus word.. jung. Methodology 111 a word-association test. -' 16 IELTS: STRATEGIES FOR STUDY lltaM -' . Initially used to investigate the differences in cognitive styles. the response time is likely to be Significantly longer. the stimulus word is imbued with emotional Significance for the subject.: of Results It is argued that if the subject is emotionally indifferent to a stimulus word. on the other hand.. The subject admitted that such an experience had. jallc. despite the absence of food. 'window'.TASK (1'. In addition. If. the clog will become conditioned to salivate on hearing the bell ring.

H hunting and of Cause and Effect can cause the Between words • Any kind of constantly repeated movement of the limbs condition known as Repetitive Strain Injury or RST.\gl"<\phs Understanding and recognising these relationships helps you read even more cllcctivcly SunK 01 the most common types of relationship linking ideas in passages arc: a) addition: adding new inlorrn.' . n~c' r \. '" ... • Prolonged use of the drug can result in loss of memory and confusion. ..\gr. • . • Overwork can lead to stress... . a total ban on whale hunting is. bctwcrn the sentences in a par. UNDERSTANDING RELATIONSHIPS IN PASSAGES Locating the summary sentence of a paragraph provides one way 01 increasing reading effectiveness. the linking words are printed in bold type. •. sorghum and cassava • Solar as well as wind power • Leukemia in addition to osteoporosis • Besides nuclear fusion. . The second most common factor is alcohol. In other cases.. .. • Young children love playing computer games. 'In the examples below. the only means hy which the future of the species can be safeguarded. -.. Another poaching b) Relationships species which risks extinction continue at the present rate is the Asian elephant. They are also lond or watching TV Tk(IVccn parag. Other relationships also exist between words and phrases in a se ntence . ~:.:.' . Some useful exercises arc listed below.. therefore.mphs • A tape recorder is a useful tool for the language learner. -:"_' '--.. '.\ph :lIld bet ween whok par.. ':- . The learner can also record native speakers and usc t his data for language analysis.\ !\II'I I a) Relationships of Addition: adding new information Between words or groups of \vo/'ds • Maize... UNIT 1: Reading 17 .. The learner can record herself making short speeches which can then he used (by either the learner or another person to pinpoint areas of difficulty in pronunciation and grammar. millet. the relationships are not directly indicated and must be inferred.u ion d) general and part icular c) b) cause and effect contrast/comparison c! time Tn some cases the relationships arc indicated by 'linking words'. nuclear fission also provides a source of energy Between sentences • The factor most commonly associated with driving accidents is excessive speed.

a fasting blood sample was taken and a 75 g oral glucose load was administered. however. XZ 23 has been available for only the past seven years and Switzerland is the only country where it is commonly prescribed.--- -- . Bctw(c n scnrcnccs • Mortality data for the 1975-80 period were collected from various sources throughout the islands. The . by two points. Information regarding the type of disaster. provoking a miscarriage. Because some regions have inadequate death registration. The pill causes the uterus to contract. there are no linking words indicating the relationshi p. Minutes later. the hank to freeze all withdrawals for 60 days. On arrival..m. Bclwecn paragraphs represent a critical phase in collection and processing of of an effective management the immediate consequences to the Disaster Management • The first few minutes after a disaster occurs disaster management. wallabies and koalas arc all members of the marsupial family. suggest that the pill itself may have equally damaging side-effects. researchers claim. is the avoidance or surgical intervention in which damage to the womb and post-operative trauma may occur.1c1vantage of chemical termination. They argue that XZ 23 can result in internal bleeding and may reduce a woman's future chances of conceiving. • Sediment removal occurs after grinding. Norman or Gothic cathedrals. and possible developments needs to be relayed Control Centre. • Kangaroos. • Subjects were asked to fast overnight and to present at the Survey Centre at 7. NOTE: In the following example. d) General Between and Particular Relationships York and words Chester have fine examples of • Medieval cities such as Durham. many depositors withdrew their funds. on the basis or this information. Critics. the DMCC is able to co-ordinate all rescue and damage limitation operations.30 a. In this way it is possible to avoid ..Between sentences • The credit rating of the South Tully Bank was downgraded a consequence. the data were then adjusted for under-numeration. In this phase the efficient information is essential to the implementation policy. 18 IELTS: STRATEGIES FOR STUDY -----~-------------. Critics of the pill suggest that not enough research has been carried out to understand the long-term effects of its usc and urge caution before adopting it in this country. As which in turn led Between paragraphs • The new pill XZ 23 can terminate pregnancy up to seven weeks after conception. c) Relationships of Tinie Between words • Wash then cauterise the wound.

camels and grazing land . with its flourishing economy and highly developed infrastructures. legislation.Brrwccn sentences NOTE: In the following example. in contrast. 73. lind accommodation and work and adjust to a different culture and lifestyle.wells. Between PCI rag. central government. The centuries-old culture of the desert had disappeared forever. The roads which were built in this period and the arrival of trucks almost immediately destroyed the basis of this economy As a result. In the north. • The use of tranquillisers has reached unprecedented proportions in the United States. . does not and is therefore a recommended pre-bedtime drink. migrants are faced with many challenges. you are len times more likely to die of boredom if you live in Little Rock than if you live in the Big Apple. On the other hand. Arkansas. as opposed to peas Between sentences • Tea contains caffeine and can cause insomnia. • Statistics show that inhabitants 01 New York are eight times more likely to be murdered than those who live in Little Rock. has been a widow for live years since her husband died of a heart attack at the age of 69.. there are no linking words indicating the relationship. not national. Their management of the deserts limited natural resources . • The average woman's lilc expectancy is now eight years longer than that of the average man. Bctween paragraphs NOTE: In the following example. • The Bedouin tribes of the Arabian peninsula evolved a lifestyle which was well adapted to the harsh desert conditions in which they lived. Herbal tea.provided a difficult but sustainable lifestyle that was relatively unchanged from the time of Muhammad to the early 20th century The arrival of a strong. c) Relationships of Contrast/Comparison net Ivcen words • arches but not vaults • beans. UNIT 1: Reading 19 . there are no linking words indicat ing the relationship. Mary Crabbe.. They may have to learn a new l. .l11guage. The Rashid of the Hadhramaurexperienced a complete transformation of their lifestyle in under a generation. A recent survey found that 75 per cent of those interviewed had taken tranquillisers at some time in the previous year. The mainstays of their economy until the 1950s had been camel breeding and the organisation of camel trains north to the Hejaz (supplemented by periodic inter-tribal raiding). • After arriving in their new country.mphs • Urban planning is subject to local and regional. many of the nomads settled in the booming oil towns which had developed and Iound jobs in this new sector. an oil-based economy and a modern transportation and communications structure radically altered this traditional lifestyle.

this would result in the demolition of tens of thousands of illegally constructed dwellings.comprehensive planning laws control all urban development from the building of a new freeway to the erection of a garden hut. The drainage of the Pontine marshes in the 1930s virtually eliminated the incidence of the disease. if things go wrong. on the other hand. Coal is transported from the mine to the power station by rail. Were the government to enforce the law. Draining of swamp land is an important factor in the fight against malaria. many migrant workers arrived from the economically depressed southern provinces in search of work and improved living standards. this has resulted in the flouting of planning laws. In many cases. After arrival it is stored in bunkers and then. The government's decision to close the unprofitable Liverpool car plant had two effects on the economy of the city. B. creating a political and social crisis that no government has yet been able to face. Although many of the local and regional laws are identical to those of the north the different economic conditions in the south have led to problematic planning outcomes. The problem is further complicated by difficulties in enforcing the law where a desire exists to do so. contil1lled 011 page 21 20 fELTS: STRATEGIES FOR STUDY -- . irresistible pressures have grown to industrialise. During the 1950s the expanding industries of the north required large numbers of unskilled workers. creating a serious shortage of skilled manpower. As a result. Secondly. often with the tacit consent of government. power stations are relatively safe but emit large amounts of carbon dioxide and other polluting agents into the atmosphere Nuclear-generated power. creating personal hardship and a severe strain on the social services. lead to disastrous consequences. D. is clean but can. 3000 people were made redundant. Coal-fired E. when required. C. What is the relationship between sentences in each passage? Which words (if any) indicate the relationship? A. Regional and local governments strictly enforce these laws and this has resulted in relatively controlled development despite a booming industrial sector which has increased its share of the region's GOP from 38 per cent to 76 per cent in under 20 years. In a relatively non-industrialised region (industry accounts for only 12 per cent of the regions GOP) which suffers from high unemployment and net population loss due to emigration. Firstly. many of the skilled workers left the area in search of work elsewhere. TASK 7* the Study the following passages (A-H). fed into large furnaces where it is burnt. Homes are frequently built without applications for planning permission. The south presents a very different picture.

is now common in newly irrigated areas throughout million people. In the 1960s it became apparent that the usc 01 chemicals in agriculture was causing serious damage to soils.. 1. the high concentrations which accumulate in successive steps may lead to serious health risks. . Rain caused the isotope to fall to earth. The radioactive isotope caesium 137. enhance soil fertility and hence increase crop yields. You may find it helpful to make margin-notes as in the following example. plant and human life and this led to the banning of DDT in many countries and the search lor more environmentally Iricndly fertilisers. Once it enters the body contained within food. accumulating twoor threefold during each step in the food chain. The lichens form the principal diet of caribou. an emphysema-like disease carried by parasitic larvae in aquatic snails. on the other hand. If radioactive materials with long half-lives enter the rood chain. Evidence of this phenomenon was discovered by studies carried out in the Mackenzie Bay region of the Yukon in Canada where above-ground nuclear testing in the 1950s introduced large quantities of caesium 137 to the atmosphere. where it was collected by lichens growing in tundra areas. a product of nuclear fission. The caribou were found to have accumulated around 14 micrornicrocuries of caesium per gram of tissue cause effect cause particular 1 I L~. .TASK 7* colltillued/mlll poge 20 F In the 1940s farmers were encouraged to usc DDT and artificial fertilisers to eliminate pests. In inland desert regions. Schistosomiasis.\MPLF: The Accumulation of Caesium 137 in the Food Chain Chemical substances which are not involved in the process of respiration and arc not excreted may become highly concentrated as they pass through each step of the food chain. the developing world and is believed to affect more than 200 H. G.'\. the major cause of slides is the extreme diurnal temperature range which results in cracking and the formation of talus at the base of rock faces. __ U_N_I_T_l:_R_e_a_d_in_g 2J ._. whose meat is the staple diet or the Inuit peoples who inhabit the region. One of the most serious side-effects of the introduction of irrigatil1n to formerly arid areas is the spread of disease. The majority of landslides in the coastal areas of California arc attributed to the instability of the Tertiary and Mesozoic rocks which predominate in this area. has a half-life of 30 years. it becomes distributed throughout the body's cells. Understanding the relationships between sentences in a paragraph and between paragraphs makes you a more effective reader and facilitates note-taking. Tests on the lichen samples showed evidence of 6 micromicrocuries of caesium per gram of tissue.

JELTS: STRATEGIES -----------_.. which is itself consumed by another the time required for one half of a sample 01 unstable material to undergo chemical change small plants which grow on the surface of rocks and trees deer-like animals effect hall-li fe: lichen: caribou: TASK 8 Choose another passage and analyse it as in the example above. see TASK see in a non-linear text (for an example. '- particular Although only one step above the caribou in the lood chain. You can also usc this technique to predict the next word or the next paragraph. become very concerned FOR STUDY when faced with diagrams. Because they do not gi\'(' information line by line.lies have revealed a predicted rise in the number of tumours reported among the Inuit. Longitudinal follow-up stuC. Move the cover so that you can only read the first sentence. the Inuit had concentrated up to 30 micromicrocuries per gram during the course of a ." .. tables and graphs. TASK 9 Choose a passage and cover it with a card or sheet of paper. TABLES AND GRAPHS SOllie rcadinr. [ single winter. . INTERPRETING DIAGRAMS. passages may contain diagrams. What do you think the next sentence is) Use your knowledge of the relationships within passages to predict the content of the next sentence. . • interpret the information TASK 12 on page 25). Remove the card and see how accurate your prediction was.. tables and graphs. with a non-linear contained text (Ior an example. they are sometimes referred to as 'non-linear texts'.". Questions in the Reading section may require you to: • match written information lIon page 24). Many candidates 22. Glossary: food chain: the cycle in which one organism becomes the food source for another organism.

it is useful to mentally 'translate' the diagram. table or graph and 'translate' it into words. .. • Remember that the information contained in a non-linear text can also he expressed in words...- --_ . I:XAf\'lPLE: 9 8 EMPLOYMENT IN THE UNITED KINGDOM 1980-1990 •• •• ••• •• .. TASK 10 Select a diagram..----~.. You can usc the information you understand the written text. experienced a gradual but constant decline. table or graph into words.. There was a rapid decline in employment in agriculture.You should rcmern ber that: text and no questions they contain to help • Some non-linear texts serve only to illustrate the written specifically relate to them..•• . on the other hand. UNIT . .. you should read it in the same way as you read any other text: overview it to understand the subject and check for the relationships between the points or information given... The engineering sector.. • ••••••• •• ••• • •••••• .. ~---------------------------- .. In order to perform the IELTS tasks which include nonlinear texts.. • If you are required to refer to a non-linear text. 89 90 Agriculture •••••• 85 86 o 80 ••• 81 82 83 Engineering 84 Service Industries ••••••••••••• 87 ••• 88 The graph can be 'translated' as follows: The period 1980-90 saw significant changes in the relative sizes of three major employment sectors in the UK economy: engineering. service industries. 1: Reading 23 -. and agriculture. •• ... whereas employment opportunities in service industries increased sharply..

the incidence of coronary disease in the Islands had reached similar levels to those recorded in developed countries. C. murder. The increase in the incidence of coronary disease among Dalwogcn Islanders noted in Table 1 can be directly attributed to dietary and lifestyle changes. I3 or C. 25 Q_ -5 '" 0 . In conjunction with the increasingly sedentary occupations in which the majority of Islanders were employed by the late 1970s. 20 15 10 20 12 10 5 I M disease /I M Stomach and bowel cancer I~ __ !__jl Lung cancer M Malaria F JI M Accident ~ Coronary 24 IELTS: STRATEGIES FOR STUDY . Table 1 45 o 1960 35 30 45 • 1980 40 35 35 42 42 40 35 30 0 0 30 >" 0. Equally Significant was the increase in the number of accident-related deaths G. An epidemiological study carried out between 1958 and 1981 showed that the per capita consumption of sugar had increased by 800 per cent. As a result of increasing urbanisation and consequent lifestyle changes.. and accidental causes. Most striking was the increase in the number of deaths resulting from suicide. Both of these trends can be explained by the rapid urbanisation of Dalwogcn in the period in question. a shift took place in the mortality patterns of Dalwogen Islanders during the period 1960-1-\0. 11* the main points in A. contains A. changes in the Islanders' diet and increases in the consumption of alcohol and tobacco brought about a sharp increase in the number of deaths resulting from tumours and coronary disease. Similarly significant were the increases in the 1lL1111ber 1 tumour-related 0 and coronary-related deaths. While malaria was eradicated by the introduction of chemical pesticides. Significant changes occurred in ths mortality patterns of Dalwogen Islanders in the period 1l)60-HO.TASK Which of the following Table 1 below? passages.

in alphabetical . The life expectancy Write I. according to Table I.1 TASK 12* Decide whether. '5. Dalwogen Islanders deaths among Dalwogen had more accidents disease. Arrange them in the order that they are most likely to appear.provided. the following statements are true or false. UNDERSTANDING THE ORGANISATION OF A PASSAGE Knowing how information is organised helps you read more efficiently EXAMPI. 3. females increased between 1960 and 1980. in 1980. 2. Write your answers in the spaces. Write T for true. your answers of Dalwogen here: 4. or N if no information is given in the Table.order-and alphabetical the way that the telephone your knowledge of the system enable you to find what you are looking for rapidly and efficiently TASK 13* The following is a list of the components of a textbook entitled 'Self-Instruction in Language Learning'.The largest single cause of death in 1960 was coronary 2. 960.E: If you are looking for a person's telephone number. males were recorded with] in 1980 compared 4. directory is crganised-c.. No malaria-related 3. 'S. F for false. bibliography preface introduction Unit 1 conclusion index table of contents Unit 2 appendix UN1T 1: Reading 25 J .ln 1980 lung cancer caused the death of fewer Dalwogen 'males than did coronary disease. I.

nw I \. resulting in structural damage ranging from minor cracking to the collapse of some dwellings.\1\11'1. Some of these may appear in the IELTS test and you may be asked questions which assess your ability to recognise them. Until recently. Based on the records of tree ring growth. • describing/proposing benefits/risks solutions to problems.. the problem is described before the solution. In both cases. Nottingham County Council engineers had two possible solutions to the problem. Although rainfall data are usually more extensive.\f\II'II: Extension of Riverflow Records in Thailand [extract 1 Administrators.Within each of a textbook's components. the gain in record length using precipitation data is generally only a few decades. The safest but most expensive solution involved the filling of abandoned mine-sites with grout. it is possible to reconstruct riverflow data over periods of several hundred years and. hydro-electric stations and flood-control systems. There arc conventional ways of organising information to achieve these purposes. situated at the centre of Britain's East Midlands Coalfield. The following purposes are common in academic writing: • describing processes • examining advantages/disadvantages. too short a period to provide enough data for an accurate determination of long-term trends and patterns of riverflow frequencies. hydrologists and engineers require detailed records of past variations in riverflow in order to develop projects such as bridge construction. however. most count ries did not make accurately gauged rivcrflow records. The purpose of an index. In the 1960s. cheaper method required the construction (inside the mine) of concrete piers which supported the rock strata. a cement-based material consisting of a mixture of cement. 1'\. they rarely extend for more than about 150 years. however. up to 2000 years. IELTS: STRATEGIES FOR STUDY -------------------- . for example. rapid urban expansion in the city of Nottingham. ash and water which then provided internal support. The second. This procedure was unsuitable in 26 ~ . Recognising these types of organisation helps you read more efficiently The following passages describe solutions to problems. in cases where trees of this age still survive.: u::~ Mine Subsidence in Nottingham Subsidence and its effects on surface-level structures poses serious problems for the development and maintenance of building stock in coal-mining areas. Its alphabetical order enables the reader to locate information rapidly. similar patterns of organisation can be found. influences the organisation of the information it contains. Even where such records exist.1. In some cases subsidence developed. led to the development of suburban housing over the sites of relatively shallow abandoned mines or deeper active mines. Most people arc familiar with indexing purposes and organisation They may be less familiar with other ways of organising information which arc common in academic writing.

r r I~ •. I t- In 1969. The decision to adopt one solution rather than the other had to be taken on a case-by-case basis. Council engineers opted [or the safer. The tmmedlat« effect of the removal of root systems and overhead shelter is to expose the earth to wind attrition. solution. the most important sector of the regions economy. The cavity was filled with grout above wl1ich a concrete pier eight metres in diameter was constructed. ~. but more expensive. !. each 10 centimetres in diameter. was bored with a series of 250 drill holes. Both these problems pose a serious threat to agriculture. In each case a decision was made by evaluating the degree of risk involved and the cost of implementation. however. Subsequently. E. The drill holes were then filled with grout to form a solid column with a slab support. By referring to the passage. which penetrated the mine cavity. Problem Problem A. cases where mines were located below the water table or where rock strata hac! been seriously weakened. D. Although surveys showed that the rock strata were intact and the mine working was above the water table. The project. resulting in a greater incidence of flooding and salinity. plans were announced to build a regional hospital on a site approximately 12 metres above an abandoned rnine working. resulting in soil erosion. when trees no longer remove groundwater. The base area of the hospital. match the list of phrases with the problems and solutions. Note that more options are given than are needed to complete the task. encountered a number of initial difficulties. C. 1 2 Solution to problem] Solution to problem 2 r: a tractor-driven planter hand-planting is labour-intensive one in five trees dies with conventional planting small rural agencies provided the funding a cheap plastic tree guard the UTe Industries tree guard costs 20 cents techniques r New Technology in Tree Planting The gradual deforestation of the riverine areas of south-eastern Australia has led to a number of damaging environmental effects. As a countermeasure. a second consequence of deforestation is a rise in the water table.. 1000 square metres. B. amU'lllcd on page 28 UNIT 1: Reading 27 . !- r TASK 14* r-r: ! The passage below describes a number of problems associated with tree planting and the solutions to those problems. the Federal government launched an ambitious scheme to plant a billion trees by the year 2000.

000. to the 28 ----_. It significantly lowers unit costs. The planter. animals and birds. In a woodchip program most or all of the trees in a small. requires lillie maintenance and costs around $20. The mortality rate of young trees has been drastically cut by a tree guard also developed by UTC Industries. Designed to boost the local economy and provide a cheap source of paper. '.TASK 14'. Mechanical planters and tree guards provided two solutions which have significantlyimproved the efficiency of the planting program. cattle or other animals while special holes and channels in the plastic allow light and air to enter and concentrate water to the roots of the tree.:. t . the woodchipping operations created a storm of controversy.000 over a l Ovyear period. This simple device is composed of a sheet of PVC plastic costing only. It provides support for the growing trunk and protection against sheep. It is operated by one person._----------------------------- . In contrast to traditional stake and wire support and protection systems._. The writer first presents the evidence which supports this practice and then lists the evidence against it. the eucalyptus se~dli~gs and young trees suffered a 20 per cent mortality rate as a result of disease. are taken to sawmills. can drill. ~) EXAl'vIPLE: Woodchipping in Old-Growth Forests In July 1990 the provincial government of British Columbia passed a law permilling woodchipping operations in the old-growth hardwood forests of the provinces north-west.lgencies who were providing half of the finance. the scheme would have required a massive number of workers (estimated at 50. nicknamed the Green Goddess. The final paragraph contains a conclusion in which her own view is expressed.1 " 'I The purpose of the following passage is to present the case for and against woodchipping in British Columbia. suitable for the production of sawn timber. Larger trees. II IELTS: STRATEGIES FOR STUDY __ . The total utilisation of timber from a given area provides a number of advantages. colltillllCdrrol11 page 27 By using traditional manual planting techniques. i. woodchips. while smaller trees and branches are taken to chip mills to be made into chips for pulping. around 20 cents which is wrapped around the trunks of young trees. This would have resulted in extremely high unit costs which were unrealistic for many of the small rural . selected area or 'coupe' are felled in an operation known as clearcutting. UTC Industries of Birchgrove developed a tractor-driven planter capable of planting both seeds and saplings. the plastic guards are much cheaper and can be installed on site more rapidly. In addition. Experiments have shown that mortality in young trees can be reduced by almost 90 per cent using this system. introduces a new product. poor drainage and inadequate protection from wind. plant and water 5000 seeds or 1000 saplings per hour.'.

which were formerly burnt. necessitating In an attempt the loggers the presence logging of the a moratorium in the summer a clear of 1991. police placed its findings presents interests in to start visual impact of clearcutting the t imbcr between the \VeIT met by groups numbers commission situation develop of federal provincial of enquiry in British when the holidaymakers in the spring Violent to prevent on 01 199]. in plant and machinery. there is no guarantee whose value that the economic hand.: :'l1ance: • "'ore fire detection • "1. forest services that clearcutting do. Access roads which must be built to clearcutting coupes also serve as firebreaks for workers of tourism would while increased funding enables the fire services and stimulates of to employ more personnel to detect by opening forest fires. species i. salinity. and processing argued claimed up previously operations damage They siltation inaccessible as a result the industry areas . as a r result of prevailing contractor consequence When oped flict.1ccess roads: as a result of woodchipping also permit the forest services to provide better management of their forests. debt) cry required of wooelchip demand for felling were largely geared were bound not. risked extinction with a consequent diversity • "'ihatiol1 T'!Tel1dent "pr'7eas r r'ssibly cm demal1d uncmploy- The Conservation Society of British Columbia further argued that the exploitation of the limited remaining virgin reserves for short-term benefits also represented poor build economic judgment. cannot be calculated gains can provide in merely a sustainable . irreparable of roads. While short-term economic benefits provide a tempting solution to politicians faced with a slump in export earnings. could long-term If.. in response result in wide-scale who had invested to the suggestion unemployment and large debts for the would take place as a claimed that the to the region. :otal utilisation . required to the new roads. economic guarantee conditions in the rate of overseas on investment control. The which companies beyond the industry'S these sales were lost.J1}!1'. ness irreparably On the other it is certain that a resource monetary damaged. increased and the eutrophicauon loss of genetic r • 'rDsion • '. employment the growth Opponents the forests itself and cent in the logging industries of the woodchipping suffer the construction Unique that the flora and fauna that the clcarcutting owl. clearcuuiug less destructive of access roads and the increased resources I 7 .TI' employrnt'nt . financial forest regenerawhich destroy of forest fauna. UNIT 1: Reading 29 . was unlikely opposed protesters.local economy source and utilises sawmill argued wastes. cfearcutting: • regeneration (less 1fstructive than fre) non in the same The development in their path. as ( a further '.\'irgin terms means wilderwill be of development. In contrast is also much facilitates to wildfires. of the woodchipping would of adjanow found provides • /:ett:er managemant r • fir"breaks • more tourism . including the black-fringed only in the area.t-: lead to soil erosion. In addition.' of woodchips. therefore.alinity h1rClJtting: waterways. Returns on the large capital to an overseas Fluctuations returns investment market. arc diametrically example economic of developers r' •(tTtain r damage opposed to those of conservationists. construct products a woodchip for export mill and purchase the heavy machinas 8S per cent r ""'<. they clashes further develof large cona until tensions f of protesters and provincial government released Columbia to the logging. this would Finally. generated way that wildfires The provincial everything . that a touristboom to attract logging conservationists r f of infrastructure trucks moved and developments.

impact which non nuclear Wind power.. hydro-electric source largest power. power. conclusion. First argument Second argument 'against' 'against' Conclusion A. of California's on the environment. there arc 15Dwlnd II. important wincl provide The the wind a day. need to increase renewable. No wind . Chernohyl is an Mile Island. renewable. environmental electricity sometimes impact for an energy-hungry In contrast offers many increasingly in which stations carbon aware of of conventional power wind-powered neither and electricity-generating the majority emissions have a minimal to the phenomeit falls. power. however. wind like stations solar.c 31 - - 30 lEtTS: STRATEGIES FOR STUDY . add to the Greenhouse They produce kills the lakes dioxide Effect nor do they contribute forests another tidal and where cannot become and needs. the task of phrases options to complete 'for' 'Ior' First argument Second argument .l'. wind stations C infinitely L wind are ugly efficiency and reliability source of wind power arc provided source hy wincl power non-polluting of energy important or energy 13. station of acid rain which plants. requirement. Even when is the unpredictability the wind stations are sited on the windiest hills there is no guarantee that the wind will blow 24 hours Wl1lillllCd pa. in the Los Rcmos ar~'it'>····r" dangerous do not generate Harnessing \Vind-generated advantages the negative systems.TASK The passage as a primary arguments needed and below source the contains arguments Match Note 15* for and against the that list more the lise of wind A-H with are given than power these are of energy. Until ways can be found to store generated power that can be used when 011 non-polluting in satisfying of the drawback stale's of energy wincl is becoming The swishing near increasingly blades the state's energy towers major Los Rernos 10 per cent of the city's energy of wind povver. 10 per cent of Los Rcrnoss energy power is becoming towers requirements an increasingly F wind power is at present G. wind stations inefficient and unreliable emissions the Winds called society aeolian becoming stations power. itself. Unlike or Three infinitely on the already of to coal or oil-fired is produced.

hydro-electric as to maximise rnust continue source. the wind majestic Los Rernos Range . A parent T i. renewable each arc silent to look of energy. or nuclear running and is not economically conventional Environmentalists r have on the landscape. in the home Processing from its shell to the time it becomes each stage or a packis modern with poult ry production supply part of • c!licks to ITOilfT ~111 integrated. making in miniature. It is expected installation efficiency costs competitive or in the technology production. such as wind efficiency. the meantime. state-of-the-art a minimum commercially will mean fossil At present.30 r r the winds states viable lower that die down. ugly. sources reliability ()f environmentally power. The writer describes each (If the stages involved in the process in the order in which they occur. .- Harnessing until The offer a clean.\\11'11 r From the moment aged chicken T Poultry a chick hatches lrcczcr. are also concerned In order there a total the does to install are about the visual impact commercially number wind wind stations In and like but to generate viable of wind towers. of electricity the sale Los but Rcmos high. up to 5000 weight. low with elTicicncy however. The purpose T of the following passage is to describe a process. in such capacity solar. scheme covering r it is necessary a large L50 steel )0 metres Manhattan area of ~o hectares.r TASK 15*: ((JIlIiIlIlCcl(10111 puge. around and wind power will remain wind a supplementary towers still require to generate source of the energy. they are removed from their cages and attached electrically to conveyor before r UNIT 1: Reading 31 . They begin quantities towers.s. The birds chicks to cages in distributed processing by their passing me kept in each cage and a broiler are fed on grain which the chickens arc unit may contain is mechanically to their cages. lines where they reach the required stunned At this stage. broiler units. windspecd this wind 25 kilometres that the increase and per hour improvements electricity.ter [lock of chickens Four chicks provides a hatchery the young a continuous are transferred of egp. the use of both wind. One week after the hatching. Present of around speed high power stations. In six to eight weeks.age 2: I • conveyor • 8tunned •cut. T 1\. the dficiency suggest the source technology most likely increases forecasts a way research and and reliability development the advantages to improve of the system of systems it will which energy In not be able to replace integrate sources storage T conventional fossil fuel or nuclear-powered and conventional of each the generating friendly energy stations. automated system. feet cages.

separation F separation The Separation Alter oil-bearing strata have been penetrated by drill holes. This begins the process of feather removal. Evisceration was formerly performed manually but is . oil comes to the surface by means of natural drive. The carcasses are then conveyed to the evisceration carried out by pneumatically drivenevisceraLion lines. -Uptc 1000 birds an hour can be processed in this way.j ••. an outlet channel is placed at the bottom of the vessel E. match the list of phrases A. Stage 2 A. ln the final stage the carcasses are cooled by being passed through iced water.. The separation process involves a gradual reduction of pressure in the separator vessel from the elevated pressure at which the oil/gas mixture emerges continued 011 page 33 32 IELTS: STRATEGIES FOR STUDY - . If gas and water are present. for example under pressure of dissolved gas. The birds are then packed and stored in refrigerated deposits and are ready for distribution to retailers. of gas and oil. removal of water and gas C. the birds are then mechanically nailed to remove any remaining feathers. After hanging for a few minutes to allow blood to drain away. injection of fresh water. Glossary: evisceration: the removal of intestines __. D. - stage 3: • blood/drain • baths ·flailing stage 4: • evisceration stage 5: • cooling stage 6: • packaging • storage • distribu. passed through scalding baths heated to 50°C for approximately 30 sec" onds. the separation of these substances must occur before refining can take place. By referring to the passage. Emerging fr0111the baths. reduction Stage 3 Stage 4. resulting in a dramatic increase 111 production efficiency and consequently lower prices for the consumer.. Stage 1 .tion through a cutter which severs their jugular veins. S. of pressure in separator vessel of oil. gas and water takes place near the wellhead of Gas and Oil during Drilling Operations _. generally located near the wellhead.' TASK 16*.:. The passage below describes the stages involved in the separation. The separation procedure is carried out in a pressurised separator vessel.. _. the carcasses are. '.F with stages 1-4.

or the damage tired of the nar- the polluting of cars: citY:" medieval and Renaissance architecture. to test for the presence is injected solution to be removed. Shopkeepers come They argued were convinced that deliveries that their people into the centre. may be recovered way by an outlet After the removal remaining tank which channel in the same of r: I T at the bottom it is necessary or the water."""--~---------------------------------- r UNIT 1: Reading 33 . v. was drawn Candidates 375. was greeted worried 1110re difficult without and that the city would lose its character and become r r r r r r c. the vessel. row lanes. into the r T T the salt and allows thus eliminating TASK T 17* original sequence. would a museum if be to rely on public a heart. for the elections to the city council r r r to he held in December] tain Regulation B. place them Using your knowlthat you r The think paragraphs they should below occur. are not between in their edge of the relationships paragraphs. salt. of the channel into atmospheric oil and oil.v'atcr is removed of the vessel. enthusiastically about by a number effects or interest lovers groups. to the surface an outlet released either at the top of the separator or.c. forms removed three from layers. the noise and danger . Fewer however.3i _.T T T TASK [6": ((1I1(il1l1('d/J(JII1I'(/. In response to the shopkeepers' a protest store while demonstration. of the the Siena city) carried Chamber editorials of Commerce hy a large denouncing of the council's which were or main- T organised department The local newspaper up seeking (part-owned a reversal the decision decision. would transport.~(' 32 T T T from the inlet pipe to normal During heavier rises then through this water stage sinks the water. fresh water the entire the refining process. In order dissolves problems to remove during the salt. all rejoiced. while the gas gas mixture leaving gas is then r T to the bottom. The vessel It is quantithe oil above it. caused by cars and motorbikes dashing through r r' (OlllillllU/Ollpa)!. suffer. in the order A. The new by-law Environrncntalists. if present use. appalled by the constant done to the priceless monuments of the centre: and ordinary people. The located pressure. in the centre a petition standing concerns. they believed. Not everyone trade they would had 985 campaigned on a Single issue: to revoke was so happy. the atmosphere for commercial placed in sufficient T ties.

. the relationship regions.. management of passages. you read them Some stutechnique: again several later you have to be able to make sense of them. Taking notes in university lectures requires ing main the notes dents shows points.omoted ~~anagement asth.I!. done ". '. The have been underlined. all ~f theunderhned Understanding words refer to "ilTigation is essential scheme~ and scheIT}es havefbeen Their an_d livestock 1)t. the purposes try to write il that they have failed to understand 34 IELTS: STRATEGIES FOR STUDY -~---~~------------~------ .) ".\S car and motor-bike Regulation to the city centre. Draw an arrow or words first one has been for you as an arc to be useful months down they should everything be clear and concise.(' . .__' .. was not in force and the reign of the motor the Siena city council motor vehicles W. cleanest in a recent editorial.uuilul Tuscan city. a by-law centre of this thc use of private from the historic divided.. were had been so hostile of SIena has the safest. planners with new however._. projects'. citirun its tre of Siena had increased now proudly streets boasts by 15 per cent in real terms which since the new law had and quietest come into force.3. The elections election to return E In January which The law stayed campaign pass the same enlightened by the Social Democrats. as in the case of the wet rice zone of jJ'e~ween these types of projects thei r co-existence presents is well established. Asia. can refer to other words in a passage. EXAivlPLE: @'2_gation an~ both economics.3 D. to understand '" ~. A survey carried out in 1987 showed that traders' earnings in the historic to Regulation the backward which had cen375. on the issue of the maintenance of the new by-law. in a lecture. _.OU nee'c!' to be able .1111('£1/. The local paper. . when passed 375.0111 f1(/. such references for the com- TASK 18* In the passage to the word example. TASK 17"": (0111. specific (skills. In the preceding livestock prehension passage.) These relevance When include identifyIf and relationships.xlon't laws! a party zens of Rome and Florence E. understanding tasks and deciding below a number they refer of words to. the way in whichwords . puhlic opinion extremely CHECKING In order-to REFERENCES read efficiently }. that the centre they asked won largely in Italy Why. This is not a useful of a lecture. 1985. where In semi-arid challenges.esolution projects) to the frequently problems co-occur of local co-occurrence is logical. hanned bc.

you. range of study When YOU NEED you need to locate and extract strategies. 'extraction'.36 . specific which you should use the following tasks and lELTS tasks efficiently ignoring Knowing this is your objective. -r -I bodies? course 5.\M PLL: If you are answering you should search also for synonyms the question the passage 'How is iron ore extracted not only for 'extracted 'dig'.. or the text will help to decide and phrases bold print. Specialisation accounting courses code recognition title) by professional 011 -.. will help you to locate information • • • • Remember focus on your objective. Give the full titles (course 1990. from the ground:>'. FINDING THE INFORMATION In a wide information. information irrelevant or the places. text are 1110re likely over the text.. but 'mining'. look in likely which parts run your use print and rapidly. such as 'removed'.\. TASK 20* 1 '1 In the passage questions: below. 1 COlitililled. 'removal'.--i _ __J~' i . underline the information which answers the following l . from the ground'.. \Vhat is the maximum 1990:' 2. arrows Underline to the words words 19 which refer to other to which words or phras- es and then draw and phrases they refer. Names.TASK Choose another passage. associated and upperforms. for words italics.)!] page .. eyes rapidly style to help with the target information case letters stand out from the rest of the passage you need to locate may be expressed in different that the information l I·. /\1\' number of students Law? major to who can enrol in BUSL 210 in there any l Ou-levcl sentence in Law discipline? which units in Business "1 'l ) V'/hich Business summarises the two leads and aims or units offered the by the I -( "I·. the organisation looking numbers.. UNIT __ 1: Reading 35 _ . of five subjects offer in -.

the process or change in law and the overall relevance of law to decisions made in both the public and private sectors. or as a consequence of association with other members of society in industrial. Legal obligations arise in every facet of human life. outside the school. and hence to the full sequence of Business Law units. BUSL 301 and BUSL 320 leads to recognition by the professional accounting bodies when taken as part of the professional accounting sequence.. such as economics or. There are no 100-level units in Business Law. politics. The units in law provide the Ioundation for becoming a more informed and effective member of society. commercial. in an area such as education. How many students take units in Business Law as a step towards becoming professional lawyers? 7. fundamental legal concepts. How many credit points are given for the Basic Business Law course? Business Law Units offered by the Business Law discipline have two major aims: Studies in Law The discipline offers a major sequenCE" in law for candidates not seeking to become lawyers. These qualifying units cover basic legal concepts and techniques. This major sequence of units is particularly useful for students to combine with specialised study in another field within the school.3'5 6. Business Lrrw The great majority of students taking units in the Business Law discipline do so as part of their education towards a professional career. A specialisation in BUSL 300. philosophical. Students who wish to take this sequence commence their study with BUSL 350 . whether on a purely individual basis. philosophy or even those physical sciences which are becoming more business management oriented. political and economic issues raised by a system of law. . business and company law. and revenue . In 1990 admission to BUSL 210. and for a variety of careers in industry. sociology. social. These students must satisry the prerequisite 01 haVing gained 18 credit points and be concurrently enrolled in BUSL 212 and BUSL 213. will be restricted to a quota of 80 students selected on the basis 01 previous academic performance. so attainment of a double major with Business Law is relatively easy. law.37 36 IELTS: STRATEGIES FOR STUDY - . history. government and education.TASK 20*: continued iron: page. commercial or interpersonal relationships.Subjects on offer by the discipline in 19l)0 will include: continued on pugc . commerce. The curriculum is designed to develop an awareness of the nature and role of law in society through a basic understanding of: legal institutions.

sectors for which an Economics degree may be relewith Economics) ). underline questions: 1 the information which answers the following 1 ! 1.38 =~~~ . . It involves the analysis of production.c37 __ __ --' . stability and growth.. U_N_IT_. Indicate rive employment vant. commerce. _1_: _R_e_a_d_in_g __. ... All of these subjects can be taken as part of the Studies-in-Law TASK 21 * In the passage below. The passage indicates four problems associated with relative scarcity What are they) 2. Whai restrictions are placed on entry to 100-level Economics units' 1 .e. 1 Economics Economics is a social science which studies how societies deal with problems resulting from relative scarcity.t. It is concerned with how economic systems . distribution and use of goods and services in all types of societies. Is it necessary to enrol in ECON20] -.3 credit credit credit credit points points points points sequence. t\ student who completes a substantial and coherent study of Economics chooses from a wide variety of programs within the discipline. 1 Law l)f Business Law of Associations The Criminal Justice System Revenue Law J ...C J() 200 level I3USL 210 I3USL 213 BUSL 212 BUSL 250 300 Lcvc] BLJSL300 BUSL 301 BUSL 302 BUSL 320 Foundation in Legal Studies The Legal System The Civil Justice System Basic Business Law J 3 3 J credit credit credit credit points points points points T .irr organised and with how decisions arc made by individuals. in order to enrol in ECON35]) 5. What other subjects may be studied in conjunction 4. Because of the broad scope of the subject matter embraced hy modern economics. i. Some students may choose to (olllillUtci 011 rCl.t. . the choice depending to a large' extent on the student's interests and goals. t 1 '1 TASK 20*' cOlltinucd/rom fl<l.3 .C . banking.3 . education and government service. distribution.. a university education in this area may lead to a wide variety of careers in industry. business firms and go\·crtlments. problems of allocation.

if they wish.. subject to prerequisite and co-requisite requirements. entry into the 100-1evel Economics core units ECON 110 and ECON III will be subject to quota restrictions. In some cases students may wish to combine a major in Economics with specialised study in another field within the school. Students whose course of study has satisfied all requirements for the award of the BEe degree may. is The writer encourages students The writer Zealand. ECON350. 38 IELTS: STRATEGIES FOR STUDY nor discourages students from bringing their --------------- ----------- . finance or statistics. ECON355. from bringing their children to New students C The writer neither encourages children to New Zealand. Ellll'V illlo All students permitted to enrol in ECON 110 or ECON 111 will. such as Econometrics. ECON333. such as accounting. decide which of the following statements correct. Entry to these units will he guaranteed only to students who haw entered Mncquaric under the Bachelor of Arts (Economics) quota or under the Bachelor of Economics quota or to students whose entry qualifications were above those required for entry under these quotas.-- -- -. 1\. students may he able to include these at an earlier stage in their programs if they so desire. EVALUATING INFORMATION 111 tertiary study. graduate as Bachelors of Economics. law or sociology Although ECON303.. ECON349. You will also be expected to critically evaluate the information you read by distinguishing between facts and opinions. ECON353.. B. lOG-level Economics For students entering Macquarie University in 1990 or subsequent years. be allowed entry to any subsequent ECON unit. In the lELTS test. Consequently. or in some other area such as politics. tasks may require you to do more than simply understand the main points and find specific information. ECON358. )l1ur ability to do this may be tested by asking you to determine a writers point of view or to compare two or more statements and decide whether they have the same meaning. A.. students need not have completed ECON201 Macro-economic Analysis before enrolling in these units.\\11>11: By referring to the passage below. geography. -~----. ECON360 and ECON365 are designated as 300-level units. discourages to bring their children to New Zealand. ECON339. ECON352.TASK 20": (0l1til1l1Cd{10111 f'ugc 37 follow a highly specialised program concentrating on a particular area.~- . whereas others lllay prefer to acquire a broadly based Economics background. ECON351. ECON342. ECON356.

Statement B: -. .. There are also no words or phrases' which express the same idea. Therefore.... -. ..(!.word 'discourage' does not appear in the text. you will need to consider the impact 01 this on your children. In order to answer this question you need to find evidence Statement .- . The university provides free child-care on weekdays but the number of places available is very limited. Children arriving on tourist visas cannot remain in the country for more than three months Full-time study is extremelydemanding. Naturally. rcquiring <1 comrnit rnrnt of perhaps 50 or 1110re hours per week._..... 'you should'. 1 . Advice for Overseas Students in If you are planning to bring your children with you while you are studying New Zealand you should consider the lollowing points. you should also make sure that the same idea is not expressed in other ways... -.- T .. Extra facilities arc available olT campus on a fee-paying basis and you should expect to pay around $30 a day If you wish to apply for university child-care you must contact the Student Centre at least two months before your arrival date. . . A: 'r 'r The word 'encourage' does not appear in the text..' Passage B: 'The annual harvest of immature seals supplies with a highly valuable raw materia!" . 'you need io. -. The .L:: The following two passages provide have very different points of view similar information about killing seals. . The correct answer is therefore 1.. other words and phrases which give the idea of '(I1COUl. you should consider the stresses caused by separation.. It is essential to make appropriate visa arrangements for your chilcl(ren) before leaving for New Zealand.~C' include 'recommenci'.. . which compares words and phrases from the two passages as evidence of the writers' points of view UNIT 1: Reading 39 .\ivIPl.... .Jlr_\~. 'ii's Cl good idea 10'. None of these examples occurs in relation to the idea of 'bl'ingil1. -.~childlcn with you' Therefore.' '.• X. '1 for each statement.. there is no evidence in the text to support B. there is no evidence in the text to support A. . _ The different points of view are reflected in the language chosen by each writer This is illustrated in the following table. 1 Passage A: 'Every year thousands slaughtered of baby seals are brutally to satisfy the demands or fashion. but and needlessly the lur industry C '1 '1 -..•... This suggests that there is no evidence to support the statement.. However. Deciding whether to bring your children or not can he difficult Although it call create considerable financial and practical problems. . In this case. ... ...

The writer believes that deciding to bring children with you: A is an easy decision B has a negative effect on your study I 1 __ C needs careful thought n_-·_l_la_s_... l low docs the choice of language by the writers of Passages A and 13rellect their respective points of view? TASK 22* on page 39..ail1s1 Evidence: thousands baby seals brutally needlessly slaughtered demands fashion of ~----~~------l"'~ Viewpoint: for ~---_.Passage ~ --------------_------- Passage B Evidence: Viewpoint: Clg. immature seals harvest supplies a highly valuable raw material fur industry to satisfy the ~----~ ~----~ ~------l~~ . the processes they describe. By referring to the reading passage 'Advice For Overseas Students' answer the following question.. _----_-------_---------------------------_ . Decide whether the writers of these passages are in favour of.._ ~ __ --~_ ~ -----~ . MATCHiNG INFORMATION two sets of information and decide IELTS tasks may also require you to compare whether they have the same meaning. 40 lELTS: STRATEGIES FOR STUDY --- -_ ... Provide evidence to justify your decision._o_n_)_'o_l_lr_c_'h_i_ld_r_c_n __ _il_n_p_<1_c_t ----' TASK 23 Read thc passage 'Woodchipping in Old-Growth Forests' on page 28 and 'Poultry Processing' on page 31. or neutral about.. opposed to. . _an_l'_g_<lt_i\_'e_..

and therefore 'can create' certain answer to. 'might'. the following the passage: 'Bringing In order to answer children statement false or unsupported with you causes considerable you need to: to the statement: you causes considerable financial-and practical difficulties' this question which r r Find information • bringing difficulties.. whereas is not the correct whether: 'creates' means means is 'False'. Statement 3.'.. statements false.lCcording to the passage. Paris is the capital 2. a small r r r I . Paris. Texas. of the statements check the tenses correspond such as 'can'. but However. the following no relevant information is given. and manner refer to exactly the same things with different words the same meaning is expressed UNIT 1: Reading 41 . 'Advice for Overseas 5t uderus' by evidence on in r . Statement r r according to the passage is true. to problems. is a beautiful Remember terms 2 IS town. 3. In this example. J J~ e 'can create' 'is not equal and 'create' may lead to") are synonymous. 'should'. and there is no relevant I:XAMPLE: Decide whether. whether a passage which contains town the following in Texas. that bringing hringing makes the chiltwo (Note: :I: means 'cause' with you The verbs children dren statements When with you always leads to problems. etc. the information given regarding is true or false in absolute r that you are not asked whether information r r or whether you agree or disagree. Statement I is false. true. of France. 'must'.' r r r = 'It can create 4) practical (paragraph Check how closely each part of each statement • bringing practical • causes children problems' with you and corresponds: r r = 'it' practical difficulties 'considerable financial and • considerable financial r r ~ 1- . This r J- . location. information: you arc asked arc true 'The films to decide· Of live in Paris. or 1.. r- different in meaning comparing • • • • • two sets of information. corresponds with children considerable financial financial and and practical problems. Paris is a small Texan town. the verbs are qualified the facts are qualified the nouns by an auxiliary by circumstances such as time.'T 1 T r r r r r r 1::\. r r page 39. .\ M PLE: After reading protagonists whether.

-"./ TASK 25* --' Decide whether the following passage 'The Role Of Pilot Error In Airline Crashes' supports../ -" J J 42 IELTS: STRATEGIES FOR STUDY . If the statement is conti'llIccl 011 !loge 43 -I.. or provides no information about the following statements.. rejects. In ]990 a total of six scholarships were made available to students enrolled in the Faculty of Science. The two passages do not contain the same in formation..cs: _< ..'will be made' Clllxi!iur. . The differences are listed below._./ . 'were mack' *.. if any._ __. rejects. The dissertation must contribute to the body of scientific knowledge and demonstrate the students ability to undertake research. If the statement is supported... Passage 2 Science students may be required to write a 15.. J .. _.000-word dissertation by the end of their third year of study.FXAMPLE: Do passages 1 and 2 b~low contain the same information! d itTcrences? What._i 'are required' *...'by the end of their ._a. In 1990. _..· _... .. " . of their study' *..J 'within two years of the commencement third year of study' __" reievencc: 'most students in science faculties' *. tick box A. tCl1se: .. are the P(lssage 1 Most students in the Faculty of Science are required to write a 15.o -..'may be required' circumstances: _. or provides no information about the following statement: Full-time students may have to study for more than 50 hours a week. The thesis should contribute to the body of scientific knowledge and demonstrate an ability to undertake scientific research./ Decide whether the passage 'Advice for Overseas Students' on page 39 supports.1 total or six scholarships will he made available to students enrolled in the Faculty of Science. ~ J ..000-word thesis within two years of the commencement of their study.'science students' -' --' TASK 24*.

box C tick box B.coniinucdIton: pagc 43 T r r rejected.. the risk of a crash before completion of the Oight is greater than the risk during the take-off and ascent phases. and landing phases take longer than the BJ C r r B C l- A B C r r . Some pilots do not lower the plane's wheels before landing. Once the plane has reached its cruising altitude.resulted in crashes.000 electronic warning units should install them immediately and adequately train pilots to use them. In 1989 alone five crashes resulted from the flight crew ignoring on-board electronic systems which warn that a crash is imminent. has found that almost 75 per cent of the 850 major airline crashes in the period ] 980-90 were caused by pilot error. All airlines will be required to install electronic warning units. 6. 8. If the statement is neither supported nor rejected. Although the final approach and landing phases of flights accounts for only 4 per cent of flying time. . 2. r r r +. The report recommended that safety procedures and pilot training should be improved to eliminate common pilot errors which . 40 per cent of the crashes studied occurred during these phases. Five crashes in 1989 were caused by pilots ignoring A B C r r A B IC C ground-based electronic warning systems. The take-off phase of flight accounts for 4 per cent of !lying time. l' T T T TASI< 25*. The Boeing report recommended that those airlines which did not possess the $30. . 7. The majority of major airline crashes in the period 1980-90 were attributable to pilot error. The approach ascent phase. the US aircraft manufacturer. iA iA A B i C r r 5. Many pilots were unable to make rapid and accurate decisions during emergencies. continllcd 011 page 44 UNIT 1: Reading 43 . ~ A B C The Role of Pilot Error in Airline Crashes Research carried out by McDonnell Douglas.-. tick r r r 1. A B r r r 3.

TASK 25*: conttnucdinnr: page 43 AVERAGE AEROPLANE CRASH/FLIGHT TIME RATIOS CRUISING ALTlTUOE ASCENT ~ ---- ~APPROACH PHASES '" Of TOTAL fLIGHT TIME ~ 91 21 19 14 3 22 ~ . Faced with an unknown word._' 24 % OF TOTAL CRASHES The report cited two examples of pilot error during landing... In addition.. you should first check whether passage. phrases.) -' ..:» . it was reported that during emergencies some pilots found it difficult to make a rapid and accurate decision to abort or continue the landing. ./ _.J 44 IELTS: STRATEGIES FOR STUDY _) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- . sentences and paragraphs.."J._. ..J ... One of the most common causes of landing crashes is pilot failure to ensure that the plane's wheels are lowered before landing. Your knowledge of the world tells you that the effects of smoking include lung cancer. --" UNDERSTANDING UNKNOWN WORDS ___ ./ You may not understand all the words in the reading passages. some readers panic and believe that they will not be able to answer the questions Remember.# . bronchitis.....J ..". One way of guessing is to use your knowledge of the possible relationships between words. the word is defined in a glossary at the end of the ._/ _) It is also possible to guess the meaning from the context.I If it is essential to know the meaning of an unfamiliar word in order to complete the task.._} J ... that you often do not need to understand every word to carry out the required tasks . however. .J .J _) _) _) _. EXAMPLE: Smoking is the major cause of The unknown word is an effect of smoking. The unknown word may be one of these.. The word you do not understand may relate to other words in the passage which you do understand. --" _. emphysema and heart disease. --" _. .

. You may understand word. 3. . of alcohol can lead to disease of the . you can sometimes guess the other. TASK 26* Guess the meaning of the unknown without knowing the exact English with words you know.." is a small tunnel used for accessing underground ._. 2. acted as a legislator among the Treng 4.. as opposed to government-lunded required to submit annual staffing plans. You em also look for definitions. the strange mammal with a beak like a cluck. EXAI'vII'L. it is still not known why the _~ .. Opposite meanings may appear in the same text. TASK 27* Find the meaning of the unknown 1.. Excessive consumption methods because they ~_ .. If you know one meaning. In this case describe the meaning the meaning 1.'~ . is defined as weight divided by height squared._. dies after short periods of captivity. 'The unknown word may be defined in the text: EXAMPLE: III spite of intensive research.E: . cavities.' or short-sightednessas it is more commonly known.. schools... _-- . the conventional proved to be both too expensive and inaccurate. A .. .__ 3. The unknown word probably refers to non-government-funded schools.. also known as the Quetelei index. __ . 'on the other hand'... words. The tribespeople. The project team decided to . .. The unknown word is defined as a 'strange mammal 'with a beak like a duck'. words. ~~_~_'_ 2. . are not schools or private schools. or hereditary chief.. _. Holding your breath or drinking 4. The law permits private landlords a glass of water are common cures for to tenants who fail to pay their rent for more than three months.. UNlT 1: Reading 45 ------~--------- .. You need to look out for phrases like 'in contrast'._...

Deciding if the unknown word is an adjective. commonly carried by dogs and foxes.\:\~vlPLE: and personal experience to suggest possible answers In Western Europe the motor engine has now almost completely horse and the ox as a means of transport'6r"5burce of power. was formerly fatal to humans who were bitten by these animals. a noun. In contrast. whereas in the dry season farmers face the problems associated with .TASK 28* Guess the meaning of the unknown word: __.' 1. 2. Three national newspapers are published with a total daily circulation of five million. a verb or an adverb can help you guess its meaning. . digital watches and clocks have become as familiar as the 1110retraditional timepieces. the _. They freely debate all the major issues of the day. and _ 2. A recent survey of fatal car accidents in Venezuela showed that the main three causes in order of importance were . . F. before the change of government. may bring a wider experience religious community. Any of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council has the power to a decision made by the other four. Northern Australia is subject to two kinds of natural disaster: in the wet season. The unknown word probably refers to the idea of 'taken the place of'. TASK 29* Guess the meaning of the unknown words: 1.\i\MI'LE: The results of the research were extremely 46 IELTS: STRATEGIES FOR STUDY . 4. Over the past 20 years. 4. the press was subject to strict . l. You can also use your knowledge from the context. . . in contrast to the clergy. Research carried out at Anchorage University suggests that longer than women who remain Single. of life to a live 3. E. the heavy rains cause flooding.

English-language newspapers and magazines that cover technological developments and world issues can be used. The results of the research were so ~ __ ~_. Never the wires if they arc connected sure YOll arc wearing rubber-soled shoes. that the two researchers have been dismissed from-their positions in the Institute.. FURTHER STUDY is to find appropriate passages and to The key to developing a further study program carry out specific tasks on them.- General Training Module C. This limits the range of possible meanings: how can you describe the results of research. r r 1'- TASK 30* Guess the meaning of the unknown words. 1= J-j'f'- . The Far EuslCII1 Economic Rcview. and Scientific American. . Always make r J~ r- hi-tech products. ). if possible. you should also contact the institution where you plan to study and ask if pre-reading and coursereading lists are available. The primary of government subsidies are firms which specialise in to the mains. 2.. arc useful sources of practice passages In addition. r .. such as high-school and undergraduate text hooks. The Clw.r ~ ~ 1. you should try to expand the list of examples given on page 8 and.encr. These include The Economist. magazines and inst ruction manuals. The car on the wet road and crashed into an oncoming truck If it appears important to understand a particular word. do not rely on your vocabulary knowledgealone: always make a guess.cliw1 \\I('cl<ly. obtain copies of these types of passages from newspapers.. UNIT]: Reading 47 . In preparation for tertiary study.ll Training Module passages reflect the many different kinds of texts you need to read when living in an English-speaking country. Other parts of the text will help to limit the range even further.T r r r r rr r J'" The unknown word is probably an adjective. FINDING APPROPRIATE PASSAGES . Academic Training Module Books that introduce the reader to new topics. In order to find appropriate passages to pract isc reading. 4.

--" _..) Ask your partner to read the passage and decide whether the statements you have written correspond to statements in the passage.) - . More than 50 per cent of Senegal's cultivated land is used for groundnut production... ./ ... 48 IELTS: STRATEGIES FOR STUDY -~ about the passage that require your study ... The lack of adequate irrigation means that the groundnut crop is dependent on rainfall.../ Exercises for independent Your study program should include regular practice of the reading tasks described in this unit... tables and graphs the organisation -" ._I -.. Each time you read... which account for half the cultivated land.:» ~ ._I • checking references the writers viewpoint unknown words • matching information . ..) Exercise 2 Choose a reading passage. including some statements that do not contain the same information as the reading passage../ ._) ." .... DEVELOPING A STUDY PROGRAM study -._) 0 . Write questions partner to locate specific information._._I ~ _) .._. the groundnut crop is highly vulnerable to seasonal changes in rainfall.J J J _) -" __) j Sample statements: The Senegalese economy has improved due to external aiel./ _.. . .J _) [J ._.. ... increase the number of tasks you carry out on one passage. despite receiving external aid. the economy of Senegal has been in decline.--' _./ _. The 1983 drought reduced production by over 70 per cent. -/ Exercises with a study partner Exercise 1 Choose a reading passage.J _) _) .. (You will find it useful to refer to the Example below. Crops in Senegal are vulnerable to variations in rain fall./ .. TRUE FALSE [J l] _) .... Make sure your program includes the full range of tasks. As you become more proficient. CI-IECKLI ST • overviewing a passage • understanding • understanding • interpreting • understanding • understanding • understanding the main points relationships in passages of a passage diagrams. Almost 50 per cent of export earnings are derived from the production of groundnuts. . . with a devastating impact on the nation's economy. -" _. As a result of the absence of adequate irrigation. EXAMPLE: Since the mid-1970s. . focus on at least two of the tasks from the list below. . Write a series of statements based on information in the passage."..

F\. the task 1110re difficult. This is in breach and makes the user liable (or unauthorised usc of the card Sam pic C(uesti ons: What Which Which does PIN stand institutions practice Ior? teller machines? use automatic violates ATM usage conditions? is it possible 10 According to the passage. the original passage to Check or.I Automatic ing societies cash. cash and cheques. banks. showed with to access an ATM. . i III 111igralion benefits In to the _ may not nation the size of the labour However.. UNIT 1: Reading 49 . only every make a photocopy tenth word words. and delete every sixth word.) Your task is to guess the missing sec how accurate lIE 1\. or small. purchase goods through an ATM7 Exercise ." ~. balance.I!. a larger and that immigration However. PUSSCI. to make every third word. argued immigrationdid generally hy the size of the creating of con- the size of these that although is relatively economic the positive crfects may not be signif- not have detrimental effects on theeconomy The The .3 Ask a study-partner (You might decide to select a passage. EXCf"cise 4 Ask a study partner The study • • partner: numbers makes should argued significant. the report .. that although a larger pool_ cllccts consumers._ generally provides and creating benefits did not havc______ is relatively economic positive report by . increasing reviewed three studies labour on the economic provides market benefits economic and effects of immigration benefits small. and to obtain a PIN (Personal 50 per cent unions.. to choose <1 short passage (no more than 50 words).AivlPI_[:: ._ t he cconom ic effects . each of the words a second be deleted in the passage and retains this copy: This t imc copy. the report icant./\ivlPIr:: The passage selected by your study partner: The report found sumers. to delete you were. recent their to teller machines to facilitate deposit (ATMs) arc used by credit banking require transactions. and buildIn order A carry of usage They can hc used to withdraw an account Identification Number). again numbering and replaced each of the words. to the nation pool In conclusion.C you sec: reviewed found th rcc studies that immigration the size of __. clients US survey PIN numbers that around of ATM cardholders of the conditions the card. effects (11lIh(' ccollomy. the letters with clashes The study partner gives you this copy. immigration .

sometimes H 1') known )() as a -. ask your partner to remove the title from the passage as well. and a keyboard sometimes known as a data input unit. _.' U 14 15 20 22 23 24 2'5 . a central processing unit. For example. The more you read (and rememberl).111 the gaps.I:\Mvll'l J:: The passage selected by Jour study pari ncr: Word Processors A word processor has three main components: a screen or visual display unit. 4') 46 47 48 edit. Word processors can be used to create. edit. if you guess 'and'. . Word Processors I 2 3 4 5 6 7 -' 8 l) 10 II 12 A word processor 13 14 has three main components: 16 17 18 1l) 20 a screen or visual display 21 22 23 24 15 27 unit. store and 49 50 4041424344 retrieve information in a tenth of the time a manual system would require. The copy retained by your study partner. 29 ancl a keyboard 10) I )2 .:» Exercise 5 You can also use Exercise 4 to increase your reading speed. 2') a central 211 processing 28 unit.--- _-_16 17 28 29 6 18 19 7 9 10 11 12 -_-21 _. The copy your study partner gives to you: Word Processors 2 3 4 5 -_. To make this task even more challenging. 39 Word processors can be used to create. the easier it will be to fin in all the missing words. continuing until you have completed . 50 IELTS: STRATEGIES FOR STUDY ------------------'---- . Fill them in on your copy and then take another guess. before beginning to guess. 8 --. you can also do these exercises in your first language. store and retrieve information in a tenth of the time a manual system would require.8 26 27 30 31 - 32 33 34 ---. your partner will tell you each of the numbers where the word appears. ask your partner to show you the original passage for five seconds.7 data input 38 unit.). . To help you understand more clearly which strategies you are using. Follow the same procedure as above hut. 35 36 37 ----39 40 41 42 43 -44 -46 -47 -- 45 48 49 50 Your task is to guess the missing words. in this case '18' and '37'.

1989. Macquarie Library. Owllenges C. Oxford: of English. Cambridge: Cambridge University University Walter. 1982. E. ] 990. Oxford: Haarrnan.~ UNlT 1: Reading 51 .. /_(lI1. L.. 1986. Sydney. Rcadin. Harlow: London: Harlow: Longman Collins. Basil Blackwell. En(~lish Cloze Exercises. 1976. NJ: Prentice Hall Regents. . Shills. about the amount Many can- your time. Englewood Cliffs. Understanding Ideas: Advanccd Press. Macquaric Concise Dictiol1ClIY. Shills. 1988. The test paper spend on each of time you should not completed didates advice.T. Learner's Activc Study DicLionwy 1983. Middlesex: Swan. Cambridge M. they do not follow this passage some to Use the Sample they refer. Reading a Reason.__--------- . FOR FURTHER textbooks available STUDY arc designed to help you to develop your which You may find the following selection useful. Oxford University Nolan-Woods. Oxford: gap-filling exercises. et a1. go on to the next task because this skill.~Il1UII Rcading. all questions. ill r~c(ldil1g. Garman. Oxford University Press. Penguin Advanced Rcading Penguin. Hughes..) Skillsfor the Social Sciences. 1987. Col/ins Colnlild English Language DictionCllY Longl11an Dictiol1C11Y (~f Contemporary English Longman. 1989. Autilentic MONOLINGUAL Ox[ord Ativ(1l1(cc/ ll)f:N 4th eel. and A. Read the questions dates begin Try to answer carefully. C. Press. Academic I !all Regents. Tests in this book to practise Remember that questions both before and after the reading the pressure of lime and stress. 1988..ISIor M.. et a1. NJ: Abdulaziz. (This book practises 1983. arc no penalties ~ MATERIALS There reading are many strategies.~lish.--'''----------------------------------. candi- tasks before they have properly understood what they need to do. [or wrong answers. Hammondsworth. which achieve Even if you have a task in the recommended low scores in the Reading may appear Under There time.I~ ~ TEST-TAKING Organise STRATEGIES gives you recommendations part of the Reading section section.. Reading. Prentice Dobbs. Cambridge Press DICTIONARIES DictionclIYof CUlTcnt En. H. Englewood Cliffs.

) -' -' -- .. J _) _.. J ._----------------- __1r.._---_. _) _) _j _) _) _j _) _j _) 52 . - _I J I J ~I _..J _) _) _) _j _.~ . .. __ ._------- IELTS: STRATEGIES FOR STUDY -...

. . . . . .. . . . ... " . . .. . . 54 54 54 55 Writing Strategies Stage 1: Analysing the task Stage 2: Preparing a plan Stage 3: Collecting relevant information Stage 4: Writing up Stage 5: Checking your writing 58 58 62 66 70 79 Assessing your Writing Diagnostic Tests Further Study Test-Taking Strategies Materials for Further Study 79 88 93 95 95 53 . . . . . ~ UNIT 2 This unit contains Writing Test Description General Training Module Academic Training Module Sample Writing Tasks. .. .'. .

.. TASK . You may be required.. tables and lists • your ability to develop all argument • your ability to communicate supported _-- by evidence ideas clearly • the range and accuracy of your English vocabulary and sentence structures 54 IELTS: STRATEGIES FOR STUDY ------------------------------------------------------------------_N . I've never even written (I university essay in my own lal1gu(l<~c. In writing task 2... The question said "write al1 essay for a university teacher". for example. General Training Module candidates should pay particular attention to the following sections in this unit: 'Analysing the task' (page 58). you do not require specialised out the tasks.·•. The information in the following diagram applies to both the Academic Module and the General Training Module.-_ . 'Checking your writing' (page 79)../ wasn't sure ivlwt "gcI1C1"Cllion" I11cwl1 and I \Vas also worried hy thc words "a univcrsily teacher".------------~- TIME 1-------------. The writing test is designed to assess • your ability to describe diagrams.--. writing tasks tend to be practical rather than academic.-. 1 had two main problems ..ii' . _----------------- __ - Writing Task 1: 20 minutes 150 words minimum (General Training Module) 250 words minimum (General Training Module) Writing Task 2: 40 minutes GENERAL TRAINING MODULE In the General Training Module. you may also be asked to write about a contemporary social issue. '[ had to write all essay about the advantages alld disadvantages of nuclear-power generation.-_- REQUIRED LENGTH ---~-----. 'Preparing a plan' (page 62). a statement of your study plans or a simple desoriptionof an aspect of.Iife in your country. a letter seeking information.--..' Chinese IELTS candidate -__. WRITING TEST DESCRIPTION In both the Academic Module and the General Training Module there are two tasks in the Writing section.. to write a letter of complaint. Examples of General Training writing tasks arc given on page 94 and in the Practice Tesl Book in Sample Test 4 on page 45. 'IJiagnostic Tests' (page 88) and 'Test-Taking Strategies' (page 95) ACADEMIC TRAINING MODULE technical knowledge to carry As in the Reading section. however. 'Writing up' (page 70). 'Collecting relevant informal ion' (page 66).

write a description of this process and the equipment needed for carrying it out..- _(0.~' •.:~~. rubber._-_-. paper. cans. Using the information in the diagram.: . • CONVEYER BELT '. load. the recycling of urban refuse has been perceived as an increasingly desirable and viable alternative. n..'... Task: As a course assignment you are asked to write a description of how urban refuse is sorted for recycling. SAMPLE WRITING TASK 1 You should spend no more than 20 minutes on this task.:. '\:7[)-- . SS -~--------------------- _..:. r r Writing task J requires you to write short descriptions based 011 graphs. SECONDARY CLASSIFIER AIR I. tables or diagrams." _(0.'.. NON FERROUS METALS COMPACTOR UUUU COLLECTOR COLLECTOR COLLECTOR + + UN1T 2: Writing . iron. Writing task 2 requires you to write about contemporary social issues of general interest.. WOOD. steel. . pi ashe.. wood. _ SHREDDER _ PRIMARY AIR CU.."":" + SHREDDED PAPER AND PLASTIC + + " '. PLASTlC STEEL CANS ANDIRON GLASS.' . You should write at least 150 words. SAMPLE WRITING TASKS The following sample writing tasks are designed to familiarise you with the kinds of tasks you may be required to perform in the IELTS \Vriting section._ . As society becomes more aware of the direct and indirect environmental costs of refuse disposal. RUBBER. The diagram below shows how raw urban refuse can be recycled.:. REFUSE SORTING REFUSE: glass. __ __ . + + + ALUMINIUM. '\:7[)-.SSIFIER MAGNETIC SEPARATOR TROMMEL SCR. aluminium . non-ferrous metals.... FOOD.

You should write at least 250 words.lge I: Analysing the task Stage 2: Preparing a plan Stage 3: Collecting relevant information St. You should write at least 150 words. knowledge and experience arguments with examples and relevant evidence.. Write an essay for a university lecturer considering its potential risks and benefits. . and support your J J .e Writing up 4: Stage 5: Checking your writing STAGE 1: ANALYSING THE TASK Do not start writing immediately. the' benefits are perceived to outweigh the inevitable difficulties involved.. Children now watch more television than at any lime in the past.!!. knowledge and experience arguments with examples and relevant evidence.l. Include recom mendations. You should use your own ideas. Clearly. J SAMPLE WRITING TASK 3 You should spend no more than 30 minutes on this task. and support your ~ WRITING STRATEGIES ~I Each time you carry out an IELTS writing task you should follow a five-stage procedure: St. ." .J . Task: As a course assignment you are asked to write a brief paper discussing the advantages and disadvantages of studying abroad. It is essential that you take at least a few minutes to make sure that you fully understand what is required by the task..J J SAMPLE WRITING TASK 2 You should spend no more than 40 minutes on this task. To do this you must answer three questions: • What is the question! • \Vho is the audience! • What arc the task requirements? 56 IELTS: STRATEGIES FOR STUDY _. You should use your own ideas. Increasingly large numbers of students are seeking to pursue their higher education in other countries. _.

Canad~processecj7 architecture an~l modern technologylcompaublc? of cheese!) in high scho()l studen@ in tertiary st~de!:~~ What arc the stages involved in fuJ2. in question I the topic is 'negotiation skills in business administration'.\/\ IVII'IX: topic purpose topic purpose Note that both questions have the same topic. but different purposes. EXAMPLE: I. 3. This is usually printed in hold type TASK Locate the questions 1 in Sample Writing Tasks on pages 55 and 58. The topics in questions 5 and 6 are similar. hut question 5 refers to high-school students. whereas question 6 refers to tertiary students. Topic = what the question is about Purpose = the information you need to give about the topic 1. is to locate the question itself. not negotiation skills in polities or in foreign trade. the topic tells you what the question is about. Are ~legotiali~skills How are~pplicalions Are@§onal criticalEbusiness for immigration administratioiij t(. In the following examples. Having located the question. 4. "J What is the question? . 6.. 5. Candidates who [ail to identify the topic clearly will write irrelevant material and score badly. The critical first step. the topic of each question has been circled.I The task description may be quite long. 2. Both deal with anxiety in students. The question is about negotiation skills in business administration. therefore.roduction What are the factors which contribute What arc the factors which contribute to§xiety to§iety Like the t itle of a passage or of a book. you must then identify its topic and purpose. UNIT 2: Writing 57 .

•. The first one has been done . 4._/ I to tobacco? 6. you must also ensure that you clearly identify the purpose of the question. ' . In what ways has the production How does the production How is hygiene ensured in the production of cheese? of cheese changed over the past 30 years? of cheese? to the Greenhouse of cheese contribute Effect? of Eastern 5. you should reread the passages These passages may give definitions. EXAMPLE: What are the arguments industry? questions. although the following questions have the same topic.. TASK 2* Circle the topic words in the following for you as an example. 58 IELTS: STRATEGIES FOR STUDY . by asking yourself: 'What does this question require me to. ~. Do the advantages derived from the usc of chemical processing outweigh the disadvantages' preservatives 4. explanations. What role does cheese production Europe? pilly in the rural economies Identifying topic and purpose will help you in preparing an essay plan (see page 62). Do the benefits of study abroad justify the difficulties? What advice would you offer to a prospective student? 5. they require you to give different answers In each question the words indicating purpose have been underlined. . Should the laws which prohibit the sale and consumption of heroin be applied . education? What recommendations would you offer? . What kind of listening challenges do overseas students . Note that. If you are not sure of the meaning of the topic words in the lELTS test.r _. 3. 3. What are the stages involved in the production 2. Discuss the benefits and risks of TV for young children. dot' Candidates who fail to identify the purpose clearly will write irrelevant material and score badly. What arc the factors which me related to academic st udcnts? success in high-school face in tertiary in food 2. _j Having identified the topic. .. 1.J I used to justify or oppose the (tropical logging 1. or examples of the words. ..

circle the 4* topic words and underline the words The first two have been done [or you as examples. such such and as 'How is hygiene extent ensured in the production 01 cheese?' changed and were the causes of the Great as 'To what 'How far does Depression?'. What are the stages involved in the refining of crude oil into petroleum? 12 a knowledge of essay writing necessary for students in tertiary education? 1. Do ~he benefits of study abroa?)J!d. a knowledge can be answered of statistics with a series of facts. Should 2.f21Jfy difficulties? the What(advicdJwould you offer(fr_ a prospective stude"0Z) 1. What the laws which opinion should prohibit the sale and consumption intervene of heroinbc applied to tobacco? government in the rights of the individual areas? What 20 years? with regard to family planning? are the effects of the unrestricted would extent use of private changed cars in urban situation? recommendations 4. What -1- contribute into petrol? to inflation? oil refined arc the benefits arid risks associated with tropical logging? whar are the factors which are related kind of listening derived challenges cducut ion? What recommendations to anxiety in high-school students additives students? face in tertiary ') What clo overseas would you ollcr? 6. The first two have been done for you as examples. How do w<1ge increases 2. In what circumstances ------------------------------~---- of mortality? be justified! Understanding 'to what extent' questions Some 'What Other past questions.TASK Underline the words which indicate the 3* purposc of the following questions. How is crude J. To what you make to improve the current has the diet of Melanesians can capital punishment over the past What effects has this had on their pauerns 5. over the in to success has the diet of Melanesians 20 years?' contribute UNIT 2: Writing 59 . In your 3. Do the advantages from the usc of chemical in food processing l outweigh thc disadvantages? ----~~-~ TASK In the which following indicate questions. the purpose. questions.

This will help in the next stage of writing: preparing a plan.. To what extent should the decision to suspend a life support system rest with a doctor? . How far does a knowledge study? 3. To what extent has the traditional 2..J .J J 60 lElTS: STRATEGIES FOR STUDY - . L\AMPLE: To what degree is a knowledge of statistics useful in tertiary study' knowledge of statistics useful in tertiary study? = Is a To what extent has the diet of Melanesians changed over the past 20. Questions requiring an answer expressed in terms of degree can he asked in many different ways: in all of the following examples. it is useful to 'translate' them into questions which can be given a 'yes' or 'no' answer. male role changed in the past 20 years' [actor in stomach and bowel tumours? J 1...J ...tertiary study?' require an answer expressed in terms of degree: for example.. both the topic and the purpose are very similar.J .. To what extent is a knowledge tertiary institutions? 2. To what extent is diet a contributory . What level of statistical knowledge is necessary for tertiary study' These questions cannot be answered with 'yes' or 'no'..' of statistics is indispensable 5. To what extent will migration from the developing world to the developed world become a social and political issue in the 21st century? 6.. In order to answer them.'..J _. How acceptable are the risks involved in genetic engineering' 5. years? = Has the diet of Melanesians changed over the past 20 years' To what extent is environmental age irreversible? damage irreversible? 111 = Is environmental = dam- . '/\ knowledge Discuss.. To what degree is a knowledge 4.J 4. of statistics indispensable for study in of statistics contribute to success in tertiary of statistics useful in tertiary study' for study in tertiary institutions. 'The diet of Melanesians has changed to a great extent/very significantly/ minimally/not at all/etc. EXAMPLES: 1. To what degree are coronary diseases preventable? 3. _) How necessary is media censorship ship necessary in a modern society' a modern society' Is media censor- TASK 5* Translate the following questions into 'yes/no' questions.

in which farming conditions relative in Canada. This method 01 task presentation is particularly C0111mon in tertiary I. UNIT 2: Writing 61 .There relevant is no right or wrong information').Collecting for 'no' . to write a brief will generally be a university teacher. Who \S the audience? section assesses your ability to carry out academic writing The audience. dominance the in US sport costs physiological ). Discuss. You need to for your sponsoring require. = Is a necessary for students on inflation. Explain and extensive why climatic resist prediction. 'considinclude 'explain'. I you will examine conclusion. for 'yes' and the evidence and draw an appropriate Translating Some IELTS Examples er'. answer to this type 01 question. way of asking a question. in tertiary education? the effect of wage increases = How do wage increases TASK 6* Translate I. on inflation. the evidence During Stage 3 (. Descrihe Japan 4. is due to sociological have created terraced rather farming than in has saved the world of black people Discuss. The the following deterrence factors. 'make instructions writing tasks words into questions may contain instruction words. questions.' Discuss. of instruction recommendations'.' ways instructions into questions. study 'describe'. describing Make any recommendations of presenting another the instructions LXi\M PLES: Describe the stages by which crude oil is refined of crude in tertiary into petroleum. = What are the stages involved Essay-writing knowledge Analyse contribute in the refining oil into petroleum? skills are essential of essay writing to inflation? education. 'evaluate'. 'write a report'. from war. rather than 'analyse'. 'Nuclear 2. You may also be required The Writing therefore. 'discuss'.X/\1vlPLE: Describe the stages by which students crude oil is refined agency into petroleum. the English-language you feel are Write a report skills overseas necessary Analyse This method 'translate' the effect of wage increases tasks is simply into questions.

g. it is unlikely that your audience would be a friend. and the task requirements. 'To the X Sponsoring Agency'.\['vll' L E: What arc the stages involved inthe refining of crude oil into petroleum? PLAN Refining crude oil into petroleum introduction: stage I: con ti II lied on page 6. The analysis which you have made of the question's topic and purpose forms the framework of your plan. 2. The writing tasks tell you the audience you are writing for. I \:. Usc your analysis of the purpose to provide the key ideas that will form the basis of your answer. relative or private individual. (See Sample Writing Tasks on JX1ges55 to 58. Write the word 'conclusion'. You should not refer directly to your audience as you would in a letter. As a result. you are ready to prepare a plan. e. This will help to focus your planning.. exactly number of words (1501250) analysed the question.) In the Academic Module.3 62 IELTS: STRATEGIES FOR STUDY . etc. Write the word 'introduction'. 'To Whom it May Concern. 3. 'Dear Sir'. Do not go on to Stage 2 until you have thoroughly STAGE 2: PREPARING A PLAN When you have analysed the task (by understanding the topic and purpose of the question. the intended audience. your writing style should be appropriate to a formal audience. Write the topic at t~e top of the plan. 4. In a 20-minute task this should take about three minutes and in a 40-minutc task about five or six minutes. What are the task requirements? You must • answer the question set by following the task instructions • produce the required minimum • usc the information sources indicated in the task: diagrams or notes in the Writing section: your own knowledge and experience. llow to write a plan: 1.J report for an agency such as a sponsoring authority or a university administration.

\:. and a conclusion. may be more. you have rule.~----.age 3: disadvantage 1: . The writing of intro- is discussed 1'. you information. and disadvantages.. be advantages benefits and risks. therefore. advantages. they might advantages. Note that. mark ill stages.\ lv1 PI. you will find.'·' ! I stage 2: stage 3: stage ?: conclusion: In this example problems. etc. etc. that there to keep your a question plan open. To remind as in the example Note that all plans must ductions and conclusions include an introduction in Stage 4. your ('xpCCI the key ideas are stages in a process. your to rind at least two or three stages.------------ 63 .E: What motor are the vehicles advantages and disadvantages of banning the usc of private in city centres? r I PLAN Banning the use of private motor vehicles in city centres introduction: advantage 1: advant.' M. collected should yourself above. L1SC In other essay plans problems. you do not know how many problems. It is useful.clisadvantage 2: disadvantage disadvantage conclusion: 3: ?: UNIT 2: Writing -. before As a general plan.

' .'" ~ . PLAN Use of air-conditioning in hospitals introduction: benefit 1: benefit 2: benefit ?: risk 1: risk 2: risk ?: conclusion = recommendation 1 recommendation 2 recommendation? 64 IELTS: STRATEGIES FOR STUDY - .. . Make any recommendations you feel are necessary.\ 1vlPLE: Write a report describing the benefits and risks associated with the use of airconditioning in hospitals.. conclusion: .. . / ..~ [Xl\MI'LI: To what extent is a knowledge of statistics essential for study in tertiary institutions' PLAN Knowledgeof statistics introduction: essential? yes: reason 1: yes: reason 2: yes: reason ?: essential? no: reason 1: no: reason 2: no: reason ?: . in tertiary institutions ." EX...

still arc r r you. a plan text points of view contained in a diamay . LX. research acceptable? rather of heroin than be r 1.r r r 2. conlinllcd 011 r pagc 66 r J. Do the benefits would a report overseas r r English-language you feel are r any recommendations .\I\:IPIL table or accompanying r 100 Smokers percentage of population 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 1950 1960 1970 1980 1950-1990 1990 • r r r r o Men Women r~ r r r r r rr r r r Smokers Percentage of Population. the difficulties? What you offer to a prospective Make r r 4. in scientific . Ttl what extent is the use of animals of black factors. necessary. Should applied advice 5.T 'r r r r r This kind of plan is useful In Writing gram make task 1. Write skills the same 10 in US sport is due to sociological laws which of study for your students prohibit the sale and consumption language student? agency describing the justify tobacco? in a foreign sponsoring require. r r r r Analyse the following questions TASK and prepare 7 plans.".~ _ UNIT 2: Writing 65 .and should to sec how in the diagram.' people Discuss .are the information to analyse you need since or table. 'The dominance physiological 3.. when for comparing requircdto and contrasting dcscribc diagram". In order is no question thc instructions the topics r r r t say something contained the following to develop But you can . a writing you may find thcrc like "describe plan.

"in is provided in stage 2 by drawing appear in the writing include making the folthousand in 1980 need to in the diagrams. and continued to decline until around 1985 though at a slower rate. thousand marriages" Registered marriages. To what ronmental Discuss. In what ways has information in the past 10 years? 7. were thousand so on.1'.' for envi- conservation . nine you marriages.. in thousands 5 4 3 2 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 Registered Marriages in Scotland. For example. 1960-1995 Sample Answer 1960 and 1970. to write were about - it is not sufficient in Scotland.('112 6. trends fill in the essay plan you developed tables or lists which information arc.the diagram. to be able to "read" Most importantly. three [he changes 10 9 8 7 6 in 1970 there five hundred that took place. extent should technology planning begin changed work and working by the need practices economic 7 be influenced in kindergarten. Task task I 1 you should contained answer. three and 1960 there sure you understand the overall graph you need to be able to in .((J/I(illll('d/IOIll 1'0. From 1985 onwards there was a gradual increase in the number of marriages which then levelled off in 1994. / 8. 66 IELTS: STRATEGIES FOR STUDY l~ -' . 'foreign-language instruction should STAGE 3: COLLECTING RELEVANT INFORMATION Writing In writing section. The number of marriages in Scotland fell very sharply between 1 r _. in describing about Instead. To do this you need its key points described on information all of it ill your describe lowing marriages there were describe In this task the relevant what for you and you must the diagram.

1900-1990 UNIT 2: Writing 67 ..r r.. TASK Describe the trends in the following graphs.• -.""J. 8* I r AGRICULTUREAND FISHING 12% UNEMPLOYMENT 25% GOVERNMENT 3% INDUSTRY 45% SERVICES 15% SERVICES 52% AGRICULTUREAND FISHING 8% INDUSTRY 15% UN GOVERNMEhlT 15% OYMENT 10% Comparative Workforce Distribution Great Britain. 1932 and 1992 Thousand people employed 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 Australian Mining Industry Employees..

) . do language course before starting..> . you need to use your own knowledge and experience to supply the information for your writing plan. taking notes from books. Make any recommendations you feel are necessary.J _) _) SAMPLE WRITING TASK ) You should spend no more than 40 minutes on this question. skill 4: listening to lectures/taking notes J recommendations: 1.... ' J 1.... aUend language classes during course.J' J _. .I~: .\. asking questions.J ..) - . .'3.._.\l'vll'l .. .J _) . _) J _) ._) .J ~ .I .J Task:Write a report for your sponsoring agency describing the English-language skills overseas students require. clarifying topic and purpose.. find a study partner conciueion J _. _) You should use your own ideas.J ." ..J I . J _. .... 2... knowledge and experience and support your arguments wit h examples and relevant evidence.. ..I -I cussing with teachers and fellow students. . writing up) -' J J skill 3: speaking in seminars/tutorials. The following example shows how a writer used her plan as a guide LO developing a plan for an essay about the English-language skills required by overseas students._. Presenting ideas. _) _) _) _. J ... 68 IELTS: STRATEGIES FOR STUDY _.. "'". dis- J .J Writing Task 2 In writing task 2. r'·.J J English-language introduction: skill 1: skill 2: reading journal articles/books/ critically evaluating content J writing aSSignments (analysing the question.J ~ skiffs overseas students require ..journals.

writing. ideas don't For example. of computers the disadvantages. Remember. of entertainment themes and ideas which are unsuitable for the films may contain educational benefits: TV teaches develop (and entertains) imagination . adding as many reasons to modern as you can. you might to the answer. may expose of violence/ frightening [catu rcIilms benefits: risks: a source children. society far outweigh outlining lecturer Mnny people claim that the benefits use. to scenes Teaches children other about the world images. and issues difficult aspects The questions you've your task 2 deal with contemporary have perhaps only relevant about you're weather TV concerts of program to. for you to think of the topic. TASK 9* Develop the following essay plan. I\AtvII'LLS: docul11cl1tahcs benefits: risks: newskeeps people children informed. advantage advantage advantage advantage disadvantage I: 2: 3: 7: 1: Do you agree? Write an essay for a university t he pros and cons of computer disadvantage disadvantage 2: 3: UNIT 2: Writing 69 . of examples find it helpful the question of program to focus on some specific TV on page 58 you familiar drama with: in answering kinds might start by thinking documentaries comedy shows the different films news educational advertisements grouping all the You can then consider the benefits and risks of each kind benefits together and then all the risks. about feature cartoons to be original. children . particularly probably in exam contained already need conditions. in writing heard about find it difficult and to think given of appropriate problems thought If it is some examples.PLAN Some students..can improve reading.

far more people die as a result of smoking than as (1 result of heroin usc. What are the benefits and risks associated with tropical logging? Tropical logging__provides many short term benefits for the economies of developing countries and many long__term risks for their environments and their economics. The purpose of this essay is to examine · . .. summary of black pre-eminence in sport are primarily sociological. At the same time..STAGE 4: WRITING UP (an introduction).. It will be argued that. 2. the factors which determine .. Should the laws which prohibit applied to tobacco? the sale and consumption of heroin be .. .. despite some tentative evidence of physiological differences.\\11'1 ~. the manufacturing industry and distribution and sales areas. although tobacco use is legal and heroin LIsegenerally illegal. soil erosion and even climatic change. It can also lead to deforestation. 'I . Ironically. 1:: setting definition Since World War II popular American sports such as the present laws should be maintained Among these safeguards we must first consider. Providing_a number of safeguards are put in.. t Irc rc I. Basketball and Field and Track have seen the qualitative and quantitative dominance of bJactt (Afro-American) athletes.J .. the tobacco industry provides jobs for many thousands of workers in the agricultural sector. all essays should begin with an opening paragraph which may include a: • setting (background • statement • ~::::> information) of purpose • definition of key terms summary of main points [\.urve importance 0 I the soci IoglCa I an d p hySIOoglCa I factors w hiIC h purpose t rc socio have contributed to this phenomenon.. Until governments realise that their forests constitute (1 form of natural capital they will continue to exploit them unsustainably 70 TELTS: STRATEGIES FOR STUDY - .. If the same laws which are applied to heroin were applied to tobacco many thousands of workers would find themselves unemployed or forced to engage in illegal activities. In tertiary writing.J J Both heroin and tobacco arc addictive drugs which can cause either death or serious damage to health.. main points 41( Introduction to an undergraduate sociology essay In each of the following introductions underlined 1 \.. Logging provides jobs and can earn valuable export dollars.\\11)1 L the summary or the essay's main point has been 1..

We use cars to go to work. Others argue that the right to die ((111/il1l1cd 011 page 72 UNIT 2: Writing 71 . Even though they cause death. These rules include . Do the advantages tion and processing derived from the use of chemicals outweigh the disadvantages? in food produc- The answer to this question depends on whether it is being asked in the context of the developing or the developed world. TASK 10* In the following essay extracts underline writer's point of view.. Risks associated with their use may as result be considered only secondarily.. to a restaurant. to the cinema. unable to go to places of entertainment. In cities without adequate public transport systems the car is essential for movement. The private car should be banned from all city centres. the economy of the city would be affected and the quality of people's lives would suffer. Providing various common sense rules are adopted cars should not be banned lrom city centres.. In order for food producers to meet this demand it has become necessary to usc chemical fertilisers to increase production as well as additives to increase the shelf life of food and to enhance its attractiveness in terms of taste or colour. If cars were to be banned from city centres many people would be unable to go to work. But the usc of chemicals may also be vcry dangerous for consumers since they may build up in the body over a number of years. In an ideal world we would have no cars in any of our city centres. In developing countries people often have no such choice. no-one should be able to help them either. creating smog which can seriously affect people's health. 2. However. every year many thousands of people-both motorists and pedestrians-die in car accidents. Vo1untary euthanasia should be legalised. Voluntary euthanasia.3. has recently become the subject of intense debate in many countries. Consumers in developed countries can decide whether the benefits of low cost. illness and stress cars also seem to be indispensable to our lives. the practice or allowing people to choose when and how to die. in those areas of the world where people arc faced with starvation because of crop failure or inadequate levels of productivity the use of chemicals to increase production and to maintain the product in an edible state is very attractive. readily available food outweigh the possible risks to health. the sentence(s) which summarise the 1. Cars are dirty and noisy. Some argue that no-one should have the right to take their own life and that . We all want good quality [ood at low prices. They arc also dangerous.

72 IElTS: STRATEGIES FOR STUDY . Write a report for your sponsoring agency describing the English-language skills overseas students require.. Because these writing tasks are relatively short. it also introduces an TASK Write introductions 11 for the following questions. Make any necessary recommendations.': law. In this essay I will argue that voluntary euthanasia represents a major threat to the individual and should certainly not be legalised. This is your introduction. form the basis for a paragraph. To copy from hard disk to diskette. the following procedure should he used._.or two.. Write a report to your sponsoring agency describing the accommodation problems laced by foreign students in Britain.Kh or the main points in the plan should example following.with dignity and with as little pain as possible is a fundamental human right which should be respected and facilitated by tl-. Make any recommendations you feel are necessary. 2.J I I. Once it becomes legal to assist another person to die it becomes difficult to know where to draw the line..J Writing up the main points E. . 1\\~IPll': There appear to be both sociological and physiological factors which account for the dominance of black . How far does a knowledge of statistics contribute to success in tertiary study? 3.sentence summary of the main points contained in your plan. Should the same laws which prohibit applied In tobacco' the sale and consumption of heroin be .J _) eer.athletes in some American sports. as in the sur . in most cases it is only necessary to write a one.J __) . Although air-conditioning clement of risk. All IELTS writing tasks should also begin with an introduction. lherc are four stages involved in the refining of crude oil into petroleum. 4. has clearly established benefits.

language classes partner 3. speaking and listening All tertiary writing.a sentence which contains the This the paragraph by glvlIlg more information about the main point.. 2. asking questions. during course. find a study conclusion: Sample write-up Overseas students lenges in tertiary strategies.· '. notes skill 4: listening to lectures/taking recommendations: 1. courses reqUire students to write clearly and critically. journals. 3: speaking in seminars/tutorials. assignments notes the question....' PLAN English-language skills required by overseas students introduction: II I I skill skill . skill 1: 2: reading journal writing taking articfes/books/ (analysing critically evaluating content topic and purpose... writing up) clarifying from books. might involve: giving an explanation. cussing with teachers Presenting ideas. Continue sentence . additional detail L_ UNIT 2: Writing 73 . but also an understanding of the conventions of academic Strategies Jar writing paragraphs: I. Begin each paragraph with a summary main point of the paragraph.':\{\MPLE: . .. reading. This involves not only a command of the language system but also an understanding of the conventions of academic writing ."mary -""rrence r All tertiary courses require students to write clearly and critically. dis- and fellow students.. a reason. They need to have effective writing. an example. do language course 2. This invol~e!3not only a command of the language system. attend before starting. of introduction whose first and first main point: chal- language is not English face a number of language-related study. additional detail..

write the first three paragraphs fpllowing question. using the plan below. reason 1: society has important non-economic needs . of your answer to the Task Write a report to your sponsoring agency describing the accommodation problems faced by foreign students in Britain.medicine. most students required to find houses and flats off-campus problem 2: rente generally very high.etc reason 2: education should teach how to think reason 3: needs of employment constantly changing conclusion: Education should serve society. Task: How far should versity curriculum? society's economic needs form the basis of uni- PLAN Society's Economic Needs/University Curriculum Introduction: should form the basis yes. write a summary sentence for each of the main points contained in it./' TASK 13* By using the plan below. You must write at least 250 words. Economic needs important. but not the only important need.TASK 12 Read the following question and then. difficult to find cheap and desirable accommodation continued 011 page 75 74 IELTS: STRATEGIES FOR STUDY - . reason 1: train young peoplefor employment reason 2: help national economy through research no. Make any necessary recommendations. Accommodation for Foreign Students introduction: problem 1: limited on-campus accommodation. law. - _.

. . . difficult to find cheap furniture T T I T recommendations: 1... These are appropriate for describing a procedure where each step follows the previous one... often unfurnished.. You can make sure your reader understands the relationship between the sentences and paragraphs in your essay by using 'marker' words and phrases. In the same way.. In order to do this. Moreover.. Thirdly. . .. .. In the first stage/phase . r r r Due to .. UNIT 2: Writing 75 ~. Secondly.. Another reason/advantage A further reason/advantage . and disadvantages." !\lOr/lCfS J . advantages r r "vforl1ers of Calise and Effect As a result. find a group to share costs with conclusion: I T 'r r r r Linking ideas You need make sure that your reader can follow your ideas. . Next.... each sentence should lollow logically [rom the previous sentence and each paragraph should relate logically 10 the one before it.-- . Furthermore.. r r: r I Marhcrs of Time Relationships First .. One reason/advantage. .. .. [V((fIllers of Main Points Firstly.. ... .. In the second stage/phase In the final stage/phase .. Consequently... . . In addition... apply ea~ly for on-campus accommodation 2... r r The final reason/advantage for listing things such as reasons..~-----. ' These are appropriate risks and benefits.. . On the other hand Relationships in Passages' rr You will find it useful to refer to the section 'Understanding on page 17. r r r t Another X ..... Then . Because of r T oj Coni rast and Comparison Similarly. . At this point After X Finally. 10 r r 1" ..• problem 3: ..... .. In contrast.. Therefore.

I _. for copying from hard disk to diskette is complete. The conclusion should give a sense of unity to your essay by making a general statement about the topic./ _".. 76 IELTS: STRATEGIES FOR STUDY - . air-conditioning in hospi- TASK Write a conclusion for the following 14 -describing the accommodation Britain. At this point. a short conclusion-perhaps only one or two sentences-is appropriate. petroleumthis fourth stage.... I ! ._. although there is some evidence for the role of physiology in determining the dominance of black athletes in some American sports. Write a report to your sponsoring agency problems faced by foreign students in recommendations. Write a report for your sponsoring agency describing the English-language skills overseas students require. the final product-refined arc adopted. _. In the IELTS.._/ _. The final paragraph should provide a conclusion.ils is hoth safe and beneficial.I Writing a conclusion Essays should not finish abruptly with the last main point. _. . _" _.. EXAMPLE: In conclusion. Should the same laws which prohibit applied to tobacco? the sale and consumption of heroin be _. 4. 2. How far does a knowledge of statistics contribute ). Provided the above recommendations t.t. the procedure Having completed has been obtained. socio-logical factors appear more influential. Make any necessary to success in tertiary study? questions: 1. .. Make any recommendations you feel are necessary.

UNIT 2: Writing 77 . If aircraft decompresses extinguish cigarettes place oxygen mask over mouth and nose After underlining the verbs. the information which you need in order to describe a procedure given in the form of a table. ~ EXAMPLE: AIRLlNE SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS Before take-off read safety card in seat pocket check location of emergency exits check location of life jackets During the night keep scat belts fastened at all times do not leave hand luggage in aisles III the event of an emergency landing remove shoes place head on knees place hands over head await instructions In emergencies may be you should first underline the verbs. Note that several alternative subjects may be possible. you should then find subjects for them. diagram.Writing-up 'procedures' In the IELTS. the verb 'read' could have three alternative subjects: 'the safety card'. In order to write up this kind of information. In the first example below. ~ EXAMPLES: Verbs read check check keep (fastened) (not ilcave extinguish place remove place place await Possible Subjects the safety card/you/passengers location of emergency exits/you/passengers location of life jacket/you/passengers seat belts/you/passengers hand luggage/you/passengers cigarettes/you/passengers oxygen mask/you/passengers shoes/you/passengers head/you/ passenge rs hands/you/passengers instructions/you/passengers whether you use the active or passive form of The subject you choose will determine the verb. or list. 'you' or 'passengers'.

- ... and 'haven't' are inappropriate in ac~demic writing. _j _) _) Points to remember in writing up 1.J ... 'can't'. _) When wntmg up a procedure.J The following regulations apply in the case of emergencies. etc. S(/Illple Answer: _) _) ...) .I ...J .. IELTS writing tasks require you to write complete 78 IELTS: STRATEGIES FOR STUDY sentences and paragraphs.).ll"t-tyinstructions on page 77..J . Failure to observe these instructions places all passengers at risk... 'cannot'.. of regulations before and during fljght _) _) Before take-off.. you should remember to use appropriate markers in order to link the stages of the procedure.J _) It is essential that passengers follow a number and in thcevent of emergencies...J _) I'\..) _) J . 2..) .J _) Using the diagram on page 55.) _j .J _) _) _) Choose subjects for the verbs in the Airline Safety Instructions write complete sentences... Write at least 150 words..J TASK 16* and equipment used to . Seat belts should be kept fastened at all times.J _) _) TASK 15 on page 77 and .\MI'LES: Passengers should read the safety card. 'it'll'. passengers should read the safety card in the seat pocket. are . Cont ractions such as 'mustn't'..J _) . They should then await inst ruct ions.r I ! -/ _) _) .. describe the procedure sort refuse for recycling....) .J . In the event of an emergency landing... . They should also check the location of the emergency exits and the life jackets. passengers should place their heads on their knees and their hands over their heads. Hand luggage must not be left in the aisles.. seat belts should be kept fastened at all times when passengers seated. You should check the location of emergency exits.. ..J _) _) . cigarettes should be extinguished immediately and oxygen masks should be placed over the mouth and nose. During the flight. Compare the sample answer below with the list (11 Airline S.. In the IELTS Lest you should use uncontracted forms Cmust not'.J _) _) . If the aircraft decompresses. You .

Mistakes can often be corrected by quickly checking through after you have finished writing. as in the following example concerning safety procedures for airline passengers: Before take-off passengers should: a.. More specifically. check the location of the emergency exits c." In describing processes.. UNIT 2: Writing 79 . ASSESSING YOUR WRITING Docs the essay have an organised structure! Is the writing relevant to the task! Docs the essay directly respond to the task! Is the vocabulary appropriate? Do grammatical to read? and spelling mistakes occur often and make the essay difficult poes the essay demonstrate the writer's ability to construct complex sentences) The following section examines each of these questions in turn and contains a series of tasks designed to assist you in evaluating your own writing. Avoid personalising your language. For example." looks more academic when the reference to "you" is eliminated when the passive is used: "All doors should be locked before le'aving home... If your handwriting II I I is large. For example instead of writing "I think air conditioning is a problem" simply write "Air conditioning is a problem. you may find there is not enough space to write the minimum number l1f words. check the location of the lifejackets 3... If you are in doubt about the spelling of a word or the accuracy of your grammar. '!"our writing paper is sent to professional markers. remembering to begin each paragraph on a new line 5. just as lecturers and tutors often are when they assess academic writing. : must not write a list of numbered points. Their objective is to assess whether you have fulfilled the requirements of the task.. You should pay particular attention to those areas when checking your writing.'." 4. Practise writing the required number of words in the space provided in the Sample Tests. Examiners may unconsciously be influenced by the presentation of the writing. STAGE 5: CHECKING YOUR WRITING This final stage should take no longer than two minutes. . the sentence "You should always lock all doors before leaving home. they will consider the following five questions about your writing: . Make sure you check your spelling and grammar. try to choose a synonym or grammatical structure which you know is correct. Write as neatly and clearly as possible. read the safety card b. The Diagnostic Tests on pages 88 to 93 will help you to identify weaknesses you may have in grammar and spelling. the passive can be used to create a more impersonal style which avoids references to people...

III" III" Successful candidates receive an acceptance advice form. \\~ 1/. ON ACCEPTANCE: • • • pay half-year fees. Make sure your dcscript ion is: I. On accepting the offer. well organised..essful applicants continued on page 75 80 IELTS: STRATEGIES FOR STUDY - .. You will find it helpful to re-read pages 70 to 79 before making your assessment. evaluating the - The following task places you . Succ. VERSION 1 to an Australian tertiary institution and a visa from Overseas candidates an Australian who wish to be admitted require two documents: an acceptance advice form from the institution consular office. This form should include academic receive an acceptance advice form.. pay overseas health-cover and visaices • enrol. a candidate t(l the institution must first obtain. Assess how effectively each version is organised. fiJI out and return an application form where he or she wishes to study. Admissions Procedure to Australian Tertiary for Overseas Candidates Include statements-of academic and language qualifications Institutions 2. .in the position organism ion of candidates' essays. You should refer to the notes below. III" show acceptance advice farm have medical examination to study destination. TASK 17* Read the following question.-1 Obtain and return application form. apply for visa at local consulate: t ravel ~.. the accompanying diagram and the two answers below (Versions 1 and 2). relevant to the question and You should write at least 150 words. the examination and English-language test results..r I 1 Q: Docs the essay have an organised structure? of an IELTS examiner. . In order to do this. J I Your sponsoring agency requires you to describe the admissions procedure to Australian tertiary institutions for overseas candidates.

which is the largest archipelago in the work. and employment. You can travel to your study and enrol. If you decide to results. the candidate enrol. The first decade after to establish suitable structures to provide the nation with adequate housing. left the nation with independence was characterised by numerous problems. century. You should take the advice form to a consular office. EXAMPLES: Versions 1 and 2 below were written by history Kingdom. who unilaterally declared groups. in which the Dutch were assisted emerged victorious. rass. VERSION 2 Indonesia. attempts which had laster for hundreds of years. the Indonesians The Dutch withdrew and Indone. gained its independence from the Dutch in 1945. Colonial exploitation. UNIT 2: Writing 81 . candidate Australian must pay fees for the first consular office. you pay overseas-student Q: Is the writing relevant to the task? Does the essay directly respond to the task? Everything you write must be directly related to the question you are answering. may then travel to Australia.((1lltillllcdIWIJ1 page 74 II . If you health-cover and visa fees. They both answer the following question: How did Indonesia gain its independence? VERSION 1 Indonesia endured ·a long struggle against Nationalist its colonial masters.sia was fully independent. has completed all At this point: the candidate of the required procedures and may then VERSION 2 You have to fill our an application fo~m. and have a medical examination. after passing a medical examination. I. which had begun to form early in the 20th students in the United Outch colonial rule but were unable to obtain a negotiated Tile return of the Dutch after newly strengthened resolve of the Indonesian nationalists. If you are successful you receive an acceptance acceptance destination accept the offer you pay half-year fees. opposed independence. half-year and then apply for a visa from an health- Finally. the defeat of the occupying Japanese was met with a the independence of the nation. You should apply for a visa. After a fierce war. You should include academic and language test advice form. education. by the British. paying visa and overseas-student cover fees.

Organic household refuse should be separated. The usc of unleaded petrol. from nonorganic matter. You should ask yourself before you writeeach sentence: 'How does this relate to the question?' TASK 18* The four sentences below appear in an answer to the following question: What arc the factors which contribute to ai. This canlargely be achievedby a" reduction in the burning of fossil fuels and an end to large-scale deforestation. Therefore. continlled 011 page 8.. plastics and glass into separate containers for future recycling. pollution? What recommendatiOIlS would you malle to improve the current situation? Which of the four sentences is/are irrelevant? Why? A. funds must be allocated to develop sewage-treatment stations while the legislation prohibiting the unauthorised dumping of toxic wastes into t he sea must be more adequately enforced. The Greenhouse Effect can only be effectively reversed by a massive decrease in the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. D. In addition. VERSION 1 two versions word-proceeeinq packages enable learners to create texts. devices can significantly reduce the emission of pollutants into the atmosphere. Equally irrelevant is the sentence: 'The first decade after independence was characterised by attempts to establish suitable structures to provide the nation with adequate housing. C. TASK 19* Versions Assess land 2 below are extracts from answers to the following question: How effective Ihe are computers in teaellil1g childrel1 to write? for relevance. the reference to 'the largest archipelago' in the first sentence is completely irrelevant. more efficient engines and modern exhaust-filtering . prior to disposal. placing paper.3 82 IELTS: STRATEGIES FOR STUDY - . In contrast to Version I. Version 2 contains well-organised. education. save and retrieve them. The householder should sort the non-organic waste.' B.Like Version 1. and employment.' There is no limit to the kind of information you can include. The purpose of the question is to describe how Indonesian independence was gained. most of the information is not relevant to the question asked. provided that it is directly connected to the question. accurate and interesting information.

Children are very fond of games.been used to determine whether psychological characteristics are inherited or acquired. This latter technique has emerged as the major and most effective technique deciding the heritability/acquisition debate in humans.-------------------~-----~. saving and retrieving texts can motivate young learners to write.. In a study carried out at the University of Gatley it was found that were learned more quickly when learners used dedicated TASK 20*· Decide which of the versions Give reasons for your answer. example. Explain how you would determine whether psychological characteristics arc There arc two experimental techniques which have. is also available to teach basic writing skills such as sentence and A study carried out at the University of Gatley found that software.) VERSION 2 Children generally enjoy playing computer games such as Space Invaders but often dislike learning how to write. insert or delete material. dictionaries Dedicated paragraph In addition. and thesauri. VERSION 1 below fails to answer the following question. By observing the psychological characteristics exhibited by a sufficiently large sample of adult identical twins separated at birth. These correlations can provide evidence to determine the inherited or acquired nature of psychological characteristics.---------------------. tion. they provide ideal subjects for observation in cases where they have been separated at birth and raised independently. can also create spreadsheets Invaders learn- ers learned basic skills more quickly when using dedicated the computer age. illhcrited or (Icquired. software formation. Because they carry the same genet ic information. 'Playing' with word-processing Dedicated software functions such as creating. VERSION 2 for Experiments have proved fairly conclusively that many psychological charactcrisCOl1lil1ucd 011 page 84 UNIT 2: Writing 83 . The first technique involves the study of identical twins. They often come with useful resources such as spell~checkers. deleting. (Space and may include a game pack- is perhaps the most famous is also available to teach basic sentence and paragraph cone truewriting skills software. it is then possible to find correlations in their psychologica] characteristics. inserting.

this takes away the food sources of the people who live there and who hunt and gather in them. Environment does. of psy- - Q: Is the vocabulary appropriate? EXAMPLES: Versions 1 and 2 belowboth answer the following question: ·•••11/ Describe tile short. conversely. and not environment. Identical adult twins who have been separated at birth and raised independently have been observed to exhibit the same psychological characteristics. research indicates that the major factor in the development chological characteristics is heritability. Maternal behaviour can be induced in virgin female rats if they are injected with blood from rats which have recently given birth. If the forest is removed. of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and makes the 84 IELTS: STRATEGIES FOR STUDY - .. however. effects of the deforestation What is the difference between the vocabulary of the two versions? Which version is more appropriate for a tertiary-level essay? Why? VERSION 1 If you destroy the trees of the Amazon Basin. rather than acquired. if people burn and log the forests. Heritability has been shown to be the dominant factor in lower mammals. Not all the offspring of alcoholic parents become alcoholics.. The people who clear t. The heritability/ acquisition issue is. the delicate soils of the area may be rapidly eroded by the heavy rainfall. Observation of adult identical twins seems to provide conclusive evidence that many psychological characteristics are indeed inherited. not so easily solved. however. This strongly suggests that such characteristics are inherited. - . despite different environmental influences. do all alcoholics have alcoholic parents. remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and therefore builds up the quantity Greenhouse gases. still play an important part in the formation of personality. this decreases the earth's ability tq of instead of just logging them. to raise animals and grow crops Destroying trees does not just affect the Amazon Basin. if people burn the forests this increases the quantity problem worse. Also. After the protective canopy is removed. they may eliminate many types of flowers and animals..and long-term environmental oJ the Amazon Basin. It has the effects throughout the world. as it may not be applicable to human beings. In the short term.. and not acquired through environmental factors. such as alcoholism. Nevertheless. nor./ Task 20* colli ill II cd [rorn Jl(l<~(' 83 tics arc inherited... you create problems both now and in the future. When millions of trees are lost.he forests then find that the soil is useless.

'create'. 'Flora and fauna'. The effects of s. After the removal of the prowhich tective canopy. hut Version 2 is more appropriate as an academic essay. In this version. TASK 21 Identify' examples of other Versions 1 and 2 above. thus making the land useless for the pastoral or arable activities often accompany forest clearance. burning and logging of the forests hunting-and-gathering communities eliminate many species of flora and fauna. associated with informal spoken English with more Version 1:[f you destroy the trees in the Amazon Basin. In the short term.'people' and other human agents. As part of your study program you should make lists of the particular terms associated with your own discipline You will find this helpful when you are writing assignments in tertiary study. references to 'you' . on the other hand. but also global. '. In Version 1. burning rather than mere logging actually leads to an increase in the quantity carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. of worsening the problem. such as 'deforestation'. In order to 'translate' you should: Version 1 into the more academically appropriate Version 2. and long-term problems. 'hence'. 'removal'). Note also that the writer of Version 2 has chosen academic terms. the events and activities described are more often expressed as nouns Cdelorestation'. Moreover. such differences in vocabulary and structure in UNIT 2: Writing 85 . substitute expressions 'academic' phrases. Version 2: The deforestation of the Amazon Basin leads to the creation of both shortterm and long-term problems. 'creation'. where possible. This is more characteristic of informal spoken language and hence less appropriate in academic writing. 'pastoral and arable'. 'global'. the delicate soils of the area may be rapidly eroded by the heavy rainfall. 'is removed'). further Both versions provide the same information. are not simply local.VERSION 2 The deforestation of the Amazon Basin leads to the creation of both short-term may II .uch large-scale deforestation from the atmosphere. This is typical of written academic language. change the verbs into nouns or 'verb + ing' and difninate. the actions are more often expressed through verbs ('destroy (the trees)'. The loss of millions of tress decreases the earth's ability to remove carbon dioxide hence increasing the build-up of Greenhouse gases. The removal of forest also deprives forest of food sources. you create problems both now and in the future.

- .. the first free elections only took place after the collapse of the communist regime. VERSION 1 Between 1919 and 1933 there were free elections in Germany. From then until 1947 there were no free elections in Germany. the year in which Hitler came to power. TASK 22 Cover Version 2 of the passage above. To identify areas of weakness you should ask teachers and native speakers of English to check your writing.. Q: Does the essay demonstrate sentences? the writer's ability to construct sentences provides complex IELTS examiners with Your ability to use longer. The former Communist Party was discredited. you need as much objective feedback as possible../ . Try to transform academic style. TASK 23 Choose a passage from an academic mal language. __ .. but were not held again until 1947. Hitler came to power in 1933... Version 1 into a more . In the former German Democratic Republic (East Germany).. There were no free elections in the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) until 1990. The Diagnostic Tests on pages 88 to 93 are designed to assist this process of self-assessment. Your goal is to become more aware of those aspects of English grammar and spelling in which you consistently make mistakes. it still managed to gain a significant percentage of the vote. Textbooks with answer keys can also be used. textbook and 'translate' it into more infor- - Q: Do grammatical and spelling difficult to-read? mistakes occur often and make the essay In assessing the accuracy of your grammar and spelling. more complex evidence of your grammatical proficiency. It still managed to gain a significant percentage of the vote VERSION 2 _" Free elections were held in Germany between 1919 and 1933. 86 IELTS: STRATEGIES FOR STUDY -----_.. Even though the former Communist Party had been discredited. These took place after the fall of the communist regime.

of computer is jobs. _" _ . computer to scientists and has played For example. The computer in various instead ways. complex 01 the second sentences. not develop has improved of data processing.1· T T 'r T Although both both versions the seven contain the same the same information. and the second structures version While has would has combined writers demonstrated score higher sentences of Version English-language ideas into complex T l" may have writer • f an ability to combine in the IELTS test. B and T I and C) which spelling. Moreover. an in the T T T T society of the positive and dan- effects of computer computerised gerous speed because works is doing car assembly without computerised In addition. The usage of computer for T T • 1 orgainizations is good for everybody. we could COIll Data are very important out modern the orbit and if there are not of fuel injection theatre example. 1 1 1 T purer instead caluculate or spaceship and so on. relevance. affect. as mentioned ESSAY B orgainisations out weights tlie dissadvimages. follow. can do hard discontinuation.c -.A UNIT 2: Writing 87 J . vocabulary T The benefits of computers Discuss. T 'r T T ESSAY A The benefits in home. first benefit of computer computer This point is more showed than its dissadvantages. to modern society Jar outweigh the disadvantages. The Diagnostic plex sentences Tests on pages 88 to 93 will help you to assess your ability accurately. For ticket the 011 pay. can be used in many inadequate . 88 lit •. serare a good examples the potential of this benefit. robots One works of human. We have better of computers T 1- Healthe care and business vice easier and faster form them and the same situation But we must also remembering The benefits of computers in home 'and publick dangers that computers The usage T 1 T 'T is more than it's disadvantages. is better agencies.. colltllllled T computers technology hook airplane We can go to the moon timing and book ways. considering organisation. of going there. They do many jobs and the will be no necessary services which they give govement in health care. more labour. computer we can do shopping. to form com- 1 T T T T Read the following writing TASK 24* task 2 question their and the three answers (Essays A. Modern important society role has relied to change on computers modern company dangerous very greatly. Next benefit will make less cost of production. at our home However. 1 into more the writer three competence.

a. there are too many violent computer games. One issue states that using computers makes everyday life more easier and it must be wildly used. was searching for 88 IELTS: STRATEGIES FOR STUDY . haven't found d. Antouer issue. Because any professional person in using computers may easily reach the personal information of the individuals due to lack of security system. doesn't find c. we usually do our work much more faster if we use a computer. many people lose their jobs because computer can shorten some process in the factory so that there are few people needed to control the factory. DIAGNOSTIC TESTS -~ -' -" Test 1 *: Grammar Complete the following sentences by circling the missing words. Another issue proclaims that using computer cause loss of jobs for many people and also losing the privacy of individuals. at home we can contact library or many other resources area that we need to get information by using computer and also consumers can use computer in order to do their work faster. data processing. believes that computers . which has bad effects on children. computerised factory.. Columbus discovered America. ] . These machines can do multi-jobs at the same time without any need for people to help. Therefore it is useful to use computer widly around the world. Furthermore.. somebody leaks other people's information on purpose. had searched for d. As a result. For example. Losing privacy is another main important disadvantage. it is necessary to usc computer and do something about it's disadvantages. has many disadvantages and therefore it should not be used at all. in contrast to the first one. or at home or maybe as consumers. Those who support using computers in everyday life usually mention the benefits of computers on the job. c. ESSAY C - There have been two controversial issues about using computers in modern times. as the time passes. In conclusion --------------------------------------------------------------------~ . the personal computer. on the job. aren't finding 2.-' Task 24* colltilluedIrom page 87 privacy problem. While he a. was discovering a route to the Indies. hasn't found b. Science still a cure for cancer. And nowadays. searched b. I do believe that. mass communication are effected by computers in various ways so more many people are rely on computers. the technology of computers can reach to a point to overcomes to it's deficiencies and solve those problems that mentioned so far. It is a mailer of choice: to choose first issue or the second one.

. -. in spite of the fact to be flat. c. more cloudy the literature review. c. was carried out have been advanced for the disappearance supports any of them. the country might emerge d. was done -. 1 12. has been believed of the reactor 9. there b. c.' c. there will be c. look ahead h. there might have been d. a. should begin d. '1 . 6. . 10. '1 . Even the problem. look down a. -.the scope for genetic engineering c. the year 2000. The more acid you add to the solution. The lecturer said 'It's lime you a. has been carried out d. was' b. cloudier b. . solving cI solved research in embryo transplants c. in spite of Until the 16th century the earth a. 7. a. . there is no risk involved in c. have been run out b. -. has carried out h.~.. can the country emerge b. 14. the country can emerge c. although d. are beginning UNIT 2: Writing would of 1 -. . was being d. . -. c.. '1 Only by investing heavily in value-added exports present trade imbalance. -. -t· '1 -. have run out the present rate. several hypotheses the dinosaur. '"1 3. -. a. is going to be run out d. ' . look out of d. . the cloudiest d. having solved h. adequate precautions the operation. . . had been I I. . will have run out 2045. -. is believed b.. no conclusive evidence a. . . the cloudier 13. Providing advised me to . . 8. Existing reserves of fossil fuel by a. Nevertheless d. -. -. -. -. had are taken. 1 If logging of tropical rainforests continues at 30 per cent increase in atmospheric C02 by a. -. began b. look into it becomes. the country emerged The mystery of the double helix dramatically increased. there 5. believed d. would be could not have been from the a '1 4. having been solved since the mid-'60s considerable a. -. Although b. -. If the temperature have occurred. c. a. despite h. My supervisor a. was believed 500°C higher meltdown c. -. begin 89 .

the process also produces carbon monoxide. have received d. must you've made a mistake. requesting c. It's not necessary c. Unless it will not be given. you will request 22. to worry b. that we to repeat 16. As well way you do it. However b. c. perhaps stopped c. If I'll know d. you received a. as though a. a. we repeat d. the answer is always the same. the tutor suggested c. you receiving b. you have received a. Why ever producing methane. so much 26. worrying d. couldn't have carried out 18. Apart b. If I was knowing h. 24. you requested d. such a. a. thinking hard The scientists were prohibited a. Besides d. you request b. should have carried out b. a. You the experiment twice. to think hard b. The results were convincing that we decided to publish them. as b. haven't carried out d. After results. c. the student b. to enter h. If I would have known so b. In addition 90 IELTS: STRATEGIES FOR STUDY - - . to be worried 19. 25. having worried 20. couldn't include this section. a. thought hard the danger zone. enter d. if d. entering 23. don't need d. c. you would.15. I lad I known c. c. After receiving her results. Whichever 27. 17. shouldn't have carried out with your tutor. c. us to repeat b. don't have to an extension at least one week before the due date. c. It looks a. You _____ a. the right answer I would have got full marks. a. The assignment made me a. Who ever d. from entering 2l. very d. c. not once. think hard d. me to repeat the your results you should make an appointment c. After studying our experimental experiment.

much bigger d. Einstein. who b. was having d. a. The liquid a. which we have read them b. which take d. take 34. He appears a. being used d. having The books 31 a. extracted d. used it is warm-blooded and gives milk to its young.. The problems facing the scientists were a. Students a. using b. that his theories changed our way of seeing the universe. The tree guard concentrates precipitation against animal foraging. were successful. (as well as) around the root system. who taking h.. Sample (II1SWcr: He bought a laptop computer him against it. which we read them d.\ M PLIS He bough: a laptop computer. a. that minor problems c. employment 3. 33. extracts 35. which means that d. which ". c. c. His friencl advised him against it. I :X. excessive numbers of animals in c. (in spite of) in spite of his friend advising cut the funding. -". did not learn to read c. a. which theories h. join each of the following pairs of sentences to form one sentence. we have read 12. very big Test 2*: Sentence Construction By llsing the words in brackets. e. very bigger h. is extracting than they had expected. The results of the experiment (although) 2. prospects. It also protects UNIT 2: Writing 91 . had _ are very interesting. until he was ten. who theories that course always enjoy it. to have had b._. whose theories d. She The government has good chose to study (because of) accounting. The biologist admitted laboratory tests. 30. is extracted b. You may need to change some of the words. Accounting I. e. A whale is a mammal. whose we have read II I t. to use 29.28. biggest e. who take by a compressed-air blast.

(resulted from) 8.unenat ion proposcl just ificat inn contrery fasilities benefits apropriate knowlege responsability attitude investigation resourse hierarchy experriment determine implication charactarise gradualy research technique effectiveness Iaborotory comprehensive contradiction paralel especially methodology challenge psichological abstract concreet crytisism appendices persuit questionaire performance cornparitive relatively significent sustanable systematically eqipment standard literature awareness programming yield approches analytical application planning further weaknes strengths apparartus dpproxii'natly measurment statistical deereese activate conventional immersion stabilisation seqential elementery simultanous findings influence outcome frequently configuration inevitabally specification predominently comparison minor corelation materiel dramatically phase discusion concern emfasise efficency design depletion continuous simulator variabillity sample assessment per capita orientation riview involvment consumtion consider abundence future relationship justify opositc Icatu rc conclusion sistem inferr divided objective analisys hypothesis devclepment _. (which) . This has enabled enormous improvements in infrastructural development.4. She did not finish the Writing section. In-vitro fertilisation has brought joy dilemmas. (not only/but also) . Locate and correct the incorrectly spelt words. This was caused by a proliferation of the Crown of Thorns. (as a result) Test 3*: Spelling The following list contains 200 words commonly found in academic writing. It becomes a gas. 9. It has also created legal 5. The regulations were introduced in May this year. The liquid helium reaches the decompression chamber. Eighty of these words are spelt incorrectly. theory thesis supcrviser lect urar tutor seminar governemcnt department scktion cx. She wrote very slowly. Breakthroughs in fibre-optic technology have taken place. 92 IELTS: STRATEGIES FOR STUDY . The regulations concerning non-government schools have failed to address the real issues. It denied rule' effectively subsidised the industrial workers compensation for industrial accidents. A Significant diminution in the size of the coral reef occurred. (by) 10. to childless couples. 6. a starfish which feeds on coral polyps. (as soon as) 7. The 'fellow servant 00 revolution.

The materials for further study listed at the end of this unit will provide you with a starting point for this research.bclcif tcoretical sinihcsise quote concentration ivc achievment operate position cxcedc surpass fluctuation Iraimwork crucial predict outline progres cronological specific moddification distrebuiion obsurve opinion attemt perspectife expect select exclude multipel establish adopt assume diverse estimete vary lengthen pararnater specify polisy produce responce ensure edit patern employ redundant irrelevant depth match correspond factor author aquire cnussion quantirat allocation graphik distribute bibliography significanse serve recegnise role limitation maxamisc conditions describe details structure provide conduct report essay assinernent differ affect scpcratc sumarisc consistency recieve enable ~ FURTHER STUDY The writing tasks in IELTS parallel the kinds of written tasks you may have to do in tertiary study. UNIT 2: Writing 93 . . diagrams: Literature reviews? Theses? Laboratory notes' Essays? Examination Annotated Computer essays or short answers? bibliographies: programs' Position papers? When you have identified the kinds of texts you will be required to write. graphs. you should try to obtain examples so that you can familiarise yourself with their characteristics. You can provide them with a check list to see how many types of text are required.. it is useful to find out what you will be required to write in your future courses. For example. Ask if it is possible to obtain lists of writing assignments for the coming academic session or for past years. How much do you know about tertiary writing tasks? TASK 25 Before beginning tertiary study. You can do this by contacting course conveners or departmental offices. do you have to write: Summaries of articles or books? Experimental or research reports? Tutorial papers? Tables.

who should be responsible for the elderly? In m.. Is the world really a safer place because of them? -' 94 lELTS: STRATEGIES FOR STUDY .. What is the case for and against abolishing compulsory military service? It has been argued that nuclear weapons have created a safer world and prevented another world war. (20 minutes) Waiter/waitress required for evening Write to: Mr K. hobbies and interests. Explain why it is not necessary for you to take further English-language courses... In your opinion. refer to the notes on page 95. You are writing your first letter to a 'pen par.. countries military service is compulsory for young people. (20 minutes) Piactice Questions for Academic Module Candidates What are the language skills required by students at tertiary institutions? (40 minutes) To what extent should society? (40 minutes) university courses be geared to the economic needs of What arc the critical test-taking strategies that candidates should usc in the [ELTS \Vriting section? In your answer... . ~. In order to simulate test conditions you should complete the tasks in the recommended time without the aid of a dictionary. work. / :. TASK 26 The following writing tasks are designed to give you further practice in IELTS writing. Write a letter to your college teacher explaining why you need to withdraw from two courses. Some experience necessary. your current activities. Write a letter to Mr Moore describing your previous experience and explaining why you would be suitable for the job. (40 minutes) You want to apply for the following job..' '. Write a letter to your college adrninistrat ion explaining why you will be absent from class [or the next month. Practice Questions for General Training Module Candidates You have had an accident and are in hospital..' . others in special homes with other old people. (20 minutes) Some old people live with their sons and daughters. Tell your pen pal that you will be visiting his/her country during the summer vacation and suggest meet ing him/her. Describe your previous studies and work experience.. .: ':. (20 minutes) Write a report for your college teacher describing an English-language course which you have taken. Cafe Royale. Ask if it is possible to obtain a refund.. Ask for advice about how to continue your studies during this period. (20 minutes) You find that your study load is too heavy.

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