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1. Introduction 2. Charge Quantization and Charge Conservation 3. Conductors and Insulators

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6 8 8

**THE ELECTRIC FIELD
**

1. Introduction 2. The Superposition of Electric Forces Example Problem 1: Electric Field of a Charged Rod 3. The Electric Field Example Problem 2: Electric Field of Point Charge Q. Example Problem 3: Electric Field of Charge Sheet. Example Problem 4: Electric Field of Multiple Charge Sheets 4. Field Lines 5. Electric Dipole in an Electric Field

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10 10 11 13 13 13 15 16 17

GAUSS' LAW

1. Introduction 2. Gauss' Law Example Problem 1: Electric Field of a Point Charge. Example Problem 2: Electric Field of a Charge Sheet 3. Conductors in Electric Fields

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19 19 20 20 22

**THE ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIAL
**

1. Introduction 2. Calculating the Electrostatic Potential Example Problem 1: Electrostatic Potential of a Charged Rod Example Problem 2: Distance of Closest Approach 3. The Electrostatic Field as a Conservative Field 4. The Gradient of the Electrostatic Potential Example Problem 3: Electric Field derived from Electrostatic Potential Example Problem 4: Potential and Field of a Charged Annulus 5. The Potential and Field of a Dipole

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24 25 26 27 28 28 30 31 32

1

**ELECTRIC ENERGY OF A SYSTEM OF POINT CHARGES
**

1 Introduction Example Problem: Model of a Carbon Nucleus 2 Energy of a System of Conductors Example Problem: Fission of Uranium

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34 35 35 38

**CAPACITORS AND DIELECTRICS.
**

1. Introduction 2. The parallel-plate capacitor Example Problem: The Geiger Counter 3. Capacitors in Combination Example: Multi-plate Capacitor Example Problem: Capacitors in Series/Parallel 4. Dielectrics Example Problem: The Parallel Plate Capacitor 5. Gauss Law in Dielectrics Example Problem: The Spherical Capacitor. 6 Energy in Capacitors Example Problem: Capacitors in Parallel. Example Problem: Energy Stored in Capacitors.

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42 42 43 44 46 47 49 50 51 52 54 54 55

**CURRENTS AND OHMS LAW
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1. Electric Current Example: Resistance of a Wire 2. The resistivity of materials Example: Connecting an AC Example: HV Lines 3. Resistance in combination Example: Superconducting Cables Example: Resistors in Circuits

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57 59 60 60 61 61 63 64

DC CIRCUITS

1. Electromotive Force 27.2. Single-loop currents 3. Multi-loop circuits. Example Problem: Multi-loop Circuit 2

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67 68 70 73

4. Energy in circuits Example Problem: High-Voltage Transmission Line Example Problem: Charging a Battery Example Problem: Draining a Battery 5. The RC circuit

74 75 76 77 78

**THE MAGNETIC FORCE AND FIELD.
**

1. The magnetic force Example Problem: Magnetic Field of a Neutron Star 2. The Biot-Savart Law Example Problem: Helmholtz Coils Example Problem: Magnetic Field due to a Long Wire 3. The magnetic dipole Example Problem: Spinning Charged Disk

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81 82 83 84 86 89 89

AMPERES LAW

1. Introduction Example Problem: Field due to six parellel wires 2. The solenoid Example Problem: Superposition of magnetic fields Example Problem: Coaxial cable 3. Motion of charges in electric and magnetic fields 4. Crossed electric and magnetic fields 5. Forces on a wire Example Problem: Magnetic balance 6. Torque on a current loop

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91 92 93 94 94 96 98 100 101 102

ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

1. Motional emf Example Problem: Metal Rod in Magnetic Field Example Problem: Induced EMF in a Solenoid 2. The Induced Electric-Field 3 Inductance Example Problem: Mutual Induction 4. Magnetic Energy Example Problem: The Toroid 5. The RL circuit 3

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105 106 108 109 110 111 111 113 114

The Electric Field of an Accelerated Charge Example Problem: Radio Antenna 5.Example Problem: Joule Heat in RLCircuit 115 MAGNETIC MATERIALS 1. Magnetic Moments Example Problem: Two-electron Interactions 2. AC Inductive Circuit Example Problem: AC Circuit 5. LC Circuits 6. AC Resistor Circuits 3. Alternating Current 2. Paramagnetism Example Problem: Filled Solenoid 3. The Phasor Diagram Example Problem: LCC Circuit Example Problem: RC Circuit 7. THE DISPLACEMENT CURRENT Example Problem: Parallel-Plate Capacitor 2. AC Capacitor Circuits 4. Maxwells Equations Example Problem: Conservation of Charge 3. The magnetic field of an accelerated charge 143 144 147 147 148 150 153 154 4 . Ferromagnetism Example Problem: Number of Aligned Electrons 4. Cavity Oscillations 4. The Transformer 125 125 125 126 127 128 129 136 137 139 140 THE DISPLACEMENT CURRENT AND MAXWELLS EQUATIONS 143 1. Diamagnetism 117 117 118 119 120 121 121 122 AC CIRCUITS 1.

The Generation of Electromagnetic Waves 4. Plane Harmonic Waves Example Problem: Circularly Polarized Waves Example Problem: Polarization of Electromagnetic Waves 3.LIGHT AND RADIO WAVES 1. Momentum of a Wave Example Problem: Solar Sails 6. Electromagnetic waves Example Problem: Radio Receiver 2. The Doppler Shift of Light 155 155 158 159 160 161 163 164 166 166 168 169 170 5 . Energy of a Wave Example Problem: Energy of a Laser Beam Example Problem: Energy and Current Flow 5.

or positive. consisting of protons and neutrons. The electric force between two electrons is the same as the electric force between two protons when they are placed as the same distance. Each atom consists of a nucleus. the number of electrons must be equal to the number of protons. Most of the mass of the atom is due to the mass of the nucleus. zero. protons and neutrons are listed in Table 1. it depends on a new quantity: the electric charge.675 x 10-27 Table 1. " 6 . Instead. Since atoms are neutral. Measurements of the velocity of the orbital electrons in an atom have shown that the attractive force between the electrons and the nucleus is significantly stronger than the gravitational force between these two objects. The diameter of the nucleus is between 10E-15 and 10E-14 m. Per definition.11 x 10-31 proton 1. The attractive force between the electrons and the nucleus is called the electric force. The precise magnitude of the electric force that a charged particle exerts on another is given by Coulomb's law: " The magnitude of the electric force that a particle exerts on another particle is directly proportional to the product of their charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. The direction of the force is along the line joining the particles. The masses of the electrons.673 x 10-27 neutron 1. Masses of the building blocks of atoms. The electric charge can be negative. Detailed measurements have shown that the magnitude of the charge of the proton is exactly equal to the magnitude of the charge of the electron. the electric charge on a glass rod rubbed with silk is positive.ELECTRIC FORCE AND ELECTRIC CHARGE 1. surrounded by a number of electrons. The electric charge of electrons. In Physics 121 it was shown that an object can only carry out circular motion if a radial force (directed towards the center of the circle) is present. The unit of electric charge q is the Coulomb (C). Introduction Ordinary matter consists of atoms. The electrons are contained in a roughly spherical region with a diameter of about 2 x 10E-10 m. particle mass (kg) electron 9. Experiments have shown that the electric force between two objects is proportional to the inverse square of the distance between the two objects. This implies that the electric force does not depend on the mass of the particle. protons and neutrons are listed in Table 2.

while the electric force can be repulsive (Fc > 0). The electric force exerted under these circumstances is called the electrostatic force.6 x 10-19 proton 1.particle charge (C) electron . or attractive (Fc < 0).6 x 10-19 neutron 0 Table 2.85 x 10-12 C2/(N . on a macroscopic scale. the gravitational force dominates. If the charges are moving with a uniform velocity. 7 . This table shows clearly that the electric force dominates the motion of electrons in atoms. they have an equal number of protons and electrons.1. An important difference between the electric force and the gravitational force is that the gravitational force is always attractive. they will experience both the electrostatic force and a magnetic force. depending on the charges of the particles. zero. Figure 1. The combined electrostatic and magnetic force is called the electromagnetic force. m2) This formula applies to elementary particles and small charged objects as long as their sizes are much less than the distance between them. Our discussion of the electric force will initially concentrate on those cases in which the charges are at rest or are moving very slowly. Electric charges of the building blocks of atoms The electric force Fc can be written as (1) where q1 and q 2 are the charges of particle 1 and particle 2. Since most macroscopic objects are neutral. respectively r is the distance between particle 1 and particle 2 (see Figure 1) [epsilon]0 is he permittivity constant: [epsilon]0 = 8. Table 3 lists the gravitational and the Coulomb force between electrons. However. protons and neutrons when they are separated by 1 x 10-10 m. Electric force between two charged objects. The attractive force between the electrons in one body and the protons in the other body is exactly canceled by the repulsive force between the electrons in the two bodies.

the fundamental charge). Millikan discovered that the charge on the oil droplets was always a multiple of the charge of the electron (e. aluminum and iron. Conductors and Insulators A conductor is a material that permits the motion of electric charge through its volume. The experiments strongly suggested that charge is quantized.28 e. An electric charge placed on the end of a conductor will spread out over the entire conductor until an equilibrium distribution is 8 . he observed droplets with a charge equal to +/.5 x 10 electron . +/. 3.. For example. Another important property of charge is that charge a conserved quantity.2.3 x 10-8 0 electron .2.electron -5.e.1. etc. Examples of conductors are copper.0 x 10-47 proton .9 x 10 0 Table 3.9 x 10 -44 proton . No reaction has ever been found that creates or destroys charge. The initial charge is equal to (3) Note that the charge of an antiparticle is opposite that of the particle.proton . 2. etc. The gravitational (F g) and Coulomb (F c) between the building blocks of atoms.9 x 10-44 -44 neutron . +/.neutron .0 x 10-47 .3 e.1. +/. the annihilation of an electron and an anti electron (positron) produces two photons: (2) This reaction does not violate conservation of charge.neutron . The final charge is equal to zero since photons are uncharged.3 x 10-8 0 2.proton -1. For example.2 e. The following reaction however violates conservation of electric charge (4) This reaction has never been observed.1.45 e.3 x 10-8 electron .neutron -1.1.particle-particle Fg (N) -51 Fc (N) 2. Charge Quantization and Charge Conservation An important experiment in which the charge of small oil droplets was determined was carried out by Millikan. but never droplets with a charge equal to +/.

As a consequence of this attractive force the free electrons will be redistributed. Induction of Charge on Metal Sphere. and the sphere will become uncharged. In contrast. The positive ions are bound to the lattice of the material. and the top of the conductor will get a negative charge (excess of electrons). the bottom of the sphere will have a deficit of free electrons (and will have a positive charge). and their distribution is not affected by the presence of the charged rod. and the sphere will have a net negative charge. we are left with a negative charge on the sphere. Figure 2. electric charge placed on an insulator stays in place: an insulator (like glass. rubber and Mylar) does not permit the motion of electric charge. If a rod with a positive charge is placed in the vicinity of the sphere.established. Since the number of free electrons on the sphere is unchanged. If we first remove the charged rod. The number of electrons on the sphere will increase. If we connect the bottom of the sphere to ground (a source or drain of electrons) electrons will be attracted by the positive charge. it will produce an attractive force on the free electrons. the metal sphere shown in Figure 2 is initially uncharged. the excess of electrons will drain to the ground. These electrons are free to move through the entire volume of the conductor. For example. The properties of a conductor are a result of the presence of free electrons in the material. the charge distribution of a conductor can be changed by the presence of external charges. If we break the connection to the ground before removing the charged rod. Because of the free electrons. 9 . This implies that the free electrons (and positive ions) are distributed uniformly over its surface.

The electric force produces action-at-a-distance. Each electrically charged object generates an electric field which permeates the space around it. However. Coulomb's law allows us to calculate the force exerted by charge q 2 on charge q 1 (see Figure 1). The charges exert a force on one another by means of disturbances that they generate in the space surrounding them. the charged objects can influence each other without touching. The test charge will feel an electric force F. These disturbances are called electric fields. (1) The definition of the electric field shows that the electric field is a vector field: the electric field at each point has a magnitude and a direction. Electric force between two electric charges. The direction of the electric field is the direction in which a positive charge placed at that position will move. are initially at rest. q 1 and q 2. this change can not occur instantaneous (no signal can propagate faster than the speed of light). Suppose two charges. and exerts pushes or pulls whenever it comes in contact with other charged objects. 2. 10 .THE ELECTRIC FIELD 1. The Superposition of Electric Forces From the definition of the electric field it is clear that in order to calculate the field strength generated by a charge distribution we must be able to calculate the total electric force exerted on a test charge by this charge distribution. The electric field E generated by a set of charges can be measured by putting a point charge q at a given position. At a certain moment charge q 2 is moved closer to charge q 1. As a result we expect an increase of the force exerted by q 2 on q 1. In this chapter the calculation of the electric field generated by various charge distributions will be discussed. The electric field at the location of the point charge is defined as the force F divided by the charge q: Figure 1. Introduction The presence of an electric charge produces a force on all other charges present.

Figure 3. Suppose a charge q is placed in the vicinity of three other charges. at a distance y from the midpoint of the rod (see Figure 3). q2.Figure 2. a) Figure 4 shows the force dF acting on point charge q. located at point P. q 1. Example Problem 1. straight. Superposition of electric forces. Experiments have shown that the total force exerted by q 1. b) Find the electric force acting on a point charge q located at point P'. The force is directed along the x-axis and has a magnitude given by 11 . at a distance d from one end of the rod (see Figure 3). q2 and q 3 on q is the vector sum of the individual forces: (2) Example Problem 1: Electric Field of a Charged Rod A total amount of charge Q is uniformly distributed along a thin. plastic rod of length L (see Figure 3). as is shown in Figure 2. Coulomb's law can be used to calculate the electric force between q and q 1. and q 3. a) Find the electric force acting on a point charge q located at point P. as a result of the Coulomb interaction between charge q and a small segment of the rod. and between q and q 3. between q and q 2.

(6) into eq. and has a magnitude equal to (5) Note: the x-component of dFl cancels the x-component of dFr.(3) Figure 4. and the net force acting on q is therefore equal to the sum of the y-components of dFl and dFr. due to two charged segments of the rod. The magnitude of dFl and dFr can be obtained from Coulomb's law: (6) Figure 5. Relevant dimension for Example Problem 1 Substituting eq. Relevant dimensions for Example Problem 1. The total force acting on charge q can be found by summing over all segments of the rod: (4) b) Figure 5 shows the force acting on charge q. (5) we obtain 12 . located at P'. The net force dF exerted on q by the two segments of the rod is directed along the yaxis (vertical axis).

Figure 6 shows the relevant dimension used to 13 . centered around the z-axis (which coincides with the location of the point of interest). it is usually convenient to use a very small test charge. A test charge placed a distance r from point charge Q will experience an electric force Fc given by Coulomb's law: (9) The electric field generated by the point charge Q can be calculated by substituting eq. Example Problem 2: Electric Field of Point Charge Q. The charge sheet can be regarded as made up of a collection of many concentric rings.(7) The net force acting on charge q can be obtained by summing over all segments of the rod.(9) into eq. outlined in the introduction. The total electric field at this point can be obtained by vector addition of the electric field generated by all small segments of the sheet. (8) 3. To avoid disturbances to these charges. assumes that all charges that generate the electric field remain fixed at their position while the test charge is introduced. The Electric Field Equation (1) shows that the electric field generated by a charge distribution is simply the force per unit positive charge. The procedure to measure the electric field. Suppose a very large sheet has a uniform charge density of [sigma] Coulomb per square meter.(1) (10) Example Problem 3: Electric Field of Charge Sheet.

dr.calculate the electric field generated by a ring with radius r and width dr.(13) into eq. The angle [theta] depends on the radius of the ring and the z-coordinate of the point of interest (13) Substituting eq.(11) one obtains (14) The total electric field can be found by summing the contributions of all rings that make up the charge sheet 14 .(12) and eq. Electric field above large charge sheet. The strength of the electric field generated by each ring is directed along the z-axis and has a strength equal to (11) where dQ is the charge of the ring and z is the z-coordinate of the point of interest. The charge dQ can be expressed in terms of r. and [sigma] (12) Figure 6.

two charged plates generate a homogeneous electric field confined to the region between the plates. Example Problem 4: Electric Field of Multiple Charge Sheets Two large sheets of paper intersect each other at right angles. Each sheet carries a uniform distribution of positive charge of [sigma] C/m2. Field generated by 2 large parallel charged plates. Equation (15) shows that a uniform electric field is produced by an infinitely large charged sheet. two parallel charge sheets are used. The electric field between the two charged plates (with charge density [sigma] and . and cancel. and no electric field outside this region (note: this in contrast to a single charged sheet which produces an electric field everywhere). Therefore.(15) Figure 7. Find the magnitude of the electric field in each of the four quadrants. 15 . However. in many practical applications in which a uniform electric field is required.[sigma]) can be obtained by vector addition of the fields generated by the individual plates (see Figure 7): (16) The electric fields above and below the plates have opposite directions (see Figure 7).

Figure 8. Example Problem 2. This problem can be solved easily by applying the superposition principle of electric fields generated by each sheet individually (see Figure 8). The strength of the electric field produced by each plate is given by eq.(15). The direction of the electric field is perpendicular to the plate, and pointing away from it. The strength of the total electric field in each of the quadrants is given by

(17) and its direction in each of the four quadrants is indicated in Figure 8.

4. Field Lines

The electric field can be represented graphically by field lines. These lines are drawn in such a way that, at a given point, the tangent of the line has the direction of the electric field at that point. The density of lines is proportional to the magnitude of the electric field. Each field line starts on a positive point charge and ends on a negative point charge. Since the density of field lines is proportional to the strength of the electric field, the number of lines emerging from a positive charge must also be proportional to the charge. An example of field lines generated by a charge distributions is shown in Figure 9.

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Figure 9. Electric field produced by two point charges q = + 4

**5. Electric Dipole in an Electric Field
**

The net force acting on a neutral object placed in a uniform electric field is zero. However, the electric field can produce a net torque if the positive and negative charges are concentrated at different locations on the object. An example is shown in Figure 10. The figure shows a charge Q located on one end of a rod of length L and a charge - Q located on the opposite end of the rod. The forces acting on the two charges are given by

(18)

Figure 10. Electric Dipole in an Electric Field. Clearly, the net force acting on the system is equal to zero. The torque of the two forces with respect to the center of the rod is given by

(19) As a result of this torque the rod will rotate around its center. If [theta] = 0deg. (rod aligned with the field) the torque will be zero. The distribution of the charge in a body can be characterized by a parameter called the dipole moment p. The dipole moment of the rod shown in Figure 10 is defined as 17

(20) In general, the dipole moment is a vector which is directed from the negative charge towards the positive charge. Using the definition of the dipole moment from eq.(20) the torque of an object in an electric field is given by

(21)

18

The convention used to define the flux as positive or negative is that the angle [theta] is measured with respect to the perpendicular erected on the outside of the closed surface: field lines leaving the volume 19 . Gauss' Law An alternative method to calculate the electric field of a given charge distribution relies on a theorem called Gauss' law. To apply Gauss' law one has to obtain the flux through a closed surface. that the actual calculations can become quit complicated. The examples discussed in the previous Chapter show however. The electric flux [Phi] through a surface is defined as the product of the area A and the magnitude of the normal component of the electric field E: (2) where [theta] is the angle between the electric field and the normal of the surface (see Figure 1). Gauss' law states that " If the volume within an arbitrary closed mathematical surface holds a net electric charge Q.(2) over all the area of the surface. then the electric flux [Phi] though its surface is Q/[epsilon]0 " Gauss' law can be written in the following form: (1) Figure 1.GAUSS' LAW 1. Introduction The electric field of a given charge distribution can in principle be calculated using Coulomb's law. This flux can be obtained by integrating eq. Electric flux through surface area A. 2.

This implies that the electric flux [Phi] through this surface is given by (3) Figure 2. The direction of the electric field at any point on its surface is perpendicular to the surface and its magnitude is constant. Example Problem 2: Electric Field of a Charge Sheet Charge is uniformly distributed over the volume of a large slab of plastic of thickness d. The charge density is [rho] C/m3. The mid-plane of the slab is the y-z plane (see Figure 3). Using Gauss's law we obtain the following expression (4) or (5) which is Coulomb's law. and field lines entering the volume make a negative contribution. The field generated by a point charge q is spherical symmetric.make a positive contribution. The direction of the field is along the direction (see Figure 2). Electric field generated by point charge q. Consider a spherical surface centered around the point charge q (see Figure 2). and its magnitude will depend only on the distance r from the point charge. Example Problem 1: Electric Field of a Point Charge. What is the electric filed at a distance x from the mid-plane ? 20 .

x1. To calculate the electric field at any given point.d/2 < x < d/2 and x > d/2 or x < -d/2. Symmetry arguments show that (6) The flux [Phi]1 through surface 1 is therefore given by (7) The amount of charge enclosed by surface 1 is given by (8) Applying Gauss' law to eq. As a result of the symmetry of the slab. The flux through this surface is equal to the flux through the planes at x = x 1 and x = . we need to consider two separate case: . Problem 16. the direction of the electric field will be along the xaxis (at every point).(8) we obtain (9) or 21 .Figure 3. Consider surface 1 shown in Figure 3.(7) and eq.

the net electric field inside the conductor is exactly zero. Applying Gauss's law one obtains (13) or (14) 3. 22 . The electric field on the surface of the conductor is perpendicular to its surface. This charge distribution will also produce an electric field and the actual electric field inside the conductor can be found by superposition of the external electric field and the induced electric field. produced by the induced charge distribution. The redistribution of the free electrons in the conductor under the influence of an external electric field.(10) Note: this formula is only correct for . When static equilibrium is reached. The flux [Phi]2 through surface 2 is given by (11) The charge enclosed by surface 2 is given by (12) This equation shows that the enclosed charge does not depend on x 2. The movement of the free electrons will produce an excess of electrons (negative charge) on one side of the conductor. If the electric field inside the conductor would not be exactly zero the free electrons would continue to move and the charge distribution would not be in static equilibrium. and the charge distribution would not be in equilibrium. This implies that the charge density inside the conductor is zero. and the cancellation of the external electric field inside the conductor is being used to shield sensitive instruments from external electric fields. the free electrons would move along the surface. The free electrons in a conductor will move under the influence of the external electric field (in a direction opposite to the direction of the electric field). If this would not be the case. Conductors in Electric Fields A large number of electrons in a conductor are free to move. The so called free electrons are the cause of the different behavior of conductors and insulators in an external electric filed. leaving a deficit of electrons (positive charge) on the other side.d/2 < x 1 < d/2.

Note that eq. Electric field of conductor. The electric flux through the surface shown in Figure 4 is given by (15) where A is the area of the top of the surface shown in Figure 4. The charge enclosed by the surface shown in Figure 4 is equal to Figure 4.(15) is only valid close to the conductor where the electric field is perpendicular to the surface. the electric field at the surface of the conductor is given by (18) 23 .The strength of the electric field on the surface of a conductor can be found by applying Gauss' law (see Figure 4). Eq. The flux through the bottom of the surface shown in Figure 4 is zero since the electric field inside a conductor is equal to zero. Applying Gauss' law we obtain (17) Thus. (16) where [sigma] is the surface charge density of the conductor.(16) is correct if the charge density [sigma] does not vary significantly over the area A (this condition can always be met by reducing the size of the surface being considered).

and not on the path followed. Equation (1) can then be rewritten as: (2) To describe the potential energy associated with a charge distribution the concept of the electrostatic potential V is introduced. If energy is conserved.(1) will not depend on the path chosen. The introduction of the potential energy is useful since it allows us to apply conservation of mechanical energy which simplifies the solution of a large number of problems. and the potential energy at this reference point is taken to be equal to zero. If energy is conserved. The electrostatic potential V at a given position is defined as the potential energy of a test particle divided by the charge q of this object: (3) 24 .THE ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIAL 1. If the work W is negative (force and displacement pointing in opposite directions) the potential energy at P1 will be larger than the potential energy at P0. If the work W is positive (force and displacement pointing in the same direction) the potential energy at P1 will be smaller than the potential energy at P0. a decrease in the potential energy will result in an increase of the kinetic energy. This means that the work it does on a particle depends only on the initial and final position of the particle. Since the force F is conservative. a potential energy can be associated. an increase in the potential energy will result in an decrease of the kinetic energy. the integral in eq. With each conservative force. If In electrostatic problems the reference point P0 is usually chosen to correspond to an infinite distance. Introduction The electrostatic force is a conservative force. The potential energy U associated with a conservative force F is defined in the following manner (1) where U(P0) is the potential energy at the reference position P0 (usually U(P0) = 0) and the path integral is along any convenient path connecting P0 and P1.

10-19 J. (4) and evaluating the integral along the path shown in Figure 1. Path followed by charge q between P 0 and P 1.(3) we have assumed that the reference point P0 is taken at infinity. Calculating the Electrostatic Potential A charge q is moved from P0 to P1 in the vicinity of charge q' (see Figure 1). The electric field points away from a positive charge. and we conclude that the electric field points from regions with a high electrostatic potential towards regions with a low electrostatic potential. A common used unit for the energy of a particle is the electron-volt (eV) which is defined as the change in kinetic energy of an electron that travels over a potential difference of 1 V. (3) can be rewritten as (4) The unit of electrostatic potential is the volt (V).(3)) it is clear that the potential energy of a charge q under the influence of the electric field generated by charge q' is given by 25 . 2. From the definition of the electrostatic potential in terms of the potential energy (eq.6 .In the last step of eq. The electrostatic potential at P1 can be determined using eq.6 . 10-19 J and we thus conclude that 1 eV = 1. The electron-volt can be related to the Joule via eq. the potential increases with a decreasing distance r.(3). Equation (3) shows that the change in energy of an electron when it crosses over a 1 V potential difference is equal to 1. and that the electrostatic potential at that point is equal to 0. eq. Since the force per unit charge is the electric field (see Chapter 23). Along the circular part of the path the electric field and the displacement are perpendicular. Figure 1. Equation (4) shows that as the unit of the electric field we can also use V/m. and 1 V = 1 J/C = 1 Nm/C. Equation (4) can therefore be rewritten as (5) If the charge q' is positive. and the change in the electrostatic potential will be zero.

Find the potential at point P at a distance h from the midpoint of the rod (see Figure 2). The potential at P due to a small segment of the rod.(6) Example Problem 1: Electrostatic Potential of a Charged Rod A total charge Q is distributed uniformly along a straight rod of length L. Problem 21. located at the position indicated in Figure 3 is given by (7) The charge dQ of the segment is related to the total charge Q and length L (8) Combining equations (7) and (8) we obtain the following expression for dV: (9) Figure 2. with length dx and charge dQ. 26 .

The total mechanical energy at this point is equal to the potential energy of the system (12) where q 1 is the charge of the alpha particle. q 2 is the charge of the platinum nucleus.(13) (14) 27 . Solution of Problem 21. What will be the distance of closest approach ? The electric charge of the alpha particle is 2e and that of the platinum nucleus is 78e.(9) between x = . This is equivalent to integrating eq. (10) Example Problem 2: Distance of Closest Approach An alpha particle with a kinetic energy of 1. The initial mechanical energy is equal to the kinetic energy of the alpha particle (11) Due to the electric repulsion between the alpha particle and the platinum nucleus. Applying conservation of mechanical energy we obtain (13) The distance of closest approach can be obtained from eq. The total potential at P can be obtained by summing over all small segments. and thus its kinetic energy is equal to zero. At the distance of closest approach the velocity of the alpha particle is zero.7 x 10-12 J is shot directly towards a platinum nucleus from a very large distance. the alpha particle will slow down.L/2 and x = L/2. Treat the alpha particle and the nucleus as spherical charge distributions and disregard the motion of the nucleus. and d is the distance of closest approach.Figure 3.

3. Figure 4. Figure 4 shows the cross section of a possible cavity inside a spherical conductor. In Chapter 24 it was shown that the electric field within a conductor is zero.(16) along the path indicated in Figure 4. and vice-versa. Consider the path integral of eq. Since the remaining part of the path is chosen along the field line. Thus the contribution of the path inside the conductor to the path integral is zero.(4). the direction of the field is parallel to the direction of the path. empty cavity inside a homogeneous conductor. The Electrostatic Field as a Conservative Field The electric field is a conservative field since the electric force is a conservative force. and therefore the path integral will be non-zero. If the electric field E is known. In this 28 . the electrostatic potential V can be obtained using eq. Suppose there is a field inside the conductor and one of the field lines is shown in Figure 4.(16) and we must conclude that the field inside the cavity is equal to zero (in this case the path integral is of course equal to zero). In this case the path integral for any closed path will be zero: (16) Equation (16) can be used to prove an interesting theorem: " within a closed. Cross section of cavity inside spherical conductor. 4. The Gradient of the Electrostatic Potential The electrostatic potential V is related to the electrostatic field E. This obviously violates eq. This implies that the path integral (15) between point P0 and point P1 is independent of the path between these two points. the electric field is exactly zero ".

Consider the two points shown in Figure 5. Figure 5. and (21): (22) Equation (22) is usually written in the following form 29 . Equation (17) can be rewritten as (18) where EL indicates the component of the electric field along the L-axis. If the direction of the displacement is chosen to coincide with the x-axis. The change in the electrostatic potential between P1 and P2 is given by (17) where the angle [theta] is the angle between the direction of the electric field and the direction of the displacement (see Figure 5). (20).section we will discuss how the electric field E can be obtained if the electrostatic potential is known. Calculation of the electric field E. eq.(18) becomes (19) For the displacements along the y-axis and z-axis we obtain (20) (21) The total electric field E can be obtained from the electrostatic potential V by combining equations (19). These two nearly identical positions are separated by an infinitesimal distance dL.

y = 2 m.(23) where --V is the gradient of the potential V. the total electrostatic potential V can be obtained from the algebraic sum of the potential due to all charges that make up the charge distribution. Example Problem 3: Electric Field derived from Electrostatic Potential In some region of space. (26). y. the electric field can be calculated by applying Coulomb's law and vector addition of the contributions from all charges of the charge distribution. and (27) at x = 2 m and y = 2 m gives (28) (29) (30) 30 .(23)): (25) (26) (27) Evaluating equations (25). and subsequently using eq.(23) to calculate the electric field E. the electrostatic potential is the following function of x. while method 1 relies on the vector sum. and z: (24) where the potential is measured in volts and the distances in meters. 2. y and z components of the electric field E can be obtained from the gradient of the potential V (eq. In many cases method 2 is simpler since the calculation of the electrostatic potential involves an algebraic sum. Find the electric field at the points x = 2 m. The calculation of the electric field can be carried out using two different methods: 1. In many electrostatic problems the electric field of a certain charge distribution must be evaluated. The x.

The charge density [rho] of the annulus is equal to (33) Figure 6. We define the x-axis to coincide with the axis of the annulus (see Figure 7).(32) we obtain 31 . Consider a ring with radius r and width dr as shown in Figure 7. An amount Q of electric charge is uniformly distributed over the paper. Using eq. Problem 36. The electrostatic potential dV at P generated by this ring is given by (32) where dQ is the charge on the ring.Thus (31) Example Problem 4: Potential and Field of a Charged Annulus An annulus (a disk with a hole) made of paper has an outer radius R and an inner radius R/2 (see Figure 6). The first step in the calculation of the total electrostatic potential at point P due to the annulus is to calculate the electrostatic potential at P due to a small segment of the annulus.(34) into eq. b) Find the electric field on the axis of the annulus. (33) the charge dQ of the ring can be calculates (34) Substituting eq. a) Find the potential as a function of the distance on the axis of the annulus.

Due to the symmetry of the problem. It consists of two charges + Q and Q. The field strength can be obtained by applying eq. the electric field will be directed along the x-axis.(35) The total electrostatic potential can be obtained by integrating eq. The component of the electric field parallel to this surface must be zero since the change in the potential between all points on this surface is equal to zero.(35) over the whole annulus: (36) Figure 7. The electrostatic potential at point P can be found by summing the potentials generated by each of the two charges: 32 . 5.(36): (37) Since the electrostatic field and the electrostatic potential are related we can replace the field lines by so called equipotential surfaces. separated by a distance L. The Potential and Field of a Dipole Figure 8 shows an electric dipole located along the z-axis. Calculation of electrostatic potential in Problem 36. Equipotential surfaces are defined as surfaces on which each point has the same electrostatic potential.(23) to eq. This implies that the direction of the electric field is perpendicular to the equipotential surfaces.

(38) Figure 8. If the point P is far away from the dipole (r >> L) we can make the approximation that r1 and r2 are parallel. The electric field of the dipole can be obtained from eq. In this case (39) and (40) The electrostatic potential at P can now be rewritten as (41) where p is the dipole moment of the charge distribution.(41) by taking the gradient (see eq. 33 .(23)). The electric dipole.

q2. Equation (2) can be written in terms of the electrostatic potentials V: (3) where Vother(1) is the electric potential at the position of charge 1 produced by all other charges (4) 34 . and r12. and r23 are their separation distances (see Figure 1).(2) is the energy required to assemble the system of charges from an initial situation in which all charges are infinitely far apart.ELECTRIC ENERGY OF A SYSTEM OF POINT CHARGES 1 Introduction Figure 1. The electric potential energy of a system of three point charges (see Figure 1) can be calculated in a similar manner (2) where q 1. The electric potential energy U of a system of two point charges was discussed in our previous Chapter and is equal to (1) where q 1 and q 2 are the electric charges of the two objects. The potential energy in eq. r13. and q 3 are the electric charges of the three objects. and r is their separation distance. System of three charges.

35 . For instance. Assuming that the distance between pairs of alpha particles is 3 x 10-15 m.(3): (6) 2 Energy of a System of Conductors Figure 3. The capacitor.and similarly for Vother(2) and Vother(3). Alpha-particle model of 12C.0 x 10-15 m. The electric energy of this configuration can be calculated by combining eq. Example Problem: Model of a Carbon Nucleus According to the alpha-particle model of the nucleus some nuclei consist of a regular geometric arrangement of alpha particles. what is the electric energy of this arrangement of alpha particles ? Treat the alpha particles as pointlike. Figure 2. The electric potential at the location of each alpha particle is equal to (5) where d = 3.(5) and eq. the nucleus of 12C consists of three alpha particles on an equilateral triangle (see Figure 2).

The quantity [epsilon]0 . E2/2 is called the energy density (potential energy per unit volume). For example.The electrostatic energy of a system of conductors can be calculated using eq. Suppose the electrostatic potential of plate 1 is V1 and the potential of plate 2 is V2. a capacitor consists of two large parallel metallic plates with area A.(7) we can calculate the electrostatic energy of the system: (10) This equation shows that electrostatic energy can be stored in a capacitor. Suppose that charges +Q and -Q are placed on the two plates (see Figure 3). Figure 4. The electrostatic energy of the capacitor is then equal to (7) The electric field E between the plates is a function of the charge density [sigma] (8) The potential difference V1 . 36 . Field lines at the edge of a capacitor.V2 between the plates can be obtained by a path integration of the electric field (9) Combining eq. Equation (10) can be rewritten as (11) where Volume is the volume between the capacitor plates.(3).(9) and eq.

Consider a volume with its sides parallel to the field lines (see Figure 5). Consider the two small sections of the capacitor plates with charges dQ and -dQ. is related to the electric field between the plates (13) The electric field E(l) can be related to the charges on the small segments of the capacitor plates via Gauss' law. In a real capacitor the field at the edge is not homogeneous. since the electric field in any conductor is zero. The flux is negative since the field lines are entering the integration volume. The flux through the sides of the integration volume is zero since the sides are chosen to be parallel to the field lines.In the calculation of the energy density carried out for the capacitor we assumed that the electric field was homogeneous in the region between the plates. Integration volume discussed in the text. V1 . The flux through the bottom of the integration volume is also zero. respectively. and the calculation will have to be modified. Figure 4 shows a couple of field lines at the edge of a capacitor. Gauss' law requires that the flux through the surface of any volume is equal to the charge enclosed by that volume divided by [epsilon]0: (15) Figure 5. Combining eq. The electric flux through its surface is equal to (14) where E(l) is the strength of the electric field at a distance l from the bottom capacitor plate (see Figure 5) and dS(l) is the area of the top of the integration volume. The potential difference.(14) and eq. The contribution of these two sections to the total electrostatic energy of the capacitor is given by (12) where V1 and V2 are the electrostatic potential of the top and bottom plate. respectively.V2. shown in Figure 4.(15) we obtain (16) 37 .

Figure 6.4 x 10-15 m. the configuration is as shown in Figure 6. d) Ultimately. how much electric energy is released into other forms of energy in the complete fission process ? e) If 1 kg of uranium undergoes fission. a) Calculate the electric energy of the uranium nucleus before fission b) Calculate the total electric energy of the palladium nuclei in the configuration shown in Figure 6. (13) and (16) can be combined to give (17) This calculation can be generalized to objects of arbitrary shapes. The uranium nucleus is spherical with a radius of 7. c) Calculate the total electric energy a long time after fission when the two palladium nuclei have moved apart by a very large distance. immediately after fission. the nucleus of uranium (238U) splits into two nuclei of palladium (119Pd). at this instant. and the electrostatic energy of any system can be expressed as the volume integral of the energy density u which is defined as (18) Thus (19) where the volume integration extends over all regions where there is an electric field. Assume that the two palladium nuclei adopt a spherical shape immediately after fission. Two palladium nuclei right after fission of 238U. how much electric energy is released ? 38 . Example Problem: Fission of Uranium In symmetric fission.Equations (12). The size of the nuclei in Figure 6 can be calculated from the size of the uranium nucleus because nuclear material maintains a constant density. Take into account the mutual electric potential energy of the two nuclei and also the individual electric energy of the two palladium nuclei by themselves.

4 x 10-15 m.a) The electric energy of the uranium nucleus before fission can be calculated using the known electric field distribution generated by a uniformly charged sphere of radius R: (20) For the uranium nucleus q = 92e and R = 7.(20) we obtain (21) b) Suppose the radius of a palladium nucleus is R Pd. Besides the internal energy of the palladium nuclei. Substituting these values into eq.(23) and (22) we obtain the following equation for the radius of the palladium nucleus: (24) The electrostatic energy of each palladium nucleus is equal to (25) where we have used the radius calculated in eq.(22) must be equal to the volume of the original uranium nucleus (23) Combining eq. the volume in eq.(24) and a charge q Pd = 46e. the electric energy of the configuration must also be included in the calculation of the total electric potential energy of the nuclear system (26) 39 . The total volume of nuclear matter of the system shown in Figure 6 is equal to (22) Since the density of nuclear matter is constant.

where q Pd is the charge of the palladium nucleus (q Pd = 26e) and R int is the distance between the centers of the two nuclei (R int = 2 RPd = 11.7 x 10-15 m). Substituting these values into eq.(26) we obtain

(27) The total electric energy of the system at fission is therefore

(28) c) Due to the electric repulsion between the positively charge palladium nuclei, they will separate and move to infinity. At this point, the electric energy of the system is just the sum of the electric energies of the two palladium nuclei:

(29) d) The total release of energy is equal to the difference in the electric energy of the system before fission (eq.(21)) and long after fission (eq.(29)):

(30) e) Equation (30) gives the energy released when 1 uranium nucleus fissions. The number of uranium nuclei in 1 kg of uranium is equal to

(31) The total release of energy is equal to

(32) To get a feeling for the amount of energy released when uranium fissions, we can compare the energy in eq.(32) with the energy released by falling water. Suppose 1 kg of water falls 100 m. The energy released is equal to the change in the potential energy of the water:

(33) The mass of water needed to generate an amount of energy equal to that released in the fission of 1 kg uranium is

40

(34)

41

**CAPACITORS AND DIELECTRICS.
**

1. Introduction

A capacitor is an arrangement of conductors that is used to store electric charge. A very simple capacitor is an isolated metallic sphere. The potential of a sphere with radius R and charge Q is equal to

(1) Equation (1) shows that the potential of the sphere is proportional to the charge Q on the conductor. This is true in general for any configuration of conductors. This relationship can be written as

(2) where C is called the capacitance of the system of conductors. The unit of capacitance is the farad (F). The capacitance of the metallic sphere is equal to

(3)

**2. The parallel-plate capacitor
**

Another example of a capacitor is a system consisting of two parallel metallic plates. In Chapter 26 it was shown that the potential difference between two plates of area A, separation distance d, and with charges +Q and -Q, is given by

(4) Using the definition of the capacitance (eq.(2)), the capacitance of this system can be calculated:

(5) Equation (2) shows that the charge on a capacitor is proportional to the capacitance C and to the potential V. To increase the amount of charge stored on a capacitor while keeping the 42

potential (voltage) fixed, the capacitance of the capacitor will need to be increased. Since the capacitance of the parallel plate capacitor is proportional to the plate area A and inversely proportional to the distance d between the plates, this can be achieved by increasing the surface area A and/or decreasing the separation distance d. These large capacitors are usually made of two parallel sheets of aluminized foil, a few inches wide and several meters long. The sheets are placed very close together, but kept from touching by a thin sheet of plastic sandwiched between them. The entire sandwich is covered with another sheet of plastic and rolled up like a roll of toilet paper.

**Example Problem: The Geiger Counter
**

The tube of a Geiger counter consists of a thin straight wire surrounded by a coaxial conducting shell. The diameter of the wire is 0.0025 cm and that of the shell is 2.5 cm. The length of the tube is 10 cm. What is the capacitance of a Geiger-counter tube ?

Figure 1. Schematic of a Geiger counter. The problem will be solved under the assumption that the electric field generated is that of an infinitely long line of charge. A schematic side view of the tube is shown in Figure 1. The radius of the wire is rw, the radius of the cylinder is rc, the length of the counter is L, and the charge on the wire is +Q. The electric field in the region between the wire and the cylinder can be calculated using Gauss' law. The electric field in this region will have a radial direction and its magnitude will depend only on the radial distance r. Consider the cylinder with length L and radius r shown in Figure 1. The electric flux [Phi] through the surface of this cylinder is equal to

(6) According to Gauss' law, the flux [Phi] is equal to the enclosed charge divided by [epsilon]0. Therefore

(7) The electric field E(r) can be obtained using eq.(7):

43

(8) The potential difference between the wire and the cylinder can be obtained by integrating the electric field E(r):

(9) Using eq.(2) the capacitance of the Geiger tube can be calculated:

(10) Substituting the values for rw, rc, and L into eq.(10) we obtain

(11)

3. Capacitors in Combination

The symbol of a capacitor is shown in Figure 2. Capacitors can be connected together; they can be connected in series or in parallel. Figure 3 shows two capacitors, with capacitance C 1 and C 2, connected in parallel. The potential difference across both capacitors must be equal and therefore

(12)

Figure 2. Symbol of a Capacitor.

44

Figure 3. Two capacitors connected in parallel. Using eq.(12) the total charge on both capacitors can be calculated

(13) Equation (13) shows that the total charge on the capacitor system shown in Figure 3 is proportional to the potential difference across the system. The two capacitors in Figure 3 can be treated as one capacitor with a capacitance C where C is related to C 1 and C 2 in the following manner

(14) Figure 4 shows two capacitors, with capacitance C 1 and C 2, connected in series. Suppose the potential difference across C 1 is [Delta]V1 and the potential difference across C 2 is [Delta]V2. A charge Q on the top plate will induce a charge -Q on the bottom plate of C 1. Since electric charge is conserved, the charge on the top plate of C2 must be equal to Q. Thus the charge on the bottom plate of C 2 is equal to -Q. The voltage difference across C 1 is given by

(15) and the voltage difference across C 2 is equal to

(16)

Figure 4. Two capacitors connected in series. 45

(14): (20) 46 . A Multi-plate Capacitor. is proportional to the charge Q. and the distance between adjacent plates is d. The multiple capacitor shown in Figure 5 is equivalent to three identical capacitors connected in parallel (see Figure 6). such as used in radios. The area of each plate is A. connected in series. The capacitance of each of the three capacitors is equal and given by (19) The total capacitance of the multi-plate capacitor can be calculated using eq.The total voltage difference across the two capacitors is given by (17) Equation (17) again shows that the voltage across the two capacitors. The system acts like a single capacitor C whose capacitance can be obtained from the following formula (18) Example: Multi-plate Capacitor A multi-plate capacitor. consists of four parallel plates arranged one above the other as shown in Figure 5. What is the capacitance of this arrangement ? Figure 5.

Capacitors in Series/Parallel. C2. q2. Since charge is a conserved quantity. Schematic of Multi-plate Capacitor shown in Figure 5. Q2. are initially charged to 36 V by connecting each.Figure 6. Q1. for a few instants. q 1. q2.0 uF. to a 36-V battery. The charges on the three capacitors after the system settles down are equal to Q1. Q2. What will be the final charge on each capacitor ? What will be the voltage across the points PP' ? Figure 7. and Q3. are equal to (21) After the three capacitors are connected. the charge will redistribute itself. and Q3: (22) The voltage between P and P' can be expressed in terms of C 3 and Q3.0 uF. there is a relation between q 1. and Q2: 47 . with the positive and negative terminals joined as shown in Figure 7. and q 3.0 uF. The initial charges on each of the three capacitors. Example Problem: Capacitors in Series/Parallel Three capacitors. or in terms of C 1. The battery is then removed and the charged capacitors are connected in a closed series circuit. and C 3 = 7. and Q1. of capacitance C 1 = 2. C 2 = 5. and q 3.

(23): (30) The charges on capacitor 1 and capacitor 2 are equal to (31) (32) 48 .(23) and (24) Using eq.(23).(27) and eq.(22) the following expressions for Q1 and Q2 can be obtained: (25) (26) Substituting eq.(25) and eq.(24) we obtain (27) Combining eq.(26) into eq.(29) and eq. Q3 can be expressed in terms of known variables: (28) Substituting the known values of the capacitance and initial charges we obtain (29) The voltage across P and P' can be found by combining eq.

The change in the capacitance is caused by a change in the electric field between the plates.4. the dielectric constant [kappa] must be larger than 1. the capacitance of the capacitor will chance compared to the situation in which there is vacuum between the plates. the field generated by these bound charges is equal to 49 . The electric field between the two capacitor plates is the vector sum of the fields generated by the charges on the capacitor and the field generated by the surface charges on the surface of the dielectric. In this type of materials the total electric field between the capacitor plates E is related to the electric field Efree that would exist if no dielectric was present: (33) where [kappa] is called the dielectric constant. and is related to the capacitance C free of a capacitor with no dielectric in the following manner (35) Since [kappa] is larger than 1. Dielectrics If the space between the plates of a capacitor is filled with an insulator. it will also reduce the potential difference between the capacitor plates (if the total charge on the plates is kept constant): (34) The capacitance C of a system with a dielectric is inversely proportional to the potential difference between the plates. Since the presence of a dielectric reduces the strength of the electric field. the capacitance of a capacitor can be significantly increased by filling the space between the capacitor plates with a dielectric with a large [kappa]. Since the final electric field E can never exceed the free electric field Efree. A material in which the induced dipole moment is linearly proportional to the applied electric field is called a linear dielectric. The electric field generated by the charges on the capacitor plates (charge density of [sigma]free) is given by (36) Assuming a charge density on the surface of the dielectric equal to [sigma]bound. The potential difference across a capacitor is proportional to the electric field between the plates. These induced dipole moments will reduce the electric field in the region between the plates. The electric field between the capacitor plates will induce dipole moments in the material between the plates.

c) Find the density of bound charges on the surface of the dielectric.(37) into eq.(38) gives (39) or (40) Example Problem: The Parallel Plate Capacitor A parallel plate capacitor of plate area A and separation distance d contains a slab of dielectric of thickness d/2 (see Figure 8) and dielectric constant [kappa]. a) Suppose the electric field in the capacitor without the dielectric is equal to E0. b) Find the electric field inside the dielectric. is related to the free electric field via the dielectric constant [kappa]: 50 . The Parallel-Plate Capacitor. a) In terms of the given quantities.(37) The electric field between the plates is equal to Efree/[kappa] and thus (38) Substituting eq. The potential difference between the plates is [Delta]V. Figure 8. find the electric field in the empty region of space between the plates. The electric field in the dielectric. Ed.(36) and eq.

The area of 51 .(46) we obtain (47) 5.(45) and eq.(41) and (43): (44) c) The free charge density [sigma]free is equal to (45) The bound charge density is related to the free charge density via the following relation (46) Combining eq. Consider an ideal capacitor (with no fringing fields) and the integration volume shown in Figure 9.(41) The potential difference between the plates can be obtained by integrating the electric field between the plates: (42) The electric field in the empty region is thus equal to (43) b) The electric field in the dielectric can be found by combining eq. Gauss Law in Dielectrics The electric field in an "empty" capacitor can be obtained using Gauss' law.

each capacitor plate is A and the charges on the plates are +/-Q. metallic shell of radius 2R (see Figure 10). Gauss' law can now be rewritten as (50) Gauss' law in vacuum is a special case of eq. The electric field E between the capacitor plates is related to the dielectric-free field Efree: (49) where [kappa] is the dielectric constant of the material between the plates. What is the capacitance of this contraption ? Suppose the charge on the inner sphere is Qfree.(50) with [kappa] = 1. Figure 9. and outer radius 3R/2.(50)) and using as the integration volume a sphere of radius r (where R < r < 3R/2) 52 . The dielectric constant of the shell is [kappa]. Example Problem: The Spherical Capacitor. The electric field inside the dielectric can be determined by applying Gauss' law for a dielectric (eq. as stated in eq. does not hold in this case. A metallic sphere of radius R is surrounded by a concentric dielectric shell of inner radius R. Obviously.(48). Ideal Capacitor. This is surrounded by a concentric. the electric field between the plates will change (even though the charge on the plates is kept constant). Gauss' law. thin. Gauss' law states that the electric flux [Phi] through the surface of the integration volume is related to the enclosed charge: (48) If a dielectric is inserted between the plates. The charge enclosed by the integration volume shown in Figure 9 is equal to +Q.

(52) and eq. Problem 25.(53) we can determine the potential difference [Delta]V between the inner and outer sphere: (54) The capacitance of the system can be obtained from eq. and is equal to (53) Using the electric field from eq.(54) using the definition of the capacitance in terms of the charge Q and the potential difference [Delta]V: (55) 53 .(51) The electric field in this region is therefore given by (52) Figure 10. The electric field in the region between 3R/2 and 2R can be obtained in a similar manner.

after being connected to the 240-V battery. The electric potential energy can also be expressed in terms of the capacitance C of the capacitor (57) This formula is also correct for a capacitor with a dielectric. Example Problem: Capacitors in Parallel. is equal to (58) The potential difference across each capacitor will remain equal to 240 V after the capacitors are connected in series. The charge on each capacitor. a charge of 1.6 Energy in Capacitors The electric potential energy of a capacitor containing no dielectric and with charge +/-Q on its plates is given by (56) where V1 and V2 are the potentials of the two plates. the properties of the dielectric enters into this formula via the capacitance C. The total potential difference across the ten capacitors is thus equal to (59) If the two end terminals of the capacitor network are connected. What is the potential difference between the negative terminal of the first capacitor and the positive terminal of the last capacitor ? If these terminals are connected via an external circuit.2 mC will flow from the positive terminal to the negative terminal (see Figure 11). how much charge will flow around this circuit as the series arrangement discharges ? How much energy is released in the discharge ? Compare this charge and this energy with the charge and energy stored in the original. The charged capacitors are then disconnected from the battery and reconnected in series. parallel arrangement. Ten identical 5 uF capacitors are connected in parallel to a 240-V battery. and explain any discrepancies. the positive terminal of each capacitor being connected to the negative terminal of the next. 54 .

Example Problem: Energy Stored in Capacitors. Their capacitances are C 1 = 2. problem 39. Suppose the voltage across capacitor C 1 is V1. and C 3 = 8. what will be the charge on each capacitor ? What will be the electric energy of each ? Figure 12. is equal to (61) Clearly no energy is lost in the process of changing the capacitor configuration from parallel to serial. The potential difference across this system is equal to 55 . after being charged to 240 V. The electric energy stored in the capacitor network before discharge is equal to (60) The energy stored in each capacitor. and the voltage across capacitor (C 2 + C3) is V2.0 uF. If a voltage of 200 V is applied to the two free terminals.0 uF. If the charge on capacitor C 1 is equal to Q1. C 2 = 6.0 uF.Figure 11. Three capacitors are connected as shown in Figure 12. then the charge on the parallel capacitor is also equal to Q1. Problem 40.

(62) The charge on capacitor 1 is thus determined by the potential difference [Delta]V (63) The voltage V23 across the capacitor (C 2 + C3) is related to the charge Q1 (64) The charge on capacitor C 2 is equal to (65) The charge on capacitor C 3 is equal to (66) The electric potential energy stored in each capacitor is equal to (67) For the three capacitors in this problem the electric potential energy is equal to (68) (69) (70) 56 .

The current density j is defined as (2) where I is the current flowing through the conductor. The symbol of current is I and its SI unit is the Ampere (A). The free electrons in the wire will move in a direction opposite to that of the field lines. Their average velocity.CURRENTS AND OHMS LAW 1. an increase of the drift velocity of each of the electrons will increase the number of electrons passing by a given point on the conductor 57 . The electrons will experience significant friction as a result of collisions with the positive ions in the conductor. and a continuous flow of electrons will be created. the positive terminal of a battery acts as a sink for electrons and the negative terminal acts as a source of electrons. When a wire is connected to the terminals of a battery. However. an electric field is generated inside the wire (see Figure 1). The current is defined as (1) where dq is the amount of charge that flows past some given point on the wire during a time period dt. also called the drift velocity vd. is proportional to the electric field E (3) For a given density of electrons in the conductor. A current of 1 A is equal to 1 C/s. This continuous flow of electrons is called an electric current. The electric charge will try to redistribute itself in such a way that the net electric field in the wire is equal to zero. they will not accelerate. Electric Current Figure 1. On average. Electric field in a wire. and A is the cross-sectional area of the conductor. the electrons will move with a constant speed from the negative terminal of the battery to the positive terminal. Even though the electrons feel an electric field inside the conductor.

Equation (8) can therefore be rewritten as (9) Equation (9) can be rewritten as 58 . on average. All electrons within a distance dx from the point P will therefore pass this point during the time interval dt. Suppose the density of electrons in the conductor is n electrons/m3. Motion of average electron in conductor.per unit of time. Since the drift velocity is proportional to the electric field E the following relation holds for the current in the conductor: (8) The electric field in the conductor is determined by its length L and the potential difference [Delta]V between its two ends (E = [Delta]V/L). a distance equal to dx where (4) Figure 2. During a time interval dt the electrons will cover. This is illustrated in Figure 2. The number of electrons dN that will pass P during the time interval dt is then equal to (5) Since each electron carries a charge e. the total charge dQ that will pass point P in a time interval dt is equal to (6) The current through the conductor is therefore equal to (7) Equation (7) shows that the current in the conductor is proportional to the cross-sectional area of the conductor and proportional to the drift velocity.

Equation (12) also shows that 1 [Omega] equals 1 V/A. After passing the wire through the die. The resistance R of a conductor is defined as (11) The SI unit of resistance is the ohm ([Omega]). The final cross-sectional area A' is therefore related to the initial cross-sectional area A in the following manner: (16) 59 .(10) (12) Equation (12) is called Ohm's Law. The resistivity [rho] depends on the characteristics of the conductor ([rho] is small for a good conductor. Its final volume is therefore equal to L' A'. and [rho] is very large for an insulator). Since the density of the aluminum does not change. and therefore the initial and final dimensions of the wire are related: (14) or (15) The problem states that the length of the wire is doubled (L' = 2 L).(10) The constant of proportionality [rho] is called the resistivity of the material. making it thinner and twice as long. If you draw this wire through a die. it s length has changed to L' and its cross-sectional area is equal A'.10 [Omega]. Using the resistance R we can rewrite eq. A. Example: Resistance of a Wire An aluminum wire has a resistance of 0. Equation (12) shows that the current through a conductor is proportional to the potential difference between the ends of the conductor and inversely proportional to its resistance. what will be its new resistance ? The initial resistance Ri of the aluminum wire with length L and cross-sectional area A is equal to (13) The initial volume of the wire is L . the volume of the wire does not change.

The resistance R Cu of each copper wire is equal to 60 . The resistivity of an insulator varies between 1011 [Omega] . At these low temperatures.The final resistance R f of the wire is given by (17) The resistance of the wire has increased by a factor of four and is now 0. these materials exhibit superconductivity. The resistivity of a conductor depends not only on the type of the material but also on its temperature. zinc. Wiring diagram of air conditioner in problem 17. a) The resistivity of copper is 1. What is the voltage delivered to the air conditioner ? b) Some older homes are wired with No. m (see Table 1). Figure 3. m. The resistivity of most conductors is between 10-8 [Omega] .205 cm. The resistivity of materials The resistivity [rho] has as units ohm-meter ([Omega] . Repeat the calculation of part (a) for this wire. such as lead. m.259 cm and a length of 25 m each.7 x 10-8 [Omega] . 2.40 [Omega]. 12 copper wire with a diameter of 0. m). 10 copper wires with a diameter of 0. a) What is the potential drop along each wire ? Suppose that the voltage delivered to the home is exactly 110 V at the fuse box. the resistivity vanishes as the temperature approaches absolute zero. m and 10-7 [Omega] . In some materials. m and 1017 [Omega] . Example: Connecting an AC The air conditioner in a home draws a current of 12 A. tin and niobium. In all materials the resistivity decreases with decreasing temperature. Suppose that the pair of wires connecting the air conditioner to the fuse box are No.

b) A No. 12 wire has a diameter equal to 0. Resistance in combination A device that is specifically designed to have a high resistance is called a resistor.(19).2 . The voltage drop across this wire is equal to (21) and the voltage across the AC unit is equal to 106. The symbol of a resistor in a circuit diagram is a zigzag line (see Figure 4). What is the resistance of this cable ? The resistivity of aluminum is 2. A current I is flowing through the wires and I = 12 A.259 cm.1 V. 200 km long. The voltage across the air-conditioner unit is equal to 110 .(18) where L is the length of the wire and d is its diameter. The voltage drop across each wire is thus equal to (20) The voltage across the AC unit is therefore equal to 108.205 cm. The voltage drop [Delta]V across each wire is equal to (19) Figure 3 shows schematically a wiring diagram of the air conditioner circuit. the length of the cable is 200 km or 2 x 105 m. The length of each copper cable is 25 m. The diameter of the cable is 3 cm and its cross-sectional area is equal to [pi] (d/2)2 or 7.0 cm.(11) the resistance of the cable can be determined (22) 3. 61 .8 x 10-8 [Omega] m. [Delta]V. and its diameter is equal to 0.9 V. where [Delta]V is given by eq. Substituting these values into eq.1 x 10-4 m2. Example: HV Lines A high voltage transmission line has an aluminum cable of diameter 3.

but the voltage drop [Delta]V across each resistor will be the same.Figure 4. Using Ohm's law the current I1 flowing through resistor R 1 can be calculated (27) and the current I2 flowing through resistor R 2 is equal to (28) The total current flowing through the circuit is equal to the sum of the currents through each resistor (29) 62 . The voltage drop [Delta]V1 across resistor R 1 is equal to (23) and the voltage drop [Delta]V2 across resistor R 2 is equal to (24) The potential difference [Delta]V across the series circuit is equal to (25) Equation (25) shows that two resistors connected in series act like one resistor with a resistance equal to the sum of the resistance of resistor 1 and the resistance of resistor 2 (26) Figure 5. Figure 5 shows two resistors with resistance R 1 and R 2 connected in series. In this circuit. Suppose the current flowing through the circuit is equal to I. Symbol of a resistor. the current through each resistor will be different. Figure 6 shows two resistors connected in parallel. Two resistors connected in series.

this prevents damage to the filaments of the superconductor.54 x 10-6 m2. Consider 1 meter of cable. The cross-sectional area of 2100 filaments is equal to 1. (d/2)2 = 7. Two resistor connected in parallel. and its cross-sectional area is equal to 1. and each of the 2100 filaments has a diameter of 0. Figure 6. Calculate the resistance per meter of length of a copper matrix.The resistor network shown in Figure 6 is therefore equivalent to a single resistor R where R can be obtained from the following relation (30) Equation (30) shows that the resistance of a parallel combination of resistors is always less than the resistance of each of the individual resistors. all the current flows in them. The copper matrix has a diameter of 0. The diameter of the copper matrix is equal to 0.9 x 1011 m2.01 mm. and no current flows in the copper. The resistance of the copper matrix per unit length is equal to (31) Suppose the resistivity of the filament at room temperature is the same as the resistivity of copper. The cross-sectional area of each filament is [pi] . As long as the filaments are superconducting. The area of the copper itself is thus equal to 1.37 x 10-6 m2. But if the superconductivity suddenly fails because of a temperature increase.7 mm.7 mm. Suppose 63 . the current can spill into the copper. The fraction of the current flowing through the copper matrix can be determined easily.65 x 10-7 m2. The resistance of each superconducting filament is equal to (32) The wire can be treated as a parallel circuit of one resistor representing the resistance of the copper matrix and 2100 resistors representing the 2100 strands of superconducting wire. Example: Superconducting Cables Commercially manufactured superconducting cables consist of filaments of superconducting wire embedded in a matrix of copper.

the fraction of the current flowing through the copper is equal to (36) The copper matrix will carry 90% of the total current. If the temperature of the wire is above the critical temperature. 64 .that the potential difference across the conductor is equal to [Delta]V. the current flow will change drastically. The temperature is below the critical temperature. Example: Resistors in Circuits What is the resistance of the combination of four resistors shown in Figure 7. 1. Problem 42. Figure 7. 2. At or below this temperature the resistance of the filaments vanishes (R fil = 0 [Omega]). Each of the resistors has a value of R. In this case. Equation (35) shows that in this case no current will flow through the copper matrix. The current ICu flowing through the copper matrix is equal to (33) The current Ifil flowing through the 2100 filaments is equal to (34) The fraction F of the total current flowing through the copper matrix is equal to (35) Two special cases will need to be considered.

Thus 65 . Problem 42. Resistors R 2 and R 34 form a series network and can be replaced by a single resistor with a resistance R 234 where (39) Figure 8. R 1 = R2 = R3 = R4 = R. Problem 42. we start calculating the net resistance R 34 of the parallel circuit of resistors R 3 and R 4: (37) or (38) The circuit shown in Figure 7 is therefore equivalent with the circuit shown in Figure 8. The resistance R tot of this circuit can be obtained from the following relation (40) or (41) In the special case considered. The circuit shown in Figure 8 can now be replaced by an equivalent circuit shown in Figure 9.To find the net resistance of the circuit shown in Figure 7. Figure 9.

66 .(42) (43) (44) For R = 3 [Omega] the total resistance is equal to 1.8 [Omega].

Electron in electronic circuit. During this process. and its total mechanical energy is therefore reduced when it arrives at the end of the circuit (positive terminal of the source). A steady current will flow through the circuit in Figure 1 if the increase of potential energy of the electrons in the source is equal to the change in the potential energy of the electrons along their path through the external circuit. The electrons in the conductor move from the end with the low (negative) potential towards the end with the high (positive) potential. and on average will not change. The velocity of the electron is limited by the friction it experiences while traveling through the conductor. the source does work on the electrons. Consider the circuit shown in Figure 1. Batteries: Batteries convert chemical energy into electric energy. However. The emf of a source is defined as the amount of electric energy delivered by the source per Coulomb of positive charge as charge passes through the source from the low-potential terminal to the high-potential terminal. The most important sources of emf are: 1.DC CIRCUITS 1. Electromotive Force Figure 1. The symbol for emf is [epsilon]. To keep a current flowing in an electronics circuit we need a source of electric potential. The unit of emf is the Volt (V) and usually the emf is simply called the voltage of the source. the source must force the electrons from the terminal with the positive potential to the terminal with the negative potential. In order to sustain the continuous flow of electrons around the circuit. and increases their total mechanical energy. the electron will lose potential energy. The strength of the source is measured in terms of the electromotive force (emf). In a lead-acid battery the following reactions take place when the battery delivers a current: (1) and (2) 67 .

The efficiency of the best fuel cells is about 45%. while the short line represents the negative terminal. The reactions in eq.2. Schematic symbol of source of emf.(1) and eq. The reverse of the reactions listed in eq. which states: 68 . An example of a simple circuit in which a resistor is connected between the terminals of the emf source is shown in Figure 3. The battery can be recharged by forcing a current through the battery in the reverse direction.6 V.(1) and eq. However. The chemical reactions that occur are (3) and (4) The net result of these reactions is the conversion of hydrogen and oxygen into water which is removed from the fuel cell in the form of water vapor. 3. The current through this circuit can be determined by applying Kirchhoff's rule. 2. Electric Generators: Electric generators convert mechanical energy into electric energy. Figure 2.(2) will continue until the sulfuric acid is depleted. 27. the amount of current that can be extracted is rather small.(2) will then occur. Solar Cell: A solar cell converts the energy of the sunlight directly into electric energy.These reactions deposit electrons on the negative electrode and absorb electrons from the positive electrodes. Single-loop currents A source with a time-independent emf is represented by the symbol shown in Figure 2. At this point the battery is discharged. The long line in Figure 2 represents the positive terminal of the source. Fuel cells: A mixture of chemicals are combined in the fuel cell. The emf of a silicon solar cell is 0. 4. A fuel cell therefore burns fuel. The principle of operation of electric generators will be discussed later.

The emf of the source is therefore positive.I . In a real circuit we will have to take the internal resistance R i of the source into account. The potential drop [Delta]V across the resistor can be determined using Ohm's law. Figure 3. Simple single-loop circuit. the sum of all the emfs and all the potential changes across resistors and other circuit elements must equal zero. Applying Kirchhoff's rule one obtains the following equation: (5) The current in the circuit is therefore equal to (6) Figure 4. The internal resistance R i of the source can be regarded as connected in series to an ideal emf (see Figure 4). Real source consisting of internal resistance Ri and ideal emf [epsilon]. Ri. The current flowing in the circuit shown in Figure 3 flows through the source from the negative terminal to the positive terminal. the emf of a source is reckoned as positive if the current flows through the source in the forward direction (from the negative terminal to the positive terminal) and negative if it flows in the backward direction. If a current I is flowing though the source. (Note: the direction of the current indicates the direction of the positive charge carriers).Around a closed loop in a circuit. 69 . and is equal to I R. In this sum. the emf across the external terminals of the source is equal to [epsilon] . The external emf therefore depends on the current delivered by the source.

I2.. This policy defines the direction of the current in loop 1. Current loops in multi-loop circuit. In Figure 5 there are clearly 3 current loops. loop 2 and in loop 3 (see Figure 6). Label the current in the loops I1. . The loops may overlap.. I3. Multi-loop circuit 1. but each loop must have at least one portion that does not overlap with other loops.. 2. and arbitrarily assign a direction to each of the currents.. Figure 6. 3. For loop 1 Kirchhoff's law states that (7) 70 .. This procedure can be summarized as follows (see Figure 5): Figure 5. Apply Kirchhoff's rule to each loop. A useful policy can be to define the direction of the current in a loop as going from the positive terminal of the emf to the negative terminal of the emf (if an emf is present in the loop). Multi-loop circuits. The procedure used to calculate the current flowing through a complicated circuit (with several resistors and emfs) is called the loop method.3. Regard the circuit as a collection of several closed current loops.

(9) in the following manner (10) or (11) The current I2 can be obtained by substituting eq.(7): (13) An alternative method to obtain the currents in a multi-loop circuit is the branch method which is based on Kirchhoff's first rule: The sum of all currents entering a branch point of a circuit (where three or more wires merge) must be equal to the sum of the currents leaving the branch point.For loop 2 we find (8) Finally.(11) into eq.(8): (12) The current I1 can be obtained from eq. The branch method involves the following steps (and is illustrated by discussing its application to the circuit in Figure 7): 71 . for loop 3 we find (9) Using eq.(8) we can rewrite eq.

.. Apply Kirchhoff's first law to each branch point. Regard the given circuit as a collection of branches which begin and end at the points where wires merge. For loop 1 of the circuit shown in Figure 7 Kirchhoff's law dictates that (14) For loop 2 we obtain (15) For loop 3 we obtain (16) Apply Kirchhoff's first law to the three branch points of the circuit shown in Figure 7: (17) (18) (19) This procedure produces six equations with 5 unknown and the system is over-defined. and arbitrarily assign a direction to each of these currents.. Branch method applied to multi-loop circuit. I3. 1.. 72 . The currents in the five branches of circuit 5 are indicated in Figure 7. 3.Figure 7.. Label the currents in each branch I1. The circuit in Figure 5 has five branches. I2. 2. Apply Kirchhoff's second law to each loop. 4. .

The current I1 can be obtained from eq. it is usually quicker to use than the branch method.(). using the solution for I4 just derived (eq. and R1 = 2. Example Problem: Multi-loop Circuit Consider the circuit shown in Figure 8.(19) (24) Note: since the loop method involves fewer unknown and fewer equations.0 V. [epsilon]2 = 10. what must be the value of the resistance R 2 if the current through this resistance is to be 2.0 V.0 [Omega]. Given that [epsilon]1 = 6.0 A ? 73 .(21)): (22) The current I2 can be obtained from eq.(14): (20) Equation (15) can be used to determine I4: (21) The current I3 can be obtained from eq.(17): (23) The current I5 can be obtained from eq.

The sum of all emfs and all potential drops across the resistors in loop 1 is (25) The sum of all emfs and all potential drops across the resistors in loop 2 is equal to (26) Equation (26) can be rewritten as (27) where we have used eq. Multi-loop Circuit. If a charge dq passes through a battery with emf [epsilon]. the work done dW will be equal to (30) The rate at which the emf source does work is given by (31) 74 . The voltage drop across resistor R 1 is equal to R 1 . We will assume that the current in each loop flows in a counter clockwise direction (as shown in Figure 8). The current I2 is thus equal to (28) The problems states that [epsilon]1 = 6. Energy in circuits To keep a current flowing in a circuit.0 V and I2 = 2. [epsilon]2 = 10. work must be done on the circulating charges.0 A.(25).I2).Figure 8.0 V. Consider the two loops shown in Figure 8.(28) can be used to determine R 2: (29) 4. (I1 . These values combined with eq.

The energy lost is converted into heat.(32): (34) This is also the current flowing through the transmission cables.3 x 105 V.3 x 105 V. is equal to 1. What is the current in the transmission line ? How much power is lost as Joule heat in the transmission line ? b) If the transmission line delivers the same 1. For an electron moving through the resistor the loss of potential energy is equal to e .The rate of work is called the power P. is equal to 2. 1 W = 1 VA). how much power would be lost in Joule heat ? Is it more efficient to transmit power at high voltage or at low voltage ? a) The power delivered to the city. a) The transmission line delivers to the city 1. and the unit of power is the Watt (W. The voltage delivered.7 x 105 kW. [Delta]V. and the rate at which energy is dissipated is equal to (32) or (33) the conversion of electric energy into thermal energy is called Joule heating.7 x 105 kW of power at 110 V. The current flows to the city along one cable. Example Problem: High-Voltage Transmission Line A high-voltage transmission line that connects a city to a power plant consists of a pair of copper cables. Pdelivered. The moving charges dissipate some of their energy when passing through resistors. [Delta]Vdelivered. The current through the cables can determined by applying eq. The electric energy dissipated in the cables is equal to (35) The power generated by the power plant must therefore be equal to 75 . each with a resistance of 4 [Omega]. and back along the other.7 x 105 kW of power at 2. Suppose the potential drop across a resistor is [Delta]V.

than current through the transmission cables must be equal to (37) This current is roughly 2000 times the current flowing through the transmission cables if the power is delivered at high voltage. Clearly. Example Problem: Charging a Battery A 12-V battery of internal resistance R i = 0. a) What must be the minimum emf of the external source ? b) What is the rate at which heat is developed in the internal resistance of the battery ? a) The circuit describing this problem is shown in Figure 9. we conclude that only 0. b) If the voltage delivered to the city is 110 V. and [epsilon]2 is the emf of the recharger.0009% of the generated power is delivered to the city. we conclude that 98% of the generated power is delivered to the city. The voltage of the transmission line is therefore reduced to 110 V as close as possible to the house of the customer.(36) Comparing the power generated with the power delivered. The power dissipated in the transmission cables is (38) The power generated by the power plant must therefore be equal to (39) Comparing the power generated with the power delivered.20 [Omega] is being charged by an external source of emf delivering 6.0 A. In Figure 9 [epsilon]1 is the emf of the battery being recharged. our conclusion should be that the transmission of electric energy at high voltage is much more efficient that the transmission at low voltage. Applying Kirchhoff's second rule to the single loop circuit we obtain the following relation between the charging current and the emfs: (40) Equation (40) can be rewritten as 76 .

0 A then the emf of the recharger must be equal to (42) Figure 9.I Ri).20 [Omega].40 [Omega]. The internal resistance of the battery is equal to R i. b) The power dissipation in the internal resistance of the battery can be calculated by using eq. The external voltage of the battery if thus equal to ([epsilon]b .(33) (43) Example Problem: Draining a Battery Suppose that a 12-V battery has an internal resistance of 0.(41) The emf of the battery to be recharged is [epsilon]1 = 12. The power delivered by the battery to the external circuit is therefore equal to (44) The total power delivered by the emf is equal to (45) 77 . what fraction of the initial stored energy is wasted in the internal resistance ? b) What if the battery delivers a current of 10. a) If this battery delivers a steady current of 1.0 A into an external circuit until it is completely discharged. If the recharger is to deliver a current I = 6.0 A ? Is it more efficient to use the battery at low current or at high current ? a) Suppose the battery as an emf [epsilon]b and delivers a current I.0 V and it has an internal resistance Ri = 0. The voltage drop across the internal resistance is equal to I R i. Problem 24.

The currents in these circuits can be determined by applying Kirchhoff's first and/or second rule.(48) we obtain (50) 78 .The fraction of the total delivered power that is dissipated in the internal resistance of the battery is equal to (46) The ratio in eq.(49) into eq. the current I through the resistor and the charge Q on the capacitor are related: (49) Substituting eq. The RC circuit The current through the circuits discussed so far have been time-independent. Applying Kirchhoff's second rule to the current loop I gives (48) However.(46) is proportional to the current I. Using the values of the parameters specified in the problem we can calculate the ratio: (47) 5. as long as the emf of the source is time-independent. A simple circuit in which the current is time dependent is the RC circuit which consists of a resistor R connected in series with a capacitor C (see Figure 10).

(51): (52) where Q0 is the charge on the capacitor at time t = 0.Figure 10.(52) we obtain (53) Equation (53) can be rewritten as (54) or (55) Let us consider the case in which the capacitor is discharged at time t = 0 (that is Q0 = 0 C). After evaluating both integrals in eq. Simple RC circuit. The first step is to rewrite eq. Equation (55) can then be rewritten as 79 . Equation (50) is a simple differential equation which can be solved for Q.(50) in the following manner: (51) The second step is to integrate each side of eq.

Once we know the charge on the capacitor as function of time we can immediately find the current as function of time by applying eq.(48): (58) The current at time t = 0 is equal to [epsilon]/R and it decreases to zero with increasing time. the charge on the capacitor will decrease. The time constant for this process is also RC. 80 .(56) The charge on the capacitor will increase as function of time and the final charge Qf on the capacitor is equal to (57) The time constant of the charging process of the capacitor is equal to RC. When the charged capacitor is connected in series across a resistor.

THE MAGNETIC FORCE AND FIELD. moving with velocities v1 and v2. The magnetic force Up to now we have only considered the electrostatic forces acting on charges at rest. A magnetic field B can be associated with the magnetic force. the ratio R can be rewritten as (3) where c is the velocity of light in vacuum (c = 3 x 108 m/s). When the charges are in motion. The test charge will experience.(2). the magnetic force is small compared with the electric force unless the speed of the particles is high (a significant fraction of the velocity of light). The magnetic force between two charges q 1 and q 2. Substituting the numerical values of [epsilon]0 and u 0 into eq. and r is the distance between the two charges (see Figure 1). besides the electric 81 . is equal to (1) where u 0 is called the permeability constant which is equal to 4[pi] x 10-7 Ns2/C2. an extra force acts on them. Clearly. The ratio R of the magnetic force and the electric force is equal to (2) Figure 1. This extra force is called the magnetic force. The magnetic field at some point in the vicinity of a moving charge can be determined by placing a test charge at that point and moving it with some velocity v. Relevant vectors for definition of magnetic force. 1.

This immediately implies that the magnetic flux through an arbitrary closed surface is equal to zero: (6) The principle of superposition is also valid for the magnetic field. Comparing eq. the magnetic field may be as strong as 108 T. Per definition. Example Problem: Magnetic Field of a Neutron Star At the surface of a pulsar. Consider the electron in a hydrogen atom on the surface of the neutron star. The density of field lines indicates the strength of the magnetic field. the magnetic field B is related to the magnetic force Fmag via (4) A measurement of the magnetic force acting on the test charge for various directions of v can be used to determine the magnetic field B. The magnetic field lines form closed loops. The electric force acting on the electron is equal to (7) 82 . The magnetic force is always perpendicular to the velocity vector and the direction of the magnetic field. Compare the electric force that the proton exerts on the electron with the magnetic force that the magnetic field of the neutron star exerts on the electron. or neutron star. The tangent of the field lines indicates the direction of the magnetic field.53 x 10-10 m from the proton. The unit of magnetic field strength is the Tesla (T).(4) we can determine the magnetic field generated by a point charge q 2 moving with a velocity v2: (5) Similar to electric field lines we can graphically represent the magnetic field by field lines.force.(1) and eq.2 x 106 m/s. a magnetic force Fmag. The electron is at a distance of 0.53 x 10-10 m from the proton and has a speed of 2. that is they do not begin or end anywhere in the way that the electric field lines begin and end on positive and negative charges. Is it reasonable to expect that the hydrogen atom will be strongly deformed by the magnetic field ? The electron in a hydrogen atom is at a distance r equal to 0.

generated by this charge at point P is equal to (9) where v is the velocity of the charge carriers. dB. At any given time.(8) we conclude that the magnetic field is significantly stronger hat the electric field. The magnetic field. In other words.(5). Consider a small segment of the wire with a length dL (see Figure 2). The maximum magnetic force is equal to (8) Comparing eq. a charge dq will be located in this segment. Each of the moving electrons produces a magnetic field that is given by eq. and we expect that the orbits of the electrons are strongly affected by the intense magnetic field. The time dt that it takes for all original charge carriers to leave the segment dL is given by (10) The current I in the wire can now be obtained easily (11) 83 .(7) and eq. A current flowing through a wire is equivalent to a collection of electrons moving with a certain velocity along the direction of the wire. a moving charge produces a magnetic field which results in a magnetic force acting on all charges moving in this field.The maximum magnetic force acting on the electron occurs when the direction of the electron is perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field. 2. The Biot-Savart Law The definition of the magnetic force showed that two moving charges experience a magnetic force.

Calculation of magnetic field produced by one ring. These coils consist of two thin circular rings of wire parallel to each other and on a common axis. Figure 3. a distance z above the x-y plane (see Figure 3).(9): (13) Equation (13) is called the Biot-Savart Law. Example Problem: Helmholtz Coils Helmholtz coils are often used to make reasonably uniform magnetic fields in laboratories. The net magnetic field 84 . The rings have a radius R and they are separated by a distance which is also R. Find the magnetic field at any point on the z-axis. The first step to calculate the field of a pair of Helmholtz coils is to calculate the magnetic field produced by each ring. This equation can be rewritten as (12) and substituted into eq. These rings carry equal currents in the same direction.Figure 2. Suppose the ring is located in the x-y plane and we are interested in the field at point P. Calculation of magnetic field produced by an electric current. the z-axis.

The magnetic field generated by the coil located at z = R is given by (20) 85 . To find the field generated by a pair of Helmholtz coils. located at z = 0 m.(19).(18) over the whole ring we obtain for the total field generated by the ring (19) Figure 4 shows the magnetic field generated by one coil with a radius of 1 m. (16) and (17) we obtain (18) Integrating eq. the position vector r is perpendicular to the direction of dL. we assume that the coils are centered at z = 0 and at z = R.(15).of the ring at point P will be directed along the z-axis. The z-component of the magnetic field dB is equal to (15) The magnitude of the position vector r is related to R and z: (16) The angle a is also related to R and z: (17) Combining eqs.(14) we have used the fact that for any point on the ring. The magnetic field generated by the coil located at z = 0 is given by eq. The magnitude dB of the magnetic field produced by a small segment of the ring with length dL is equal to (14) To obtain eq.

The total field on the axis of a pair of Helmholtz coils is equal to the sum of the field generated by coil 1 and the field generated by coil 2: (21) The total magnetic field generated by a pair of Helmholtz coils is shown in Figure 5 where also the contributions of the two coils are shown individually. Figure 5. Figure 4. One branch of it lies along the positive x-axis and the other along the positive y-axis (see Figure 6). Example Problem: Magnetic Field due to a Long Wire A very long wire is bent at a right angle near its midpoint. Magnetic field generated by a coil with R = 1 m. Magnetic field generated by a pair of Helmholtz coils. The wire carries a current I. We observe that the field is very homogeneous between the coils (0 < z < R). What is the magnetic field at a point in the first quadrant of the x-y plane ? 86 .

The direction of the magnetic field generated by a small segment of the wire is pointing out of the paper. dB. Field generated by wire. is equal to (22) The position x of the segment under consideration is determined by the angle a: (23) or (24) From eq.(24) we can obtain a relation between dx and da: (25) 87 . Example Problem "Magnetic Field due to a Long Wire" Figure 7. The first step to solve this problem is to look at the magnetic field produced by this single wire (see Figure 7). The magnitude of the field.Figure 6.

(25) and eq.Furthermore.(27) over the wire.(26) into eq(22) we obtain (27) The total field can be obtained by integrating eq. (26) Substituting eq. The integration limits are (28) and (29) The result of the integration is (30) The field of the vertical wire can be obtained in a similar fashion: (31) The magnitude of the total field is thus equal to (32) 88 .

In general. The amount of charge dq on this ring is equal to 89 .3. The disk spins about its axis with angular velocity [omega]. The first step to solve this problem is to determine the dipole moment of a ring of the disk. Find the magnetic dipole moment of the disk. with radius r and with a width dr. The magnetic dipole The magnetic field on the axis of a current loop was discussed when we studied the field generated by Helmholtz coils. At large distances from the current loop (z >> R) the field is approximately equal to (33) which shows that the magnetic field strength decreases as 1/z3. Example Problem: Spinning Charged Disk An amount of charge Q is uniformly distributed over a disk of paper of radius R. the dipole moment of a current loop is equal to (37) Magnetic dipole moments exist for objects as small as electrons and as large as the earth. This dependence of the magnetic field strength on distance is similar to the dependence observed for the electric field strength of an electric dipole: (34) Equation (33) is often rewritten as (35) where (36) is called the magnetic dipole moment of the loop.

(41) between r = 0 and r = R: (42) 90 . The current dI is thus equal to (40) The magnetic dipole moment du of the ring is equal to (41) The total dipole moment of the disk can be found by integrating eq.(38) The angular velocity of the disk is [omega] and its period T is equal to (39) During one period the charge dq will pass any given point on the ring.

has a magnitude equal to (1) and a direction perpendicular to r and I. Figure 1. The path integral along a circle centered around the wire (see Figure 1) is equal to (2) Here we have used the fact that the magnetic field is tangential at any point on the circular integration path. Magnetic field generated by current. The path integral along this circular segment is equal to (3) 91 . For the radial segments the magnetic field will be perpendicular to the displacement and the scaler product between the magnetic field and the displacement is zero. Any arbitrary path can be thought of as a collection of radial segments (r changes and [theta] remains constant) and circular segments ([theta] changes and r remains constant). Consider now a small circular segment of a trajectory around the wire (see Figure 2).AMPERES LAW 1. Introduction The magnetic field at a distance r from a very long straight wire. carrying a steady current I.

the total magnetic field at the center of wire 1 is equal to (6) 92 . due to the current flowing in wire 1. can be determined using Ampere's law. and is equal to zero. and 6. and can therefore be used to determine the magnetic field generated by wire 2. Assume that the currents in each wire is uniformly distributed over its cross section. and they carry equal currents I in the same direction. The field at the center of wire 1. 5. A schematic layout of the problem is shown in Figure 3.(3) can be rewritten as (4) This expression is Ampere's Law: " The integral of B around any closed mathematical path equals u 0 times the current intercepted by the area spanning the path " Example Problem: Field due to six parellel wires Six parallel aluminum wires of small. and eq. The magnetic field generated by a single wire is equal to (5) where r is the distance from the center of the wire. the total change in angle will be 2[pi]. 4. but finite. Equation (3) shows that the contribution of this circular segment to the total path integral is independent of the distance r and only depends on the change in the angle [Delta][theta]. For a closed path. Find the magnetic field at the center of the first wire. The total magnetic field at the center of wire 1 can be found by vector addition of the contributions of each of the six wires. Path integral along a small circular path. radius lie in the same plane.Figure 2. Equation (5) is correct for all points outside the wire. 3. Since the direction of each of these contributions is the same. The wires are separated by equal distances d.

The current enclosed by the integration path is equal to N . The path integral of the magnetic field around this integration path is equal to (7) where L is the horizontal length of the integration path. Six parallel wires. Using Ampere's law we conclude that (8) or (9) 93 .Figure 3. The ideal solenoid. since magnetic field lines must form closed loops. 2. Figure 4. The magnetic field inside a solenoid can be determined by summing the magnetic fields generated by N individual rings (where N is the number of turns of the solenoid). the magnetic field can not be directed along a radial direction (otherwise field lines would be created or destroyed on the central axis of the solenoid). It can be made of a thin conducting wire wound in a tight helical coil of many turns. Therefore we conclude that the field lines in a solenoid must be parallel to the solenoid axis. Consider the integration path shown in Figure 4. The ideal solenoid has translational and rotational symmetry. The magnitude of the magnetic field can be obtained by applying Ampere's law. We will limit our discussion of the magnetic field generated by a solenoid to that generated by an ideal solenoid which is infinitely long. The solenoid A solenoid is a device used to generate a homogeneous magnetic field. However. and has very tightly wound coils. I0 where N is the number of turns enclosed by the integration path and I0 is the current in each turn of the solenoid.

at a distance r from the axis. and has a magnitude equal to (10) The magnetic field if a long straight wire. centered on the symmetry axis of the coaxial cable. and a long straight wire lying along the axis of this solenoid carries a current I'. We conclude that the magnetic field inside an ideal solenoid is uniform. The direction of Bwire is therefore perpendicular to the direction of Bsol. carrying a current I' has a magnitude equal to (11) and is directed perpendicular to the direction of r and I'. Find formulas for the magnetic field in each of the regions r < r1. Its magnitude is equal to (12) The angle a between the direction of the magnetic field and the z-axis is given by (13) Example Problem: Coaxial cable A coaxial cable consists of a long cylindrical copper wire of radius r1 surrounded by a cylindrical shell of inner radius r2 and outer radius r3 (see Figure 5). The wire and the shell carry equal and opposite currents I uniformly distributed over their volumes.where n is the number of turns of the solenoid per unit length. and r > r3. Equation (9) shows that the magnetic field B is independent of the position inside the solenoid. The magnetic field generated by the solenoid is uniform. r1 < r < r2. The magnetic field lines are circles. directed parallel to the solenoid axis. The net magnetic field inside the solenoid is equal to the vector sum of Bwire and Bsol. r2 < r < r3. The path integral of B along this path is equal to 94 . Example Problem: Superposition of magnetic fields A long solenoid of n turns per unit length carries a current I. Find the net magnetic field within the solenoid. First consider an integration path with r < r1. Describe the shape of the magnetic field lines.

Ampere's law states then that (18) and the magnetic field is given by (19) In the third region (r2 < r < r3) the path integral of the magnetic field along a circular path with radius r is given by eq.(14).(14).(14) The current enclosed by this integration path is equal to (15) Applying Faraday's law we can relate the current enclosed to the path integral of B (16) Therefore. The enclosed current is equal to 95 . In the region between the wire and the shell. the enclosed current is equal to I and the path integral of the magnetic field is given by eq. The coaxial cable. the magnetic field is B is equal to (17) Figure 5.

If the charged particle is moving in a uniform magnetic field. 3. Motion of charges in electric and magnetic fields The magnetic force acting on particle with charge q moving with velocity v is equal to (22) This force is always perpendicular to the direction of motion of the particle. and not the magnitude of the velocity. the particle will carry out uniform circular motion.(20) The magnetic field is therefore equal to (21) The current enclosed by an integration path with a radius r > r3 is equal to zero (since the current in the wire and in the shell are flowing in opposite directions). then the magnitude of the magnetic force is given by (23) and its direction is perpendicular to v. The distance traveled by the particle in one revolution is equal to 96 . The magnetic field in this region is therefore also equal to zero. The radius of the circle is determined by the requirement that the strength magnetic force is equal to the centripetal force. As a result of this force. and will therefore only change the direction of motion. with strength B. that is perpendicular to the velocity v. Thus (24) The radius r of the orbit is equal to (25) where p is the momentum of the charged particle.

The final kinetic energy of the electron is given by (29) The momentum p of the electron is determined by its kinetic energy (30) The radius of curvature of the trajectory of the electron is thus equal to (31) Equation (31) shows that a measurement of r can be used to determine the mass over charge ratio of the electron. The cavity is cut into two D-shaped pieces (called dees) with a gap between them. injected in the center of the cyclotron. and depends only on its mass m and charge q. The frequency of the motion of the particle depends on its mass. As the energy of the ion 97 . its charge and the magnetic field strength. The effect of a magnetic field on the motion of a charged particle can be used to determine some of its properties. A cyclotron consists of an evacuated cavity placed between the poles of a large electromagnet. it will be accelerated by the electric field. generating an oscillating electric field in the region between the two dees. will carry out a uniform circular motion for the first half of one turn. Suppose the electron is accelerated by a potential V0. An electron moving in a uniform magnetic field will described a circular motion with a radius given by eq. Equation (28) shows that the cyclotron frequency is independent of the energy of the particle.(26) The time T required to complete one revolution is equal to (27) The frequency of this motion is equal to (28) and is called the cyclotron frequency. A charged particle. The frequency of the oscillator is chosen such that each time the particle crosses the gap between the dees.(25). Another application of the effect of a magnetic field on the motion of a charged particle is the cyclotron. One example is a measurement of the charge of the electron. An oscillating high voltage is connected to the plates.

Crossed electric and magnetic fields A charged particle moving in a region with an electric and magnetic field will experience a total force equal to (32) This force is called the Lorentz force. The magnetic force acting on the particle will be determined by the component of its velocity perpendicular to the magnetic field. The projection of the motion of the particle on the x-y plane (assumed to be perpendicular to the magnetic field) will be circular. The direction of the particle shown in Figure 6 is perpendicular to both the electric field and the magnetic field. and it will be accelerated to high energies. The net result will be spiral motion. 4. its radius of curvature will increase until it reaches the edge of the cyclotron and is extracted. spiral motion will result. The electric force acting on the particle is directed along the direction of the electric field and has a magnitude equal to (33) The magnetic force acting on the charge particle is directed perpendicular to both v and B and has a magnitude equal to 98 . uniform circular motion will result. The velocity of the charged particle can be decomposed into two components: one parallel and one perpendicular to the magnetic field. and this component of the velocity will remain constant. If the direction of motion of the ion is not perpendicular to the magnetic field. Up to now we have assumed that the direction of the motion of the charged particle is perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field. During its motion in the cyclotron. The magnetic field will not effect the component of the motion parallel to the field. the ion will cross the gap between the dees many times. The motion of a charged particle in such a region can be quit complicated.increases. Figure 6. Consider a special case in which the electric field is perpendicular to the magnetic field. If this is the case. A charged particle with a positive charge q and velocity v is moving in this field (see Figure 6). Charged particle moving in crossed E and B fields.

vd. Since the magnetic field is perpendicular to the electric field. the electric force produced by this field will cancel the magnetic force acting on the electrons. Current in a magnetic field. B. the internal electric field.(34) The net force acting on the particle is the sum of these two components and has a magnitude equal to (35) If the charged particle has a velocity equal to (36) then the net force will be equal to zero. A technique used to determine the density and sign of charge carriers in a metal is based on the forces exerted by crossed E and B fields on the charge carriers. If the metallic strip has a width w. If slit are placed in the appropriate positions. a deficit of negative charge will be created at the top of the strip. and an excess of negative charge will be created on the bottom of the strip. and the motion of the particle will be uniform linear motion. it will transport only those particles that have a velocity defined by the magnitudes of the electric and magnetic fields. and the strength of the magnetic field. At the same time. Suppose the charge carriers in the material are electrons. When this occurs. then the potential difference [Delta]V will be equal to 99 . is equal to the product of the electron velocity. Ein. than the electrons will move in a direction opposite to that of the current (see Figure 7). As a result of the magnetic force. under equilibrium conditions. Figure 7. The diagram shown in Figure 7 shows a metallic strip carrying a current in the direction shown and placed in a uniform magnetic field with the direction of the magnetic field being perpendicular to the electric field (which generates the current I). This charge distribution will generate an electric field that is perpendicular to the external electric field and. As a result of the internal electric field. a potential difference will be created between the top and bottom of the strip. the electrons are deflected downwards. A device with crossed electric and magnetic fields is called a velocity selector. it is also perpendicular to the direction of motion of the electrons.

a force will be exerted on the wire. its cross sectional area A and the density n of electrons (see Chapter 28): (38) Combining eq. and as a result. The drift velocity of the electrons depend on the current I in the wire.(41) along the entire wire. 5. The amount of charge dq present in a segment dL of the wire is equal to (40) If the wire is placed in a magnetic field.(37) This effect is called the Hall effect. The magnetic force acting on the segment dL of the wire is equal to (41) The total force exerted by the magnetic field on the wire can be found by integrating eq. a magnetic force will be exerted on each of the charge carriers.(37) we obtain the following expression for [Delta]V (39) A measurement of [Delta]V can therefore be used to determine n. 100 . Suppose the angle between the direction of the current and the direction of the field is equal to [theta] (see Figure 8). Forces on a wire A current I flowing through a wire is equivalent to a collection of charges moving with a certain velocity vd along the wire.(38) and eq.

The strength of the magnetic field is thus equal to (43) 101 . the current in the wire is 0.Figure 8.35 x 10-2 N. Consider a loop of wire. shown in Figure 9 which is partially immersed in the magnetic field. The magnitude of the magnetic force acting on segment 2 can be calculated using eq. and therefore cancel. and the magnetic force is 5. Example Problem: Magnetic balance A balance can be used to measure the strength of the magnetic field. but are directed in an opposite direction.(41) and is equal to (42) This force is measured using a balance and is equal to 5. carrying a precisely known current.225 A.35 x 10-2 N. and this permits the calculation of the strength of the magnetic field. The force that the magnetic field exerts on the loop can be measured with the balance. Magnetic force on wire.0 cm. The magnetic force acting on segment 1 and 3 have equal magnitude. What is the strength of the magnetic field ? Consider the three segments of the current loop shown in Figure 9 which are immersed in the magnetic field. Suppose that the short side of the loop measured 10.

The magnetic forces acting on the top and the bottom sections of the current loop are equal to (44) where L is the length of the top and bottom edge. The angle between the normal of the current loop and the magnetic field is equal to [theta]. is equal to (45) 102 . Current loop in immersed in magnetic field. 6. Suppose a rectangular current loop is placed in a uniform magnetic field (see Figure 10).Figure 9. However. The torque exerted on the current loop. the net magnetic force will be equal to zero. the torque on this loop will in general not be equal to zero. Torque on a current loop If a current loop is immersed in a magnetic field. with respect to its axis.

discussed in Chapter 30. The change in potential energy of the current loop when it rotates between [theta]0 and [theta]1 is given by (49) A common choice for the reference point is [theta]0 = 90deg. Current loop placed in uniform magnetic field. The work that must be done against the magnetic field to rotate the current loop by an angle d[theta] is equal to .[tau] d[theta]. Using the definition of the magnetic dipole moment u.(45) can be rewritten as (48) where the direction of the magnetic moment is defined using the right-hand rule. If this choice is made we can rewrite eq. eq.(50) as (50) In vector notation: 103 .(45) can be rewritten as (46) where (47) Using vector notation. and U([theta]0) = 0 J.Figure 10. eq.

104 . and a maximum when u and B are anti-parallel.(51) The potential energy of the current loop has a minimum when u and B are parallel.

being moved with a velocity v in a uniform magnetic field B. This charge distribution will produce an electric field in the rod. Looking at 105 . the rod will be a source of emf. If the ends of the rod are connected with a circuit providing a return path for the accumulated charge. equal to (4) where L is the length of the rod. The charge distribution of the rod will therefore change.ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION 1. The strength of this electric field will increase until the electrostatic force produced by this field is equal in magnitude to the magnetic force. Equation (4) shows that the magnitude of the emf is proportional to the velocity v. As this point the upward flow of electrons will stop and (2) or (3) The induced electric field will generate a potential difference [Delta]V between the ends of the rod. and the top of the rod will have an excess of electrons (negative charge) while the bottom of the rod will have a deficit of electrons (positive charge). made of conducting material. The magnetic force acting on a free electron in the rod will be directed upwards and has a magnitude equal to (1) Figure 1. As a result of the magnetic force electrons will start to accumulate at the top of the rod. Since the emf is associated with the motion of the rod through the magnetic field it is called motional emf. Motional emf Figure 1 shows a rod. Moving conductor in magnetic field.

" Example Problem: Metal Rod in Magnetic Field A metal rod of length L and mass m is free to slide. A uniform magnetic field is perpendicular to the plane of this circuit.(6) indicates how polarity of the induced emf is related to the sign of the flux and to the rate of change of flux. In the system shown in Figure 1 the enclosed flux changes due to the motion of the rod. In both cases the result will be an induced emf. Equation (5) relates the induced emf to the rate at which the enclosed magnetic flux changes. without friction.Figure 1 we observe that vL is the area swept across by the rod per second. and negative otherwise. it is valid in general. The relation between the induced emf and the change in magnetic flux is known as Faraday's law of induction: " The induced emf along a moving or changing mathematical path in a constant or changing magnetic field equals the rate at which magnetic flux sweeps across the path. The quantity BvL is the magnetic flux swept across by the rod per second. on two parallel metal tracks. The sign of the flux is fixed by the right-hand rule: " Curl the fingers of your right hand in the direction in which we are reckoning the emf around the path. The magnetic field is increasing at a constant rate dB/dt. 106 . The enclosed magnetic flux can also be changed if the strength of the enclosed magnetic field changes. The rod has a resistance R. the magnetic flux is then positive if the magnetic field lines point in the direction of the thumb. Initially the magnetic field has a strength B0 and the rod is at rest at a distance x 0 from the connected end of the rails. It holds for rods and wires of arbitrary shape moving through arbitrary magnetic fields. " If we consider a closed path. Faraday's law can be stated as follows: " The induced emf around a closed mathematical path in magnetic field is equal to the rate of change of the magnetic flux intercepted by the area within the path " or (6) The minus sign in eq. and the tracks have a negligible resistance. The tracks are connected at one end so that they and the rod form a closed circuit (see Figure 2). Express the acceleration of the rod at this instant in terms of the given quantities. Thus (5) Although this formula was derived for the special case shown in Figure 1.

Combining eq.Figure 2. The magnetic flux [Phi] enclosed by the rod and the tracks at time t = 0 s is given by (7) The magnetic field is increasing with a constant rate.(10) and (11) we obtain for the force on the wire (12) 107 . and consequently the enclosed magnetic flux is also increasing: (8) Faraday's law of induction can now be used to determine the induced emf: (9) As a result of the induced emf a current will flow through the rod with a magnitude equal to (10) The direction of the current is along the wire. and therefore perpendicular to the magnetic field. The force exerted by the magnetic field on the rod is given by (11) (see Chapter 31). Metal Rod in Magnetic Field.

The total flux enclosed by the outside coils is equal to (18) 108 . the magnetic flux enclosed by the surrounding coil will also change. If the solenoid has n turns per meter and if I is the current through each coil than the field inside the solenoid is equal to (14) Therefore.019 T/s.The acceleration of the rod at time t = 0 s is therefore equal to (13) Example Problem: Induced EMF in a Solenoid a) A long solenoid has 300 turns of wire per meter and has a radius of 3.0 cm. If the current in the wire is increasing at a rate of 50 A/s. b) Since the magnetic field in the solenoid is changing. Here we have assumed that the strength of the magnetic field outside the solenoid is zero. The change in the magnetic field is thus equal to (16) This equation shows that the magnetic field is increasing at a rate of 0. (15) In this problem n = 300 turns/meter and dI/dt = 50 A/s. The radius of this coil is 6.0 cm. The flux enclosed by a single winding of this coil is (17) where rin = 3.0 cm is the radius of the solenoid. What induced emf will be generated in this coil while the current in the solenoid is increasing ? a) The magnetic field in a solenoid was discussed in Chapter 31. at what rate does the strength of the magnetic field in the solenoid increase ? b) The solenoid is surrounded by a coil with 120 turns.

The current in the external coil will flow in such a direction as to oppose this change. However. This implies that the current in this coil will flow counter clock wise (the field generated by the induced current is directed opposite to the field generated by the large solenoid). The direction of the current in the coil can be determined using Lenz' law which states that " The induced emfs are always of such a polarity as to oppose the change that generates them " Let us apply Lenz' law to problem 12. a current will flow through the conductor. If the current in the solenoid increases the flux will also increase. If we look at the rod from a reference frame in which the rod is at rest. with a value equal to (20) If the ends of the coil are connected. The emf generated between the ends of the rod is equal to (22) which is equivalent to eq. there must still be an induced emf.(4). Since this emf can not be generated by the magnetic field.The rate of change of the magnetic flux due to that change in magnetic field is given by (19) As a result of the change in the current in the solenoid an emf will be induced in the outer coil. The Induced Electric-Field A rod moving in a magnetic field will have an induced emf as a result of the magnetic force acting on the free electrons. the magnetic force will be zero. The induced emf will be proportional to the linear velocity v of the rod. it must be due to an electric field which exists in the moving reference frame. then we have to replace eq. If the induced electric field is position dependent.(22) with an integral expression 109 . The magnitude of this electric field must be such that the same induced emf is created as is generated in the reference frame in which the rod is moving. The direction of the magnetic field can be determined using the right hand rule and is pointed to the right. 2. This requires that (21) The electric field E' that exists in the reference frame of the moving rod is called the induced electric field.

Using this constant. The emf induced in this second conductor. on their separation distance.(25) can be rewritten as (27) The unit of inductance is the Henry (H) and from eq. and is therefore proportional to the current I1 through this conductor: (26) Here. The difference between the induced electric field and the electric field generated by a static charge distribution is that in the former case the field is not conservative and the path integral along a closed path is equal to (24) which is non-zero if the magnetic flux is time dependent. and on the number of turns in each coil. eq. will depend on the magnetic flux through this conductor: (25) The flux [Phi]B1 depends on the strength of the magnetic field generated by conductor 1.(27) we conclude that (28) 110 .(23) where the integral extends from one end of the rod to the other end of the rod. This timedependent magnetic field can induce a current in a second conductor if it is placed in this field. [epsilon]2. 3 Inductance A changing current in a conductor (like a coil) produces a changing magnetic field. the constant L21 depends on the size of the two coils. The constant L21 is called the mutual inductance of the two coils.

the change in the enclosed magnetic flux will 111 .When the magnetic field generated by a coil changes (due to a change in current) the magnetic flux enclosed by the coil will also change. A circular coil of wire of radius R' with n' turns surround the solenoid. This change in flux will induce an emf in the coil. If suddenly the current source is disconnected. and since the emf is due to a change in the current through the coil it is called the self-induced emf. Magnetic Energy If a steady current flows through an inductor. a time-independent magnetic field is created. What is the mutual induction ? Does the shape of the coil of wire matter ? The field inside the solenoid is assumed to be that of an infinitely long solenoid and has a strength equal to (30) The flux enclosed by the external coil is equal to (31) The induced emf in the external coil is equal to (32) The mutual inductance L12 is thus equal to (33) 4. Example Problem: Mutual Induction A long solenoid of radius R has n turns per unit length. The self-induced emf is equal to (29) In equation (29) L is called the self inductance of the coil. The self-induced emf will act in such a direction to oppose the change in the current.

The change dU in the magnetic energy of the inductor is thus equal to (36) The total energy stored in the magnetic field of the inductor when the current reaches its final value can be obtained by integrating eq. The self-induced emf created by this time-dependent current is equal to (34) The current must deliver extra power to overcome this self-induced emf. The electric energy delivered by the self-induced emf was originally stored in the inductor in the form of magnetic energy.(36) between I = 0 and I = If. The amount of magnetic energy stored in the magnetic field can be determined by calculating the total power delivered by the power source to create the magnetic field. (37) For a solenoid of length l the self-inductance is equal to (38) The magnetic energy stored in the solenoid is thus equal to (39) where V is the volume of the solenoid. The magnetic energy can be expressed in terms of B and V: (40) 112 . The power required will be time dependent and is equal to (35) The work done by the current is stored in the inductor as magnetic energy. Suppose that after the battery is connected to the inductor the current increases at a rate of dI/dt.generate a self-induced emf which will try to keep the current flowing in the original direction.

where B = u 0 n I is the magnetic field in the solenoid. c) Deduce the self-inductance from the formula U = L . a) Apply Ampere's law using a spherical Amperian loop with radius r (42) The current enclosed by the Amperian loop is equal to (43) Using Ampere's law we can determine the magnetic field B : (44) The magnetic energy density is thus equal to (45) b) Suppose the height of the toroid is equal to h. The total magnetic energy of an inductor can now be expressed in terms of the magnetic energy density u which is defined as (41) The magnetic energy stored in the magnetic field is equal to the energy density time the volume. 113 . b) By integrating the energy density. Although we have derived the formula for the magnetic energy density for the special case of a very long solenoid. The toroid has N turns of wire carrying a current I . Consider the a slice of the toroid shown in Figure 3. a) Find the magnetic energy density as function of the radius. find the total magnetic energy stored in the solenoid. its derivation is valid for any arbitrary magnetic field. assume that N is very large. I 2/2. Example Problem: The Toroid A toroid of square cross section has an inner radius R 1 and an outer radius R 2.

(47) with respect to r between r = R 1 and r = R 2: (48) c) The magnetic energy stored in an inductor of inductance L is equal to 0.Figure 3. Cross section of the toroid. The RL circuit An RL circuit consists of a resistor and an inductor placed in series with a battery (see Figure 4).5 L I 2.(48) we conclude that the self inductance L of the toroid is equal to (49) 5. The volume dV of this slice is equal to (46) The magnetic energy stored in this segment is equal to (47) The total magnetic energy stored in the toroid can be obtained by integrating eq. Comparing this with eq. Applying Krichhoff's second rule to this single-loop circuit we obtain the following differential equation (50) 114 .

The time constant of the RL circuit is L/R. Equation (51) shows that the current at t = 0 s is equal to 0 and grows steadily to reach a final value of e /R at t = [infinity]. This differential equation has as a solution (51) This solution is valid if the battery is connected at t = 0. the current at time t will be equal to (52) Example Problem: Joule Heat in RLCircuit What Joule heat is dissipated by the current in eq. The power dissipated by this current in the resistor is equal to (53) The total energy dissipated by this current in the resistor between t = 0 and t = [infinity] is equal to (54) The magnetic energy stored in the inductor is equal to 115 .Figure 4. If the initial current is equal to [epsilon]/R.(51). the conductor can generate a current through the resistor which will gradually decay as function of time. The RL circuit. The current through the resistor is given in eq.(52) in the resistor in the time interval between t = 0 and t = [infinity] ? Compare with the initial magnetic energy in the inductor. If the current has reached a steady value and the battery is suddenly disconnected.

(55) and we conclude that all magnetic energy stored in the inductor is dissipated as Joule heat in the resistor. 116 .

) and h is a constant (h = 1.. The angular momentum of the electron is quantized. Suppose the electron is moving with a velocity v in an orbit with radius r. and the only possible values are nh where n is an integer (n = 0.MAGNETIC MATERIALS 1. Using the definition of the angular momentum L we can relate the electron velocity v and the radius of its orbit r to the angular momentum L in the following manner: (4) where m is the mass of the electron. . The magnetic moment of an electron with angular momentum L = 1 is equal to (6) 117 . 2. 1.(4) we can express the magnetic moment of the electron in terms of the angular momentum L: (5) The magnetic moment of the electron is thus proportional the angular momentum L.06 . Using eq. As a consequence we can associate a magnetic moment with the orbiting electron. The period of this motion is equal to (1) During one period T the charge e will pass each given point on the orbit. Magnetic Moments An electron moving in an orbit around a nucleus produces an average current along its orbit. 3.. 10 -34 J s). The current associated with this orbit is therefore equal to (2) The magnetic moment associated with this current is equal to (3) It is common to specify the orbit of an electron in terms of its angular momentum L.

27 x 10 -24 Am2. Classically we can regard an electron as a small ball of negative charge spinning around its axis. The z-axis is defined to coincide with the spin of electron 2. The first electron is on the axis of spin of the second.0 x 10 -10 m. On the z-axis (and for z >> R e) the field strength will fall of as 1/z3 and at z = 1. The magnetic field generated by electron will be the magnetic field generated by a dipole with dipole moment u spin. With each spinning electron a magnetic dipole moment can be associated. The intrinsic angular momentum.0 x 10 -10 m has a strength equal to (8) 118 . Example Problem: Two-electron Interactions a) Two electrons are separated by a distance of 1. but measurable magnetic field. The contribution of the nuclear magnetic moment is small and often can be neglected. What is the magnetic field that the magnetic moment of the second electron produces at the position of the first ? b) The potential energy of the magnetic moment of the first electron in this magnetic field depends on the orientation of the electrons. generated by the electron spin. What is the potential energy if the spins of the two electrons are parallel ? If anti parallel ? Which orientation has the least energy ? a) Figure 1 shows the orientation of the two electrons. Due to the negative charge of the electron the dipole moment is pointed in a direction opposite to that of the spin of the electron and it has a magnitude equal to u spin = 9. is equal to (7) This constant is also called the Bohr magneton. The total magnetic moment of an atom is equal to the vector sum of the orbital magnetic moments and the intrinsic magnetic moments of all its electrons. Another contribution to the magnetic moment is due to the rotational motion of the electron.Since this magnetic moment is associated with the orbital motion of the electron around the nucleus it is called the orbital magnetic moment. Each atom acts like a magnetic dipole and produces a small.

Two-electron interactions.Figure 1. Paramagnetism Even though each atom in a material can have a magnetic moment. If the material is immersed in an external magnetic field. This increase in strength of the magnetic field can be quantified in terms of the permeability constant [kappa]m: 119 . 2. Evaluating equation (9) for these extreme cases yields (10) The potential energy will have a minimum value when the spins are parallel and a maximum value when the spins are anti-parallel. the direction of each dipole is randomly oriented and their magnetic fields average to zero. The potential energy of electron 1 reaches a maximum value when [theta] = [pi] and a minimum value when [theta] = 0. the dipoles will tend to align themselves with the field in order to minimize the torque exerted on them by the external magnetic field. b) The potential energy of a dipole with dipole moment u spin in a magnetic field of strength B is equal to (9) where [theta] is the angle between the dipole moment and the magnetic field. The atoms in the material will produce an extra magnetic field in its interior that has the same direction as the external magnetic field.

where n is the number of turns of wire per unit length and R is the radius of the solenoid. The definition of the permeability constant (see eq. Example Problem: Filled Solenoid Show that the self-inductance per unit length of a very long solenoid filled with a paramagnetic material is equal to [kappa]m u0 n2 [pi] R2.(14) by differentiating both sides with respect to time (15) The emf induced by this change in magnetic flux can be calculated using Faraday's law (16) From eq. The magnetic field in an empty solenoid is equal to (12) When the solenoid is filled with a paramagnetic material the strength of the magnetic field will increase (see eq.(11)) shows that [kappa]m >= 1.(16) we conclude that the self-inductance of the solenoid filled with a paramagnetic material is equal to (17) 120 .(11)) and will be equal to (13) The magnetic flux enclosed by a section of the solenoid of unit length is equal to (14) The change in enclosed magnetic can be obtained from eq. and as a consequence.(11) where Bfree is the external magnetic field. For all paramagnetic materials the permeability constant is very close to 1. the increase in the magnetic field strength is rather small.

9 g/mole. However. the increase in field strength can be as large as 5000. For iron.9 x 10 3 kg and the atomic mass is 58. how many such electrons are there per unit volume ? How many aligned electrons are there per atom ? The density of cobalt is 8. they can also be found in non-magnetized states. The number of aligned electrons is thus equal to (18) 121 . on a large scale the domains are oriented randomly. Example Problem: Number of Aligned Electrons Under conditions of maximum magnetization.27 x 10 -24 Am 2.5 x 10 5 Am 2/m3. Materials with such properties are called permanent magnets.5 x 10 5 Am 2. An increase in the temperature of the material will increase the chance of random rearrangement of the magnetic dipoles.1 . and the net magnetic field is equal to zero. and the strong spin-spin force will keep the dipoles aligned even after the external magnetic field has been removed. In a ferromagnetic material the degree of alignment of the electron spins between neighboring atoms is high as a result of a special force that tends to lock the spins of these electrons in a parallel direction. all dipoles will tend to align along the external field lines. the magnetism of the ferromagnet disappears completely. The increase of the magnetic field in a ferromagnet can be very large. Ferromagnetism The alignment of the spins of some of the electrons in a ferromagnetic material will increase the magnetic field in this material in much the same way as the alignment of the orbital magnetic dipole moments of atoms increases the field strength in a paramagnetic material.5 mm) all spins will be perfectly aligned. This force is so strong that the spins remain aligned even when the external magnetic field is removed. Each aligned electron contributes a dipole moment of 9. called the Curie temperature.3. Assuming that this magnetization is due to completely aligned electrons. On a small scale (domains with sizes of less than 0. The degree of alignment of the spins in a ferromagnetic material after the external magnetic field has been removed depends on the temperature. if the material is immersed in an external magnetic field. The dipole moment of 1 m 3 of cobalt is equal to 1. the dipole moment per unit volume of cobalt is 1. The force that is responsible for the alignment of the electron spins occurs in only five elements: • • • • • Iron Nickel Cobalt Dysprosium Gadolinium Although ferromagnetic materials will remain magnetized after the external magnetic field has been removed. Above a certain temperature.

In a diamagnetic material the dipole moments of the atoms do not align themselves with the magnetic field.The number of atoms in 1 m 3 of cobalt is equal to (19) Comparing eq. the electron will experience in addition to the electric force a magnetic force equal to (21) 122 . 4. Electron orbiting nucleus. Figure 2. but their strength is changed by the external field.(19) we conclude that the total number of aligned electrons per atom is equal to 0.18. the velocity v0 of the electron is determined by the radius r0 of the orbit via the following relation (20) When the magnetic field is turned on. The change in the dipole moment as function of the applied magnetic field can be estimated using a simple classical model in which the electron moves in a circular orbit around the nucleus (see Figure 2). If no external magnetic field is present.(18) and eq. This in contrast to the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic materials where the magnetic properties are determined by the alignment of permanent magnetic dipoles. Diamagnetism In a diamagnetic material the magnetization arises from induced magnetic dipoles.

(23) we obtain (25) or (26) The change in frequency [Delta][omega] is defined via the following relation (27) Substituting eq. we conclude that the effect of the magnetic field is a change in the velocity of the electron. Combining eq.(27) into eq.This force is radially directed (inwards or outwards depending on the direction of v0 with respect to B).(22) and eq. The condition for uniform circular motion is now (22) Assuming that the size of the orbit of the electron does not change.(26) we obtain (28) or (29) 123 .(24) into eq.(20) we obtain (23) It is convenient to express the velocity of the electron in terms of its angular frequency (24) Substituting the expressions for v0 and v from eq.

and a decrease in the orbital magnetic moment if the orbital magnetic field is directed in the same direction as the external field. The change in the magnetic moment of the dipole is such that the net field strength (external + orbital magnetic field) is lowered. the permeability constant [kappa]m is less than 1. Equation (30) shows that the associated change in the orbital magnetic moment is equal to (31) The change of the angular frequency can be positive or negative. As a result of the change in the velocity of the orbital electrons there will be a change in the orbital magnetic moment. The orbital magnetic moment before the external magnetic field is applied can be calculated using eq. 124 .[kappa]m ~ 1 x 10 -5). This means an increase in the orbital magnetic moment if the orbital magnetic field is directed in a direction opposite to the external field.(3) (30) When an external magnetic field is applied the angular frequency [omega] will change by [Delta][omega]. depending on the direction of v0 with respect to the direction B. consequently. The angular frequency will increase if the direction of the field and the electron velocity are not related via the right-hand rule (field into paper in Figure 2). and. For most diamagnetic materials the permeability constant is very close to 1 (1 . and indicates the maximum change in the velocity of the orbital electrons when an external magnetic field is applied.This frequency is called the Larmor frequency. In both cases the total magnetic field strength is reduced.

This type is called Alternating Current or AC. The magnitude of this current can be obtained via Kirchhoff's second rule which implies that (2) Figure 2. Single-loop AC resistor circuit. Symbol of AC source. The time dependence of the AC or the emf of the AC source is of the form (1) where [epsilon]max is the maximum amplitude of the oscillating emf and [omega] is the angular frequency. AC Resistor Circuits Figure 2 shows a single-loop circuit with a source of alternating emf and a resistor. A source of AC is symbolized by a wavy line enclosed in a circle (see Figure 1). Alternating Current The current from a 110-V outlet is an oscillating function of time.AC CIRCUITS 1. The current through the resistor will be a function of time. Figure 1. The current I is thus equal to (3) Equation (3) shows that the current oscillates in phase with the emf. 2. The power dissipated in the resistor depends on the current through and the voltage across the resistor and is therefore also a function of time: 125 .

The household voltage of 115 Volt is the root-mean-square voltage.(5) is written in terms of the rootmean-square voltage [epsilon]rms which is defined as (6) In terms of [epsilon]rms we can rewrite eq.(5) as (7) The root-mean-square voltage [epsilon]rms of the AC source is the value of the DC voltage that dissipates the same power in the resistor as the AC voltage with a maximum voltage equal to [epsilon]max. the actual peak voltage coming out of a household outlet is 163 V. The charge on the capacitor at any time can be obtained by applying Kirchhoff's second rule to the circuit shown in Figure 3 and is equal to (8) The current in the circuit can be obtained by differentiating eq. Often.(4) The average power dissipated in the resistor during one cycle is equal to (5) In the last step of the derivation of eq. AC Capacitor Circuits Figure 3 shows a capacitor connected to a source of alternating emf.(8) with respect to time 126 .(5) we used the relation between the period T and the angular frequency [omega] (T = 2[pi]/[omega]). 3. eq.

The power delivered to the capacitor is equal to (12) The power fluctuates between positive and negative extremes. and is on average equal to zero. Note that eq. 4. out of phase with the emf.(10) is very similar to eq. Since the maxima in the current occur a quarter cycle before the maxima in the emf. The selfinduced emf across the inductor is equal to LdI/dt.(9) as (10) where (11) is called the capacitive reactance. Applying Kirchhoff's second rule to the circuit shown in Figure 4 we obtain the following equation for dI/dt: 127 . AC Inductive Circuit Figure 4 shows a circuit consisting of an inductor and a source of alternating emf. The current in the circuit is 90deg.(9) Figure 3. It is customary to rewrite eq. we say that the current leads the emf. AC capacitor circuit. These fluctuations corresponds to periods during which the emf source provides power to the battery (charging) and periods during which the battery provides power to the emf source (discharging).(3) if the resistance R is replaced by the capacitive reactance XC.

Find the instantaneous current and the instantaneous power delivered by the source of emf. Example Problem: AC Circuit Consider the circuit shown in Figure 5. find the instantaneous currents through the capacitor and the inductor. Equation (14) can be rewritten as (15) where (16) is called the inductive reactance. AC Inductor Circuit.(13) Figure 4. out of phase with the emf.(13) by integrating with respect to time and requiring that the magnitude of the DC current component is equal to zero: (14) The current is again 90deg. In terms of this emf and the capacitance C and the inductance L. The current I can be obtained from eq. but this time the emf leads the current. The power delivered to the inductor is equal to (17) and the average power delivered to the inductor is equal to zero. 128 . The emf is of the form [epsilon]0 sin([omega]t).

Applying Kirchhoff's second rule to loop number 1 we obtain (18) Applying Kirchhoff's second rule to loop number 2 we obtain (19) Equation (18) can be used to determine I1: (20) Equation (19) can be differentiated with respect to time to obtain I2: (21) The current delivered by the source of emf is the sum of I1 and I2 (22) The power delivered by the source of emf is equal to (23) 5.Figure 5. LC Circuits 129 . Consider the two current loops I1 and I2 indicated in Figure 5. AC Circuit. The currents in this circuit can be determined using the loop technique. The circuit shown in Figure 5 is a simple multi-loop circuit.

The current I(t) can be obtained from Q(t) by differentiating Q with respect to time: (25) Substituting eq. The current in the circuit can be obtained by substituting eq. LC circuit.(25): (29) The initial conditions for the circuit shown in Figure 6 are (30) 130 . The current in the circuit can be found via Kirchhoff's second rule which requires that (24) Figure 6.(27) is (28) where [phi] is a phase constant that must be adjusted to fit the initial conditions.(28) into eq. Suppose at time t = 0 s the capacitor has a charge Q0 and the current in the circuit is equal to zero.(25) into eq.(24) we obtain (26) or (27) A solution of eq.Figure 6 shows a single-loop circuit consisting of an inductor and a capacitor.

In practice. This is expected since no Joule heat will be generated in a circuit in which none of the elements has any resistance. The energy stored is equal to (34) The energy stored in the inductor is also time dependent since the current through it is a function of time. A realistic LRC circuit is shown in Figure 7. the charge and the current in the LC circuit are given by (32) and (33) The energy stored on the capacitor is a function of time since the charge on it is a function of time. In this case. The total energy of the circuit can be obtained by summing the energy stored in the capacitor and the energy stored in the inductor: (36) Equation (36) shows that the energy stored in the circuit is conserved. The energy stored is equal to (35) Equation (34) and eq. Applying Kirchhoff's second rule to the circuit shown in Figure 7 we obtain (37) 131 . the circuit shown in Figure 6 will have some resistance (even good conductors will have a finite resistance).(35) show that the maximum energy is stored in the inductor when the energy stored in the capacitor is zero and vice-versa.(31) These boundary conditions are satisfied if [phi] = 0.

(43) for [gamma] (44) 132 .(38) is (39) The constant [gamma] can be determined by substituting eq.Since the current I is equal to dQ/dt we can rewrite eq. This will only be the case if the terms within the parenthesis are equal to zero: (41) (42) The constant [gamma] is determined by eq.(42) (43) The angular frequency [omega] can be obtained from eq. A solution of the differential equation shown in eq. LRC Circuit.(37) as (38) Figure 7.(39) into eq.(41) by substituting eq.(38): (40) This equation has to be satisfied at all times.

At time t = 0 s the capacitor is fully charged with a charge equal to Q0 and the energy stored in the capacitor is equal to (45) After one cycle (t = 2[pi]/[omega]) the maximum charge on the capacitor has decreased. This implies that also the energy stored on the capacitor has decreased (46) The relative change in the electrical energy of the system is therefore equal to (47) The loss of electrical energy in a LRC circuit is usually expressed in terms of the quality Qvalue" (48) A high quality factor indicates a low resistance and consequently a small relative energy loss per cycle.Equation (39) shows that the presence of the resistor in the circuit will produce damped harmonic motion.(43)). The change in the energy of the system can be studied by looking at the maximum charge on the capacitor. 133 . The damping constant [gamma] is proportional to the resistance R (see eq.

Suppose the emf has an angular frequency [omega] and a maximum amplitude [epsilon]max: (49) Applying Kirchhoff's second rule to the circuit shown in Figure 8 produces the following relation (50) Under steady-state conditions. a capacitor C. Driven LCR circuit.(50): (52) Equation (52) can be rewritten using trigonometric identities as (53) This equation can only be satisfied if the expressions in the brackets are equal to zero.(51) in eq. In order to sustain an oscillation in a LRC circuit. The maximum current Imax and the phase angle [phi] can be determined by substituting eq. This requires that (54) and (55) 134 . The most general solution for the current is therefore (51) where [phi] is called the phase angle between the current and the emf.Figure 8. energy needs to be supplied. Consider the circuit shown in Figure 8 consisting of an alternating source of emf. and an inductor L. for example by connecting an oscillating source of emf to the circuit. the current in the circuit will oscillate with the same angular frequency [omega] as the source of emf. but not necessarily in phase. As a result of the damping in a LRC circuit the amplitude of the oscillations will gradually decrease. a resistor R.

it is said to be in resonance. 135 .(57) we obtain for the maximum current (58) The quantity (59) is called the impedance of the LCR circuit.(55) can be used to determine the phase angle: (56) Equation (54) can be used to determine the maximum current: (57) Substituting eq.(56) into eq. Equation (58) shows that the maximum amplitude is achieved when (60) The maximum amplitude of the current is (61) The system will reach its maximum amplitude when the driving frequency [omega] of the applied emf is equal to (62) This frequency is the natural frequency of the LC circuit discussed previously.Eq. When the system is driven at the natural frequency.

From Figure 9 it is obvious that (66) 136 . The Phasor Diagram A short cut that can be used to determine the amplitude and phase of current in an AC circuit is the phasor diagram. The voltage drop across the resistor has the same phase as the current. the capacitor and the inductor are equal to (64) The three phasors corresponding to these three voltages are shown in the phasor diagram in Figure 9.6. The applied emf and induced current are given by the following equations: (63) The voltages across the resistor. The sum of voltage drops across the components of the circuit is then equivalent to the vector sum of the phasors. The phase is represented by the angle between the line segment and the horizontal axis. The vector sum of these three vectors is also indicated and should be equal to the applied emf. and the angle between the current (and the phasor representing the voltage drop across the resistor) and the vector sum of the phasors is equal to the phase angle [phi]. The amplitude of the vector sum of the three phasors must be equal to the amplitude of the applied emf. In a phasor diagram the amplitude of a sinusoidal function is represented by a line segment of length equal to its amplitude. Thus (65) The phase of the vector sum of the phasors in Figure 9 is equal to [omega]t. To illustrate the use of phasor diagrams we determine the amplitude and phase of the LCR circuit just discussed.

Consider first the two capacitors.Figure 9. Find the maximum instantaneous current in each capacitor. Phasor circuit for LCR circuit. This implies that (67) Figure 10. The inductance is 5.0 x 10-7 F.0 x 10-7 F and 16. and the capacitances are 8.0 x 10-2 H. LCC Circuit.(67) in terms of the current I1 through capacitor C 1 and the current I2 through capacitor C 2 we obtain (68) or 137 . The oscillating source of emf delivers a sinusoidal emf of amplitude 0. Example Problem: LCC Circuit Consider the circuit shown in Figure 10. The emf across each of the capacitor must always be the same.80 V and frequency 400 Hz. Rewriting eq.

(69) Equation (69) can only be true at all times if the integrand is equal to zero.90 degrees. The phasor labeled I indicates the current in the circuit. The voltages across the inductor and the capacitor are 90 degrees out of phase with the current and are indicated in Figure 11 by the phasors labeled VL and VC. we conclude that the phase angle between the current and the emf is +/. The sum of the currents flowing through 138 . The total voltage drop across the circuit elements (vector sum of VL and VC) is also 90 degrees out of phase with the current. Thus (71) Equation (71) can be used to determine the maximum current in the circuit: (72) The capacitance C used in eq. The sign depends on the values of inductance. This requires that (70) In order to determine the maximum current in the circuit we use the phasor technique just discussed.(72) is the net capacitance of the parallel network consisting of capacitor C 1 and capacitor C 2 (C = C 1 + C2). The magnitude of the vector sum of the voltages across the inductor and the capacitor must be equal to the magnitude of the emf. Phasor diagram for LCC Circuit. Figure 11. the capacitance and the angular frequency of the emf. Consider the phasor diagram shown in Figure 11. Since the total voltage drop across the circuit elements must be equal to the applied emf.

5 x 10-4 F connected in series with an oscillating source of emf.(70).(72) and eq. Find the phase angle of the current and draw a phasor diagram. Find the average dissipation of power in the resistor. The vector sum of these phasors is also indicated. Thus (76) The maximum current is thus equal to 139 . The source generates a sinusoidal emf with emax = 0.(75). with the correct lengths and angles for the phasors. Find the maximum current in the circuit.(73).40 V and angular frequency equal to 9 x 103 rad/s. (75a) (75b) (75c) The phasors representing the voltage drops across the resistor and across the capacitor are shown in Figure 12.80 [Omega] and a capacitor with C = 1. In this manner we obtain (73) and (74) Example Problem: RC Circuit An RC circuit consists of a resistor with R = 0. The magnitude of the vector sum of the phasors must be equal to the magnitude of the applied emf. The applied emf and the potential drops across the circuit elements in the RC circuit are listed in eq. To determine the current through capacitor C1 and capacitor C2 we can combine eq.capacitors is equal to the maximum current in eq.

One of the coils. is connected to a source of alternating emf. The phase angle [phi] can be calculated easily (see Figure 12). the field lines must concentrate in the iron.(77) Figure 12. It is determined by (78) 7. The Transformer A transformer consists of two coils wound around an iron core (see Figure 13). we conclude that the induced emf in the coil must be equal to the applied emf. Thus (80) 140 . the primary coil. The iron core increases the strength of the magnetic field in its interior by a large fraction (up to 5000) and as a consequence. Phasor diagram for an RC Circuit. The emf induced in the primary coil is related to the rate of change of magnetic flux (Faraday's law of induction): (79) Applying Kirchhoff's second rule to the primary circuit.

no current will flow in it. and the primary circuit is nothing else than a single-loop circuit with an alternating source of emf and an inductor. Thus 141 . If the secondary circuit is connected to a load.Figure 13. the primary circuit will consume power. The average power dissipated by the emf in such a circuit is zero. The flux through each winding of the primary coil is therefore equal to the flux through each winding of the secondary coil. This induced current will change the magnetic flux in the transformer and induce a current in the primary coil. In an ideal capacitor. If the secondary circuit is open. a current will flow. the power delivered by the source of emf in the primary circuit equal the power that the secondary circuit delivers to its load. If this occurs. then the total flux through the two coils are related (81) or (82) The change in the enclosed flux of the primary coil will be related in the same way to the change of flux in the secondary coil: (83) The emf induced across the secondary coil can be obtained using Faraday's law and can be expressed in terms of the emf in the primary circuit: (84) This emf is available to the various loads in the secondary circuit. The transformer. and consequently the transformer does not consume any electric power. All field lines that pass through a winding of coil 1 will also pass through a winding of coil 2. If the primary coil has N1 windings and the secondary coil has N2 windings.

(85) 142 .

Ampere's law in a capacitor circuit. If the plates have a surface area A then the electric field between the plates is equal to (2) The electric field outside the capacitor is equal to zero. Figure 1. This current will generate a magnetic field and if we are far away from the capacitor. The displacement current The calculation of the magnetic field of a current distribution can. [Phi] E. Although the surface shown in Figure 1 does not intercept any current. be carried out using Ampere's law which relates the path integral of the magnetic field around a closed path to the current intercepted by an arbitrary surface that spans this path: (1) Ampere's law is independent of the shape of the surface chosen as long as the current flows along a continuous. it intercepts electric flux. Suppose the capacitor is an ideal capacitor.THE DISPLACEMENT CURRENT AND MAXWELLS EQUATIONS 1. consider the case in which the current wire is broken and connected to a parallel-plate capacitor (see Figure 1). in principle. unbroken circuit. wire. continuous. the surface shown in Figure 1 does not intercept any current. Ampere's law can not be applied in this case to find the magnetic field generated by the current. For example. Clearly. At a certain time t the charge on the capacitor plates is Q. the current intercepted by an arbitrary surface now depends on the surface chosen. However. However. this field should be very similar to the magnetic field produced by an infinitely long. The electric flux. intercepted by the surface shown in Figure 1 is equal to 143 . with a homogeneous electric field E between the plates and no electric field outside the plates. A current will flow through the wire during the charging process of the capacitor.

This wire has a resistance R. and the rate of change of electric flux is equal to (4) The magnetic field around the wire can now be found by modifying Ampere's law (5) where [Phi] E is the electric flux through the surface indicated in Figure 1 In the most general case. In such a case. and is not necessarily the same as the current in the wires. Equation (6) is frequently written as (7) where Id is called the displacement current and is defined as (8) Example Problem: Parallel-Plate Capacitor A parallel-plate capacitor has circular plates of area A separated by a distance d. a) What is the current in the thin wire ? 144 . and Ampere's law becomes (6) The current I is the current intercepted by whatever surface is used in the calculation. then the charge on the capacitor plates will be time dependent. the surface spanned by the integration path of the magnetic field can intercept current and electric flux. The electric flux will therefore also be time dependent. the effects of the electric flux and the electric current must be combined.(3) If a current I is flowing through the wire. The exterior terminals of the plates are connected to a source of alternating emf with a voltage V = V0 sin([omega] t). A thin straight wire of length d lies along the axis of the capacitor and connects the two plates.

b) What is the displacement current through the capacitor ? c) What is the current arriving at the outside terminals of the capacitor ? d) What is the magnetic field between the capacitor plates at a distance r from the axis ? Assume that r is less than the radius of the plates.(8) (12) The current at the outside terminals of the capacitor is the sum of the current used to charge the capacitor and the current through the resistor. The charge on the capacitor is equal to (13) 145 . The current in the thin wire can be obtained using Ohm's law (9) Figure 2. The electric field between the capacitor plates is therefore equal to (10) The electric flux through the capacitor is therefore equal to (11) The displacement current Id can be obtained by substituting eq. Circuit Parallel-Plate Capacitor. b) The voltage across the capacitor is equal to the external emf. a) The setup can be regarded as a parallel circuit of a resistor with resistance R and a capacitor with capacitance C (see Figure 2).(11) into eq.

The surface to be used to determine the current and electric flux intercepted is the disk of radius r shown Figure 3.(9)). The path integral of the magnetic field around a circle of radius r is equal to (16) Figure 3. Ampere's law thus requires 146 . centered around the resistor (see Figure 3). Amperian loop used to determine the magnetic field inside a capacitor.The charging current is thus equal to (14) The total current is therefore equal to (15) d) The magnetic field lines inside the capacitor will form concentric circles. The electric flux through this disk is equal to (17) The displacement current intercepted by this surface is equal to (18) The current intercepted by the surface is equal to the current through the resistor (eq.

electric fields. and magnetic fields. that is. All the properties of the fields can be obtained by mathematical manipulations of these equations. Equation (21) shows that the enclosed charge Q is related to the electric flux [Phi] E: (25) The rate of change of the enclosed charge can be determined by differentiating eq. Example Problem: Conservation of Charge Prove that Maxwell's equations mathematically imply the conservation of electric charge.(25) with respect to time 147 . currents. They are (21) (22) (23) (24) Maxwell's equations provide a complete description of the interactions among charges. prove that if no electric current flows into or out a given volume. than these equations uniquely determine the corresponding fields. If the distribution of charges and currents is given. Maxwells Equations The fundamental equations describing the behavior of electric and magnetic fields are known as the Maxwell equations. then the electric charge within this volume remains constant.(19) The strength of the magnetic field is thus equal to (20) 2.

Consider a circular Amperian loop of radius r.(26) The closed surface used in eq. The path integral of the magnetic field around this loop is equal to (30) The electric flux though the surface spanned by this path is equal to (31) 148 .(24) can be written as (27) Using eq. and eq.(24) to determine the flux and current intercepted can be replaced by a bag whose mouth has shrunk to zero. If the distance between the plates is d (see Figure 4) then the electric field between the plates is equal to (29) This time-dependent electric field will induce a magnetic field with a strength that can be obtained via Ampere's law. Cavity Oscillations The electric field between the plates of a parallel-plate capacitor is determined by the external emf. if no current flows in or out of the enclosed volume (I = 0) then the electric charge within this volume will remain constant. This implies conservation of charge. The path integral of the magnetic field along the mouth is therefore equal to zero. 3.(26) we can rewrite eq.(27) as (28) In other words.

Consider the closed path indicated in Figure 4. The strength of the induced electric field can be calculated using Faraday's law of induction.Figure 4. The total electric field inside the capacitor will therefore be the sum of the constant electric field generated by the source of emf and the induced electric field. generated by the time-dependent magnetic field. The path integral of the induced electric field along the path indicated is then equal to (34) where Eind is reckoned to be positive if it is directed upwards. The magnetic flux through the surface spanned by the loop indicated in Figure 4 is equal to (35) Thus (36) 149 . We take the induced electric field on the capacitor axis equal to zero. The displacement current is thus equal to (32) Using Ampere's law we obtain for the magnetic field (33) This time-dependent magnetic field will induce an electric field. The oscillating parallel-plate capacitor.

(23)) and is equal to (37) The total electric field is therefore equal to (38) But the addition of the induced field implies that a correction needs to be made to the magnetic field calculated before (eq. then eq.(40) can be used to determine the frequency of the driving emf that will produce a standing wave. can be obtained from Faraday's law of induction (eq.(33)). They travel with the speed of light (in vacuum) and carry energy and momentum away from the charge. it produces extra electric and magnetic fields that travel outward from the position of the charge. The Electric Field of an Accelerated Charge The electric field produced by a stationary charge is stationary. These radiation fields are called electromagnetic waves. This frequency is called the resonance frequency and it is equal to (41) For a cavity with R = 0.2 GHz.5 m the resonance frequency is 1.(38) shows that the electric field vanishes at a radius R if (39) or (40) If we create a cavity by enclosing the capacitor with a conducting cylinder of radius R then eq. Eind.The induced electric field. If we neglect the additional corrections. This in turn will modify the induced current and this process will go on forever. and the cavity is called a microwave oven. Electromagnetic radiation with a frequency in this range is called microwave radiation. Their properties 150 . When the charge accelerates. 4.

(42). The electric field generated by the charge at a time t > [tau] consists of three separate regions (see Figure 5). and the region with r > ct can not know yet that the charge has moved away from the origin). eq. The radial component is determined by Gauss' law. Consider a charge q initially at rest (for t < 0). Applying Gauss' law we conclude that the radial component of the electric field is simply the usual Coulomb field (42) Figure 5.are determined by the properties of the accelerated charge. The electric field in this region has two components: a radial component and a transverse component. Between t = 0 and t = [tau].(43) to determine the transverse component of the electric field: 151 . centered at x = vt. the charge accelerates with an acceleration a. we can use eq. The electric flux through this surface depends only on the radial component of the field. Electric field lines generated by an accelerated charge. After t = [tau] the charge moves with a constant velocity (v = a[tau]). The charge enclosed by this surface is equal to q. The ratio between the magnitude of the transverse electric field and the radial electric field is equal to (43) Since the radial field is known. In the region r > ct the field lines will be that of a point charge at rest at the origin (electromagnetic waves travel with the speed of light. The relation between the radial component of the electric field and the transverse component of the electric field can be determined by carefully examining one field line (see Figure 6). The disturbance produced by the accelerated charge is confined to the region between these two spheres and the effect of the acceleration is a kink in the field lines. and in this manner provide a means to transmit information at the speed of light over long distances.[tau]). Consider a spherical Gaussian surface located between the two spheres shown in Figure 5. In the spherical region with radius r < c(t . the electric field will that of a uniformly moving charge. The field line shown in Figure 6 makes an angle [theta] with the direction of the moving charge. We will assume that the final velocity of the charge is small compared to the speed of light (v << c) and that the time period [tau] during which the charge accelerates is short.

If the charge oscillates back and forth with a simple harmonic motion of frequency [omega].(44) we obtain the following expression for the transverse component of the electric field: (46) Figure 6. remains significant at distances where the Coulomb field practically disappears. The Coulomb component of the field falls of as 1/r2. This shows that the transverse component. Calculation of transverse electric field. also called the radiation field.r/c. The equation for the transverse electric field (eq.(46) should be the acceleration at time t .(46)) is valid in general. we have to realize that the acceleration a used in eq. where r/c is the time required for a signal to travel over a distance r. then the acceleration at time t will be equal to (47) In order to determine the radiation field at a time t and a distance r. even if the acceleration is not constant. Equation (46) shows that the transverse electric field is directly proportional to the acceleration a and inversely proportional to the distance r.(44) The distance r at which the kink occurs is related to the time t at which we look at the field: (45) Eliminating the dependence on t in eq. The radiation field for the oscillating charge is therefore equal to (48) 152 .

). What is the collective electric field produced by all electrons acting together ? Assume the antenna is sufficiently small so that all electrons contribute just about the same electric field at a distance of 1. a) What is the maximum acceleration of the electrons ? b) Corresponding to this maximum acceleration.(48): (51) Since the propagation speed of the radiation field is equal to the speed of light. c. The length of this period.0 x 10 24 electrons on the antenna. the maxima in the radiation field will occur a time period [Delta]t after the maxima in the acceleration of the electron. Thus 153 .0 km is equal to the number of electrons times the maximum transverse electric field produced by a single electron. is equal to (52) c) Assuming that all the electrons are in phase. [Delta]t. then the maximum total transverse electric field at a distance of 1.0 km. in a direction perpendicular to the antenna ([theta] = 90deg.0 x 10 6 rad/s.0 km fro the antenna in a direction perpendicular to the antenna ? What is the time delay (or retardation) between the instant of maximum acceleration and the instant at which the corresponding electric field reaches a distance of 1. Suppose that the velocity of the electrons is v = v0 cos([omega] t). a) The acceleration of the electrons can be obtained by differentiating their velocity with respect to time: (49) The maximum acceleration is thus equal to (50) b) The maximum transverse electric field at a distance of 1. electrons move back and forth in unison.0 x 10 -3 m/s and [omega] = 6.0 km (= 1000 m). can be obtained using eq.Example Problem: Radio Antenna On a radio antenna (a straight piece of wire). where v0 = 8.0 km ? c) There are 2. what is the strength of the transverse electric field produced by one electron at a distance of 1.

The induced magnetic field will be timedependent and. in much the same way as we observed for the electric field. and it readily propagates in vacuum. The combined electric and magnetic radiation fields produced by the accelerating charge are called electromagnetic waves. and this process continues. Or. and the induced magnetic field induces an electric field. It shows that electricity and magnetism are two different aspects of the same phenomena. (54). The magnetic field of an accelerated charge When a charge accelerates from rest it will produce a magnetic field. the current intercepted by a surface spanned by the path used to evaluate the path integral of B is equal to zero. therefore. (55) This equation was one of the great and early triumphs of Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light.(53) 5. This induced electric field will again be time dependent and induce another magnetic field. 154 . will induce an electric field via Faraday's law. The Maxwell equations can be used to show that the product of u 0 and [epsilon]0 is equal to 1/c2. The magnetic field can be obtained from the electric flux via the Maxwell-Ampere law which states that (54) Note that the current I does not appear in eq. They are self-supporting. Since we are looking in the region away from the moving charge. the magnetic field will be equal to zero (charge at rest). the electric field induces a magnetic field. Because the electric and magnetic fields naturally support each other. the electromagnetic wave does not require a medium for its propagation. Initially. As a result of the acceleration a disturbance will move outward and change the magnetic field from its initial value (B = 0 T) to its final value.

can be neglected and only the transverse component of the field needs to be considered. At this point the radial electric field. These electromagnetic waves are called plane waves (although they are actually small patches of a spherical wave front). The fields of the wave are selfsupporting . The electromagnetic wave has two components: the electric radiation field and the magnetic radiation field.LIGHT AND RADIO WAVES 1. then the factor 1/r can be treated as a constant. which is initially zero. The coordinate system that we will be using to study the propagation of the electromagnetic wave will have its x axis defined as the direction of propagation of the field. and c is the speed of propagation of the disturbance (speed of light). The propagating plane wave will change the electric field. In other words (1) where a(t) is the acceleration of the charge at time t. The y axis is taken to be parallel to the direction of the electric radiation field (see Figure 1). Radio waves are created by the acceleration of electrons in a radio antenna. The electric radiation field produced by an accelerating charge will be non-zero only during a time interval [tau] which is the time interval during which the charge accelerates (see Chapter 35). small compared to r. their main difference is their frequency.the electric field induces the magnetic field. Suppose we look at the electric field a long distance away from the accelerating charge. and it is inversely proportional to the radial distance from the accelerating charge. to a value Ey. The region is space in which the transverse field is non-zero and which propagates with the speed of light is also called a wave packet. The magnitude of the electric radiation field is directly proportional to the acceleration. Both radio waves and light are electromagnetic waves. If we want to study the variation of the transverse field over a limited range of distances. which falls of as 1/r2. and the magnetic field induces the electric field. and light waves are created by the oscillations of the electrons within atoms. Electromagnetic waves Electromagnetic waves are produced by accelerating charges. The electric field of the wave packet can be written as (2) 155 . This field will be exist during a time interval [tau] after which the transverse electric field returns to zero. We will assume that the charge accelerates during a short time interval and then continues to move with a constant velocity (see discussion in Chapter 35).

The maximum electric flux intercepted by this surface is equal to he product of the electric field Ey and the surface area ([Delta]x[Delta]z). Propagation of wave packet. The width [Delta]x is chosen to be equal to the width of the wave packet ([Delta]x = c[tau]). and this changing electric field will induce a magnetic field. The rate of change of electric flux is therefore equal to (4) The path integral of the magnetic field along the loop shown in Figure 2 is equal to (5) 156 . During a time [Delta]t = [Delta]x / c the wave packet will sweep over the loop and fill the loop with electric flux.Figure 1. The propagating wave packet will change the electric field when it passes a certain point in space. The electric flux intercepted by the surface spanned by this path is zero before the wave packet arrives. The induced magnetic field will point along the z axis and its magnitude can be determined using the MaxwellAmpere law (3) Consider a surface with width [Delta]x and length [Delta] z (see Figure 2).

in turn. The rate of change of magnetic flux is thus equal to (8) The minus sign in this equation is a result of the direction of the path indicated (using the right-hand rule you can show that the magnetic field lines along the negative z-axis make a positive contribution to the intercepted flux. induce an electric field. The path integral of the electric field along the path indicated in Figure 3 at a time when one edge of the loop is inside the wave packet is equal to (9) Applying Faraday's law of induction we can determine the induced electric field Ey 157 . Calculation of induced magnetic field. The magnetic flux intercepted by the surface spanned by this loop will go from zero (when the wave packet has no overlap with the loop) to its maximum value of Bz[Delta]x[Delta]y in a time interval [Delta]t = [Delta]x/c. The Maxwell-Ampere law can now be used to determine Bz (6) The induced magnetic field is time-dependent and will. The induced electric field can be determined using Faraday's law of induction which relates the path integral of the induced electric field to the rate of change of magnetic flux (7) Consider the loop shown in Figure 3 with a width [Delta]x and a height [Delta]y. where [Delta]x is taken to be the width of the wave packet.Figure 2. while field lines along the positive z-axis make a negative contribution to the intercepted flux).

(10)

Figure 3. Calculation of induced electric field. The electromagnetic wave will be able to sustain itself if this induced electric field is equal to the original electric filed. Comparing eq.(10) and eq.(6) we conclude that this requires that

(11) or

(12) Equation (12) is a theoretical expression for the speed of propagation of an electromagnetic wave in vacuum, and shows that the electromagnetic waves propagate with the speed of light (which is just one type of electromagnetic radiation).

**Example Problem: Radio Receiver
**

a) One type of antenna for a radio receiver consists of a short piece of straight wire; when the electric field of the radio wave strikes this wire it makes currents flow along it, which are detected an amplified by a receiver. Suppose the electric field of the radio wave is vertical. What must be the orientation of the wire for maximum sensitivity ? b) Another type of antenna consists of a circular loop; when the magnetic field of the radio wave strikes this loop it induces currents around it. Suppose that the magnetic field of a radio wave is horizontal. What must be the orientation of the loop for maximum sensitivity ?

158

Figure 4. Electric field sensed by antenna. a) The electric field of the radio wave will exert a force on the electrons in the antenna. However, only the component of the electric field along the direction of the antenna will contribute to the current induced in the antenna. The magnitude of the current will be proportional to the magnitude of this component of the electric field. Consider the orientation of the antenna shown in Figure 4. The direction of the electric field of the radio wave is the vertical direction. If the antenna makes an angle [theta] with the vertical then the component of the electric field along the antenna is given by (13) Equation (13) shows that the magnitude of the electric field along the antenna, and therefore the magnitude of the induced current, will be maximum when [theta] = 0deg.. b) A changing magnetic field will induce an emf in a conducting loop (Faraday's law of induction). The induced emf is proportional to the magnetic flux intercepted by the surface spanned by the loop. In order to maximize the induced current, we have to maximize the induced emf, and therefore maximize the magnetic flux intercepted by the loop. This can be achieved of the loop is located perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field.

**2. Plane Harmonic Waves
**

Although the relation between the electric and magnetic field strength shown in eq.(10) was obtained for a wave packet consisting of a region of constant electric field, the results are of general validity because an arbitrary wave can be regarded as a succession of short wave packets with piece wise constant electric fields. Equation (10) is therefore valid in general. Other general features of electromagnetic waves are: 1. the electric field is perpendicular to the direction of propagation 2. the magnetic field is perpendicular to both the electric field and the direction of propagation. The direction of E and B are related by the right-hand rule; if the fingers are curled from E to B, then the thumb lies along the direction of propagation.

159

Most radiation fields are generated by charges moving with simple harmonic motion. In this case the acceleration of the charge will be a harmonic function of time:

(14) where [omega] is the angular frequency of the motion. The electric field along the x axis is directed along the y axis and is equal to

(15) The magnetic field will be directed along the z axis and has a magnitude equal to

(16) Electromagnetic waves described by eq.(15) and eq.(16) are called plane harmonic waves. The waves described by eq.(15) and eq.(16) are waves traveling in the positive x direction. The electric and magnetic fields of a plane wave traveling in the negative x direction are given by the following equations

(17)

(18) The minus sign in eq. (18) is required to make the direction of E and B consistent with the direction of propagation. The direction of the electric field of a electromagnetic wave is called the polarization of the wave.

**Example Problem: Circularly Polarized Waves
**

An electromagnetic wave traveling along the x axis consists of the following superposition of two waves polarized along the y and z directions, respectively:

(19) This electromagnetic wave is said to be circularly polarized. a) Show that the magnitude of the electric field is E0 at all points of space and at all times. b) Consider the point x = y = z = 0. What is the angle between E and the z axis at time t = 0 ? At time t = [pi] /2[omega] ? At time t = [pi] /[omega] ? At time t = 3[pi] /2[omega] ? Draw a 160

diagram showing the x and y axes and the direction of E at these times. a) The magnitude of the electric field can be obtained from its components along the y and z axes: (20) b) At time t = 0 the electric field is equal to (21) At time t = [pi] /2[omega] : (22) At time t = [pi] /[omega] : (23) At time t = 3 [pi] /2[omega] : (24) The electric field of the circularly polarized wave is constant in magnitude. but its direction is time dependent (see Figure 5): (25) Example Problem: Polarization of Electromagnetic Waves An electromagnetic wave has the form (26) a) What is the direction of propagation of the wave ? 161 . In a few words. describe the behavior of E as function of time.

The direction of the magnetic field is perpendicular to both the electric field and the direction of propagation. If the negative z axis is going in to the paper. and z axes ? c) Write down a formula for the magnetic field of this wave as function of space and time.(27) describes an electromagnetic wave traveling in the negative z direction. Figure 5. Eq. Since the direction of propagation is along the z axis. The magnetic field is thus given by (29) 162 .(27) with eq. the direction of polarization of the wave will be in the x-y plane (the direction of the electric field is always perpendicular to the direction of propagation). the direction of the magnetic field will be in the x-y plane. The angle between the direction of polarization and the positive x axis is equal to (see Figure 6) (28) c) The magnitude of the magnetic field is equal to the magnitude of the electric field divided by the speed of light (see eq. Circularly polarized light.(27) shows that the direction of polarization of the electromagnetic wave is independent of time.b) What is the direction of polarization of the wave.(17) we conclude that eq. a) Equation (26) can be rewritten as (27) Comparing eq. that is. b) Since the electromagnetic wave travels along the z axis. what angle does the direction of the polarization make with the x. y. then the right-hand rule requires that the magnetic field is pointing in the direction indicated in Figure 6.(10)).

3.E0) and back to its maximum value (E0). The Generation of Electromagnetic Waves The electric field of a plane harmonic wave is position and time dependent. The electric field has the same value at points separated by one wavelength. The wavelength [lambda] of the wave is the distance over which the electric field changes from its maximum value (E0) to its minimum value (.Figure 6. This requires that (31) or (32) This condition is true at all times t and all distances x if (33) or (34) 163 . For an electromagnetic wave propagating in the positive x direction the transverse electric field is equal to (30) At a fixed time t the electric field is a harmonic function of x. Direction of electric field in problem 8.

or (38) where A is the surface area of the wave packet under consideration. is equal to (37) The energy stored in the wave packet is equal to the energy density times the volume. The transverse electric field is directed along the positive y axis and the magnetic field is directed along the positive z axis. tv. Consider a wave packet with width [Delta]x moving in the positive x direction. This type of motion produces infrared. u E. and microwaves) can be generated by oscillating charges in an antenna. However. These waves (radio. Protons and neutrons moving in a nucleus emit gamma rays which have a wavelength between 10-11 m and 10-16 m. Equation (38) can now be rewritten as (39) 164 .The ratio [omega]/2[pi] is called the frequency of the wave. Using the frequency [nu] we can rewrite eq. is equal to (36) The energy density of the magnetic field. Instead. 4. they are generated by electrons oscillating within molecules and atoms. for an electromagnetic wave the magnitude of the magnetic field is equal to the magnitude of the electric field divided by the speed of light (see eq.(10)). The energy density of the electric field. u B. visible. Energy of a Wave The electric and magnetic fields of an electromagnetic wave contain energy. As the wave moves along. and X-rays. Waves with wavelengths less than a millimeter can not be generated by oscillating currents in an antenna. and ultraviolet light. The corresponding wavelengths range from 10-3 m to 10-11 m (visible light has wavelengths between 7 x 10-7 and 4 x 10-7m). so does this energy.(34) as (35) Radio waves and TV waves have wavelengths ranging from a few centimeters to 105 meter. Microwaves have wavelengths as short as a millimeter.

Using eq.(44) 165 . The rate of flow of energy through this volume is thus equal to (42) The energy flux (per unit area) through the volume is given by (43) The flux of energy associated with an electromagnetic wave is often expressed in terms of the Poynting vector. with width [Delta]x) then eq.(45) and eq. If the angular frequency of the transmitter is [omega]. The Poynting vector is defined.(12) we can eliminate the dependence of eq. During a time interval [Delta]t = [Delta]x/c the wave packet moves out of the volume and the energy stored in this volume will return to zero.(46) in eq. in general.(39) on [epsilon]0: (40) or (41) If we consider a fixed volume (fixed in space. the results also apply for plane harmonic waves. then at a fixed distance. the electric and magnetic fields will oscillate in time with the same angular frequency (45) (46) The energy flux can be obtained by substituting eq. as (44) Although we have derived the energy flux of the electromagnetic wave for a wave packet.(43).(41) is the maximum energy stored in this volume and it occurs at a particular time at which the wave packet completely overlaps with this volume. The Poynting vector is a vector with a direction along the flow and a magnitude given by eq.

The flux of energy in the beam is equal to the power delivered divided by the surface over which this power is delivered. what amount of power flows into this piece of wire from the surrounding space ? 166 . Thus (49) The amplitude of the electric field can be obtained using eq.(47) The time-averaged energy flux is equal to (48) Example Problem: Energy of a Laser Beam The beam of a powerful laser has a diameter of 0.(48) (50) The amplitude of the magnetic field can be obtained by dividing the amplitude of the electric field by the speed of light (51) Example Problem: Energy and Current Flow A steady current of 12 A flows in a copper wire of radius 0. What is the time-average Poynting vector of this beam ? What are the amplitudes of the electric and magnetic fields ? The laser beam carries a power of 6 kW.2 cm and carries a power of 6 kW.0-m segment of this wire. a) What is the longitudinal electric field in the wire ? b) What is the magnetic field at the surface of the wire ? c) What is the magnitude of the radial Poynting vector at the surface of the wire ? d) Consider a 1. According to the Poynting vector.13 cm.

0-m segment of wire. 167 . The magnitude of the Poynting vector is equal to (56) d) Since the Poynting vector is directed radially inwards. The resistance of this segment is equal to (52) The voltage across this segment can be obtained using Ohm's law (53) The longitudinal electric field in this segment is thus equal to (54) b) The magnetic field at the surface of the wire can be obtained using Ampere's law (55) c) The Poynting vector will be perpendicular to both the electric field and the magnetic field. Using the right-hand rule it can be shown that the Poynting vector is pointing along the radial direction. the power flowing into a 1-m long segment of the wire is just equal to the magnitude of the Poynting vector times the surface area of the 1-m long segment (57) e) The Joule heat developed in the 1-m long segment of the wire is equal to (58) which is equal to the power flowing into the wire. calculated in part d). a) Consider a 1-m segment of the wire. towards the center of the wire.e) Show that the power calculated in part (d) coincides with the power of the Joule heat developed in the 1.

5.(64) can be interpreted as stating that the change in the momentum of the charged particle is equal to (65) 168 . Momentum of a Wave When an electromagnetic wave strikes a charged particle. and the rate of increase of its energy is given by (62) Comparing eq. The electric force will be directed along the y axis and has a magnitude equal to (59) The electric force will therefore only change the y component of the velocity of the charge. The x component of the velocity will be effected by the magnetic field. The forces acting on the charged particle are the electric force and the magnetic force.(61) and (62) we conclude that (63) Equation (63) shows that the rate at which the particle acquires x momentum from the wave is proportional to the rate at which it acquires energy. The x component of the magnetic force is given by (60) Equation (60) can be rewritten in terms of the electric field Ey: (61) The electric field does work on the particle. it will exert a force on it. Equation (64) can be rewritten as (64) If the wave loses all its energy and momentum to the particle then eq.

Equation (63) can be rewritten using eq. 10 3 W/m2. The change in the x component of the momentum per unit time is equal to the x component of the force exerted on the particle.(69). At this point the average energy flux in the sun light is equal to 1. Suppose the area of the sail is A and that the spaceship is located at the same distance from the sun as the earth is. If the wave is totally reflected then the pressure of radiation is twice that given in eq. The force exerted by the reflected sun light is equal to (70) The gravitational force between the space ship and the sun is equal to 169 .(42): (66) The momentum flow oscillates in the same way as the energy flow. Since linear momentum is a conserved quantity. Such a "sail" would act as a mirror. the pressure of sunlight on this mirror could support and propel the spaceship.where U is the total energy of the wave.(65) indicates that the wave initially carries a linear momentum equal to U/c. Thus (67) Equation (67) can be expressed in terms of the Poynting vector (68) The force exerted by the wave per unit area is equal to (69) and is called the pressure of radiation. eq.4 . Note: this formula is only correct if the wave is completely absorbed. How large a "sail" do we need to support a spaceship of 70 metric tons (equal to the mass of Skylab) against the gravitational pull of the sun ? Ignore the mass of the "sail". Example Problem: Solar Sails Astronauts of the future could travel all over the Solar System in a spaceship equipped with a large "sail" coated with a reflecting material.

than a receiver.(71) and this force is pointed in a direction opposite to that of the radiation force in eq. Suppose the emitter produces electromagnetic waves with frequency [nu]0. 6.(70). If the electromagnetic waves are detected by a receiver moving away from the emitter with a velocity v. 170 . than the frequency received by the receiver is equal to (72) If the received is approaching the emitter with a velocity v than the frequency received by the receiver is equal to (73) This shift in frequency is called the Doppler Shift. at rest with respect to the emitter. These two equation can be used to determine that a sail of 4. will detect electromagnetic waves with the same frequency [nu]. The Doppler Shift of Light If electromagnetic waves are emitted with a frequency [nu] from an emitter. If the emitter moves with respect to the source then the frequency received will not be the same as the frequency emitted.4 x 10 7 m2 is needed to balance the attractive gravitational force with a repulsive radiation force.

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