The History of English grammars

Alongside with the practical and theoretical grammar there exist a number of types of grammar differing not only in the aims but also in the methods applied. There does not appear to exist a generally accepted periodization of the history of English grammars, so there are roughly distinguished two periods:
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English grammars before 1900 (the end of 16th – 19th):  The pre-normative grammar (William Bullokar’s “Bref grammar of English” 1585) - the age of pre-scientific grammar.  The normative (prescriptive) grammar (middle of 18th –19th century) stated strict rules of grammatical usage. The most influential grammar of the period was R. Lowth’s “Short Introduction to English grammar” 1762. The best prescriptive grammars of this period, like C.P. Manson’s “English grammar” (1858) and A. Bain’s “Higher English grammar (1863) paved the way for the first scientific grammar of English.  The classical scientific grammar appeared after the description of the grammatical system, especially that of syntax, had been completed (the end of 19th century) A need was felt for a scientific explanation of the grammatical phenomena. The appearance of H.Sweet’s “New English grammar, Logical and Historical” (1891) met this demand. H.Sweet is mainly famous for his a system of parts of speech. English grammars in the 20th century: The modern period may be divided into two chronologically unequal parts:

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The first from the beginning of the 20th century till the 1940’s, when there were only two types of grammars in use – theprescriptive and the classical scientific. a.1. Prescriptive grammar in 20th century changed very little, some 19th century grammars continued to be reprinted. Among the 20th century prescriptive grammars, which are of some interest, is a work of J.Nesfield, which underwent a number of editions J. Nesfield developed the system of members of the sentence. a.2. The founders of classical scientific grammar in Modern period either specialize in syntax or deal with the problem of both morphology and syntax. Among the authors who specialize in syntax are L.G. Kimball, C.T. Onions and H. R. Stokoe. A greater number of grammarians have more ambitious aim – to describe English grammar scientifically as a whole, the most famous scientists are Poustma H. And Kruisinga A., Curme G.O. and Bryant M.M.. Of all the authors of scientific grammars the classical type O.Jespersen is the most original. The second from the 1940’s, during which time first structural grammar, and then other grammars of other types have been added. b.1. Structural (descriptive) grammarians began treating the problems of the structure of English with criticism of traditional grammar. The representative of this approach is Ch. Fries. Among American linguists should be mentioned L. Bloomfield, K.L. Pike, and R. Wells, E. Nida, Z.S. Harris and others. Sentence structure was

represented in terms of immediate constituents analysis. The generally favorite method of linguistic description became that of description (distributional analysis and substitution). The difference between the traditional and structural approaches consists in that the former did not rely on this method as a part of explicitly formulated theory. b.2. Other grammars may be presented by the following ones:

A new type of grammar, which is known as transformational generative grammar, followed structural linguistics. Its main aim was to find out mechanisms, which account for the generation of the variety of sentences of language out of a kernel sentence. The representative of this grammar is E.Bach “An introduction to transformational grammas” (1964). The representatives of the Generative semantics vigorously opposed the notion of “deep structure”. They propounded the idea of the semantic level where all the information relevant for the syntactic structure of a sentence is accumulated. The representatives of this grammar are Ch. Fillmore “The case for case” (1968), K. Donnellan “Reference and Definite Descriptions (1971). Besides the analysis of the semantic properties of sentences there appeared a new trend – textual Linguistics. Its aim is to provide a formal device needed for theoretical description of discourse. M.A.K. Halliday’s work illustrates an attempt at giving a theoretical basis of textual linguistics. (3)

Literature: Iofik L.L., Chakhoyan L.P., Pospelova A.G. – Readings in the Theory of English grammar. – L., 1981, pp5-40

Theoretical grammar as a linguistic discipline Language and speech Hierarchy of language levels Grammar Methods of linguistic investigation Approaches

Language and speech
Language is a very complicated system, i.e. a whole, orderly arranged, consisting of interrelated and interconnected units (elements). In the process of social intercourse language gets its realization in speech - the actual use of material units governed by the laws of their interaction. The system of language is characterized by its substance - the body (inventory) of material units (sounds, morphemes, words, word-groups) and its structure - interrelations and interconnections of the units, regularities of the use of these units in the construction of utterances. Language in the narrow sense of the word is a system of means of expression, while speech

in the same narrow sense should be understood as the manifestation of the system of language in the process of intercourse. (1) Hierarchy of language levels The units of language from a number of levels which present a hierarchy It means, on the one hand, that language units are not equal relevance and, on the other hand, that units of the higher level and formed of units of the immediate lower level. The composition of units of higher level from the units of a lower level is by no means mechanical. Units of each level are characterized by their own specific features, revealed in their functioning, which provide for the very recognition of the units of each level.

• •

The lowest level of language units is phonetic. It consists of phonemes, the smallest units of language devoid of any meaning, serving as the material building elements of the higher-level units. Their function is purely differential; to differentiate morpheme and words as material units, e.g.: /p/ -/b/; /t/-/d/; /i/, /a/ etc. As the phoneme has no meaning it is not a sign. The level higher than phonemic is morphemic. The morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit of language. The morpheme is a sign as it is double entity having its form and meaning, uniting a sound-image and a concept. E.g.: {-clear-}, {-able-}, {s}, {be=-ing}, etc. The third level is lexemic or the level of words which are naming units: they name objects, properties, activities, etc., e.g.: table, good, turn, etc. The next higher level is the phrasemic level or the level of phrases (wordcombinations). Here belong combinations of two or more words. These combinations may have a nominating function just like words but the object or phenomenon they name is complicated. (E.g.: My brother; writes letters; to his friends; etc.) Or they may be just functional, e.g.: such as; out of, etc. Higher than phrasemic level (according to the majority of modern linguists) there is the level of sentences or the prosemic level. The peculiarity of units of this level lies in the fact that they not name some situation or event but also show the relation of this situation or event to reality and the speaker’s attitude towards the object of thought. Consequently, the sentence is predicative unit, which enters the system of language by its syntactic pattern, e.g.: My brother writes letters to his friends rather often. Above the proposemic level they distinguish the level of sentence-groups (suprasentential constructions) - the supra-proposemic level. The supra-sentential construction is a combination of two or more utterances forming textual unity, e.g.: I don’t like writing letters. But my brother writes letters to his friends rather often. And it is but natural that he himself should get much more letters than me.

NB: Some linguists do not treat sentences and supra-sentential constructions among language units claiming that they belong to the domain of speech. For them the highest language level is phrasemic. (4) Grammar The part of the language system, which embraces units beginning with the morphemic, levels upwards the Grammar. This part of the language system is studied by a particular linguistic, discipline, which is also called Grammar. Thus, grammar deals with their customary arrangements in phrases and sentences for the formation of utterances (syntax).

combinatorial. . There is the view that the new methods mark new period in the development of linguistics.: Colorless green ideas sleep furiously (N.M. pp. without implying that everything done in earlier periods should be considered as valueless and “pre-scientific”.g. inverted word order. Часть 1. Other scholars are skeptical about these new methods and think that they trend to lead linguistic science away from its proper tasks.6-11 2. С. (2) • • Nowadays there are the following methods of investigation – observation. The main of them are: • • • Formal approach is concerned only with a form. and substitution. Methods of linguistic investigation The last few years have seen a rapid development of various new methods of investigation. . It is grammar that makes language human characteristics. This sentence is illogical semantically.Blokh M.Chomsky).7-10 Aim of theoretical grammar A theoretical description (theoretical grammar) is aimed at : a) elucidating the fundamentals of the grammatical structure of .A course in Theoretical English grammar. Literature: 1.. There are three main positions in this field: • Some scholars think that these new methods mark the beginning of linguistics as a science and that everything that was done earlier in linguistics belongs to a ‘prescientific age”.Y.Гатилова Теоретическая грамматика английского языка. description.1993.The structure of Modern English – L. pp5-9 3.. each grammatical phenomenon may be treated from different sides. 2000. which takes into consideration both the form and the meaning. Semantic approach is concerned with the meaning.g.К.: Up he goes.A. but grammatically it is correct. transformational. transformation. Ilyish B. Methods of analysis – distributional. i. e. A combination of semantic and formal approach. В. which use different approaches to investigation. . structural words and the sentences. and there are a great variety of views as to their merits. Approaches As there are many methods of investigation. Semantically it is correct. Алма- ата. and should be tried out. but grammatically is wrong.Grammar is responsible for the very organization of the informative content of utterances providing stable formal devices for arranging words into classes and connecting them into phrases and sentences. e. That’s why there exist several types of grammars. 1971.e.

from judgments of their own and apply their knowledge to their teaching practice.A course in Theoretical English grammar. Difference between theoretical and practical grammar Grammatical description as any other linguistic description may have practical and theoretical aims. generative. But it is one thing to use language. Consequently. contrastive. texonomic. . Alongside with the practical and theoretical grammar there exist a number of types of grammar differing not only in the aims pursued but also in the method applied. c) developing the students ability to digest scientific information. pp. Initiating the students into most important problems of the grammatical structure of language. 2000. structural. form judgments of their own and apply their knowledge to their teaching practice. b) initiating the students into most important problems of the grammatical structure of language. comparative.. The purpose of a practical description (Practical grammar) is to supply the student with the knowledge of the grammatical structure of language in terms of standards of correctness (rules that should be obeyed) as the basis for the creation of the student’s general grammatical aptitude. it is quite another to understand how it works. Literature: Blokh M.language in accordance with the latest developments in linguistics. transformational. . Developing the students’ ability to digest scientific information.Y. A theoretical description (theoretical grammar) is aimed at: • • • Elucidating the fundamentals of the grammatical structure of language in accordance with the latest developments in linguistics.6-11 Classifications of the phrase • • • According to the type of syntactic bond According to the head-word According to the inner structure . case.M. they discriminate between historical. functional and some other types of grammar.

headed phrases are subdivided into regressive ( the subordinate element precedes the leading element: very nice. shouting and singing. Dependent phrases require some additional context without which they cannot be identified as grammatically arranged groups: his own (dog). In terms of substitution the head. my book) and progressive (the subordinate element follows the leading element: to answer the question. The basis of the structural theory of word-groups is the division of phrases into endocentric (i. not subordinated to any other element within the phrase. to look guilty.e. The relations of such phrases are based on coordination. According to this criterion all phrases fall into two main groups: headed and nonheaded.word of the endocentric groups functions in the same way as the whole phrase. as a result “Tom and Mary” is also an endocentric phrase. containing a head-word or centre) and exocentric (i. In such phrases one element is leading. Further Bloomfield subdivides endocentric phrases in accordance with the type of syntactic bond into subordinate and coordinate. The non-headed phrases are versatile in structure. 2/ coordinate (books and notebooks. Mary ran away). i.e.either you or me.Ivanova. This classification is based on the criteria of distribution and substitution. Pr. predication or cumulation. Headed phrases are based on subordination. By the direction of the relations. real friendship. beside John. to look at the children). He distinguishes three types of phrases. to tell the story. Burlakova and Pocheptsov suggest another classification based onthe inner structure of a phrase.Bloomfield. by the position of the subordinateelement with regard to the leading element. Each of the components of the phrase structure “Tom and Mary ran away" can substitute the whole group (Tom ran away. nothing of interest) In this type of phrases subordinate relations exist between the components. [she nodded]. Such phrases can be based on coordination. young but clever). non-headed) suggested by L. (to find) the car gone. adjective phrases. . (send) him a letter. for you to read.In linguistics there are different classifications of phrases . Independent phrases are phrases which can be identified as grammatically arranged groups without any additional context: easy and simple. adverbial phrases and verbal phrases. The subordinate phrases are further classified according to the head-word into noun phrases. him singing).Barhudarov propounded a classification based on the type of syntactic bond. They fall into two big groups: independent and dependent phrases. The subdivision of exocentric groups is based on another criterion and gives ground to speak about predicative and prepositional phrases. According to L.e. Here belong predicative constructions consisting of nominal and verbal componentsmbetween which the predicative relations are established. i. The members of exocentric phrases cannot be used in the function of either of its members: John ran. 3/ predicative (the lesson over.e. Pr.Bloomfield “poor John” is an endocentric phrase because the component “John” can substitute the word-group “poor John” in the structure “poor John ran away”. 1/ subordinate (fine weather.

correlated with reality. Theory of the sentence • The category of predication The sentence is the smallest unit of speech conveying some thought or emotion. lexical and syntactical means of sentence connection. matter. etc. The unity of the theme is revealed in regular recurrence of the key words connected with the theme and is ensured by the correlation of the words with one and the same object of reality. etc. The structural integrity of the super-phrasal unit is revealed in the existence of different signals showing that the sentences comprising the super-phrasal unit are components of the whole. i. etc.Moskalskaya suggests differentiating two main objects of text linguistics: macrotext. The semantic integrity of a supra-phrasal unit is reflected in the existence of the microtheme. i. Lexico-grammatical means of connection are represented by conjunctions.Theory of the supra-sentential unit The object of text linguistics is the text. words of abstract meaning (thing. parallel constructions. The essence of this phenomenon lies in the fact that each succeeding sentence in the super-phrasal unit in the communicative aspect depends on the preceding sentence developing the narration from the unknown information to the new information. etc). a complete speech composition and microtext. . As a rule. In contrast to words and groups of words. a supraphrasal unit. Text linguistics is very much concerned with various means of sentence connection. The supraphrasal unit is always monothematic. a monograph. case. articles. built up according to a definite syntactic pattern and distinguished by a definite communicative purpose. words of the same thematic group.e. and with reference to such units as a story. etc. a novel. Here belong pronouns. Syntactic means of connection include word order. on the one hand. situation. The above-mentioned means of connection are not used separately. stuff. for example. interdependence of separate facts. i. actions.e. they accompany each other ensuring logical consistency. The term “text” is used in two meanings with reference to any utterance consisting of two or more sentences. ellipsis. conjunctive adverbs.e. as an element of the word stock. The word “night”.I. the sentence denotes a definite actualized. conjunctive adverbs pro-forms. i. synonyms. is a nominative unit of language which denotes a natural phenomenon. To avoid ambiguity O. The communicative integrity is expressed by the communicative continuity of its components. the semantic topic. Lexical means of connection cover different types of repetition. conjunctions. which is a sequence of sentences characterized by semantico-syntactic cohesion and a communicative purpose.e. The linguists distinguish lexico-grammatical. articles.

a request for information wanted by the speaker from the listener. According to the purpose of utterance • • • • • The declarative sentence The interrogative sentence The imperative sentence The exclamatory sentence The negative sentences The declarative sentence contains a statement which gives some information about various events. presents these referents as making up a certain situation and. which establishes the relation of the thought of a sentence to the situation of speech. interrogative and imperative. There are 4 types of questions: general. 2/ the speaker’s relation to other persons and things mentioned in the sentence which is grammatically expressed by the categories of person and number. its being real or unreal. on the other. and objective reality. The category of predication includes: 1/ the time correlation of the act of speech with all other events mentioned in the sentence which is grammatically expressed by the category of tense. Korneyeva/ single out suggestive or declarative questions. first. Interrogative sentences are formed by means of inversion. activities or attitudes . past or future). necessary or unnecessary. etc. i. 3/ The speaker’s attitude to the action mentioned in the sentence from the point of view of reality which is grammatically expressed by the category of mood. the predicate or part of it being placed before the subject. It has a definite modal characteristic (the speaker treats this phenomenon /event as real or true to life) and a definite temporal perspective (this event can be either present. According to the purpose of utterance/communication the following types of the sentence have been recognized in linguistic tradition: declarative.e.The noun “night” is a linguistic expression of the concept “night”. Suggestive questions preserve the word order of the statements but serve as questions owing to . The interrogative sentence contains a question. Some grammarians /Kobrina. secondly. showing the time of the event. The sentence as a predicative unit not only names some referents with the help of the words.” represents a natural phenomenon as a fact of reality. special. desirable or undesirable. reflects the connection between this situation. In other words. but also. Grammatically statements are characterized by the subject-predicate structure with the direct order of words. thoughts and feelings. on the one hand. the sentence is characterized by the category of predication. The sentence “Night. alternative and disjunctive.

the reference to the second person and lack of subject.e. the communicative classification of sentences discriminates between the six sentence-types. interrogative and imperative . in Ilyish’s opinion. Oh. interrogative or imperative. Pr. Pocheptsov) claim that exclamatory sentences do not possess a set of qualities that could place them on one and the same level with the three cardinal communicative types. The imperative sentence expresses inducement.g. e. Since in the second case negative sentences are not characterized by any grammatical peculiarities. Consequently. In other words. it urges the listener in the form of a request or command to perform or not to perform a certain action. i. Ivanova.The relation of the exclamatory sentence to the three established types presents some difficulty. i. may be purely exclamatory. i. i. He admits the fact that every sentence .No. what are its grammatical features? The difficulty of the problem lies in the peculiarity of negative expressions in modern English. each of the three types of sentences can be represented in two variants . by means of the negative pronouns “nobody.e. Analyzingnegative sentences. it may convey the speaker’s feelings and be characterized by emphatic intonation and by an exclamatory mark in writing.e. Formally imperative sentences are marked by the predicate verb in the imperative mood.Ilyish’s approach to the problem of exclamatory sentences is different. Some scholars (Blokh. Aunt Nora? . In this case it can be opposed to the .declarative. namely the exclamatory sentence.nonexclamatory and exclamatory. none”. Khaimovich.the rising tone and a question mark in writing. In their opinion the property of exclamation should be considered as an accompanying feature of the established types. 2/ interrogative (including emotional ones). Communicative types of sentences fall into affirmative/positive and negative. adverbs “nowhere. The thing is that negation can be expressed grammatically by means of auxiliary verb and the negative particle “not” and lexically. Full negation is predicate negation. In addition to the three cardinal communicative types of sentences another type is recognized in the theory of syntax. as in “You still don’t believe me.Ilyish suggests using different terms for sentences which are purely exclamatory and thus constitute a special type and those which add an emotional element to their basic quality which is either declarative. Partial negation can refer to any member of the sentence except the predicate. Not a person could be seen around. for God’s sake! Henry! Pr. it may not belong to any of the three established types. Further it is claimed that a sentence can be termed negative only if it contains the predicate negation. nothing.may be exclamatory at the same time. Some scholars think that it is essential to differentiate between full and partial negation (Ivanova. Rogovskaya). Pr. 4/ exclamatory. I don’t”. On the other hand. they are not a grammatical type.e. 3/ imperative ( including emotional ones). a sentence.Ilyish raises a problem which can be formulated in the following way:do negative sentences constitute a special grammatical type and if so. In this case classification of sentences according to type of communication includes: 1/declarative (including emotional ones). never” etc.

.Blokh treats sentences with homogeneous subjects and predicates as sentences of composite structure. Looks like rain. In a complete sentence both principal positions are filled with word-forms.Ilyish refers to elliptical sentences with one or more of their parts left out which can be unambiguously inferred from the context. sentences with several predicates referring to one and the same subject can not be considered as simple. regarding them as simple (Ilyish. From the point of view of their structure sentences can be: 1/simple and composite (compound and complex).g. You seen them?) 3/ two-member (double-nucleus) and one-member (single-nucleus). Some scholars do not single them out into a separate structural type. in the subject position and part of the predicate position (e. Iofic. Bryant). Pr. Other grammarians claim that the presence of homogeneous subjects or predicates influences the status of the sentence (Peshkovsky. The sentence “I took the child in my arms and held him” expresses two different predicative lines. e. e.g. According to the structure • • • Simple and composite Complete and incomplete (elliptical) Two-member (double-nucleus) and one-member (single-nucleus). Poutsma). Opinions differ (one predicative line) He says that opinions differ (two predicative lines).g. “Ready? Wrong again”. Complete and incomplete (or elliptical) sentences are distinguished by the presence or absence of word-forms in the principal positions of two-member sentences. Some words should be said about the sentences with homogeneous subjects and predicates. There are several types of elliptical sentences in English: sentences without a wordform in a subject position (e. no matter what part or parts of it have been left out. and the latter more than one.g.g. 2/ complete and incomplete (elliptical). Pr. Prof. since two predicates are separately connected with the subject. These three classifications are based on different approaches to the structural organization of sentences and reflect its different aspects. “Where do you live?” In an incomplete sentence one or both of the main positions are not filled with word-forms but they can easily be filled. Pospelov. He applies this term to any sentence of this kind.).Blokh states that if we define the simple sentence as a sentence in which only one predicative line is expressed.affirmative sentence together with which it constitutes the syntactical category of information (Khaimovich). The difference between the simple and the composite sentence lies in the fact that the former contains only one subject-predicate unit.g. e. in part of the predicate position (e. Going home soon?). or one predicative line. Vinogradov.

intonation. i. In a different situation the division of the sentence can be entirely different. The forest was calm. In the English language they are as follows: . 1. is to reveal the correlative significance of the sentence parts from the point of view of their actual informative role in an utterance.e. In the first group there are sentences which do not possess special means of expressing the rheme. called also the “functional sentence perspective”. as it conveys the main information.construction “there is/are” which introduces the subject as its rheme. Every language has worked out special means of expressing rheme in a sentence. She is fond of music. the theme here is “Petrov” and the rheme is “is absent”..e.g . In English all sentences can be theoretically divided into two groups. It can mark any word as a rheme of a sentence either independently or in combination with any other rheme-identifying means. the rheme. i. the focus of information. therefore it is sometimes referred to as the “contexual” division of the sentence.Actual Division • • The theme The rheme The purpose of the Actual Division of the Sentence. It explains the fact that one and the same sentence can be interpreted differently with reference to its division into the theme and the rheme. The main components of the actual division are the theme and the rheme. . Compare the two sentences: “The book is on the table” and “There is a book on the table”. 2.g. If the sentence “Petrov is absent” is a reaction to the teacher’s utterance “Today I’m going to ask Petrov”. The second group include sentences which have some special means of expressing the rheme. e. 3. its contextually relevant centre. The rheme expresses the basic informative part of the communication. used to intensify this or that member of the sentence. if the teacher asks the group “Who is absent?” and gets the answer “Petrov is absent”. The actual division of the sentence finds its full expression in a concrete context of speech. the theme of the sentence is “is absent” and the rheme is “Petrov”. In such sentence the theme is expressed by the subject or the subject group while the rheme is expressed by the predicate or the predicate group. in the second sentence the rheme is “a book”.e. The first sentence is an answer to the question :”Where is the book?” The second question is an answer to the question “What is their on the table?” In the first sentence “on the table” is the centre. The theme expresses the starting point of the communication. Only John came.particles. For example. . it denotes an object or a phenomenon about which something is reported.

construction “It is . For instance. Thus. in studying the morpheme we actually study the word in the necessary details of its composition and functions. It follows from this that morphology as part of grammatical theory faces the two segmental units: the morpheme and the word.e. Negative particles or words make any part of a sentence a rheme. 5. Nobody saw me. 7. that/who” which can make a rheme any part of a sentence except a predicate. MORPHEMIC STRUCTURE OF THE WORD • • • • • The morphological system of language The morpheme The word The distributional classification Descriptive classification The morphological system of language reveals its properties through the morphemic structure of words. but by the verb (i.word-order. There was nobody.e. I couldn’t face the sight. Not a penny could George find in his pockets. In he went.g. the form of the verbal past tense is built up by means of the dental grammatical suffix: train-erf [-d].4. It was John who met me in the park. The definite article usually though not always accompanies the theme and the indefinite article goes with the rheme. i. e. But. the dental suffix is immediately related to the stem of the verb and together with the stem constitutes thetemporal correlation in the paradigmatic system of verbal categories. negation. It is very difficult to give a rigorous and at the same time universal definition to the word. It was in the part that John met me. word) taken in the corresponding form (realized byits morphemic composition). such a definition as would unambiguously apply to all the different wordunits of the lexicon.g.. This difficulty is explained by the fact that the word is an extremely complex and many-sided phenomenon. Within the framework of different . However. as we have already pointed out. the morpheme is not identified otherwise than part of the word. the functions of the morpheme are effected only as the corresponding constituent functions of the word as a whole. He opened the door..articles. e. the past tense as a definite type of grammaticalmeaning is expressed not by the dental morpheme in isolation. 6. publish-ed [-t].e. meditat-ed [-id].g.

the elementary component of the sentence. on the other . the uninterrupted string of morphemes. In spite of the shown difficulties. elementary segmental character: the phoneme being the minimal formal segment of language. which can be divided into formal. and mixed. we shall easily see their definite nominative function and unambiguous segmental delimitation. units standing to one another in nominative correlation) by which he can build up an infinite number of utterances reflecting the ever changing situations of reality. a third one was added to these ..e. "polar" phenomena. e. yellowback. if we take such notional words as.recognized not the word and the sentence. the minimal free linguistic form. One could point out that the peculiar property distinguishing composite words from phrases is their linear indivisibility. yellowness. or interpreted as the "potential minimal sentence"). password.representatives of Descriptive Linguistics founded by L. functional. is coming . i. the morpheme. etc.the level of "constructions". the grammatically arranged combination of sound with meaning. the level of morphemic combinations. the impossibility for them to be divided by a third word. has the power to precisely cover all the lexical segments of language without a residue remaining outside the field of definition. i. but the phoneme and the morpheme as the basic categories of linguistic description.American scholars . passer. watery. The said difficulties compel some linguists to refrain from accepting the word as the basic element of language. yellow and the like.:has met . e. it is irrelevant for the bulk of functional words which cannot be used "independently" even in elliptical responses (to say nothing of the fact that the very notion of ellipsis is essentially theopposite of self-dependence). But this would-be rigorous criterion is quite irrelevant for analytical wordforms. the meaningfully integral and immediately identifiable lingual unit. In fact.is not by any circumstancescoming. In fact.g. Bloomfield . such as waterman. This circumstance urges us to seek the identification of the word as a lingual unit-type on other lines than the "strictly operational definition". we do find the clarification of the problem in taking into consideration the difference between the two sets of lingual phenomena: on the one hand. water. the articulate sound-symbol.e. because these units are the easiest to be isolated in the continual text due to their "physically" minimal. only two segmental levels were originally identified in language by Descriptive scholars: the phonemic level and the morphemic level. making them beyond all doubt into "separate words of language". Accordingly. we shall immediately note that the identification of the latter as separate words is greatly complicated by the fact that they themselves are decomposable into separate words. pass. But if we compare with the given one-stem words the corresponding composite formations.has never met. In particular. however. say. etc. As for the criterion according to which the word is identified as a minimal sign capable of functioning alone (the word understood as the "smallest free form". there remains the unquestionable fact that each speaker has at his disposal a ready stock of naming units (more precisely. later.linguistic trends and theories the word is defined as the minimal potential sentence. the minimal meaningful segment. None of these definitions. as well their simple derivatives.g.

and their very intermediary status is gradational. On the other hand. respectively. In particular. demonstrative words. "intermediary" phenomena. while by other properties they are similar to the other.e. or "half-words" (word-morphemes) with "full words". the correlation in question (which is to be implied by the conventional term "nominative function") unites functional words notional words.). its "periphery". words of affirmation and negation. At the same time this kind of analysis helps evaluate the definitions of the polar phenomena between which a continuum is established. The "negative delimitation" immediately connects these functionalwords with the directly nominative. nominative correlation reduces the morheine as a type of segmental signcmc to the role of an element in the composition of the word. The nature of the element of any system is revealed in the character of its function. The function of words is realized in their nominative correlation with one another. delimitation as a residue after the identification of the copositional textual elements). On the basis of this correlation a number of functional words are distinguished by the "negative delimitation" (i.g. In this connection. we maypoint out some of the properties of the morpheme and the word which are fundamental from the point of view of their systemic status and therefore require detailed investigations and descriptions. opposing pole. Summing up what has been said in this paragraph. The polar elements of this field constitute its"centre". The analysis of the intermediary phenomena from the point of view of their relation to the polar phenomena reveal their own status in the system.to/speak.' e. Intermediary phenomena arc located in the system in between the polar phenomena. making up a gradation of transitions or the so-called "continuum". they occupy intermediarypositions between these poles. Within a complex system of interrelated elements. the non-polar elements. By some of their properties intermediary phenomena arc similar or near to one of the corresponding poles. the notional one-stem word and the morpheme should be described as the opposing polar phenomena amongthe meaningful segments of language. forms a "field". interrogative words. the elementary character of the word (as a nominative unit) is realized in the system of lexicon. by/way/of. etc.Thus. polar phenomena arc the most clearly identifiable. the variability of their status is expressed in the fact that some of them can be used in an isolated response position (for instance. Either of the two poles together with the intermediary elements connected with it on the principle of gradation.hand. if the elementary character (indivisibility) of the mornheme (as a significative unit) is established in the structure of words. they stand to one another in an utterly unambiguous opposition. .: the/people. As for functional words. while others cannot (such as prepositions or conjunctions). As we see. notional words in the system. it is these elements that can be defined by their formal and functional features most precisely andunambiguously.

e. etc. the specifications being of lexicoscmantic and ammatico-semantic character. Cf:.outing . With grammatically changeable words. indivisible into smaller segments as regards its significative function). as a meaningful component of the word it is elementary (i. these stems take one grammatical suffix (two "open" grammatical suffixes are used only with some plural nouns in the possessive case. throughout .e. The affixal morphemes include prefixes.a composite word. the border-area between prefixes and suffixes). and -ing is a suffix. in which out.e. while the affixes express the specificational part of the meaning of the word. time-out. together with the root they form the stem of the word. . adverb. while affixes are not obligatory. verbal postposition.serves as a prefix. The root. in which -out serves as one of the roots (the categorial status of the meaning of both morphemes is the same). shut-out. knock-out. inflexions (grammatical suffixes) expressdifferent morphological categories. etc. material" part of the meaning of the word. grammatical inflexions are tommonly referred to as "suffixes"). now as a root. noun.a unit of information in the communication process.words (nouns). together with other nominative units the word is used for the formation of the sentence . the morpheme is formed by phonemes.a root-word (preposition. non-notional) status.The morpheme is a meaningful segmental component of the word. In accord with the traditional classification. cf:. a prefix). verb). The word is a nominative unit of language. the children's toys. out . in the lexicon of everyday speech the preferable morphemic types of stems are root stems (one-root stems or two-root stems) and one-affix stems. can in principle be used now as an affix (mostly. The combination of these two criteria in an integral description has led to the rational classification of morphemes that is widely used both in research linguistic work and in practical lingual tuition. Therefore one and the same morphemic segment of functional (i. . depending on various morphemic environments. adjective. the oxen's yokes). morphemes on the upper level are divided into root-morphemes (roots) and affixal morphemes (affixes). outline. according to the positional content of the term (i.look-out. in which -out serves as a suffix.words. The roots of notional words are classical lexical morphemes. outlook. Of these. .e.is a root. prefixes and lexical suffixes have word-building functions. and inflexions (in the tradition of the English school. is obligatory for any word. The morphemic composition of modern English words has a wide range of varieties. In traditional grammar the study of the morphemic structure of the word was conducted in the light of the two basic criteria: positional criterion (the location of the marginal morphemes in relation to the central ones) and semantic or functional criterion (the correlative contribution of the morphemes to the general meaning of the word). in which out. The roots express the concrete. suffixes. it enters the lexicon of language as its elementary component (i. out-talk. it is formed by morphemes. a component indivisible into smaller segments as regards its nominative function).a two-morpheme word. outrage.

A set of iso-functional allo-units identified in the text on the basis of their cooccurrence with other lingual units (distribution) is considered as the corresponding erne-unit with its fixed systemic status. These segments are called . the second is characterized by the original suffixal stem (e.g.e. L for lexical suffix. The environment of a unit may be either "right" or "left". allomorphs. The immediate aim of the distributional analysis is to fix and study the units of language in relation to their textual environments. the collected lingual materials. At the first stage. Alloterms denote the concrete manifestations. the distribution of a unit is its environment in generalized terms of classes or categories. R for root. prefabricated). In accord with this theory. e. In the distributional analysis at the morphemic level. in other words. the analysed text (i. inheritors). In this word the left environment of the root is the negative prefix un. and the left environment for the suffix. The allo-emic identification of lingual elements is achieved by means of the so-called "distributional analysis". or variants of the generalized units dependent on the regular co-location with other elements of language: allonhones. the adjoining elements in the text. brackets. the root -pardonis the right environment for the prefix. W2 = {[(Pr + R) + L] + Gr} Further insights into the correlation between the formal A functional aspects of morphemes within the composition of the word may be gained in the light of the socalled "allo-emic" theoryiit forward by Descriptive Linguistics and broadly used in the current linguistic research. and parentheses. lingual units are described by means of two types of terms: a/to-terms and erne-terms. i. the right environment of the root is the qualitative suffix -able. Erne-terms denote the generalized invariant units of language characterized by a certain functional status: phonemes.:un-pardon-able. The distribution of a unit may be defined as the total of all its environments. morphemes. The study is conducted in two stages. employ three graphical symbols of hierarchical grouping . The first is characterized by the original prefixal stem (e. If we use the symbols St for stem. then the two morphemic word-structures can be presented as follows: W1 = {[Pr + (R + L)] + Gr}. The syntagmatic connections of the morphemes within the model form two types of hierarchical structure. besides. Respectively. phonemic distribution of morphemes and morphemic distribution of morphemes are discriminated.g. the abstract complete morphemic model of the common English word is the following: prefix + root + lexical suffix + grammatical suffix.e. and. or "corpus") is divided into recurrent segments consisting oi phonemes.g. Gr for grammatical suffix. Pr for prefix.Thus.braces.

Bound morphemes cannot form words by themselves. because it helps establish the identity of outwardly altogether different elements of language. Cf. for analytical purposes the notion of complementary distribution is the most important. i. There are very few productive bound morphemes in the morphological system of . It must be stressed that the distributional classification of morphemes cannot abolish or in any way depreciate the traditional morpheme types. We shall survey the distributional morpheme types arranging them in pairs of immediate correlation. namely. the environmental features of the morphes established and the corresponding identifications are effected. Rather. Cf. the suffixes -(e)d and -ing in the verb-forms returned. free nhenies can build up words by -themselves. /-z/. Contrastive and non-contrastive distributions concern identical environments of different morons. e. /-iz/ which stand in phonemic complementary distribution.g. showing some essential features of morphemes on the principles of environmental study. Such morphs constitute "free alternants". As a result of the application of distributional analysis to the morphemic level. learnt. At the second stage. the plural allomorph en in oxen. "free" morphemes and "bound" morphemes are distinguished. On the basis of the degree of self-dependence. returning. complementary distribution concerns different environments of formally different morphs which are united by the same meaning (function). these morphs are said to be in complementary distribution and considered the allomorphs of the same morpheme. Such morphs constitute different morphemes. or "free variants" of the same morpheme.: the/boat/s/were/gain/ing/ speed. the suffixes -(e)d and -t in the verb-forms learned. Cf. and complementary distribution.e. The morphs are said to be in contrastive distribution if their meanings (functions) are different. Three main types df distribution are discriminated in the distributional analysis. while the suffix -ful is a bound morpheme. different types of morphemes have been discriminated which can be called the "distributional morpheme types".e. If two or more morphs have the same meaning and the difference in their form is explained by different environments. in particular. As different from the above. the allomorphs of the plural morpheme /-s/. which stands in morphemic complementary distribution with the other allomorphs of the plural morpheme. can be used"freely"' For instance. The morphs are said to be in non-contrastive distribution (or free alternation) if their meaning (function) is the same. children. non-contrastivedistribution. i. As we see. its grammatical elements. it supplements the traditional classification. As different from this."morphs". in the word handful the root hand is a free mornheme. they are identified only as component segmental parts of words. contrastive distribution. morphemicmilts distributionally uncharacterized.

the list of them is complicated by the relations of homonymy. the word-form clocks consists of two overt morphemes: one lexical (root) and one grammatical expressing the plural. etc. The auxiliary word-morphemes of various standings should be interpreted in this connection as "semi-bound" morphemes. -s. supra-sentential constructic. as a rule. On the other hand. -id]: the past and past participle of verbs. On the basis of grammatical alternation. of the overt root and the covert (implicit) grammatical suffix of the singular. They form the secondary line of speech. For instance. is also considered as consisting of two morphemes. "additive" morphemes and "replacive" morphemes are distinguished. Being extremely narrow. -iz]: the plural of nouns. accompanying its primary phonemic line (phonemic complexes). look + ed. should beyond dispute be considered signemic units of language. These morphemes are the following: 1) the segments -(e)s [-z. the possessive case of nouns. On the basis of segmental relation. Interpreted as supra segmental morphemes in distributional terms are intonation contours. "overt" morphemes and "covert" morphemes are distinguished.English. but with larger elements of guage: words. The outwardly one-morpheme word-form clock. they are opposed to the absence of morphemes in grammatical alternation. On the basis of formal presentation. i. 2) the segments -(e)d [-d. Indeed. these units are functionally connected not with morphemes. 3) the segments -ing: the gerund and present participle. -t. they form categorial unities with their notional stem-words. it is not difficult to see that the morphemic interpretation of supra-scgmental units can hardly stand to reason. since. small + er. The notion of covert morpheme coincides with the notion of zero morpheme in the oppositional description of grammatical categories (see further). In distinction to these. the third person singular present of verbs. "segmental" morphemes and "supra-segmental" morphemes are distinguished.e. The said elements of language. sentences. the covert morpheme is identified as a contrastive absence of morpheme expressing a certain function. ""се they are functionally bound. pauses. being used as separate elements of speech strings. Interpreted as additivemorphemes are outer grammatical suffixes. Overt morphemes are genuine. The usual symbol for the covert morpheme employed by linguists is the sign of the empty set: 0. word-groups. explicit morphemes building up words. Cf. as we have stated elsewhere. from what has been stated about the morpheme proper. accents. since it expresses the singular. -est the comparative and superlative degrees of adjectives and adverbs. since. the root phonemes of grammatical . 4) the segments -er.

is going). hence.for the passive verb forms (e. m-a-n . en .for the perfect verb forms (e.dr-o-ve . the general notion "discontinuous constituent". It is easy to see that the notion of morpheme applied to the analytical form of the word violates the principle of the identificationof morpheme as an elementary meaningful segment: the analytical"framing" consists of two meaningful segments.. opposed to the common.If it were productive. as it were. have . en .g. On the other hand.. i. Cf. embed the notional stem. By the discontinuous morpheme. i."continuous" (or "linear") morphemes and "discontinuous" morphemes are distinguished.e. ing .. be .e. "discontinuous unit" is quite rational and can be help fully used in linguistic description in its proper place.m-e-n. of two different morphemes. uninterruptedly expressed. TYPES OF MORPHEME • • • • • Free and bound morphemes Overt and covert morphemes Segmental and supra-segmental morphemes Additive and replacive morphemes Continuous and discontinuous morphemes . a two-element grammatical unit is meant which is identified in the analytical grammatical form comprising an auxiliary word and a grammatical suffix.interchange are considered as replacive morphemes.e. has gone). continuous morpheme. they are symbolically represented as follows: be . partial suppletivity).g. These two elements.. dr-i-ve . On the basis of linear characteristic.g. As it stands.. etc. It should be remembered that the phonemic interchange is utterly unproductive in English as in all the Indo-European languages. however. it might rationally be interpreted as a sort of replacive "infixation" (correlated with "exfixation" of the additive type). since they replace one another in the paradigmatic forms..dr-i-ven. this type of grammatical means can be understood as a kind of suppletivity (i.for the continuous verb forms (e. is taken).

e. "segmental" morphemes and "supra-segmental" morphemes are distinguished. Overt morphemes are genuine. of the overt root and the covert (implicit) grammatical suffix of the singular.We shall survey the distributional morpheme types arranging them in pairs of immediate correlation. Free and bound morphemes:On the basis of the degree of self-dependence. the covert morpheme is identified as a contrastive absence of morpheme expressing a certain function. the third person singular present of verbs. in the word handful the root hand is a free mornheme. free nhenies can build up words by -themselves. . accents. 4) the segments -er. they form categorial unities with their notional stem-words. As different from this. Bound morphemes cannot form words by themselves. the list of them is complicated by the relations of homonymy. being used as separate elements of speech strings. i. The auxiliary word-morphemes of various standings should be interpreted in this connection as "semi-bound" morphemes. is also considered as consisting of two morphemes. The outwardly one-morpheme word-form clock. pauses. since. "overt" morphemes and "covert" morphemes are distinguished. -s. -est the comparative and superlative degrees of adjectives and adverbs.e. There are very few productive bound morphemes in the morphological system of English. while the suffix -ful is a bound morpheme. they are identified only as component segmental parts of words. 3) the segments -ing: the gerund and present participle. Being extremely narrow. -id]: the past and past participle of verbs. the possessive case of nouns. -t. These morphemes are the following: 1) the segments -(e)s [-z. For instance. Overt and covert morphemes: On the basis of formal presentation. "free" morphemes and "bound" morphemes are distinguished. can be used "freely"' For instance. i. The usual symbol for the covert morpheme employed by linguists is the sign of the empty set: Segmental and supra-segmental morphemes:On the basis of segmental relation. 2) the segments -(e)d [-d. The notion of covert morpheme coincides with the notion of zero morpheme in the oppositional description of grammatical categories (see further). the word-form clocks consists of two overt morphemes: one lexical (root) and one grammatical expressing the plural. since it expresses the singular. -iz]: the plural of nouns. explicit morphemes building up words. Interpreted as supra segmental morphemes in distributional terms are intonation contours.

. Additive and replacive morphemes:On the basis of grammatical alternation. Continuous and discontinuous morphemes:On the basis of linear characteristic.. as we have stated elsewhere. since. On the other hand. this type of grammatical means can be understood as a kind of suppletivity (i. 13-20 .m-e-n. hence. be . opposed to the common. By the discontinuous morpheme. Interpreted as additive morphemes are outer grammatical suffixes. they are symbolically represented as follows: be .e. the general notion "discontinuousconstituent".e. en . On the other hand. is going). These two elements..for the passive verb forms (e. A course in theoretical English grammar. embed the notional stem. . Literature: 1. the root phonemes of grammatical interchange are considered as replacive morphemes. Blokh M. it is not difficult to see that the morphemic interpretation of supra-scgmental units can hardly stand to reason. Cf.M..Y. these units are functionally connected not with morphemes.If it were productive.. pp. etc.The said elements of language. is taken).2000. etc. has gone). they are opposed to the absence of morphemes in grammatical alternation.for the continuous verb forms (e. small + er. partial suppletivity). sentences. look + ed. it might rationally be interpreted as a sort of replacive "infixation" (correlated with "exfixation" of the additive type). however. "additive" morphemes and "replacive" morphemes are distinguished. of two differentmorphemes. ing . As it stands. a two-element grammatical unit is meant which is identified in the analytical grammatical form comprising an auxiliary word and a grammatical suffix. supra-sentential constructic. ""се they are functionally bound.for the perfect verb forms (e. "continuous" (or "linear") morphemes and "discontinuous" morphemes are distinguished. uninterruptedly expressed..g.e. since they replace one another in the paradigmatic forms.. from what has been stated about the morpheme proper. They form the secondary line of each. as it were. m-a-n . In distinction to these. continuous morpheme. i. should beyond dispute be considered signemic units of language. dr-i-ve . word-groups.g.g. It should be remembered that the phonemic interchange is utterly unproductive in English as in all the Indo-European languages. but with larger elements of guage: words. It is easy to see that the notion of morpheme applied to the analytical form of the word violates the principle of the identificationof morpheme as an elementary meaningful segment: the analytical "framing" consists of two meaningful segments. en .dr-o-ve . "discontinuous unit" is quite rational and can be help fully used in linguistic description in its proper place. i.dr-i-ven. accompanying its primary phonemic line (phonemic complexes). Cf. Indeed. have . as a rule.

К. It follows from this that morphology as part of grammatical theory faces the two segmental units: the morpheme and the word. Therefore the grammatical form is not confined to an individual word.2. часть 1. The word form is the juncture of the stem ( a root and an affix) of the word with a word-change morpheme (inflexion) MORPHEMIC STRUCTURE OF THE WORD • • • • • The morphological system of language The morpheme The word The distributional classification Descriptive classification The morphological system of language reveals its properties through the morphemic structure of words.АлмаАта. first of all verbs and nouns. Гатилова В. but unites a whole class of words. publish-ed [-t].12-19 The grammatical meaning The grammatical meaning is the significance of a certain relation expressed by a dependent part of a word (inflexion) or a significance of a certain arrangement of elements. For instance. the form of the verbal past tense is built up by means of the dental grammatical suffix: train-erf [-d].. The grammatical form These features determine the grammatical form of the word. . But. cc. so that each word of the class expresses the corresponding grammatical meaning together with its individual. concrete semantics. possess some morphemic features expressing grammatical (morphological) meanings. the morpheme is not identified otherwise than part of the word. Теоретическая грамматика английского языка. as we have already pointed out. Notional words. 1993. the functions of the morpheme are effected only as the corresponding constituent functions of the word as a whole.

the impossibility for them to be divided by a third word.:has met . word) taken in the corresponding form (realized byits morphemic composition).representatives of Descriptive Linguistics founded by L. watery. However.e. a third one was added to these . But this would-be rigorous criterion is quite irrelevant for analytical wordforms. In fact. The said difficulties compel some linguists to refrain from accepting the word as the basic element of language. e. the dental suffix is immediately related to the stem of the verb and together with the stem constitutes thetemporal correlation in the paradigmatic system of verbal categories. Within the framework of different linguistic trends and theories the word is defined as the minimal potential sentence. the morpheme. the minimal free linguistic form. . say. later. i. passer. water. yellow and the like. One could point out that the peculiar property distinguishing composite words from phrases is their linear indivisibility. such as waterman. only two segmental levels were originally identified in language by Descriptive scholars: the phonemic level and the morphemic level. we shall easily see their definite nominative function and unambiguous segmental delimitation. i.meditat-ed [-id]. if we take such notional words as. which can be divided into formal. i. the uninterrupted string of morphemes.is not by any circumstancescoming. This difficulty is explained by the fact that the word is an extremely complex and many-sided phenomenon. has the power to precisely cover all the lexical segments of language without a residue remaining outside the field of definition. because these units are the easiest to be isolated in the continual text due to their "physically" minimal.has never met.g. the elementary component of the sentence. the grammatically arranged combination of sound with meaning.e.g. yellowness.e. the meaningfully integral and immediately identifiable lingual unit. we shall immediately note that the identification of the latter as separate words is greatly complicated by the fact that they themselves are decomposable into separate words. but the phoneme and the morpheme as the basic categories of linguistic description.e. the past tense as a definite type of grammaticalmeaning is expressed not by the dental morpheme in isolation. in studying the morpheme we actually study the word in the necessary details of its composition and functions.. etc. But if we compare with the given one-stem words the corresponding composite formations. the level of morphemic combinations. the minimal meaningful segment. Thus. None of these definitions. etc. but by the verb (i. In particular. such a definition as would unambiguously apply to all the different wordunits of the lexicon. yellowback. functional. and mixed. password. Accordingly. making them beyond all doubt into "separate words of language". as well their simple derivatives.recognized not the word and the sentence. pass. elementary segmental character: the phoneme being the minimal formal segment of language.American scholars . is coming . Bloomfield . e. It is very difficult to give a rigorous and at the same time universal definition to the word.the level of "constructions". the articulate sound-symbol.

On the basis of this correlation a number of functional words are distinguished by the "negative delimitation" (i. Either of the two poles together with the intermediary elements connected with it on the principle of gradation. "polar" phenomena. This circumstance urges us to seek the identification of the word as a lingual unit-type on other lines than the "strictly operational definition". units standing to one another in nominative correlation) by which he can build up an infinite number of utterances reflecting the ever changing situations of reality. As for functional words. they stand to one another in an utterly unambiguous opposition. The function of words is realized in their nominative correlation with one another. delimitation as a residue after the identification of the copositional textual elements). they occupy intermediarypositions between these poles. At the same time this kind of analysis helps evaluate the definitions of the polar phenomena between which a continuum is established. The nature of the element of any system is revealed in the character of its function. the non-polar elements. however. In fact.e. the variability of their status is expressed in the fact that some of them can be used in an isolated response position (for instance. etc.: the/people. it is irrelevant for the bulk of functional words which cannot be used "independently" even in elliptical responses (to say nothing of the fact that the very notion of ellipsis is essentially theopposite of self-dependence). The "negative delimitation" immediately connects these functionalwords with the directly nominative.Thus. interrogative words. on the other hand. In this connection.As for the criterion according to which the word is identified as a minimal sign capable of functioning alone (the word understood as the "smallest free form". and their very intermediary status is gradational. we do find the clarification of the problem in taking into consideration the difference between the two sets of lingual phenomena: on the one hand. opposing pole. By some of their properties intermediary phenomena arc similar or near to one of the corresponding poles. notional words in the system. by/way/of. while by other properties they are similar to the other. polar phenomena arc the most clearly identifiable. In spite of the shown difficulties. The polar elements of this field constitute its"centre".' e. or interpreted as the "potential minimal sentence"). In particular. respectively.g. the correlation in question . The analysis of the intermediary phenomena from the point of view of their relation to the polar phenomena reveal their own status in the system. while others cannot (such as prepositions or conjunctions). Within a complex system of interrelated elements. demonstrative words. the notional one-stem word and the morpheme should be described as the opposing polar phenomena amongthe meaningful segments of language. making up a gradation of transitions or the so-called "continuum". forms a "field". Intermediary phenomena arc located in the system in between the polar phenomena. words of affirmation and negation. "intermediary" phenomena.).to/speak. it is these elements that can be defined by their formal and functional features most precisely andunambiguously. its "periphery". there remains the unquestionable fact that each speaker has at his disposal a ready stock of naming units (more precisely.

indivisible into smaller segments as regards its significative function). The combination of these two criteria in an integral description has led to the rational classification of morphemes that is widely used both in research linguistic work and in practical lingual tuition. a component indivisible into smaller segments as regards its nominative function).e. if the elementary character (indivisibility) of the mornheme (as a significative unit) is established in the structure of words. the morpheme is formed by phonemes. while the affixes express the specificational part of the meaning of the word. it is formed by morphemes. as a meaningful component of the word it is elementary (i. The root. the elementary character of the word (as a nominative unit) is realized in the system of lexicon. suffixes. non-notional) status. the border-area between prefixes and suffixes).e. can in principle be used now . material" part of the meaning of the word. while affixes are not obligatory. The roots of notional words are classical lexical morphemes.(which is to be implied by the conventional term "nominative function") unites functional words notional words. In traditional grammar the study of the morphemic structure of the word was conducted in the light of the two basic criteria: positional criterion (the location of the marginal morphemes in relation to the central ones) and semantic or functional criterion (the correlative contribution of the morphemes to the general meaning of the word). together with other nominative units the word is used for the formation of the sentence . nominative correlation reduces the morheine as a type of segmental signcmc to the role of an element in the composition of the word. or "half-words" (word-morphemes) with "full words".a unit of information in the communication process. together with the root they form the stem of the word. On the other hand. we maypoint out some of the properties of the morpheme and the word which are fundamental from the point of view of their systemic status and therefore require detailed investigations and descriptions. inflexions (grammatical suffixes) expressdifferent morphological categories. The affixal morphemes include prefixes. The word is a nominative unit of language. Summing up what has been said in this paragraph. according to the positional content of the term (i. The roots express the concrete. is obligatory for any word. morphemes on the upper level are divided into root-morphemes (roots) and affixal morphemes (affixes). Of these.e. As we see. depending on various morphemic environments. and inflexions (in the tradition of the English school. In accord with the traditional classification. it enters the lexicon of language as its elementary component (i.e. Therefore one and the same morphemic segment of functional (i. prefixes and lexical suffixes have word-building functions. The morpheme is a meaningful segmental component of the word. grammatical inflexions are tommonly referred to as "suffixes"). the specifications being of lexicoscmantic and ammatico-semantic character.

out . and. With grammatically changeable words. outrage. . . Pr for prefix. verb). employ three graphical symbols of hierarchical grouping . Gr for grammatical suffix. allomorphs. or variants of the generalized units dependent on the regular co-location with other elements of language: allonhones. Erne-terms denote the generalized invariant units of language characterized by a certain functional status: phonemes. besides. in which out. i. a prefix). in which -out serves as one of the roots (the categorial status of the meaning of both morphemes is the same).g. these stems take one grammatical suffix (two "open" grammatical suffixes are used only with some plural nouns in the possessive case.as an affix (mostly. shut-out.g. Thus. then the two morphemic word-structures can be presented as follows: W1 = {[Pr + (R + L)] + Gr}. morphemes. The allo-emic identification of lingual elements is achieved by means of the so-called "distributional analysis". If we use the symbols St for stem. The syntagmatic connections of the morphemes within the model form two types of hierarchical structure. in which out.words (nouns). now as a root.look-out. lingual units are described by means of two types of terms: a/to-terms and erne-terms. Cf:. adjective. The first is characterized by the original prefixal stem (e.is a root. verbal postposition. and -ing is a suffix. etc. In accord with this theory. outlook. time-out. the second is characterized by the original suffixal stem (e.words. the abstract complete morphemic model of the common English word is the following: prefix + root + lexical suffix + grammatical suffix. W2 = {[(Pr + R) + L] + Gr} Further insights into the correlation between the formal A functional aspects of morphemes within the composition of the word may be gained in the light of the socalled "allo-emic" theoryiit forward by Descriptive Linguistics and broadly used in the current linguistic research. adverb. the children's toys. knock-out. and parentheses. outline. inheritors).a composite word.a two-morpheme word. in the lexicon of everyday speech the preferable morphemic types of stems are root stems (one-root stems or two-root stems) and one-affix stems. R for root.serves as a prefix. cf:.a root-word (preposition. the oxen's yokes). L for lexical suffix. brackets.outing .braces. etc. the adjoining elements . in which -out serves as a suffix. A set of iso-functional allo-units identified in the text on the basis of their cooccurrence with other lingual units (distribution) is considered as the corresponding erne-unit with its fixed systemic status. The immediate aim of the distributional analysis is to fix and study the units of language in relation to their textual environments.e. prefabricated). noun. throughout . Alloterms denote the concrete manifestations. The morphemic composition of modern English words has a wide range of varieties. out-talk.

/-z/. phonemic distribution of morphemes and morphemic distribution of morphemes are discriminated. i. children. morphemicmilts distributionally uncharacterized. it supplements the . Such morphs constitute different morphemes. The distribution of a unit may be defined as the total of all its environments. these morphs are said to be in complementary distribution and considered the allomorphs of the same morpheme. because it helps establish the identity of outwardly altogether different elements of language. In the distributional analysis at the morphemic level. Such morphs constitute "free alternants". its grammatical elements. Rather.e. At the second stage. At the first stage. the suffixes -(e)d and -t in the verb-forms learned. Cf. These segments are called "morphs". /-iz/ which stand in phonemic complementary distribution. returning. the suffixes -(e)d and -ing in the verb-forms returned. the root -pardonis the right environment for the prefix. As we see. and complementary distribution. Cf. contrastive distribution. e.g. Respectively. the collected lingual materials. The morphs are said to be in contrastive distribution if their meanings (functions) are different. the right environment of the root is the qualitative suffix -able. complementary distribution concerns different environments of formally different morphs which are united by the same meaning (function). the analysed text (i. the plural allomorph en in oxen. The morphs are said to be in non-contrastive distribution (or free alternation) if their meaning (function) is the same. or "corpus") is divided into recurrent segments consisting oi phonemes. and the left environment for the suffix. or "free variants" of the same morpheme. As a result of the application of distributional analysis to the morphemic level. In this word the left environment of the root is the negative prefix un. Contrastive and non-contrastive distributions concern identical environments of different morons.in the text.:un-pardon-able.g. non-contrastivedistribution. in other words.e. the allomorphs of the plural morpheme /-s/. The study is conducted in two stages. the environmental features of the morphes established and the corresponding identifications are effected. for analytical purposes the notion of complementary distribution is the most important. learnt.: the/boat/s/were/gain/ing/ speed. The environment of a unit may be either "right" or "left". Three main types df distribution are discriminated in the distributional analysis. namely. It must be stressed that the distributional classification of morphemes cannot abolish or in any way depreciate the traditional morpheme types. different types of morphemes have been discriminated which can be called the "distributional morpheme types". Cf. in particular. which stands in morphemic complementary distribution with the other allomorphs of the plural morpheme. As different from the above. the distribution of a unit is its environment in generalized terms of classes or categories. If two or more morphs have the same meaning and the difference in their form is explained by different environments. e.

On the basis of the degree of self-dependence.traditional classification. The notion of covert morpheme coincides with the notion of zero morpheme in the oppositional description of grammatical categories (see further). the possessive case of nouns. -t. The usual symbol for the covert morpheme employed by linguists is the sign of the empty set: 0. while the suffix -ful is a bound morpheme. The auxiliary word-morphemes of various standings should be interpreted in this connection as "semi-bound" morphemes. These morphemes are the following: 1) the segments -(e)s [-z. 3) the segments -ing: the gerund and present participle. explicit morphemes building up words. in the word handful the root hand is a free mornheme. On the basis of formal presentation. -est the comparative and superlative degrees of adjectives and adverbs. since. "segmental" morphemes and "supra-segmental" morphemes are distinguished. accents. Overt morphemes are genuine. "free" morphemes and "bound" morphemes are distinguished. the covert morpheme is identified as a contrastive absence of morpheme expressing a certain function. showing some essential features of morphemes on the principles of environmental study. 4) the segments -er. For instance. Being extremely narrow. On the basis of segmental relation. Interpreted as supra segmental morphemes in distributional terms are intonation contours. The outwardly one-morpheme word-form clock.e. We shall survey the distributional morpheme types arranging them in pairs of immediate correlation. "overt" morphemes and "covert" morphemes are distinguished. they form categorial unities with their notional stem-words. Bound morphemes cannot form words by themselves. free nhenies can build up words by -themselves. As different from this. i. is also considered as consisting of two morphemes. . i. of the overt root and the covert (implicit) grammatical suffix of the singular. can be used"freely"' For instance. There are very few productive bound morphemes in the morphological system of English. pauses. being used as separate elements of speech strings. 2) the segments -(e)d [-d. since it expresses the singular.e. -id]: the past and past participle of verbs. the word-form clocks consists of two overt morphemes: one lexical (root) and one grammatical expressing the plural. -s. the third person singular present of verbs. they are identified only as component segmental parts of words. the list of them is complicated by the relations of homonymy. -iz]: the plural of nouns.

it is not difficult to see that the morphemic interpretation of supra-scgmental units can hardly stand to reason. they are opposed to the absence of morphemes in grammatical alternation. opposed to the common. On the basis of grammatical alternation. As it stands... partial suppletivity).g. Indeed.g. It is easy to see that the notion of morpheme applied to the analytical form of the word violates the principle of the identificationof morpheme as an elementary meaningful segment: the analytical"framing" consists of two meaningful segments. is going).. ing . Cf. however. look + ed.g... etc. has gone).for the perfect verb forms (e. a two-element grammatical unit is meant which is identified in the analytical grammatical form comprising an auxiliary word and a grammatical suffix. These two elements. but with larger elements of guage: words.e. since.m-e-n. of two different morphemes. On the other hand. be . since they replace one another in the paradigmatic forms. it might rationally be interpreted as a sort of replacive "infixation" (correlated with "exfixation" of the additive type). continuous morpheme. "discontinuous unit" is quite rational and can be help fully used in linguistic description in its proper place. these units are functionally connected not with morphemes. i. m-a-n . On the other hand. i.for the continuous verb forms (e. small + er. as we have stated elsewhere. Interpreted as additivemorphemes are outer grammatical suffixes. word-groups. the root phonemes of grammatical interchange are considered as replacive morphemes.e. On the basis of linear characteristic. hence. Cf.dr-i-ven. "additive" morphemes and "replacive" morphemes are distinguished."continuous" (or "linear") morphemes and "discontinuous" morphemes are distinguished. they are symbolically represented as follows: be . They form the secondary line of speech. have . uninterruptedly expressed.The said elements of language.dr-o-ve . ""се they are functionally bound. embed the notional stem.e.If it were productive.. should beyond dispute be considered signemic units of language. the general notion "discontinuous constituent". accompanying its primary phonemic line (phonemic complexes). sentences. . In distinction to these. etc. supra-sentential constructic. as it were.for the passive verb forms (e. By the discontinuous morpheme. this type of grammatical means can be understood as a kind of suppletivity (i. from what has been stated about the morpheme proper. en . dr-i-ve . is taken). en . It should be remembered that the phonemic interchange is utterly unproductive in English as in all the Indo-European languages. as a rule.

the meaningfully integral and immediately identifiable lingual unit. e. Within the framework of different linguistic trends and theories the word is defined as the minimal potential sentence.WORDS Thus. which can be divided into formal. functional. pass. yellow and the like. password. One could point out that the peculiar property distinguishing composite words fromphrases is their linear indivisibility. i.has never met. the grammatically arranged combination of sound with meaning. etc.e.is not by any circumstancescoming. the uninterrupted string of morphemes. But if we compare with the given one-stem words the corresponding composite formations. has the power to precisely cover all the lexical segments of language without a residue remaining outside the field of definition.the level of "constructions". the minimal free linguistic form. the articulate sound-symbol. or interpreted as the "potential minimal sentence"). only two segmental levels were originally identified in language by Descriptive scholars: the phonemic level and the morphemic level. etc. This difficulty is explained by the fact that the word is an extremely complex and many-sided phenomenon. such as waterman.:has met . we shall immediately note that the identification of the latter as separate words is greatly complicated by the fact that they themselves are decomposable into separate words. water.American scholars . the level of morphemic combinations. In fact. the minimal meaningful segment. but the phoneme and the morpheme as the basic categories of linguistic description. Bloomfield . in studying the morpheme we actually study the word in the necessary details of its composition and functions.g.. yellowback. i.recognized not the word and the sentence. later. the morpheme. watery.e. elementary segmental character: the phoneme being the minimal formal segment of language.representatives of Descriptive Linguistics founded by L. Accordingly. None of these definitions. if we take such notional words as. e. the elementary component of the sentence. passer. it is irrelevant for the bulk of functional words which cannot be used "independently" even in elliptical responses (to say nothing of the fact that the very notion of ellipsis is essentially theopposite of . making them beyond all doubt into "separate words of language". yellowness. the impossibility for them to be divided by a third word. we shall easily see their definite nominative function and unambiguous segmental delimitation.g. such a definition as would unambiguously apply to all the different wordunits of the lexicon. and mixed. It is very difficult to give a rigorous and at the same time universal definition to the word. But this would-be rigorous criterion is quite irrelevant for analytical word-forms.e. say. a third one was added to these . The said difficulties compel some linguists to refrain from accepting the word as the basic element of language. In particular. i. because these units are the easiest to be isolated in the continual text due to their "physically" minimal. As for the criterion according to which the word is identified as a minimal sign capable of functioning alone (the word understood as the "smallest free form". as well their simple derivatives. is coming .

the grammatical number) unites the individual meanings of the correlated paradigmatic forms (e. The grammatical meaning is the significance of a certain relation expressed by a dependent part of a word (inflexion) or a significance of a certain arrangement of elements. possess some morphemic features expressing grammatical (morphological) meanings. concrete semantics. Grammatical meanings are very abstract. Grammatical category o o o o o o o The grammatical meaning The grammatical form The grammatical category The opposition Synthetical forms Analytical forms Referent relation Language is capable to express different meanings. In spite of the shown difficulties. Most general meanings rended by language are grammatical meanings. on the other hand. we do find the clarification of the problem intaking into consideration the difference between the two sets of lingual phenomena: on the one hand. These features determine thegrammatical form of the word. there remains the unquestionable fact that each speaker has at his disposal a ready stock of naming units (more precisely. units standing to one another in nominative correlation) by which he can build up an infinite number of utterances reflecting the ever changing situations of reality.plural) and is exposed through . The most general meanings rendered by language and expressed by systemic correlations of word-forms are interpreted in linguistics as categorial grammatical meanings.self-dependence). Therefore the grammatical form is not confined to an individual word. very general. In fact. "intermediary" phenomena. "polar" phenomena. so that each word of the class expresses the corresponding grammatical meaning together with its individual. first of all verbs and nouns. but unites a whole class of words. Notional words. The categorial meaning (e. This circumstance urges us to seek the identification of the word as a lingual unit-type on other lines than the "strictly operational definition".g. singular . however. The forms themselves are identified within definite paradigmatic series.g. The word form is the juncture of the stem ( a root and an affix) of the word with a word-change morpheme (inflexion) The most general notions reflecting the most general properties of phenomena are referred to in logic as "catcgorial notions". or "categories".

one of which is a grammatical auxiliary (word-morpheme). and the other. By this feature. while analytical grammatical forms are built up by a combination of at least two words. it is a system of expressing a generalized grammatical meaning by means of paradigmatic correlation of grammatical forms. hence. The paradigmatic correlations of grammatical forms in a category arc exposed by the so-called "grammatical oppositions". besides. is not productive in modern IndoEuropean languages. Synthetical grammatical forms are realized by the inner morphemic composition of the word.them. outer-inflexional. Synthetical grammatical forms are based on inner inflexion. The second version of the term ("substitution") shows the very process by which the opposition is reduced. In various contextual conditions. Inner inflexion (grammatical "infixation". The opposition (in the linguistic sense) may be denned as a generalized correlation of lingual forms by means of which a certain function is expressed. Common features serve as the basis of contrast. it is used in a few nouns for the formation . the meaning of the grammatical category and the meaning of the grammatical form are related to each other on the principle of the logical relation between the categorial and generic notions. namely. while differential features immediately express the function in question. the forms are referred to as inner inflexional. The first version of the term ("reduction") points out the fact that the opposition in this case is contracted. outer inflexion. accordingly. see above) is used in English in irregular verbs (the bulk of them belong to the Germanic strong verbs) for the formation of the past indefinite and past participle. most ancient lexemic elements. This phenomenon should be treated under the heading of "oppositional reduction" or "oppositional substitution". or phonemic (vowel) interchange. the use of one member instead of the other. but it is peculiarly employed in some of their basic. counter-member. and suppletive. The correlated elements (members) of the opposition must possess two types of features: common features and differential features. a word of "substantial" meaning. the grammatical forms themselves are classed into synthetical and analytical. one member of an opposition can be used in the position of the other. losing its formal distinctive force. As forthe grammatical category itself. the whole family of Indo-European languages is identified in linguistics as typologically "inflexional". too. and suppletivity. The means employed for building up member-forms of categorial oppositions are traditionally divided into synthetical and analytical. Inner inflexion. hence. The ordered set of grammatical forms expressing a catcgorialfunction constitutes a paradigm.

etc. good . and considering also the fact that each grammatical form paradigmatically correlates with at least one other form on the basis of the category expressed (e. In a broader morphological interpretation. As for analytical forms which are so typical of modern English that they have long made ibis language into the "canonized" representative of lingual analytism. as we pointed out in the foregoing chapter. some indefinite pronouns. in the irregular forms of the degrees of comparison.more.us. man .were.of the . The shown unproductive synthetical means of English morphologyare outbalanced by the productive means of affixation (outer inflexion). one . much .worked. is not productive as a purely morphological type of form. may-be allowed (to).worse. we . stating that it presents a combination of an auxiliary word with a basic word.am . rather. go + 0-goes. I . These are used to build up the number and case forms of the noun. but only those of them that are . Cf. bad .be able. The traditional view of the analytical morphological form recognizes two lexemic parts in it. they deserve some special comment on their substance. there is a tendency with some linguists to recognize as analytical not all such grammatically significant combinations. In the oppositional correlations of all theseforms. be obliged (to). However. the comparison forms of the adjective and adverb.some. at the same time is not so small as it is commonly believed. which amount to grammatical suffixation (grammatical prefixation could only be observed in the Old English verbal system).: be .g.are . suppletivity can be recognized in paradigmatic correlations of some modal verbs. makes the latter into a specific variety of the former).: boy+0-boys. tense. though certainly not very large.pieces of information.Suppletivity. little . unites it in principle with inner inflexion (or. must-have (to). Suppletivity is used in the forms of the verbs be and go. the form of the singular with the form of the plural).is was . but the actual affixal segments on which the paiadigmatic differentiation of forms is based. information . go-went. participial and gerundial forms of the verb. and this. like inner inflexion.: can . work +0.items of news. we come to the conclusion that the total number of synthetical forms in English morphologically. Taking this into account. she-her.people. In the previous chapter we enumerated the few grammatical suffixes possessed by the English language. the initial paradigmatic form of each opposition is distinguished by a zero suffix. as well as certain nouns of peculiar categorial properties Cf. etc. in some forms of personal pronouns.me. the person-number. small+0-smaller. Cf. It consists in the grammatical interchange of word roots. Scarce in English are not the) synthetical forms as such.better.less. news .

of indefinitely highdegree of quality with the adjective and the adverb. Categorial forms based on subordinative grammatical agreement (such as the verbal person. to these belong the tense of the verb. whose relevant grammatical meaning is not immediately dependent on the meanings of their component elements taken apart. as a marginal analytical formtype grammatical repetition should be recognized. by no means gives a natural meaningful characteristic to the denoted process: the process is devoid of numerical features such as are expressed by the grammatical number. of indefinitelylarge quantity with the noun. and indisputable analytical form in English morphology.The girls are smiling. He knocked and knocked and knocked without reply (Gr. boundless love to give to somebody (K. Cf:. The grammatical categories which are realized by the described types of forms organized in functional paradigmatic oppositions. Christie). i.g. i. the feature of the referent expressed by the . The ship is in the harbour. and "reflective" categories. Immanent are also such categories and their forms as are confined within a word-class. grammatical categories should be divided into "immanent" categories. from the point of view of referent relation. Thus. is interpreted as the most standard. however. alongside the standard analytical forms characterized by the unequal ranks of their components (auxiliary element-basic element). categories innate for a given lexemic class. i. Two white-haired severe women were in charge of shelves and shelves of knitting materials of every description (A. The category of number in the verb. or only be expressed on the surface of it.e. Cf. Moreover. the comparison of tie adjective and adverb. e. the category of number is organically connectedwith the functional nature of the noun: it directly exposes the number of the referent substance. what is rendered by the verbal number is not a quantitative characterization of the process. come very near to free combinations of words by their lack of "idiomatism" in the above sense. Its opposite is seen in the analytical degrees of comparison which. which is used to express specific categorial semantics of processual intensity with the verb. the verbal number) are reflective. For instance. but a numerical featuring of the subjectreferent.i. . do not transgress its borders.:The girl is smiling. derivative semantic value. Considered in this light.e."grammatically idiomatic". the form of the verbal perfect where the auxiliary have has utterly lost itsoriginal meaning of possession.e. serving as a sign of correlation with some other class. Greene). according to the cited interpretation. while categorial forms stipulating grammatical agreement in lexemes of a contiguous word-class (such as the substantive-pronominal person.several ships.e. one ship . categories of a secondary. etc. the substan-live number) are immanent. Oh. Indeed. Namely. Another essential division of grammatical categories is based on the changeability factor of the exposed feature. The ships are in the harbour. Mansfield). can either be innate for a given class of words. I feel I've got such boundless.

1994. father. i. сс. child.e.: news. forest. etc. or variable (changeable. and human common render names. Л. lion . bee. police.27-36 MORPHEMIC STRUCTURE OF THE WORD • • • • • The morphological system of language The morpheme The word The distributional classification Descriptive classification The morphological system of language reveals its properties through the morphemic structure of words. mother.comparative . 'derivational"). Literature: 1. He or she (common human): person. since their constant feature of gender has acquired some changeability properties. since their variable feature of number has become "rigid". cat. C/'. otters. C/.С.authoress. 17-22 2. "demutative").superlative). Cf:. He (malehuman): man. the nouns singularia tantum and pluralia tantum present a case of hybrid variable-constant formations. Blokh M. -M. bellows.. It follows from this that morphology as part of grammatical theory . girl. She (female human): woman. husband. An example of constant feature category can be seen in the category of gender which divides the class of English nouns into non-human names.. lady. has become to a certain extent "grammaticalized".А. or "lexicalized". city. etc. This division is represented by the system of the third person pronouns serving as gender-indices (see further). etc. while variable feature categories expose various connections between phenomena. tongs. Constant feature categories reflect the static classifications of phenomena. actor . people. human female names. Бархударов. for instance. Variable features categories can be exemplified by the substantivenumber (singular plural) or the degrees of comparison(positive . In distinction to these. 1973. etc.across. cousin. etc. A course in theoretical English grammar . Д.category can be either constant (unchangeable.: It (non-human): mountain.lioness. advice. being located in-between the corresponding categorial poles. Some marginal categorial forms may acquire intermediary status. Штелинг Грамматика английского языка М. the gender word-building pairs should be considered as a clear example of hybrid constant-variable formations. etc. pp. author . uncle. man male names. progress. parent. colours.Y.

e. if we take such notional words as. the minimal free linguistic form. but by the verb (i. pass. For instance. the articulate sound-symbol. watery. elementary segmental character: the phoneme being the minimal formal segment of language. yellowback. has the power to precisely cover all the lexical segments of language without a residue remaining outside the field of definition.e.the level of "constructions". None of these definitions. the dental suffix is immediately related to the stem of the verb and together with the stem constitutes thetemporal correlation in the paradigmatic system of verbal categories. the morpheme. However. In particular. password. i. This difficulty is explained by the fact that the word is an extremely complex and many-sided phenomenon. passer. the grammatically arranged combination of sound with meaning. etc. a third one was added to these . we shall immediately note that the identification of the latter as separate . water. such a definition as would unambiguously apply to all the different wordunits of the lexicon. e. making them beyond all doubt into "separate words of language". The said difficulties compel some linguists to refrain from accepting the word as the basic element of language. say. word) taken in the corresponding form (realized byits morphemic composition). as we have already pointed out. In fact. the functions of the morpheme are effected only as the corresponding constituent functions of the word as a whole. the elementary component of the sentence. the minimal meaningful segment. Thus. the past tense as a definite type of grammaticalmeaning is expressed not by the dental morpheme in isolation.e. which can be divided into formal. as well their simple derivatives. meditat-ed [-id]. Within the framework of different linguistic trends and theories the word is defined as the minimal potential sentence.faces the two segmental units: the morpheme and the word. the uninterrupted string of morphemes. Bloomfield . only two segmental levels were originally identified in language by Descriptive scholars: the phonemic level and the morphemic level. but the phoneme and the morpheme as the basic categories of linguistic description. But if we compare with the given one-stem words the corresponding composite formations. etc. the level of morphemic combinations. i.American scholars .recognized not the word and the sentence. yellowness.. we shall easily see their definite nominative function and unambiguous segmental delimitation. the form of the verbal past tense is built up by means of the dental grammatical suffix: train-erf [-d]. yellow and the like.representatives of Descriptive Linguistics founded by L.g. But. functional. in studying the morpheme we actually study the word in the necessary details of its composition and functions. later. Accordingly. and mixed. It is very difficult to give a rigorous and at the same time universal definition to the word. because these units are the easiest to be isolated in the continual text due to their "physically" minimal. the meaningfully integral and immediately identifiable lingual unit. publish-ed [-t]. the morpheme is not identified otherwise than part of the word. such as waterman.

"intermediary" phenomena. the notional one-stem word and the morpheme should be described as the opposing polar phenomena amongthe meaningful segments of language.has never met. respectively. the variability of their status is expressed in the fact that some of them can be used in an isolated response position (for instance. its "periphery". At the same time this kind of analysis helps evaluate the definitions of the polar phenomena between which a continuum is established. opposing pole. polar phenomena arc the most clearly identifiable. and their very intermediary status is gradational. e. By some of their properties intermediary phenomena arc similar or near to one of the corresponding poles.words is greatly complicated by the fact that they themselves are decomposable into separate words. Intermediary phenomena arc located in the system in between the polar phenomena. or interpreted as the "potential minimal sentence"). demonstrative words. interrogative words. In fact. they stand to one another in an utterly unambiguous opposition. Within a complex system of interrelated elements. making up a gradation of transitions or the so-called "continuum". . the non-polar elements.g. Either of the two poles together with the intermediary elements connected with it on the principle of gradation. we do find the clarification of the problem in taking into consideration the difference between the two sets of lingual phenomena: on the one hand. while by other properties they are similar to the other. on the other hand. One could point out that the peculiar property distinguishing composite words from phrases is their linear indivisibility. forms a "field".). etc. As for functional words. however. there remains the unquestionable fact that each speaker has at his disposal a ready stock of naming units (more precisely. it is these elements that can be defined by their formal and functional features most precisely andunambiguously. units standing to one another in nominative correlation) by which he can build up an infinite number of utterances reflecting the ever changing situations of reality. The polar elements of this field constitute its"centre". In spite of the shown difficulties. But this would-be rigorous criterion is quite irrelevant for analytical wordforms. while others cannot (such as prepositions or conjunctions). is coming . "polar" phenomena. i. The analysis of the intermediary phenomena from the point of view of their relation to the polar phenomena reveal their own status in the system. they occupy intermediarypositions between these poles.e. In particular. the impossibility for them to be divided by a third word.is not by any circumstancescoming.:has met . words of affirmation and negation. In this connection. As for the criterion according to which the word is identified as a minimal sign capable of functioning alone (the word understood as the "smallest free form". it is irrelevant for the bulk of functional words which cannot be used "independently" even in elliptical responses (to say nothing of the fact that the very notion of ellipsis is essentially theopposite of self-dependence). This circumstance urges us to seek the identification of the word as a lingual unit-type on other lines than the "strictly operational definition".

Summing up what has been said in this paragraph. The affixal morphemes include prefixes. On the other hand.' e. The roots express the concrete. The "negative delimitation" immediately connects these functionalwords with the directly nominative. the elementary character of the word (as a nominative unit) is realized in the system of lexicon. the specifications being of lexicoscmantic and ammatico-semantic character. material" part of the meaning of the word. On the basis of this correlation a number of functional words are distinguished by the "negative delimitation" (i.: the/people. In traditional grammar the study of the morphemic structure of the word was conducted in the light of the two basic criteria: positional criterion (the location of the marginal morphemes in relation to the central ones) and semantic or functional criterion (the correlative contribution of the morphemes to the general meaning of the word). it is formed by morphemes. notional words in the system. together with other nominative units the word is used for the formation of the sentence . The morpheme is a meaningful segmental component of the word.e. by/way/of. we maypoint out some of the properties of the morpheme and the word which are fundamental from the point of view of their systemic status and therefore require detailed investigations and descriptions.to/speak. As we see.The nature of the element of any system is revealed in the character of its function. In accord with the traditional classification. The combination of these two criteria in an integral description has led to the rational classification of morphemes that is widely used both in research linguistic work and in practical lingual tuition. the correlation in question (which is to be implied by the conventional term "nominative function") unites functional words notional words.e. it enters the lexicon of language as its elementary component (i. The roots of notional words are classical lexical morphemes. if the elementary character (indivisibility) of the mornheme (as a significative unit) is established in the structure of words. while the affixes express the specificational part of the meaning of the word. as a meaningful component of the word it is elementary (i. delimitation as a residue after the identification of the copositional textual elements). The function of words is realized in their nominative correlation with one another.Thus. nominative correlation reduces the morheine as a type of segmental signcmc to the role of an element in the composition of the word. The word is a nominative unit of language. suffixes. a component indivisible into smaller segments as regards its nominative function). the morpheme is formed by phonemes.a unit of information in the communication process. and inflexions (in the tradition of . morphemes on the upper level are divided into root-morphemes (roots) and affixal morphemes (affixes). or "half-words" (word-morphemes) with "full words".g. indivisible into smaller segments as regards its significative function).e.

a root-word (preposition. the oxen's yokes).g. . grammatical inflexions are tommonly referred to as "suffixes"). or variants of the generalized units dependent on the regular co-location with other elements of language: allonhones. then the two morphemic word-structures can be presented as follows: W1 = {[Pr + (R + L)] + Gr}.outing . throughout . and. In accord with this theory. The first is characterized by the original prefixal stem (e. the border-area between prefixes and suffixes).e. . the abstract complete morphemic model of the common English word is the following: prefix + root + lexical suffix + grammatical suffix. prefixes and lexical suffixes have word-building functions. morphemes.e. etc.look-out. noun.is a root. in which -out serves as one of the roots (the categorial status of the meaning of both morphemes is the same). out . together with the root they form the stem of the word. cf:. is obligatory for any word. non-notional) status. and -ing is a suffix. verbal postposition. With grammatically changeable words. lingual units are described by means of two types of terms: a/to-terms and erne-terms. outlook. in which out. time-out. shut-out. Thus. Alloterms denote the concrete manifestations.a two-morpheme word. the second is characterized by the original suffixal stem (e.g. Pr for prefix. employ three graphical symbols of hierarchical grouping . L for lexical suffix. knock-out. Gr for grammatical suffix. The syntagmatic connections of the morphemes within the model form two types of hierarchical structure. can in principle be used now as an affix (mostly. brackets. Of these. The morphemic composition of modern English words has a wide range of varieties. according to the positional content of the term (i. inheritors). besides. etc. in which -out serves as a suffix.serves as a prefix. in which out. . adjective. these stems take one grammatical suffix (two "open" grammatical suffixes are used only with some plural nouns in the possessive case. If we use the symbols St for stem.a composite word. verb). outrage. depending on various morphemic environments. Therefore one and the same morphemic segment of functional (i. R for root. now as a root.words. while affixes are not obligatory. W2 = {[(Pr + R) + L] + Gr} Further insights into the correlation between the formal A functional aspects of morphemes within the composition of the word may be gained in the light of the socalled "allo-emic" theoryiit forward by Descriptive Linguistics and broadly used in the current linguistic research. adverb.words (nouns). out-talk. prefabricated). inflexions (grammatical suffixes) expressdifferent morphological categories. and parentheses. outline.the English school. The root. a prefix).braces. the children's toys. Cf:. in the lexicon of everyday speech the preferable morphemic types of stems are root stems (one-root stems or two-root stems) and one-affix stems. Erne-terms denote the generalized invariant units of language characterized by a certain functional status: phonemes.

or "free variants" of the same morpheme. in other words. The immediate aim of the distributional analysis is to fix and study the units of language in relation to their textual environments. and complementary distribution. the allomorphs of the plural morpheme /-s/. Contrastive and non-contrastive distributions concern identical environments of different morons. morphemicmilts distributionally uncharacterized. and the left environment for the suffix. The distribution of a unit may be defined as the total of all its environments. The study is conducted in two stages. . The morphs are said to be in contrastive distribution if their meanings (functions) are different.: the/boat/s/were/gain/ing/ speed. i. The environment of a unit may be either "right" or "left". contrastive distribution. these morphs are said to be in complementary distribution and considered the allomorphs of the same morpheme. learnt. /-iz/ which stand in phonemic complementary distribution. complementary distribution concerns different environments of formally different morphs which are united by the same meaning (function). Three main types df distribution are discriminated in the distributional analysis. The morphs are said to be in non-contrastive distribution (or free alternation) if their meaning (function) is the same.g. the root -pardonis the right environment for the prefix. the distribution of a unit is its environment in generalized terms of classes or categories. the adjoining elements in the text. returning.e. A set of iso-functional allo-units identified in the text on the basis of their cooccurrence with other lingual units (distribution) is considered as the corresponding erne-unit with its fixed systemic status. or "corpus") is divided into recurrent segments consisting oi phonemes. i. children. In the distributional analysis at the morphemic level. non-contrastivedistribution. the right environment of the root is the qualitative suffix -able. e. In this word the left environment of the root is the negative prefix un. The allo-emic identification of lingual elements is achieved by means of the so-called "distributional analysis". phonemic distribution of morphemes and morphemic distribution of morphemes are discriminated.e. Cf. Such morphs constitute "free alternants". Such morphs constitute different morphemes. /-z/. Respectively. the plural allomorph en in oxen.g. As different from the above. the suffixes -(e)d and -t in the verb-forms learned. e. the collected lingual materials. the environmental features of the morphes established and the corresponding identifications are effected. namely.e. If two or more morphs have the same meaning and the difference in their form is explained by different environments.allomorphs. At the second stage. Cf. Cf. the suffixes -(e)d and -ing in the verb-forms returned. These segments are called "morphs".:un-pardon-able. At the first stage. which stands in morphemic complementary distribution with the other allomorphs of the plural morpheme. the analysed text (i.

the third person singular present of verbs. i. -iz]: the plural of nouns. free nhenies can build up words by -themselves. 4) the segments -er. On the basis of the degree of self-dependence. the list of them is complicated by the relations of homonymy. These morphemes are the following: 1) the segments -(e)s [-z. it supplements the traditional classification. As a result of the application of distributional analysis to the morphemic level. Bound morphemes cannot form words by themselves. THE NOUN Classification of nouns Number Pluralia Tantum and Singularia Tantum Collective Nouns and Nouns of Multitude . being used as separate elements of speech strings. We shall survey the distributional morpheme types arranging them in pairs of immediate correlation. different types of morphemes have been discriminated which can be called the "distributional morpheme types". showing some essential features of morphemes on the principles of environmental study. in the word handful the root hand is a free mornheme. 2) the segments -(e)d [-d. can be used"freely"' For instance. they form categorial unities with their notional stem-words. -est the comparative and superlative degrees of adjectives and adverbs. Rather. 3) the segments -ing: the gerund and present participle. -id]: the past and past participle of verbs. "free" morphemes and "bound" morphemes are distinguished. There are very few productive bound morphemes in the morphological system of English. -s. because it helps establish the identity of outwardly altogether different elements of language. The auxiliary word-morphemes of various standings should be interpreted in this connection as "semi-bound" morphemes. the possessive case of nouns.e. -t.As we see. It must be stressed that the distributional classification of morphemes cannot abolish or in any way depreciate the traditional morpheme types. in particular. its grammatical elements. they are identified only as component segmental parts of words. As different from this. Being extremely narrow. for analytical purposes the notion of complementary distribution is the most important. since. while the suffix -ful is a bound morpheme.

Case Mutual relartions of number and case Noun - is characterised by the following features : semantically - it has the meaning of substance, morphologically - a) the category of number, case and gender, b) certain word-building suffixes, syntactically - a)performs the function of a subject, object, predicative, attribute, adverbial modifier, b) has specific combinability. Classification of nouns: - on the basis of type of nomination - proper and common (Mary, sister) - on the basis of form of existance - animate and inanimate (dog, desk) - on the basis of personal quality - human and non-human (boy, fish) - on the basis of a qualitative structure - countable and uncountable (pencil,water) The noun in Modern English has only two main grammatical categories, number and case. The existence of case appears to be doubtfuland has to be carefully analysed. The Modern English noun certainly has not got the categoryof grammatical gender, which is to be found, for example, in Russian, French, German and Latin. Not a single noun in Modern English shows any peculiarities in its morphology due to its denoting a male or a female being. Thus, the words husband and wife do not show any difference in their forms due to the peculiaritiesof their lexical meanings.This category is expressed by the obligatory correlation of nouns with the personal pronouns of the third person. There are only several suffixes which show the gender : actor - actress, widow - widower.

NUMBER
The grammatical meaning of the category is oneness and more than oneness. Modern English, as most other languages, distinguishes between two numbers,singular and plural., The essential meaning of singular and plural seems clear enough: the singular number shows that one object is meant, and the plural shows that more than one object is meant. Thus, the opposition is "one — more than one". This holds good for many nouns: table —tables, pupil — pupils, dog — dogs, etc. However, language facts are not always so simple as that. The category of number in Englishnouns gives rise to several problems which claim special attention. First of all, it is to be noted that there is some difference between, say, three houses and three hours. Whereas three houses are three separate objects existing side by side, three hours are a continuous period of time measured by a certain agreed unit of duration. The same, of course, would apply to such expressions as three miles, three acres, etc. If we now turn to such plurals as waters (e. g. the waters of the Atlantic), or snows (e. g. " Daughter of the Snows", the title of a story by Jack London), we shall see that we are
drifting further away from the original meaning of the plural number. In the first place, no numeral could be used with nouns of this kind. We could not possibly say three waters, от three

snows. We cannot say how many waters we mean when we use this noun in the plural

number. What, then, is the real difference in meaning between water and waters, snow and snows, etc.? It is fairly obvious that the plural form in every case serves to denote a vast stretch of water (e. g. an ocean), or of snow, or rather of ground covered by snow (e. g. in the arctic regions of Canada), etc. In the case of water and waters we can press the point still further and state that the water of the Atlantic refers to its physical or chemical properties (e. g. the water of tfie Atlantic contains a considerable portion of salt), whereas the waters of the Atlantic refers to a geographical idea: it denotes a seascape and has, as such, a peculiar stylistic value which the water of the Atlantic certainly lacks. So we see that between the singular and the plural an additional difference of meaning has developed. Now, the difference between the two numbers may increase to such a degree that the plural form develops a completely new meaning which the singular has not got at all. Thus, for example, theplural form colours has the meaning 'banner' which is restricted to the plural (e. g. to serve under the colours of liberty). In a similar manner, the plural attentions has acquired the meaning wooing (pay attentions to, a young lady). A considerable amountof examples in point have been collected by 0. Jespersen. Since, in these cases, a difference in lexical meaning develops between the plural and the singular, it is natural to say that the plural form has been lexicalized. It is not our task here to go into details about the specific peculiarities of meaning which may develop in the plural form of a noun. This is a matter of lexicology rather than of grammar. What is essential from the grammatical viewpoint is the very fact that a difference in meaning which is purely grammatical in its origins is apt under certain conditions to be vershadowed by a lexical difference.

Pluralia Tantum and Singularia Tantum
We must also consider here two types of nouns differing fromall others in the way of number: they have not got the usual two number forms, but only one form. The nouns which have only a plural and no singular are usually termed "pluralia tantum" (which is the Latin for "plural only"), and those which have only a singular and no plural are termed "singularia tantum" (the Latinfor "singular only"). Among the pluralia tantum are the nouns trousers, scissors, tongs, pincers, breeches; environs, outskirts, dregs. As is obvious from these examples, they include nouns of two types. On the one hand, there are the nouns which denote material objects consisting of two halves (trousers, scissors, etc.); on the other, there are thosewhich denote a more or less indefinite plurality (e. g. environs'areas surrounding some place on all sides'; dregs 'various smallthings remaining at the bottom of a vessel after the liquid has been poured out of it', etc.). If we compare the English pluralia tantum with the Russian, we shall find that in some cases they correspond to each other (e. g., trousers — брюки, scissors — ножницы, environs — окрестности, etc.), while in others they do not (деньги — money, etc.). This seems to depend on a different view of the objects in question reflected by the English and the Russian language respectively. The reason why a given object is denoted by a plurale tantum noun in this or that language is not always quite clear. Close to this group of pluralia tantum nouns are also some names; of sciences, e. g. mathematics, physics, phonetics, also politics, and some names of diseases, e. g. measles, mumps, rickets. The reason for this seems to be that, for example,

mathematics embrace a wholeseries of various scientific disciplines, and measles are accompanied by the appearance of a number of separate inflamed spots on the skin (rash). However, the reasons are less obvious in the case of phonetics, for instance. Now, it is typical of English that some of these pluralia tantum may, as it were, cease to be plural. Theymay occasionally, or even regularly, be accompanied by the indefinite article, and if they are the subject of a sentence the predicateverb may stand in the singular. This way of treating pluralia tantum, which would be unthinkable in Russian, is of course connected with the structure of English as a whole. The possibility of treating a plural form as if it were singular is also seen in the use of the phrase the United Nations, which may, when it is the subject of a sentence, have the predicate verb in the singular, e. g. the United Nations is a world organization. Examples of a phrase including a noun in the plural being modified by a pronoun in the singular and thus shown to be apprehended as a singular are by no means rare. Here are a few typical examples. / myself still wonder at that six weeks of calm madness. (CARY) The unity of the period of time, measured in the usual units of months, weeks, and days, is thus brought out very clearly. Bessie, daring that twentyfour hours, had spent a nightwith Alice and a day with Muriel... (CARY) The unity of the space of time referred to is even more obvious in this example than in the preceding one; twenty-four hours is a commonly received unit of measurement of time (in Russian this would be expressed by a single noun—сутки). The variant those twentyfour hours would be inappropriate here, as it would imply that the statement wasreferring to every single hour of the twenty-four taken separately. This way of showing the unity of a certain quantity of space or time by modifying the phrase in question by a pronoun in the singular, and also (if the phrase be the subject of the sentence) by using the predicate verb in the singular, appears to be a very common thing in present-day English. The direct opposite of pluralia tantum are the singularia tantum, i. e. the nouns which have no plural form. Among these wemust first note some nouns denoting material substance, such as milk, butter, quicksilver, etc., and also names of abstract notions,such as peace, usefulness, incongruity, etc. Nouns of this kind express notions which are, strictly speaking, outside the sphere of number: e. g. milk, or fluency. But in the morphological and syntactical system of the English language a noun cannot stand outside the category of number. If the noun is the subject of a sentence, the predicate verb (if it is in the present tense) will have to be either singular or plural. With the nouns just mentioned the predicate verb is always singular. This is practically the only externalsign (alongside of the absence of a plural inflection in the noun itself) which definitely shows the noun to be singular. Some nouns denoting substance, or material, may have a plural form, if they are used to denote either an object made of the material or a special kind of substance, or an object exhibiting the quality denoted by the noun. Thus, the noun wine, as well as the noun milk, denotes a certain substance, but it has a plural form wines used to denote several special kinds of wine. The noun iron, as well as the noun quicksilver, denotes a metal, but it may be used in theplural if it denotes several objects made of that metal (утюги).The noun beauty, as well as the noun ugliness, denotes a certainquality presented as an object, but it may be used in the plural to denote objects exhibiting

and in that case they are treated as singulars.) can be used in two different ways: either they are taken to denote the group as a whole." (A. the noun people apprehended asa plural (There were fifty people in the hall) and serving as a kindof plural to the noun person (There was only one person in the hall). expresses fundamentally the notion of something consisting of distinguishable parts. where the use of many (not much) clearly shows that cattle is apprehended as a plural. Accordingly. the nouns wine. in scissors the category of plural number. Many cattle were grazing in the field. WILSON) With the noun people the process seems to have gone further than with any other noun of this kind. on the other hand. government. Thus. but no one said anything. expresses discreteness. or else they are taken to denote the group as consisting of a certain number of individual human beings (or animals). iron. and the meaning of quantity in the usual sense would then appear to be a result of combining the fundamental meaning of the category as such with the lexical meaning of the noun used in the plural. Isachenko. etc. with its plural peoples (meaning 'nations'). People can of course be modified by the words many and few and by cardinal numerals (twenty people). in this view. while in the other sentence the characteristic "good speakers" applies to every single member of the family ("everyone of them is a good speaker" is what is meant. but certainly not "everyone of them is small").) and also of animals (cattle. view. the noun people. The following bit of dialogue is curious. the beauties of nature. quicksilver.or ugliness. Collective Nouns and Nouns of Multitude Certain nouns denoting groups of human beings (family. There is.The difference between the two applications of such nouns may be briefly exemplified by a pair of examples: My family is small and My family are good speakers It is quite obvious here that inthe one sentence the characteristic "small" applies to the family as a whole. combines with the lexical meaning of the . party. this variant does not appear to be used anywhere. although in their chief application they no more admit of a plural form than milk. and beautycannot be called singularia tantum. on the one hand. itis also quite lossible to say. (A. Recently a peculiar view of the category of number was put forward by A. and in that case they are usually termed "nouns of multitude". and usually termed "collective nouns" (in a restricted sense of the term).that quality.His daughters were all beauties. The plural. WILSON) Strictly speaking we might expect one man or two people. clergy. According to this. which. The perfect possibility of the phrase two people appears to be sufficient ground for making the phrase one or two people possible as well. in Isachenko's view. Many more examples of a similarkind might be found. however. The same consideration would also apply to such sentences as The cattle were grazing in the field. In the following sentence the word people is even modified by the phrase attribute one or two. "they fully approve the scheme. as the noun board which is the subject of the first sentence. and there is. is here connected with a predicate verb in the singular." said John. etc. singular. the essential meaning of the category (in nouns) is not that of quantity. e. but of discreteness (расчлененность). poultry. although the numeral one in itself could not possibly be an attribute to the noun people in this sense:the phrase One or two people looked at him curiously. g. but is replaced by a plural pronoun in the second sentence: "Does the Board know of this?" "Yes.

The absence of any sign шау be significant as distinguishing one particular case from another. or properties. etc. e. This can be seen from the fact that views on the subject differ widely. or four. viz. which can be roughly classified into two main groups: (1) the number of cases in English is more than two. It is obvious that the minimum number of cases in a given language system is two. or indeed any . we will not recognize any cases expressed by non-morphological means.Before embarking on a detailed study of the whole problem it is advisable to take a look at the essence of the notion of case. by the phrase "preposition + noun") or by word order. It will be therefore impossible to accept the theories of those who hold that case may also be expressed by prepositions (i. or word order. the dative by the preposition to and also by word order. It is more than likely that part. which denotes an object consisting of two halves. The first of these can again be subdivided into the views that the number of cases in English nouns is three. the plural number in the usual sense of the term. father) and a genitive (or possessive) case (e. or actions. Isachenko throw a new light on the problem of number in nouns and certainly deserve close attention. It is yet too early to say whether they can provide a final solution to the complex problem of number in nouns.). It should be recognized that once we admit prepositions. i. g. or five. (2) there are no cases at all in English nouns. dative and accusative. The problem of case in Modern English nouns is one of the most vexed problems in English grammar. e. Thus. whereas in houses the same meaning of the grammatical category combines with the lexical meaning of the noun. Side by side with this view there are a number of other views. Accordingly. CASE Case is the category of noun expressing relation between the thing denoted by the noun and other things. nominative. as in the case of scissors. since the existence оftwo correlated elements at least is needed to establish a category (In a similar way. Case is the category of a noun expressing relations between the thing denoted by the noun and other things. This sign is almostalways an inflection. at least.noun. to establish the category of mood two moods. which denotes separate objects. of which the genitive can be -expressed by the -s inflection and by the preposition of. and the accusative is stinguished from the dative by word order alone. e. of the discussions and misunderstandings are due to a difference in the interpretation of case as a grammatical category. or even an indefinite quantity. i. father's). and it may also be a "zero" sign. etc. Thus case is part of the morphological system of a language. These views put forward by A. Among those who hold that there are no cases in English nouns there is again a variety of opinions as to the relations between the forms father and father's. it is the view of Max Deutschbein that Modern English nouns have four cases. g.Approaching the problem of case in English nouns from this angle. Such views have indeed been propounded by some scholars.not coalescing together. to establish the category of tense in verbs. mainly Germans. at least two tenses are needed. and manifested by some formal sign in the noun itself. It seems therefore necessary to give as clear and unambiguous a definition of case as we can. genitive. the resulting meaning is that of anumber of separate objects. The most usual view is that English nouns have two cases: a common case (e.

the number of cases is bound to grow indefinitely. like at his fingers' ends. our master's arrival. but freely formed phrases. which certainly are not stock phrases. the engine's overhaul life. Meshchaninov arrived at. viz. Thus. whose name stands somewhat apart from it. Thus. not to Brown alone. etc. however. Not only Brown. if we admit that of the pen is a genitive case. or the Oxford professor of poetry's lecture. yesterday's news. in the pen a locative case. George's sister. butto the whole group Smith and Brown. it seems obvious that the numberof cases in Modern English nouns cannot be more than two (father and father's). about the form in -'s being a case form at all. we also find such examples as nothing could console Mrs Birch forher daughter" s loss. might be allowed to retain its traditional name of genitive case. whose name is immediately connected with the -'s. That view would mean abandoning all idea of morphology and confusing forms of a word with phenomena of a completely different kind. These expressions certainly mean. This certainly means 'the officebelonging to both Smith and Brown'. is included in the possessive relation. Thus we may say that the -'s refers. 'the speech of the Chancellor of the Exchequer'. Thus the number of cases in Modern English nouns would become indefinitely large. Of course it must be borne in mind that the possibility of forming the genitive is mainly limited to a certain class of English nouns. Alongside of phrases like my father's room. but also Smith. 'MrsBirch lost her daughter'. notably those denoting units of time (a week's absence. while the former (father)may be termed common case.non-morphological means of expressing case. the young man's friends. This indeed is the conclusion Academician I. and 'the lecture of the Oxford professor of poetry. that this limitation does not appear be too strict and there even seems to be some tendency at work to use the -'s-forms more extensively. the clog's head) and a few others.. the King of England's . that is. etc. and also some substantivized adverbs (to-day's newspaper. there are the expressions of the type Smith and Brown s office. we can come across such phrases as. whereas the form in -'s merely denotes thepossessive relation. there would seem no reason to deny that with the pen is an instrumental case. The result of some recent investigations into the nature of the -'s form shows that its meaning is that of possessivity in a wide sense of the term. The essential meaning of this case would seem to require an exact definition. The latter form. certain phenomena which give rise to doubts about the existence of such a system — doubts. and to the pen a dative case. and they would seemto prove that it is not absolutely necessary for a noun to denote aliving being in order to be capable of having an -'s-form. The real relation between the notionsexpressed by the two nouns may thus depend on the lexical meaning of these nouns. the -'s belongs to the groups the Chancellor of the Exchequer and the Oxford professor of poetry. etc. where the implied meaning of course is. In the first place. Thus. The same of course applies to the groups the Duke of Edinburgh's speech. and in so far we have stuck to the conception of a two-case system in Modern English nouns. An example of a somewhat different kind may be seen in the expression the Chancellor of theExchequer's speech. father's. I. a work's popularity. The more exact limits of this possibility have yet to be made out. etc. It should be noted. those which denote living beings (my father's room. thisyear's elections). There are.). Thus. or at the water's edge. respectively.. We will now consider some of these phenomena. Up to now we have seen the form in -'s as a genitive case. however.

Formations of this kind are by no means rare. Such constructions may not be frequent but they do occur and they are perfectly intelligible. the blonde I had been dancing with (it is her name he is talking about). nobody else's business. then. a postposition. (SALINGER). my class's mother took us [to the movies] (SALINGER). the type "noun + attributive clause + -'s". g. This subject has been variously treated and interpreted by a number of scholars. but a new grammatical category. element. Thus. many reservations. (3) the -'s when belonging to a noun. be an inflection making an integral part of a word: it is here part of a whole phrase. It is obvious that the -'s belongs to the whole group. that is. we must recognize that there is much to be said in favour of this view.the man I saw yesterday's son. . Though the question is still under discussion.. for example. It need hardly be emphasized that the preposition with cannot. conclude the discussion by saying that apparently the original case system in the English nouns. A further step away from the category of case is taken in the groups somebody else's child. Salinger's sentence. (FORSTER) This is the type usually illustrated by Sweet's famous example. An essential argument in favour of this view is. to-day's news. It cannot. not a morphological. they can both be subject of the sentence (cf. (The Pelican Guide to EnglishLiterature)The -'s is still farther away from its status as an inflection insuch sentences as the following: The blonde I had been dancingwith's name was Bernice something — Crabs or Krebs. The following views have been put forward: (1) when the -'s belongs to a noun it is still the genitive ending. Here the word immediately preceding the -'s is an adverb which could not by itself stand in the genitive case (there is an obvious difference between somebody else's child and. The -'s belongs here to the group somebody else as a whole. especially in colloquial style.residence. by itself. Inever knew the woman who laced too tightly's name was Mathson. that both the form without -'s and the form with -'s can perform the same syntactic functions. accordingly. D.All this seems to prove definitely that in the English languageof to-day the -'s can no longer be described as a case inflection innouns without. viz. and many others.Let us have a look at J.. then. Itshould be noted that the views listed under (2) and (3) lead to the conclusion that there are no eases in the Modern English noun.and constantly aimed to suggest a man of the world's outlook and sophistication. and in the first place the impossibility of the phrase my class's mother. We will. a syntactical. which of course is equivalent to the mother. . no longer expresses a case.Compare also: . be in the genitive case. e. that makes the syntactical connection clear. or yesterday's paper).. the possessive form father'sexists in contradistinction to the non-possessive form father. It is only the lexical meaning ofthe words. and when it belongs to a phrase (including the phrase "noun + attributive clause") it tends to become a syntactical element. in the following sentence the -'s is joined on to a phrase consisting of a noun and a prepositional phrase serving as attribute to it: This girl in. which means that they fit into the pattern of the language. for instance. viz. (2) since the -s can belong to a phrase (as described above) it is no longer a case inflection even when itbelongs to a single noun. etc. My father was a happy man and My father's was a happy life). the category of "possession".of this girl (who is) in my class. . at least. and. and a final agreement on it may have to wait some time. both in this country and elsewhere.

conclude the discussion by saying that apparently the original case system in the English nouns. is at presentextinct. This is best illustrated by an example. This would then correspond to the so-called subjective genitive of inflected languages. such as Russian or Latin. it may mean 'a cap of the type worn by officers'. as in Einstein's theory ofrelativity. It would. and the only case ending to survive in the modern language has dveloped into an element of a different character — possibly a particle denoting possession. From this point of view it has been customary to point out that the relation expressed by the collocation "noun + + -'s + noun" is often a subjective relation. Parallel use of the -'s-form and the preposition of is seen in the following example: In the light of this it was Lyman's belief and it is mine — that it is a man's duty and the duty of his friends to see to it that his exit from this world. where the implied meaning of course is.For one thing. is the usual possessive meaning (фуражка офицера).with -'s preceding the name of the action. For another thing. cf. Thus it would not be correct to formulate the meaning of the -'s in a way that wouldexclude the possible objective applications of the -'s-formation. and a final agreement on it may have to wait some time. then. is at present extinct. etc.). though this particular use would seem to be far less frequent than the subjective. The same of course applies to the phrases in which the object is not a living being. and the only case ending to survive in the modern language has dveloped into an element of a different character —possibly a particle denoting possession. etc. The -'s form can also sometimes be used in a sense which may be termed qualitative. Besides phrases implying possession in the strict sense of the term (my father's books. ' Though the question is still under discussion. however. (TAYLOR) It should also be noted in this connection that. 'Doughty was tried and executed'. etc. if both the subject of an action and its object are mentioned. shall be made with all possible dignity. The phrase an officer s cap can be interpreted in two different ways. and the latter by an o/-phrase following it. the example Doughty's famoustrial and execution. such as my father's friends. the -'s is also found inother contexts. not do to say that the noun having the -'s could never indicate the object of the action: cf.My father was a happy man and My father's was a happy life). as in Coleridge's praise of Shakespeare. my father's willingness. Only the context will showwhich is meant. it is only the context that makes this clear: if it were not for thecontext the usual . We will. Now. the former is expressed by a noun . it is by no means impossible or anomalous. my father's arrival. or Shakespeare's treatment of history. my father arrives. at least. of course. and that. Here are a few examples of the qualitative meaning. This would correspond to the so-called objective genitive of inflected languages. we must recognize that there is much to be said in favour of this view. It should be noted that the views listed under (2) and (3) lead to the conclusion that there are no cases in the Modern English noun. it may mean 'a cap belonging to a certain officer'.which has undergone a systematic reduction ever since the earliest times in the history of the language.Different views have also been expressed concerning the scope of meaning of the -'s. which has undergone a systematic reduction ever since the earliest times in the history of the language. The question now arises how wide this scope may be. and this is its qualitative meaning (the Russian equivalent for this is офицерская фуражка). as in my father's arrival: my father's expresses the subject of the action.

so that the usual possessive meaning is not possible here. etc. She perceived with all her nerves the wavering of Amanda's confidence. Mary. That was typical of an inflected language. A historical novel by the nineteenth-century English writer W. the notions of number and case were alwaysexpressed by one morpheme. In the plural fathers' the -s expresses the plural number. just as in any other phrase of this type: old John's views. Yes. a small cupid's mouth.that is. or (2)her peace of mind. therefore. there is no question of any child of hers. The context also confirms that the intended meaning is the qualitative one. this interpretation is doubtful. young Peter's pranks. it may mean one of two . the qualitative interpretation: the whole sentence deals only with Amanda herself. E. in the Old English form stdna the ending -a expressed simultaneously the plural number andthe genitive case.. Taken without the context. But this applies to nouns forming their plural in -s as well. to take the facts for what they are and tosuppose that the -'s is here developing into a derivative suffix. GREENE) The older view was based on the assumption that the -'s-form was an attribute to some noun supposed to be "understood". A special use of the -'s-forms has also to be mentioned. while the -'s expresses case alone. (CARY)'The meaning of the phrase her child's peace of mind is in itself ambiguous. her child's peace of mind. Harrison Ainsworth bears the title "Old St.whereas the notion of possessivity has no material expression in pronunciation (in the written language it is expressed by the apostrophe standing after the -s)..children's number is expressed by the root vowel and the inflection -ren. Paul's". Thus. In spoken English the two forms may of course be . It seems more advisable. in father s the -'s expressespossessivity. either the mouth of a small cupid. A somewhat similar expression is found in the phrase. which may be illustrated by such examples as. or a small mouth.things: (1} 'the peace of mind of her child' (the usual possessive meaning). and she understood how fragile it was. This is also seen in the fact that the famous cathedral in London is very often referred to as St. Paul's Cathedral. we spent a week at our uncle's house. However. g. Paul's.possessive meaning might be ascribed to the form. (GR. which was like a child's' (the qualitative meaning). MUTUAL RELATIONS OF NUMBER AND CASE In Old English. This is especially clear in the nouns which do not form their plural in -s: in the forms men's. like that of a cupid. and itappears to be quite impossible here to claim that this is an attribute to the noun cathedral which is "understood": if we were to restore the word which is supposed to be omitted. whereas the notion of singular has no material expression. I was going to write toMacmillan's and suggest a biography. A change came already in Middle English. I went to the baker's. In the sentence as it stands in the text the surrounding words unmistakably point to the second. etc. and in Modern English the two notions have been entirely separated. we spent a week at our uncle's. Paul. namely I went to the baker's shop. Outside the context both interpretations would be equally justified. etc. used to form a noun from another noun. rather than Cathedral.which might mean. where the adjective old would seem to modify St. It cannot be proved that a noun following the -'s-form is "understood". we should get Old St.

subjective modality. A course in theoretical English grammar. as we have stated before. According to their meaning and function in the sentence . Classification of verbs: • • • • • According to their meaning .transitive ( to tell the truth) and intransitive (they live here). sit) and functional (auxiliary. live). and quite a few other factors of no lesser importance. speak) and non.L. часть 1.terminative (to open. Методические рекомендации для самостоятельной работы студентов по курсу Теоретическая грамматика английского языка. that is developing in time. . the finite verb. Гатилова В. These forms are associated with one another in an extremely complex and intricate system. subject-object relation. as well as the bases of their functional semantics.71. 1993. The peculiar aspect of the complexity of this system lies in the fact that. the complicated character of the system in question has given rise to a lot of controversies about the structural formation of the finite verb categories..Y. e.. g. gradation of probabilities. pp.39-52 3. bring) and durative (to carry. FINITE The finite forms of the verb express the processual relations of substances and phenomena making up the situation reflected in the sentence. taking as an . through the working of its categories. modal and link verbs).M. therefore. having the categorial meaning of process presented dynamically. Blokh M. For instance. It would be not an exaggeration to say that each fundamental type of grammatical expression capable of being approached in terms of generalized categories in the domain of the finite verb has created a subject for a scholarly dispute. Ilyish B. gerund and participle). It is natural.К.finite (sit. The structure of Modern English. сс36-40 Verb The verb is a lexico-grammatical class of words.A. that ambiguity is better avoided by using the of-phrase instead of the possesive. is immediately related to such sentence-constitutive factors as morphological forms of predication. communication purposes.finite (infinitive. According to their relation to the continuous form . Literature: 1. pp. As has been mentioned elsewhere. unless the context gives a clue. .notional (to live. АлмаАта. the opinions of our mothers. the finite verb is directly connected with the structure of the sentence as a whole. According to their function in the sentence . in the phrase [ 'boiz buks) is impossible to tell whether one or more boys are meant (in written English these variants would be distinguished by the place of the apostrophe: the boy's books as against the boys' books}. Indeed.dynamic (he is eating) and stative (she wishes).48-61 2. Thus. According to the type of object they take .confused.2000. etc.

Grammatical expression of the future tense in English is stated by some scholars as a matter-of-fact truth. However.. The problem of the subjunctive mood may justly be called one of the most vexed in the theory of grammar: the exposition of its structural properties.Y. the great controversy is going on as to the temporal or aspective nature of the verbal forms of the indefinite. one might get an impression that the morphological study of the English finite verb has amounted to interminable aimless exchange of arguments. . and perfectcontinuous series. its inner divisions. the fallacy of such an impression should be brought to light immediately and uncompromisingly. As a matter of fact. they continue and develop. and the cumulative descriptions of the English verb provide now an integral picture of its nature which the grammatical theory has never possessed before. continuous. it is due to this advanced types of study that the structural and semantic patterning of verbal constructions successfully applied to teaching practices on all the stages of tuition has achieved so wide a scope. A course in theoretical English grammar. In the course of these studies the oppositional nature of the categorial structure of the verb was disclosed and explicitly formulated. On the face of it.2000. though in varying technical terms. we are faced with the argument among grammarians about the existence or non-existence of the verbalpronominal forms of these categories. it is the verb system that. the actual aim of which has nothing to do with the practical application of linguistic theory to life. Theoretical discussions have not ceased. the paradigmatic system of the expression of verbal functional semantics was described competently. Blokh M. perfect. Indeed. On the contrary. The verbal voice invites its investigators to exchange mutually opposing views regarding both the content and the number of its forms. while other linguists are eagerly negating any possibility of its existence as an element of grammar. of all the spheres of morphology.119-122 VERBALS • • • • • • Meaning Form Combinability Function Infinitive Participle . though on an ever more solid scientific foundation. has come under the most intensive and fruitful analysis undertaken by contemporary linguistics. nor subsided. Literature: 1. In connection with the study of the verbal expression of time and aspect. pp. ceaseless advances of opposing "points of view". as well as its correlation with the indicative mood vary literally from one linguistic author to another.example the sphere of the categorial person and number of the verb.M. and the correlation of form and meaning in the composition of functionally relevant parts of this system was demonstrated explicitly on the copious material gathered.

asked) has different suffixes. mood. The suffix -ing in gerund is not used to form any grammatical opposemes but to oppose all the gerunds to all the non-gerunds.183) have certain features of their own distinguishing them from the finite verb Meaning Their lexico-grammatical meaning is dual nature.The -ing morpheme differs from grammatical morphemes as well. to can be separated from the rest of the analytical word by some other word or words. tense. and its functions as part of a word. but not the content.• Gerund Besides the features common to the English verb as a whole the verbals (or verbids (Rogovskaya p.: In order to fully appreciate . Grammatical morphemes are used to form grammatical opposemes.g. Infinitive. such as number. -e(d). The participle denotes a”qualifying action’. Infinitive. E.: He looked at his son with twinkling eyes.g.: Going there put an end to her anxiety. process’ is presented as some kind of ‘substance’ (gerund.. -(e)n (participle II. Gerund . Form They have peculiar morphemes: -ing (gerund and participle I). infinitive) or ‘quality’ (participle). Participle. i.e. The verbals do not possess many of the categories of the finite verb . The verbals have special morpheme distinguishing them from the finite verbs. in which case the linguists speak about the split infinitive e. The so-called participle II (written. . 2) The -ing suffix of the participle is a grammatical morpheme of the finite verb as well.: asks -asked -will ask. Two additional remark are necessary to mention speaking about the homonymous -ing suffix of the participle: 1) The participle -ing morpheme does not unite all the system of the paticiple. The gerund and infinitive denote an action partially treated as a substance. They are not lexical or lexico-grammatical morphemes because they do not characterize all the words of the verb lexeme.g. ‘To’ is a wordmorpheme because it has only the form of a separate word. Grammatical categories. an action presented as a property of some substance (like an adjective) or a circumstance of another action (like an adverb). Here is a table presenting the paradigms of the infinitive: .. to (infinitive) • • Morphological features. Like other word-morphemes. To tempt Providence was the practice of Modernity. The verbal meaning of ‘action.. person. Cf. E. It is not used as a grammatical morpheme.

time-correlation and aspect non-perfect. continuous perfect. non-continuous non-perfect. The paradigm of the Participle I: time correlation non-perfect perfect Active voice writing having written Passive voice being written having been written Participle II has no paradigm. The paradigm of the Gerund: time correlation non-perfect perfect Active voice writing having written Passive voice being written having been written Participle. continuous Active voice to write Passive voice to be written to be writing - to have written to have been written to have been writing - Gerund. non-continuous perfect. Combinability .

extending under the north aisle.: You may rely on my setting matters right. B. The participle like a finite verb may be connected with: A.: They went on talking. Gerund like a noun may be preceded by: A. with nouns denoting the doer or the object of the action.: Having closed the drawing-room door on him. adverbs. pronouns. B.g.g.g: Excuse my leaving you in the dark a moment. e. absorbed in her own thoughts. E.g. e. e. a preposition. Isabel awaited a little.. e. they form connections with adverbs .. Like an adverb it is connected with verbs. pronouns (denoting objects of action) like finite verbs. B. denoting an object. e.g.g. Sir Pitt Crawley was not aware of Becky’s having married Rawdon. Function. e. nouns . B. Like a verb may go together with: A. nouns. adverbs.: It was the entrance to a large family vault. nouns. Like a noun the infinitive may be associated with a finite verb: To land seemed impossible. Marlow was dead and buried.g: Arriving there the visitor found everything that should be found at all manors. Like a verb the infinitive is associated with : A. e. .: I was always afraid of losing his goodwill. E. e.: My forgotten friend . to speak fluently.G.: The effect of her words was terrifying. C. and with finite verbs like nouns and adverbs. adverbs. C.Their is a duality in their combinabiltiy. e. Infinitive.g. a possessive pronoun.: We expected you to bring the book.g.g. Like an adjective it is regularly connected with nouns: E.g. pronouns.: One could see that without his even speaking.

part of a compound verbal predicate.: a) To pacify her. her spirit. Attribute.Talking mends no holes. e.g.g. B.:I have not had time to examine this room yet. an adverbial modifier a) purpose. heel to toe. as though surprised.: Generally speaking. her eyes still fixed on mine. I understood it. is almost to insult B. D) . e. attribute . Attribute They turned into the large conservatory beautifully lit up with Chinese lamps. e.: We must not leave him by himself any longer an object Leila had learned to dance at boarding school. Val was impressed Part of a complex object.. e. C. Participle II: A. e.: My intention is to get into parliament. . B)Having been a little in that line myself. was not broken. the predicative.: a) Having closed the room on him. d) of attendant circumstances. d) of concession. D) Gwendolen was silent. b) of condition. e. Participle: A. never to revisit this place.g.: She has found me unaltered. c) comparison.g. I don’t like boys.g.Their syntactical function are quite different from those of the finite verb. Adverbial modifier a) of time.:. Predicative. E) This was said as if thinking aloud. again looking at her hands. e.g. Infinitive.. adverbial modifier. and counting her steps. the subject .g. e.g. I held the window ajar a few seconds b) I was too busy to see anyone. E) We sat silent. e. C) She balanced herself on the curbstone and began to walk carefully. a part of a complex object .g. B) He did not usually utter a word unless spoken to. Subject . but I found her unchanged. C) She moved her hand to his lips as if to stop him. predicative. To doubt. e. part of a complex object . D) She can driven away. e. Gerund.: I heard my wife coming.g.e. A.g. C) “Does he know it?” said David Ruin. c) of manner. but they are used in almost any other function in the sentence.g. D. c) of comparison.: In spite of himself. Isabel awaited a little .: The gate-keeper surveyed the retreating vehicle. setting heels to toe. e) of comparison e. e. though crushed.g. They are very rarely used as predicates (except secondary ones).: I never saw you act this way before. A.: a) of time . b) of result. absorbed in her own thoughts .: The horse was seen descending the hill.: The whole damned day had been humiliating. e) of attendant circumstances A) She is a terror when roused. e.g. b) of cause. B.g. part of a compound verbal predicate. parenthesis. under the circumstances.

. at) . link-verbs. Longman 1979. but rather peaceful and statuesque without knowing it. D) . G) In spite of being busy. one side of the gallery was used for dancing. c) of attendant circumstances (without). for. (1) The modal auxiliaries form a closed class. B) She startled her father by bursting into tears. Palmer. owing to). (3) He might not know yet.B.The only remedy for such a headache as mine is going to C. b) of manner (by. modal verbs. before. Object . (2) They must've missed the train. point some regularities.She had a feeling of having been worsted.. Modality and the English Modals. in. not active. parallelisms”. Predicative . correspondences. E.Joseph could not help admiring the man. says of the modals: “There is no doubt that the overall picture of the modals is extremely "messy" and untidy and that the most the linguist can do is to impose some order. E) He has no right to come bothering you and papa without being invited. on. of condition (without). F. he did all he could to help her. If we list a number of examples the pattern is quickly observed: (1) He shouldn't have done that. Part of a compound verbal predicate . Shall. (4) It couldn't have been easier. C) She was not brilliant. bed. Adverbial modifier a) of time ( after.) Semi-notional verbs serve as markers of predication in the proper sense. Attribute . f) of cause (for fear of. g) of concession (in spite of) a) On reaching Casterbridge he left the horse and the trap at an inn. (5) I think she may be pulling your leg! In each of these statements the first place of the verb phrase is occupied by a modal . Should Need Syntactic properties Background The class of verbs falls into a number of subclasses distinguished by different semantic and lexico-grammatical features: verbs of full nominative value (notional verbs) and verbs of partial nominative value (semi-notional and functional verbs. D. Would. MODAL verbs Background Semantics Morphological properties Mustn't and don't have to Can/could May – might Will. These “predicators” include auxiliary verbs.I simply love riding . F) I dared not attend the funeral for fear of making a fool of myself. d) of purpose (for). in).

Some modal verbs have the categories of: • • • 1. be. (1) The complete list of modal verbs : Can. necessity. 2. 2. and sometimes to express possibility. (3) Morphological characteristics Forms –Simple – can. which sometimes "misbehave" to the group of marginal modals. probably take. 4. prediction. will. physical ability. They share important semantic similarities. indicating that they possible. may). will. with aspect the speaker provides an interpretation of the temporal features of an action.He can do it. might. For the moment. necessary (must. Most modals have more than one meaning. took or will take place in actual reality.was/were). could. took or will take place. This means (s)he can introduce elements of possibility. must. have – had. What primary semantic characteristics do the modal auxiliaries in the basic group share? With the choice of a pure tense form the speaker expresses the factual elements of a situation. Subjunctive Can – He could do it if he tried. For example. have) or desirable (shall. doubt. morality.Modal verbs do not have a complete paradigm and are called defective verbs. following the subject in statements. They are used as operators in the formation of. They occupy the first place in a complex verb phrase. Tense (can – could. may is sometimes used to express permission. should. although once more two of the closed class may be linked by and in the same sentence: You could and should have checked first. attainable. desirability. it is always the first element of the verb phrase. B. may. be. questions. May – He may be doing it. possibility. Indicative Can . As a closed class they share certain characteristics of meaning and are reciprocally exclusive ( I must can ask him) is impossible. The modal verb indicates the relation of the event denoted by the notional verb to reality . Number (be. would) without indicating whether the event really takes. If such an auxiliary occurs in a sentence. They do not co-occur. certainty and etc. Grammatical categories . negatives etc. would .the speaker (writer)may present events as realizable. etc. shall. should. The modality expressed by modal verbs may be of two types: • • The modal verb indicates the relation of the speaker (writer) to the event denoted by the notional verb – the speaker may present events as possible (can. must. Modal auxiliaries allow the speaker to express an attitude to the non-factual and non-temporal elements of the situation. we will concentrate on this basic group and relegate those auxiliaries. Semantic characteristics Modal verbs denote various modal meanings: obligation. May – He might have done it. ought. Usually the meaning is clear from the situation or context. doubt. may) A. 3. for example. have) All of these share a number of important characteristics: 1. . permission.Mood (can. should. 3. may –might.auxiliary. certainty.

You must be careful with your money there.30 but referring factually to yesterday. You have to. You don't have to ask first.. the negatives are quite different: You mustn't get the 8 о 'clock train. = It is not necessary for you to.. The "strength" of either form will depend upon its communicative meaning — this in turn depends on factors other than a simple choice of verb form. It is better to make the distinction clear from a relatively early stage in the teaching.These are the general.. traffic signs. The negation does not belong to the necessity. Interestingly.. and the fact that this appears to be the "past tense" equivalent of both has/ have to and must. however. Many students over-use must and avoid have to completely. legal. If the speaker looks back on a past event and refers to necessity.. using must. that necessity will be objective.30 will be obligatory.. and making sure they introduce examples with subjects other than "I". for example. for example. It is possible that "objective necessity" may be stronger if applied to "I" than any necessity I impose upon myself. = It is necessary for you to. it is possible the necessity I impose upon myself appears stronger than any external necessity.seem similar in meaning. as we have seen there is little difference between the meaning of / must and / have to. the distinction accounts for the existence of the form had to. the opposite of which is objective non-necessity. moral. when the necessity is objectified.. This is partly because teachers frequently give examples beginning I must and. You mustn't say things like that to Mrs. It is also essential to avoid statements about either of must and have to being "stronger" than the other. not the subjective necessity "in the present circumstances". Talking of tomorrow I may say / must catch the 8. if must is given a heavy stress in speech. Mustn't = It is necessary not to. Could =• I assert that it is "remotely" possible that.. Mustn't and don't have to Although: You have to get the 8 о 'clock train and You must get the 8 о 'clock train . and we may state simple paraphrases as follows: Can = I assert that it is possible that. They must have got the letter by now.. Teachers can make the distinction clearer by presenting a wider range of examples — choosing some with an obvious outside agency.. We may summarize: Don't have to = it is not necessary that.Must The necessity may be of different kinds. practical or logical: You mustn't leave the car there after six. expressed by a modal auxiliary.. (I have seen the statement made both ways round in textbooks!). and the difference between mustn't and don't have to is essential. / had to catch the 8. Equally.Students are unlikely to be misunderstood if they confuse must and have to but they do need to know (have) to in order to make such sentences as / had to wait 3 hours. You don't have to get the 8 о 'clock train.. We now see why this is. It is confusing to teach that the positive sentences are "almost the same" and the negatives "completely different".. Wilson. You mustn't forget to phone. You don't have to. (Have) to is about objective necessity. The negation belongs to the necessity. underlying meanings of can and could. The considerations are slightly different with second or third person subjects. Can/could These are best dealt with as a pair. Different kinds of ... but to what follows. but it still remains true that the communicative force ("strength") of the form is not constant..

social relationship. it relates to a . there is a contrast between the reduced and non-reduced form in statements: I'll be going. Here are some examples: (1) I'll see him on Sunday. Shall. but I don't think so.. Should We turn now to the area of greatest potential confusion. 1 shall be going. however. (Time) Could you pass the salt please ? (Relationship) He could be a foreigner. Would. (5) What will you do if that doesn't work. and will be interpreted in different contexts. or likelihood: / could ride a bike when I was a kid but I haven't done it for years. The definition of might is similar. if we contrast He can come and He may come it becomes clear that the meanings may be paraphrased // is possible for him to come and / suppose it is possible that he will come. We know that one common characteristic of the modals is shared by will. In contemporary English it is much more likely to be the latter. possible. With all of these modal auxiliaries a further problem arises. (6) It'll soon be 7 o'clock.might He may come may imply the granting of permission. (8) Medicine will have taken great strides before the end of the century. (4) I'm sure they'll be home by now. as we shall see. reflect an important distinction common to several definitions within the group of modal auxiliaries. I would be surprised. There are occasions when we cannot be sure if a reduced form ('II or 'd) represents shall/will or should/would. I'd be surprised. but is more remote than can.. We may paraphrase may as: May = If I have anything to do with it. although most uses do refer to Future Time. I think I'll open the window. it is possible that. Will. the may example involves the speaker explicitly in the possibility. with the additional idea of remoteness. (2) It's warm in here. The difference is apparent. but does. This has often created further confusion. Uses of could are invariably possibilities of a more remote kind than uses of can. (7) He will keep ringing me early in the morning. I should be surprised. It is this which is the defining contrast between may and can — the fact that the speaker is explicitly involved in the "creation" of the possibility. I will be going. (3) We'll have to do something about it. (Likelihood) Can always refers to different kinds of possibility. May . Could is also about possibility. or even whether it may be an independent form."possibility" exist. The "remoteness" may be remoteness in time. Nonetheless. Will Will is not uniquely associated with Future Time. We have already seen that the will/shall distinction has been confused by misguided teaching and that the whole problem of will/shall as "the future" has been misrepresented. This paraphrase is cumbersome. In language teaching. The question forms with the reduced form are not. or a prediction. contrasts such as should/would have frequently been taught.

If the state referred to is not seen by the speaker as factual. . If it is not in Future Time the second state must be something of which the speaker does not have direct factual knowledge. (1) suggests "Don't worry. and therefore reliability. Two states are relevant — that pertaining at the moment of speaking. We see immediately why will is strongly associated with reference to Future Time.? will be unusual. their meaning would be Do you assert. of course. be true). and my knowledge of the journey. the speaker refers to two states — that pertaining at the moment of speaking. In questions. as in examples like They will be there by now (given the present time. use will. the situation to which I am referring must inevitably also be true". For most school students it will be sufficient for them to know the shall in first person questions and perhaps in the fixed phrase Let's. almost without risk. however. the implication becomes "if it's anything to do with you (the listener)". as the speaker sees them. the two are. arrangements have been made. however. This usage does.. it is unlikely (though not impossible) for it to be in Past Time or Present Time. . almost always it will be in Future Time. there is a difference between them. Would At first sight there is little to link usages such as: / wouldn't think so. As we noted shall is rare in modem spoken English. Shall has the meaning of will and the additional meaning "if it's anything to do with me (the speaker)". The shall/will contrast is clearly shown by the pair:What time will we arrive ? What time shall we arrive ? The first invites the listener's opinion of what. the time they left. shall we. If two states are involved. . and a second which is seen as non-factual. the statement They are there must. and a second one to which the speaker is referring.state which is not factual for the speaker at the moment of speaking. It is. is inevitable. . The shall/will distinction is certainly not a matter which deserves more than a few moments of classroom time during a student's whole school career.. It is clear that questions with Will I. or about objective fact. you can rely on them". and my perception of it. that it is inevitable that I. The meaning may be loosely expressed as "given the present situation. . Verb phrases of this kind containing will refer to logical inevitability. The most common reason for that difference will be difference in time. given the present circumstances. . The pattern is clear — shall is appropriate (for those British native speakers of English who use both shall and will) when the speaker's direct involvement in the creation of the inevitability is involved. Shall is a relatively uncommon word in modem spoken English. In all other cases they can. (2) You will be there by 7 o'clock. given the present circumstances. The person is reassured of the inevitability. inevitably linked. ? In general the person addressed is unlikely to see the speaker's actions as inevitable. but relatively rare in the construction You will. psychologically immediate for the speaker at the moment of speaking. of the arrangement. although common in the constructions: Shall I get one for you ? Shall we go tomorrow evening? It is also common (usually in its archaic form) in the Ten Commandments: Thou shall not kill. Shall/will be common in statements about the speaker. . inevitably. . exist: (1) You will be met at the airport and taken direct to our office.

We would always go there picnicking. and arises out of a perception of the present circumstances. whereas would be suggests my imagination or judgment of the situation was inaccurate. however. The meaning of would is clear. or unless. This immediately suggests the question In what circumstances? The speaker. This cumbersome expression is seen to be equivalent to the fact that the speaker. We might then expect would to express an event. when I was a child. anticipating this implied question. the event or state which is seen as "inevitably" linked. English does not possess a "conditional tense". This emerges clearly in examples such as / would be surprised. and the second. Should . The distinction between the factual quality of the remote form. the action described is also inevitably true. Examples such as: / would expect him to be very pleased to see you. Was suggests my knowledge was wrong. I would expect so. In the case of would. It is. The fundamental meaning of would is such that it naturally occurs in sentences containing explicit conditions. It is easy to see why this is so. I didn't realize he would be here. Once more it is necessary to remind ourselvesof the Principle of General Use. would involves a non-factual interpretation of the situation.e. It does. As we have seen. however. at the moment of speaking. frequently co-occur with conditions. This is clearly the case with examples such as: Would you open the window please ? (remoteness of relationship) / will if I can.I would if I could. Would is associated with events which are "hypothetical" for the speaker. remote from the speaker. or / would never have expected that to happen. Would = Given the (hypothetical) situation which I perceive at the moment of speaking. will expresses a state which is psychologically immediate for the speaker. will is based on two situations — one which is psychologically immediate for the speaker at the moment of speaking. it has the association of "inevitability" which we saw with will but with an important difference. if. conceptualises the action as hypothetical. and the non-factuality of would is further demonstrated by contrasts such as: / didn't realize he was here. This is exactly the use of would. not those currently prevailing". i. the first perceived state is. common for would to occur in sentences containing conditionals and not unusual for it to be presented in textbooks under headings such as "the conditional". which is psychologically remote for the speaker. Like the other modal auxiliaries. in a non-factual way. It is the psychological element in the semantic characteristics of would which is the source of this distinction. at the moment of speaking. “Would” is clearly related to “will “and the relationship is by now a familiar one — would is "a remote form" of will. in this context "hypothetical" means "true in certain circumstances. (remoteness of likelihood/possibility). frequently makes those circumstances explicit in the form of a clause beginning with such words as when. non-factually remote. I would if I could. Would is not "the conditional".

There is not complete agreement among native speakers about the formal characteristics but there is a tendency not to treat (have) to as an operator. It must be about quarter past four.We come now to a much less tidy modal auxiliary. don't you ? I'm afraid they had to do it. hadn't they. This should not surprise us. I should say. and. (5) If you should bump into him. we expect it to form some kind of relationship with would and will/shall... the game will be postponed until Saturday.. (3) How should I know! (4) It's about 5 miles. If one green bottle should accidentally fall. this is definitely so. (6) We were just talking about it when who should come along but Sandra. when ought to is used. (Have) to and ought to are sometimes treated as operators. the speaker can introduce personal judgment through the use of a form such as / think. a pronoun). In contemporary English ought to is usually treated as an auxiliary and used as operator. Semantically (have) to and ought to share an important characteristic — they are . tags with (have) to tend to be made with (do) but not invariably: You have to be careful these days. Although sentences like Had you to show your ticket? are acceptable. We might expect should: With this in mind it is easy to see why I don't think you ought to do that is closer in meaning to You shouldn't do that than to You oughtn't to do that. With should. usage with (have) to is more variable. Returning to should. Some of these examples at least must be "a different should". (7) You should have taken your coat. Swan has remarked that any attempt to find a single meaning results in cases of special pleading. and that any attempt to argue for a single central meaning is doomed to failure. but that within the verb the majority of forms are part of a basic and completely regular structure. sometimes not. Such closed-class grammatical items as there and one evidently have more than one use. It's funny you should say that. quite distinctly. The contention of this book is not that the language is totally regular. There is no doubt that should have more than one use: (1) Should it rain. It is immediately clear than any attempt to identify the primary semantic characteristics of all uses of should is doomed to failure. (2) It doesn't seem fair that he should get away without paying. (There is both an adverb of place. most native speakers probably prefer Did you have to show your ticket? In a similar way. I don't think he should have done that. I should think. The sentence containing should involves the speaker's judgment through the modal auxiliary. (Have) to We have already discussed these forms. Palmer said that the area is messy. (a popular song). please tell him I'm looking for him.

M. M. There are two forms in contemporary British English which it is easy to confuse. .: He may go there tomorrow. necessity and desirability. From a classroom point of view it is certainly easier to treat need to as an ordinary verb. therefore . and introduce the operator (modal auxiliary) use of need as a lexical item. Need to is treated as a full verb: Do I need to bring my own ? We don't need to pay. A grammar of modern English. and contrasts strongly with They should fix it in which the speaker expresses a personal view about what should be done about the fence..A. or a phrase of a similar semanticogrammatical character. are not devoid of meaningful content.V.Sorokina. Reznik R. Literature: 1..7176 Link Link-verbs introduce the nominal part of the predicate (the predicative) which is commonly expressed by a noun. 156. you can borrow one from us. 2000. London and new York 1994 2. they express the actual semantics of this connection. respectively. an adjective.Longman. Need Clearly. and necessity is a modal concept.87. 122-123. i.Quirk S Greenbaum G Leech J. expose the relational aspect of the characteristics ascribed by the predicative to the subject.S. Occasionally ought to and have to can be combined: They broke the fence down — they ought to have to fix it.e. Svartvik A comprehensive grammar of the English Language.g. R. T.associated with objective rather than subjective perception of. 170 3. 1999.Y. It should be noted that link-verbs. This sentence is about something as far from the speaker as the morality of the law. Kazaritskaya T. Blokh A course in theoretical English Grammar M.. Performing their function of connecting ("linking") the subject and the predicative of the sentence. The linking predicator function in the purest form is effected by the verb be. Syntactic characteristics • • Combinability – Modal verbs mainly combine with an infinitive Functions – Modal verbs perform a function of a part of a compound modal predicate. do we ? In a small number of items which are now almost lexical items or "linguistic fossils" need (without to) is still used as an operator: Need I ask? You needn't bring yours. although they are named so. need is about necessity. e. pp.

though not altogether identical.g. All the link-verbs other than the pure link be express some specification of this general predicative-linking semantics. there are some notional verbs in language that have the power to perform the function of link-verbs without losing their lexical nominative value. The address shown to us seemed to be just the one we needed. It is clear from the above that even this pure link-verb has its own relational semantics.: The letter seemed to have remained unnoticed. can be used in the text in combination with verbid introducer predicators. get. the main factual link-verbs are become. remain. C/. keep. Due to the double syntactic character of the notional link-verb. or "factual" link-verb connection. As is to be seen from the comparison of the specifying link-verbs with the verbid introducer predicators described above. The moon rose red. separate functions of the two types of predicators are evident from the fact that specifying link-verbs. Besides the link-verbs proper hitherto presented. the respective functions of these two verbal subsets are cognate. In other words. C.be as a link-verb can be referred to as the "pure link-verb". I began to feel better. The most general meanings rendered by language and expressed by systemic correlations of word-forms are interpreted in linguistics as categorial grammatical meanings. appear. Notional link-verb function is mostly performed by intransitive verbs of motion and position. the whole predicate formed by it is referred to as a "double predicate". The common specifying link-verbs fall into two main groups: those that express perceptions and those that express nonperceptional. combining the role of a full notional verb with that of a link-verb.g. or "categories". the same as the pure link. The girl's look ceased to be friendly. E. The forms themselves are identified within definite paradigmatic series. which can be identified as "linking predicative ascription". look feel. The categorial meaning (e. taste. Furthermore. Grammatical categories Grammatical category Grammatical meaning Grammatical form Synthetic way of form-change Meaning and form connection Peculiarity of the grammatical categories The most general notions reflecting the most general properties of phenomena are referred to in logic as "categorial notions". grow.: Fred lay awake all through the night. so that they should be referred to as "specifying" link-verbs.{. the grammatical number) unites the individual meanings of . The difference lies in the fact that the specifying link-verbs combine the pure linking function with the predicator function. You shouldn't try to look cleverer than you are. the use of verbid introducer predicators with the pure link-verb: The news has proved to be true. they perform two functions simultaneously. Robbie ran in out of breath. The main perceptional link-verbs are seem.

the whole family of Indo-European languages is identified in linguistics as typologically "inflexional". Common features serve as the basis of contrast. counter-member. while analytical grammatical forms are built up by a combination of at least two words. 1. Synthetical grammatical forms are based on inner inflexion. Synthetical grammatical forms are realized by the inner morphemic composition of the word. one of which is a grammatical auxiliary (word-morpheme). outer inflexion. so that each word of the class expresses the corresponding grammatical meaning together with its individual. The correlated elements (members) of the opposition must possess two types of features: common features and differential features. concrete semantics. while differential features immediately express the function in question. a word of "substantial" meaning. or phonemic (vowel) interchange. but unites a whole class of words. it is a system of expressing a generalized grammatical meaning by means of paradigmatic correlation of grammatical forms. language is capable to express different meanings. the meaning of the grammatical category and the meaning of the grammatical form are related to each other on the principle of the logical relation between the categorial and generic notions. hence. It consists in the grammatical interchange of word roots. singular . besides. first of all verbs and nouns. namely. By this feature. (2) Types of form-change The change in the form of the word to convey different grammatical meanings can be achieved in different ways: synthetically and analytically. (2) So. Grammatical meanings are very abstract. (2). but it is peculiarly employed in some of their basic. These features determine the grammatical form of the word. losing its formal distinctive force. • • Inner inflexion. it is used in a few nouns for the formation of the . Therefore the grammatical form is not confined to an individual word.plural) and is exposed through them. and the other.g. like inner inflexion. (3) Grammatical category As for the grammatical category itself. and suppletivity. possess some morphemic features expressing grammatical (morphological) meanings. Notional words. is not productive in modern IndoEuropean languages. most ancient lexemic elements. The grammatical meaning is the significance of a certain relation expressed by a dependent part of a word (inflexion) or a significance of a certain arrangement of elements. The first version of the term ("reduction") points out the fact that the opposition in this case is contracted. as we . Most general meanings rendered by language are grammatical meanings. Inner inflexion is used in English in irregular verbs (the bulk of them belong to the Germanic strong verbs) for the formation of the past indefinite and past participle. The word form is the juncture of the stem ( a root and an affix) of the word with a word-change morpheme (inflexion). In various contextual conditions. The ordered set of grammatical forms expressing a categorial function constitutes a paradigm. This phenomenon should be treated under the heading of "oppositional reduction" or "oppositional substitution". the use of one member instead of the other. The so-called "grammatical oppositions" expose the paradigmatic correlations of grammatical forms in a category. very general. The second version of the term ("substitution") shows the very process by which the opposition is reduced. one member of an opposition can be used in the position of the other. The opposition (in the linguistic sense) may be defined as a generalized correlation of lingual forms by means of which a certain function is expressed. is not productive as a purely morphological type of form. and this.the correlated paradigmatic forms (e. Suppletivity.

• pointed out in the foregoing chapter. some material means of expression. makes the latter into a specific variety of the former). • • One form may express several meanings. the initial paradigmatic form of each opposition is distinguished by a zero suffix. for example the form “s” can denot: A habitual action (He wakes up at 7. man . And indisputable analytical form in English morphology.smaller. as a marginal analytical form-type grammatical repetition should be recognized. one . of indefinitely large quantity with the noun. little .In a broader morphological interpretation.me. sheher.e. boundless love to give to somebody (K. I . work +0 . the person-number. must-have (to). there is a tendency with some linguists to recognize as analytical not all such grammatically significant combinations. Oh.items of news.:boy+0 . unites it in principle with inner inflexion (or. (1. The traditional view of the analytical morphological form recognizes two lexemic parts in it. Two white-haired severe women were in charge of shelves and shelves of knitting materials of every description (A. Meaning and form connection On the one hand. 2. the connection between the form and the meaning is very complex. the grammatical form and the grammatical meaning of any linguistic unit are inseparably connected. of indefinitely high degree of quality with the adjective and the adverb. .: be . come very near to free combinations of words by their lack of "idiomatism" in the above sense.some. small+0 . in the irregular forms of the degrees of comparison.boys. may-be allowed (to). go-went.am . bad . but only those of them that are "grammatically idiomatic".was .2) Moreover.were. Greene). Cf: He knocked and knocked and knocked without reply (Gr. some indefinite pronouns. much . rather. whose relevant grammatical meaning is not immediately dependent on the meanings of their component elements taken apart. Mansfield).more. we . suppletivity can be recognized in paradigmatic correlations of some modal verbs. information – pieces of information. tense. i.better. Christie).worse. alongside the standard analytical forms characterized by the unequal ranks of their components (auxiliary element-basic element). Considered in this light.be able. is interpreted as the most standard. be obliged (to). go + 0 -goes. which are so typical of modern English that they have long made this language into the "canonized" representative of lingual analytism. Cf. as well as certain nouns of peculiar categorical properties Cf.: can . according to the cited interpretation. i. Outer inflexion – is the meaningful replacement of phonemes within one and the same morpheme. which amount to grammatical suffixation (grammatical prefixation could only be observed in the Old English verbal system). However. Suppletivity is used in the forms of the verbs be and go. These are used to build up the number and case forms of the noun.people. I feel I've got such boundless. good . the form of the verbal perfect where the auxiliary have has utterly lost its original meaning of possession. Its opposite is seen in the analytical degrees of comparison which. Cf.is . they deserve some special comment on their substance. etc.). The shown unproductive synthetical means of English morphology are outbalanced by the productive means of affixation (outer inflexion). There is no meaning without a form. news .us. the comparison forms of the adjective and adverb.are .e. In the oppositional correlations of all these forms. stating that it presents a combination of an auxiliary word with a basic word. As for analytical forms. participial and gerundial forms of the verb. in some forms of personal pronouns. etc. which is used to express specific categorial semantics of processual intensity with the verb. On the other hand.less.worked.

what the verbal number renders are not a quantitative characterization of the process. e. They consider the Future tense to be an analytical form of the verb because it combines an auxiliary verb .The girls are smiling. 2000.: He can come anytime. 17-22 2. Cf. e. They distinguish three tenses . L.К..21-26 Tense Tense is the category of the verb. can either be innate for a given class of words..В. serving as a sign of correlation with some other class.g. or only be expressed on the surface of it. The category of number in the verb. but a numerical featuring of the subject-referent.seen. Representatives of this theory are professors Smirnitsky and Ilyish. however. Cf. . by no means gives a natural meaningful characteristic to the denoted process: the process is devoid of numerical features such as are expressed by the grammatical number. e. Combination with modal verbs and modal expressions.The ships are in the harbor.The .: The train leaves at 5 o’clock. . A course in Theoretical English grammar. Continuous form. Часть 1. . Three-fold system. Д.g. сс. pp. Simple form. Representatives of this theory are O. С. for example the meaning of futurity is expressed by: o o o o o Combination “shall/will + verb”. There exist two main points of view on this category: 1.1993.: He will open the door. the category of number is organically connected with the functional nature of the noun: it directly exposes the number of the referent substance.shall/will and an infinitive.Y.Present.Л. (1) The grammatical categories which are realized by the described types of forms organized in functional paradigmatic oppositions.g. e. Алмаата.Barhudarov.Blokh M.• • • Plurality (boys. Peculiarity of the grammatical categories The grammatical category is reveled on the basis of opposition of forma and meanings.С. Not every relation between grammatical forms presents a grammatical category. (2) Literature: 1. The ship is in the harbor. Indeed.several ships. 1973. Бархударов.g. one ship . These are the forms of one and the same word ‘see’. Two fold system.Jesperson.А.g. e. According to their theory the category of Tense in English is expressed through the opposition "Past" and Non-past" (Present). which indicates the time of the action.g. Past and Future.M. Possessiveness (A daughter’s book). but there is no any opposition. For instance. toys). e.: to see – seeing .Гатилова Теоретическая грамматика английского языка.: The girl is smiling. 2. One meaning may be expressed by several form.27-37 3.: I’m leaving tomorrow. ШтелингГрамматика английского языка-М. Combination with “to be going to do something”.S.: It’s going to rain. Quirk.

"shall/will + Infinitive" is not the only construction in English to express the future action. having its shall/willfeature. or the "future". The two times are presented. like the category of primary time.e. i.Future tense is not considered to be a tense form opposem as: the combination "shall/will +Infinitive" as a whole has a modal meaning. reconsidering the status of the construction shall/will + Infinitive in the light of oppositional approach. the future being relative to the primary time. Jespersen. as it were. A well-grounded objection against the inclusion of the construction shall/will + Infinitive in thе tense system of the verb on the same basis as the forms of the present and past has been advanced by L. Indeed. whose expression of thе future time does not differ in essence from thе general future orientation of other combinations of modal verbs with the infinitive. If tense is a system of opposems. As a . not by their co-position! However. the timing of which marks the zero-level for it. The view that shall and will retain their modal meanings in all their uses was defended by such a recognized authority on English grammar of the older generation of the twentieth century linguists as O. one of the opposems "Future" cannot belong to two different tenses simultaneously. present-oriented. in so far as it is immediately connected with the expression of processual time. in prospective coordination: one is shown as prospected for the future. and thе like. constitutes the marked member of the opposition. expressing the meanings of capability. Thе categorial expression of verbal tense. The codtroversial point about thеm is whether these combinations really constitute. the principle of the identification of any grammatical category demands that the forms of the category in normal use should be mutually exclusive. The category is constituted by the opposition of its forms. The category of prospect is also temporal. obligation. The meaningful contrast underlying the category of prospective time is between an afteraction and a non-after-action. The after-action. or are just modal phrases. it means that the future form of the verb only shows that the denoted process is prospected as an after-action relative to some other action or state or event. that of certainty. there is Future-in-the-past. we see that far from comparing with the past-present verbal forms as the third member-form of the category of primary time it marks its own grammatical category. the prospective time is purely relative. among them the successors of Descriptive Linguistics. But the semantic basis of the category of prospect is different in principle from that of the category of primary time: while the primary time is absolutive. consider these verbs as part of the general set of modal verbs. quite a few scholars. "modal auxiliaries". permission. that of prospective time (prospect). The combinations of thе verbs shall and will with thе infinitive have of late become subject of renewed discussion. His objection consists in the demonstration of the double marking of this would-be tense form by one and the same category: the combinations in question can express at once both the future time and the past time (the form "future-in-the-past"). Barkhudarov . S. together with the forms of the past and present. probability. either present or past. namely. In our times. which hardly makes any sense in terms of a grammatical category.

has arrived — приехал.150-170 2. Among the various views on the essence of the perfect forms in Modern English the following three main trends should be mentioned: 1. Ilyish B. Blokh M. e. Ilyish B.N.M. pp. G. In other words.A.Y.2000. besides simultaneous actions are very often expressed by the non-continuous forms.. which reflects the inherent mode of the realisation of the process irrespective of its timing. because the forms " wrote . Literature: 1.A. The position of the perfect forms in the system of the English verb is a problem which has been treated in many different ways and has occasioned much controversy.M. This form contains the present of the verb have and is called present perfect. the process of the verb is characterised by the category of prospect irrespective of its primary time characteristic.L. There exist three main points of view on this problem: Aspect is interpreted as a category of semantics rather than that of grammar ( M.Sweet. 1971.L. by 0.I. pp.. e. has written — написал. ingressive.Smirnitsky. A. According to this theory aspect system comprises 5 aspects .Ilyish.Kennedy. .result. A course in theoretical English grammar.terminative. durative and iteratative. . Blokh M.Yartseva). The structure of Modern English. 82-92 THE PERFECT. pp. g. yet it denotes an action which no longer takes place.132-150 2. the other manifestation for the past time-plane of the verb. i. for example.Jesperson..1971. This view was held.L. . . pp. The difficulties inherent in these forms are plain enough and may best be illustrated by the present perfet.92-96. L.Deuthbein. BASIC QUALITIES OF THE PERFECT FORMS The Modern English perfect forms have been the subject of a lengthy discussion which has not so far brought about a definite result.Jofik). Literature: 1.was writing" are not opposed as tense forms and because the idea of simultaneity does not go very well with the Perfect Continuous forms. the expression of the future receives the two mutually complementary manifestations: one manifestation for the present time-plane of the verb. Aspect Aspect as a grammatical category has the aspective meaning. Jespersen.2000. The structure of Modern English. A. and it is (almost always) translated into Russian by the past tense.A. Aspect is treated as a tense form.G. Aspect and tense are recognised as two distinct grammatical categories ( B. O. The category of perfect is a peculiar tense category. expressing actions simultanious with some other actions or situations ( H. a category which should be classed in the same list as the categories "present" and "past". . effective. V..Y. etc.Curme). A course in theoretical English grammar.

It should accordingly be designated by a special term and its relations to the categories of aspect and tense should be investigated. past. Vorontsova. If we carefully eliminate these three sources of error and confusion we shall have a much better chance of arriving at a true and objective solution. past. A. considerations of the system as a whole rule out some of the proposed solutions. These causes fall under the following three main heads: 1. We need only recollect that there are in Modern English the forms ' present perfect. G. This view was expressed by Prof. e. 2. This view was held by a number of scholars. present. scholars have not always been careful to distinguish between its basic meaning (the invariable) and its modifications due to influence of context. past perfect. etc. the lexical meaning of the verb (or verbs) used in one of the perfect forms. and future perfect. and future are tense categories. This wide divergence of views on the very essence of a verbal category may seem astonishing..2. Scholars have been trying to define the basic character of this category without paying sufficient attention to the system of categories of which it is bound to make a part. In seeking the basic meaning of the category. However. and future. a tense among other tenses. That present. the present perfect would be a union of two different tenses (the present and the perfect). i. including Prof. The category of perfect is a peculiar aspect category. "successive". e. is firmly established and has never been doubted by anyone. The category of perfect is neither one of tense. 3. As we shall see presently. "resultative". if the perfect were also a tense category. one which should be given a place in the list comprising "common aspect" and "continuous aspect". we must consider its relations to the tenses already established and not liable to doubts about their basic character. 3. If we are to find out whether the perfect can be a tense category. its causes appear to be clear enough from the point of view of present-day linguistics. e. _He took the perfect to be a means of expressing the category of "time relation" (временная отнесенность). scholars have not always drawn a clear line of distinction between the meaning of the grammatical category as such and the meanings which belong to. i. There is no real difficulty here. In seeking the meaning of the category. Those who hold this view have expressed different opinions about the particular aspect constituting the essence of the perfect forms. Now. the past perfect would likewise be a union of two . nor one of aspect but a specific category different from both. Let us now consider the views expressed by different scholars m 'the order in which we ' mentioned them above. It has been variously defined as "retrospective". or are influenced by. Smirnitsky. i.

i. wrote — had written. viz. We must consider its relations to the aspects already established. Smirnitsky quite rightly combatted. and differing both from tense and from aspect. Later it was proposed to replace his term of "time relation" by that of "correlation" (соотнесенность). collide and destroy each other. use the term "distributive analysis". We need not consider here various views expressed by those who thought that the perfect was a tense. past continuous and past perfect continuous. This problem does not present any particular difficulty. This view. For example. at the time. So the view that the perfect is a special tense category has been disproved. it is bound to be some special grammatical category. In order to find out whether the perfect can be an aspect category. Since the perfect is neither a tense nor an aspect. will be writing — will have been writing. The essence of the grammatical category expressed by the perfect.different tenses (the past and the perfect) and the future perfect. Prof. is hard to define and to find a name for. It is in complete harmony with the principle of distributive analysis. the common and the continuous aspects. otherwise they would at the same time belong to. Smirnitsky did not. was first put forward by Prof. the present) it cannot simultaneously belong to another tense category. present continuous and present perfect continuous. was writing — had been writing. Hence the conclusion is unavoidable that the perfect is not an aspect. Smirnitsky proposed to denote it by the correlative terms "non-perfect" and . We need only recollect that there are in Modern English such pairs as is writing — has been writing. are shown to be untenable by the above consideration. As to the opposition in such pairs as writes — has written. Prof. different both from tense and from aspect. too. either. This is decidedly the term to be preferred. If a form already belongs to a tense category (say. Smirnitsky in a posthumous article. future continuous and future perfect continuous. which is not a very happy term. because it seems to bring us back to the old view that the perfect is a special kind of tense — a view which Prof. since two tense categories in one form would.one aspect and to different aspects. All of these forms belong to the continuous aspect. was writing — had been writing. which has the advantage of eliminating the undesirable term "time". is writing — has been writing. whatever the ' details may be. Smirnitsky proposed to call it "the category of time relation". since their views. which is obviously impossible. they cannot be said to differ from each other on an aspect line. though not quite explicitly stated. The views of those who consider the perfect to be an aspect need not therefore be discussed here in detail. as it were. Hence it follows that the category of perfect cannot be a tense category. so the difference between them cannot possibly be based on any aspect category. since both was writing and had been writing belong to the continuous aspect (as distinct from wrote and had written). e. This is clearly impossible. would be a union of two different tenses (the future and the perfect). will write — will have written. A. will be writing — will have been writing. though Prof.

— is based on three groups of notions. will write. future. continuous. viz. i. We will accept this state of things without entering into a discussion of the question whether every opposition must necessarily be dichotomic. past vs. To find this out. the opposition between perfect and non-perfect forms is shown to be that between a marked and an unmarked item. “. will have written. i. It may. On the other hand. As is seen from this list. Thus. that is. between wrote and will have written there are simultaneously the oppositions of tense and correlation. has written. as a general term to denote the basic meaning of the perfect the term '^correlation" in the above-mentioned meaning seems quite acceptable and we propose to make use of it until a better term is found. the system of verbal categories illustrated by the forms writes. that between wrote and was writing one of aspect. e. possibly. i. and the non-perfect forms unmarked both in meaning (precedence not implied) and in morphological characteristics (purely negative characteristic: the collocation "have + second participle" not used). an extralinguistic factor. Thus. or it may not. between writes and was writing there are simultaneously the oppositions of tense and aspect. consist of two members only. the use of a non-perfect form does not necessarily imply that the action did not precede some moment in time. which may take some time to happen. will have been writing. thus. has been writing. While this Jatter proposal may be fully accepted. between writes and had been writing there are simultaneously the oppositions of tense. . will be writing. tense: present vs. the reader or hearer has to take into account some other feature of the context. they consist of only two items each. is writing. finally. It is obvious that two oppositions may occur together. correlation: non-perfect vs. aspect: common vs. aspect."perfect". And. whereas the first (the tense opposition) is triple (or "trichotomic"). or. perfect. the situation. Its essence appears to be precedence: an action expressed by a perfect form precedes some moment in time. and that between wrote and had written one of correlation. it consists of three items. the definition of the meaning of the category presents considerable difficulty. the perfect forms being marked both in meaning (denoting precedence) and in morphological characteristics (have + second participle). the opposition between writes and wrote is one of tense. had been writing. have preceded it. all three oppositions may occur together: thus. the latter two of the three oppositions are double (or "dichotomic"). On the whole. wrote. had written. and between wrote and had been writing there are simultaneously the oppositions of aspect and correlation. was writing. If this view is taken. e. and correlation. We cannot say that it always precedes an other action: the present perfect form is most commonly used in sentences which contain no mention of any other action.

) and in form (zeroinflection). and this for two reasons. since in languages of the IndoEuropean family they are expressed simultaneously. etc. Thus.. that person or thing . or 3rd). and then proceed to the analysis of their state in Modern English. The category of person in verbs is represented by the 1st. legerunt. a morpheme expressing person also expresses number. g. and 3rd person. . the 2nd person. start by considering the meaning of each of these categories. 4) indicative mood. We shall. OTHER MORPHOLOGICAL ATEGORIES The categories of person and number must be considered in close connection with each other. e..96-105 THE VERB: PERSON AND NUMBER.Literature: 1. there is no distinction of persons in the plural number. pp. The atructure of Modern English.) and in form (-s). The present tense is of course characterized by other signs as well: by the absence of the -d (or -t) morpheme denoting the . 2nd. within the plural -number. However. and the 3rd. The category of number expresses the quantity of the subjects (one or more than one). Second. stem + s / stem + 0.2000. the form live in these persons may refer both to one and to more than one subject. legunt. the form lives belonging to the indicative mood only. The opposition lives /live.A. and other persons and things.. in Latin the morpheme -nt in such forms as amant.(or those persons or things) which are neither the speaker nor the person (s) spoken to. the person or persons addressed. the form live may. that the -s-inf lection in verbs conveys 4 meanings: 1) 3rd person.151-170 2. habent. however. Another consequence of this analysis is.Y. A course in theoretical English grammar. this system does not hold good for the Modern English verb. e. First.M. expresses the relation: 3rd person singular/any person of both numbers except 3rd person singular. pp. whereas the second item is unmarked both in meaning (everything except the 3rd person sing.1971. 2nd. 3) present tense. Ilyish B. It is quite clear that the first item of the opposition is marked both in meaning (3rd person sing. whereas live may also be any person of both numbers in the subjunctive mood (as far as we recognize its existence at all). amabant. habebunt. We ought to add that the category of mood is implied in this opposition. expresses simultaneously the 3rd person and the plural number. of course. Blikh M. the person or persons spoken to. . i. 2) singular number. in general terms. Thus. there is no distinction of numbers in the 1st or 2nd person. and it expresses the relation between the speaker. expresses the speaker or a group of which the speaker makes a part.L. be connected with a subject of any person (1st. or. So what we actually find in the Modern English verb is this: 3rd person singular — lives All the rest — live If we analyse this state of things in the Modern English verb in exact terms we shall reach the following conclusion. The 1st person.

of course. Hence it follows that this verb has no category of person or number at all. which stands quite apart and.2000. standing rather by itself in the general structure of Modern English. shall.1971. takes no -s-inflection parallel to such forms as lives.and are only used in religions and occasionally in poetical texts and among Quakers. The structure of Modern English. [i] in drinks as against [ae] in drank) in irregular verbs. livedst. ..122-132 2. The ending -s having four meanings to express simultaneously is of course a synthetic feature. takest. etc. But in verbs of the type put the -s is the only distinctive sign of the present. g. Literature: 1. takes.A. Some verbs do not fit into the system of person and number described above and they must be mentioned separately both in a practical study of-the language and in theoretical analysis. .L. writes.are In the past tense the system is: 1st and 3rd person singular — was 2nd person (without distinction of number) --were Plural (without distinction of person). A course in theoretical English grannar.past tense in regular verbs.Y. pp. We will limit ourselves to the verb can (the verbs may. Its system in the present indicative is as follows: 1st person singular — am 3rd person singular — is 2nd person (without distinction of number) --are Plural (without distinction of person) . is very widely used. Blokh M.were In analysing the system of person and number we have so far bypassed the forms of the type livest. and some others sharing some of its features) and the verb be.M. As they stand outside the received grammatical system we can not go into details concerning them. tookest. Suffice it to say that with these forms the category of number appears within the category of the 2nd person a&d the whole system of person and number (including the past tense) must be presented in a different shape. The verb be has a system of its own both in the present indicative and in the past. as is well known. Ilyish B. pp. and by alternation of the root vowel (e. The verb can. These forms are associated with the personal pronoun thou ..129-132 THE VERB: VOICE THE PROBLEM OF A REFLEXIVE VOICE .

however. in what proportion. and if both. for instance. According to the other view. This position may be illustrated by a number of parallel forms involving different categories of aspect. the category of voice expresses the relations between the subject and the object . whereas the form of the verb is the same in both cases. meaning. however views may differ concerning other voices.of the action. and mood. and may be said to be the doer. we ought to define more precisely what is meant by the expression "relation between subject and action". or form. correlation. or in what mutual relation? As to the definition of the category of voice. or both. whereas the active voice is unmarked: its characteristic is the absence of that pattern. Let us take two simple examples: He invited his friends and He was invited by his friends. but no difference is to be found in the form of the verb. whereas in the sentence" He was invited by his friends he does not act and is not the doer but the object of the action. which we shall mention in due course. To give another example: in the sentence he shaved the customer and in the sentence he shaved and went out the meaning is different (the second sentence means that he shaved himself). .THE PROBLEM OF A RECIPROCAL VOICE THE PROBLEM OF A MIDDLE VOICE The category of voice presents us with its own batch of difficulties. there are two main views. since the other possible pairs can be easily supplied: invites — is invited is inviting — is being invited invited — was invited has invited — has been invited should invite — should be invited From the point of view of form the passive voice is the marked member of the opposition: its characteristic is the pattern "be + second participle". tense. We will mention only a few pairs of this kind. According to one of them this category expresses the relation between the subject and the action 0nly these two are mentioned in the definition. In their main character they have something in common with the difficulties of mood: there is no strict one-way correspondence between meaning and means of expression. The obvious opposition within the category of voice is that be-tween active and passive. in the sentence I opened the door and in the sentence the door opened the meaning is obviously different. Before we start on our investigation. Thus. We are therefore bound to adopt a principle in distinguishing the voices of the English verb: what shall we take as a starting-point. We will keep both variants of the definition in mind and we will come back to them afterwards. There may also be other kinds of relations. This has not been disputed by any scholar. The relations between the subject (he) and the action (invite) in the two sentences are different since in the sentence He invited his friends he performs the action. We will not at present try to solve this question with reference to the English language. In this case the object is introduced into the definition of voice.

the forms of the future continuous. present perfect continuous. It is here that we find doubts much controversy. we should perhaps say that the vital point is the objective character of the verb.. that is. and (3) the middle voice. or can it (in some cases at least) be within the same part of the sentence as the verb preceding it (in the vast .) be the reflexive voice of a verb. or a characteristic of the lexical meaning of the verb. etc. whether there are other voices in the English verb. then. and pointing out those problems in which any solution is bound to be more or less arbitrary and none can be shown to be the correct one by any irrefutable proofs. From the syntactical viewpoint it can be formulated in another way: does a self-pronoun coming after a verb always perform the function of a separate part of the sentence (the direct object).e. It is far from clear whether transitivity is a grammatical notion. has been inviting. had been inviting. can the self-pronouns ever be auxiliary words serving to derive a voice form of the verb? This is putting the problem in purely morphological terms. But it also has a syntactical side to it. viz. as in: they greeted each other.It should be noted that some forms of the active voice find no parallel in the passive. the exact relation between voice and transitivity remains. besides active and passive. himself. myself. etc. (2) the reciprocal. somewhat doubtful. It is evident that the problem of voice is very intimately connected with that of transitive and intransitive verbs. as in: the door opened (as distinct from: I opened the door). he was taken care of.At various times. Thus the forms will be inviting. however. It seems now universally agreed that transitivity is not in itself a voice. The question now is. THE PROBLEM OF A REFLEXIVE VOICE Taking. which has also been variously treated by different scholars. Last not least. With this proviso we can state that the active and the passive . we shall now proceed to inquire into each of these problems. first the problem of the reflexive voice.constitute a complete system of oppositions within the category of voice. and will have been inviting have nothing to correspond to them in the passive voice. as in: he dressed himself. we will formulate it in the following way. ourselves. and future perfect continuous. rather than its transitivity: the formation of a passive voice is possible if the verb denotes an action relating to some object. the following three voices have been suggested addition to the two already mentioned: (l)The reflexive. trying to find objective criteria as far as this is possible. In view of such constructions as he was spoken of. we must mention another problem: what part are syntactic considerations to play in analysing the problem of voice? Having enumerated briefly the chief difficulties in the analysis of voice in Modern English. the bed had not been slept in. so we could not speak of a "transitive voice". past perfect continuous. Can the group "verb + self-рrоnoun" (i.

what we are to make of cases such as the following: It was done. that of finding. fetching and carrying. a direct object. g. / see this man Meek doing everything that is natural to a complete man: carpentering. bring about a solution that would be binding and could not be countered by a different solution which might also be confirmed by more or less valid reasons. namely. show that a self-pronoun following a verb can at least be apprehended as a separate member of the sentence. this would go some way towards proving that a self-pronoun is not apprehended as standing in the same relation to the verb as any other noun or pronoun following it and this would be an argument in favour of acknowledging a reflexive voice in the Modern English verb. we ought to look for examples of the pattern "verb + self-pronoun + and + noun or pronoun". however. We could not. We might possibly have to class he hurt himself and he found himself (in a dark room) under different headings and this would influence our general conclusions on the category of voice. and Catherine found herself alone in the Gallery before the clocks had . in a sentence like He found himself in a dark room things are different: we could not say that he found himself is analogous to he found me. doubt is at least possible as to whether himself is a separate part of the sentence. Other considerations of a syntactical character might also influence our judgement on this question.. But the question remains. on the other hand. If. as in so many other cases. painting. The problem has been treated by 0. If such examples can be found. in the sentence He hurt himself badly we might argue that himself denotes the object of the action and stands in the same relation to the verb as any other noun or pronoun: he hart himself badly would then be parallel to a sentence like he hurl me badly. e. Ovchinnikova. pulling and hauling. So we may take it as proved that in some cases at least the self-pronoun following a verb is not an auxiliary word serving to express a voice category of the verb. few as they are. for instance. therefore. say that he performed an action. no such example could be found. they will argue in favour of the view that the self-pronouns standing after a verb are actually treated as standing in the same relation to the verb as any other noun or pronoun denoting the object of the action. Considerations of this kind cannot. and the object of that action was himself. If we are to achieve some objective solution. we have to rely on objective data in this case. Objective investigation requires that we should find various syntactic contexts or patterns in which the group "verb + self. who has collected some examples of the pattern "verb + self-pronoun + and + noun or pronoun".. For instance. (FOX) These cases. or whether it is part of the predicate. If it were only part of the predicate it obviously could not have an apposition attached to it. helping himself and everybody else .majority of cases this would be the predicate)? If we approach this question from the point of view of meaning. digging. Here. (SHAW) and also examples of a noun functioning as apposition to the self-pronoun which comes after a verb. indeed. On the other hand. For instance. we shall see that different cases may be found here. I am defending myself — an accused communist.pronoun" can appear.

etc. or loved each other. We should have to see whether such a sentence is ever found as this one: They kissed each other and the child. the reciprocal voice. However. which may be used to mean 'wash oneself.C ALDWELL) As we see. for instance. or have a noun in apposition attached to it. The problem is somewhat similar to that of the reflexive voice. THE PROBLEM OF A RECIPROCAL VOICE Under this heading we will consider formations like greeted each other.. (E. (J. which. as we have seen. we can merely say that two ways are here open to us. since in a number of cases the self-pionoun is not an auxiliary word used to form a verbal voice. these verbs denote habitual everyday actions and this appears to be essential for the possibility of such a usage. One way is to say that. that is. and the verb wash. or praised one another. that is. Since in the sentence he dressed quickly there is no self-pronoun and no other special sign to indicate that the doer is performing the action on himself. or is it always a separate secondary part of the sentence (though it is hard to tell exactly what part of the sentence it may be)? We might seek a solution to the question on the same lines as with the reflexive voice. Examples of this kind are not numerous.. Then we should have to treat such cases as he found himself . such a search . It would not.ceased to strike. Without going into many details concerning these cases. and it is this: Does the group each other (and the group one another) make part of an analytical verb form. This is seen. of course. we might try to find out whether the group each other (or one another} is ever found to be co-ordinated with a noun or pronoun serving as object to the verb. which may be used to mean 'dress oneself. for example. or the verb accuse in the sense of 'accuse oneself. We shall have to leave the question open until such a solution can be found. be possible to use the verb hurt in the sense of 'hurt oneself. etc. The treatment of the problem would be incomplete if we did not mention the cases when a verb is used without a self-pronoun to denote an action which the doer performs on himself. as phraseological units and refer their peculiarities to the sphere of lexicology rather than of grammar. Then to find oneself would be treated as a form of the reflexive voice of the verb find and the group (and. other groups of a similar kind) would remain in the sphere of grammar and we should recognize a reflexive voice in English. We can mention the verb dress. etc. AUSTEN) Here the self-pronoun cannot either be joined by and to a noun (pronoun). cannot be objectively established. it is never an auxiliary. we cannot include such cases under the category of the reflexive voice even if we were to recognize the existence of such a voice. in sentences like the following: At daybreak the next morning Home got up and dressed. The other way would be to say that in some cases a self-pronoun does become an auxiliary of voice. is it an auxiliary element used for forming a special voice of the verb. There seems at present no binding argument in favour of one or the other solution.

putting together this Question and the question of the reflexive voice as discussed above. such pairs of sentences as these: I opened the door I burnt the paper I boiled the water We resumed the conference We apply the rule to many cases First let us formulate what is established and does not depend on anybody's point of view or interpretation. Very possibly. Compare. For instance. on the other hand. for instance. and it was reduced to ashes. e. but I subjected it to the action of fire. Since there is no external sign of reciprocity. of course. the verb denotes an action which is performed by the doer on an object in such a way that a change is brought about in that object.the door was closed and then I acted in such a way that the door became open. the question about the reciprocal voice will remain open. But. etc. for the first column. kissed is of course equivalent to kissed each other. in the sentence They kissed and parted. MITCHELL) This. (LINKLATEB) The teas making. . Compare. for instance. The facts. As in the case of the reflexive voice. If. is a difference in the relation between the subject and the action (and. We will not go into this question any deeper and we will limit ourselves to the following conclusion. the object). the paperdisappeared in flames. and then we will proceed to analyse the questions which admit of different solutions. His camp had filled. we must also mention the instances. g. then.would be very hard and not promising at all. but this could not be considered as a proof that each other (or one another) does serve as an auxiliary to form the reciprocal voice of the verb (kiss in this example). the paper was intact. when a verb denotes a reciprocal action without the help of the group each other or one another. we cannot find here a reciprocal voice even if we should admit its existence in the language. etc. The solution of the question must remain to a certain extent arbitrary. THE PROBLEM OF A MIDDLE VOICE This problem arises chiefly in connection with the possible double use of a number of verbs in Modern English. which are rather few.. we may state that the grounds for assuming a special reciprocal voice are weaker than those for assuming a reflexive voice. In the sentences of the first and in those of the second column we have verb forms sounding alike but differing from each other in two important points: (1) In the first column. In the second column a process is stated which is going en in the subject itself: the door opened (as if of its own will). are these. (L. we accept the reflexive voice. These cases will also best be considered under the heading "middle voice". Therefore if we reject the reflexive voice. we will certainly reject the reciprocal voice as well. we would not find a single example of that kind..

In doing so. and open 2 has no voice distinction at all (since from the intransitive verb open no mutually opposed voice forms can be derived). the water boiled. we are to bring under the heading of the active voice such cases as the door opened. etc. while in the second column it is the middle voice. burn 2. it is considered essential that a difference in grammatical categories should find its outward expression by some morpheme. If. etc. Now we must turn our attention to the possible theoretical interpretation of these facts. The verb in both columns is the same and the voice is the same. denoting a process going on within the subject. In both columns we have the same verb open. the middle voice. Without prejudice to the first or second interpretation. This interpretation would mean the admission of a special voice. and here the problem of voice will arise. If. the paper burnt. though not expressed by any morphological signs. and the middle voice characterized by the impossibility of connection with such a noun or pronoun. too. One possible interpretation is this. and the difference between the two is a difference of voice: in the first column it is the active voice (showing an action performed by the doer on the object). which seems to present the greatest interest from a theoretical point of view. In every line we have in the two columns two different verbs which may be represented in some such way as: open1. If. in the second column the verb is intransitive. Still another interpretation would be the following. open2. we will now follow up the third. for instance. the active and the passive. What we have said so far is nothing but an objective description of the state of things found in these sentences. The difference between the voices. no matter what theory a scholar may prefer. Another interpretation would run something like this. the active voice characterized by connection with a following noun or pronoun denoting the object of the action. If this view is accepted. etc. would then be a difference in meaning and in syntactical constrtiction. The choice between these interpretations depends on the principles which a scholar considers to be the most essential and the most likely to yield an adequate picture of language facts. so that only two voices are left. then. verb transitive. we will assume that we do not accept either a reflexive or a reciprocal or a middle voice. burn1. that second interpretation will be found acceptable. and from the grammatical viewpoint we should have to state that open1 here stands in the active voice (correlative with was opened). verb intransitive. the verb is not followed by any noun (or pronoun).. the same verb burn. since there is no morphological difference between the two columns. In the second column. In the first column the verb is transitive. on the other hand. it is considered possible for two morphological categories to be distinguished in meaning and syntactical use without any special morphemes to show the distinction. verb intransitive. verb transitive.(2) In the first column. we shall have to give that voice a definition wide . etc. the second of the three suggested interpretations will have to be rejected. we should have to define the category of active voice in such a way that it should include both the first-column and the second-column examples. and differences of meaning and of syntactical construction are not sufficient reason for establishing a difference of voice. the verb is followed by a noun (or pronoun) denoting the thing which is subjected to the action denoted by the verb. If this interpretation were adopted. without affecting any object. the whole problem would be shifted into the sphere of lexicology.

and the active the unmarked member of the opposition. What seems the essential point in its meaning is. However the other interpretations (mentioned above as first and second) ought also to be reasoned out to their logical conclusions. We could. the figures would not add. The question whether it is more advisable to keep the term "active voice" or to substitute another term for it would also have to be discussed. . etc. etc. etc.) is much less definite.2000. and not merely acted upon from the outside. The following phenomena would also belong here: the book sells well..enough to include all uses of that kind as well (this may make it necessary to change the term for the voice. A course in theiretical English grammar. whereas the meaning of the first member (opened.) has a much more definite meaning than the first: the meaning of the type was opened is that the subject is represented as acted upon. Thus. probably.. This solution of the voice problem in Modern English appears to be convincing. the rule does not apply in this case (as different from we do not apply the rule). and the type the door opened. which are called functional parts of speech: . burnt (in any sense) was burnt from the point of view of meaning. it has been already said above that the passive is the marked. As to form. Whether the subject produces a change in an object. and the door opened). and was opened. they kissed (in the reciprocal meaning) would fall under the heading of the active voice (if this term is kept) and their peculiarities would have to be referred to the context. all the special cases considered above: he shaved (in the reflexive meaning). the passive is marked both in meaning and in form and the active as unmarked both in meaning and in form. Literature: 1. The meaning of the unmarked member is. etc. or whether the action is limited to the sphere of the subject itself — all these and similar points would depend partly on the syntactical context (on whether the verb is followed by a noun / pronoun or not).If this view is adopted.Y. pp170-179 Functional parts of speech Contrasted against notional parts of speech are words . say that opened is the unmarked. and a number of others. the marked member of the opposition. use of the active form in a passive meaning. Let us now consider the opposition between the voices: opened (in any sense) was opened.M. partly on the lexical meaning of the verb and its relation to the lexical meaning of the noun expressing the subject (compare the old man opened. hard to define. partly.. It should at once be clear that the second member of the opposition (was opened. Some such definition would seem to cover both the type he opened the door. as has often been the case. which have been variously treated as "absolute use". then. on a number of other factors which are yet to be studied. Blokh M. then. the lexical meaning of the verb in question. that the subject is represented as connected with the origin of the action. too).

THE PREPOSITION • • • • The meanings of various prepositions in various contexts The boundary line between a preposition and another part of speech Use of prepositions Groups of words whose meaning and functions in the sentence are the same as those of prepositions It is common knowledge that prepositions are a most importantelement of the structure of many languages. and ask ourselves. and this is taken as a definition of the meaning of prepositions. If we compare the two sentences: The book is lying on the table. He will come before dinner. this is certainly not true. The same may be said about a number of other sentences. by prepositions. like Modern English. as thedefinition quoted above would imply. The difference in the situations described in the two sentences is thus an extralinguistic difference expressed by means of language. 2) unchangeable 3) characterized by dependent functions in the sentence and specific comb inability. and He will come after dinner. If true. Compare. It is absolutely clear that the prepositions denote relations between phenomena in the extralinguistic world . this would imply that they do not denote any relations existing outside the language. what do the prepositions express here.1) of incomplete nominative meaning. it will at once be obvious that they express relations (in space) between the book (the thing itself) and the table (the thing itself). namely. particularly those which. It is sometimes said ' that prepositions express the relationsbetween words in a sentence. for instance. However. the two sentences.and The book is lying under the table. have no developed case system in their nominal parts of speech. It would certainly be quite wrong to say that the prepositions merely express the relations between the word book and the word table. We have briefly discussed the problem of the meaning of prepositions but here we shall have to consider it at some length. and two or three simple examples will show it.

which is to all intents and purposes a stylistic variant of on). The next point is. If the adjective characteristic is to be followed by any prepositional phraseat all the preposition of must be used. above. т. Грамматика русского языка.. after. fond children.. near. The same may be said about the expression characteristic of him. Here we must distinguish between two levels of language: that phrases and that of the sentence and its parts. Returning now to our examples. What we needed here was to find a definition based on the real meaning of prepositions. Take. the table. we must of course start from the cases where the meaning is seen at its fullest. "adjective + preposition + noun". стр. preposition under is predicted by the verb lie. which may be exemplified by numerous phrases such as a letter from my friend. etc. under. it enters the part of sentence whose main centre is the following noun. On this level there are patterns like "noun + preposition + noun". since that is a problem of lexicology rather than grammar. and not from those where it is weakened or lost. As far as phrases concerned. Here we cannot say that the preposition has any meaning of its own. I. 41. not merely relations between the word come and the word dinner. true to life. in defining the meaning of a preposition. The book is lying on the table and The book is lying under the table.The choice of the preposition would of course depend on the actual position of the book in space with reference to the table. the performance. the sentence This depends on you. we must of course say that neither the preposition ore nor the (' See. Now. etc. We need not go further into the meanings of various prepositions in various contexts. On the sentence level: a preposition is never a part of a sentence by itself. the function of prepositions is to connect words with each other. for instance. during. the dots might be replaced by a number of prepositions: on. which means that it is predicted by the word characteristic. in. Similarly. Using modern linguistic terminology. if we are given the sentence He will. or . '(1 This statement will require some modification when we come to thefunction of prepositions in such cases as "Under the Greenwood Tree". not as an auxiliary. etc. beside. for instance. "verb + preposition + noun". the dots may be replaced by the prepositions before. etc.just as we define the meaning of a verb as a part of speech according to what it is when used as a full predicate.. come . according as things stand. we can say that the preposition on is here predicted by the verb depend. wait for an answer. the syntactical functions of prepositions. We must add that there are cases in which a preposition does not express relations between extralinguistic phenomena but merely serves as a link between words. a novel by Galsworthy. .(time relations between "his coming" and "dinner"). If we put the sentence like this: The book is lying . listen to music.. This is also clear from the fact that no other preposition could be used after the verb depend (except thepreposition upon.

and the connection between the preposition and the following word may prove to be the stronger of the two. the adjective near) can lake an object clause. etc. with reference to the words like and near there may be doubtful cases from this viewpoint. If. Bone drew back the curtains and opened wide the window nearest where they sat. The connection between the preposition. and this would mean that the subordinate clause where they sat is treated very much like a noun. and the word which follows it requires special study.. there are obviously twoways of interpreting it: it is either an adjective in the superlative degree. there is the preposition near. The question is. it will follow that this adjective (that is. this criterion does not bold good in all cases. which presents us with a whole bundle of problems involving both that of parts of speech and that of subordinate clauses: When they had finished their dinner. or a preposition. used in such phrases as the near future. In the cases where the use of a preposition is not predicted by the preceding word the connection between them is looser. and the prepositionof course has none. brought in coffee and set U down before them. and Emma. not between two parts. Different cases have to be distinguished here. This difference more or less corresponds to that between objects and adverbial modifiers expressed by prepositional phrases. we should have to state that there is a special preposition nearest in Modern English: it would . Thus. e. g. They do not do that. If we take nearest as an adjective in the superlative degree. We have already noted the cases when it is the preceding word which determines it (or predicts it) In these cases the connection between the two is naturally strong. as they stand within a part of the sentence. there certainly is the adjective near. we take nearest as a preposition. For instance. (BUECHNER) The question about the word nearest is closely connected with that about the ties between the where-clause and the main clause. near midnight. on the other hand. Each of the two interpretations has its difficulties. As to the word nearest. her shawl trailing the floor. what predicts the use of this or that preposition. in the same way as it takes an object within a clause. However. The boundary line between a preposition and another part of speech Sometimes the boundary line between a preposition and anotherpart of speech is not quite clear. the word whichprecedes it. The adjective has degrees of comparison. We ought not to say that prepositions connect parts of a sentence. found in such sentences as they live near me. near our house. On the other hand. whereas in a sentence like The book is lying under the table the preposition is not predicted by the verb and the phrase is an adverbial modifier.pronoun. Thus. in a sentence like This depends on him the preposition is predicted by the verb and the phrase on him is of course an object. In this connection let us examine the following sentence. or gerund.

"Under the Greenwood Tree" (TH. In the title as it stands. the prepositionimplies that the author is going to speak of human bondage. human bondage is going to be discussed. with the possible variant "The Greenwood Tree". which are not part of a sentence. think of something. without the preposition. Another example of this kind has been considered above: it concerned the status of we words many. In some phrases.sided connection. it must be admitted). few. to take into account their peculiarities. It is evident that in such cases the preposition has only a one. with a possible variant "Human Bondage". "Of Human Bondage" (MAUGHAM). a preposition does not connect two words because there is no word at all before it. The preposition implies that we shall be reading about something happening under the tree. but we may ask whether it has not also some reference to something not expressed which may be imagined as standing before the preposition. There would appear to be no valid reason to prefer the one or the other of the two views. and to adjust his system as best he can to receive such "unorthodox" facts.obviously not do to say that the preposition near has degrees of comparison. etc. rather than about the tree itself. and little (see pp. for instance. B. As characteristic examples we may quote the titles of some poems and novels: "To a Skylark" (SHELLEY) . A special case must now be considered."0n a Distant Prospect of Eton College" (GRAY). namely with the noun following it. compare the actual title of W. The syntactical function of the prepositions in cases of this type is a peculiar one. Ilyish). and a third possibility seems to present itself. sayingthat we have here a borderline case of transition between an adjective in the superlative degree and a preposition. "Of Human Bondage". ' We shall arrive at a similar conclusion if we compare the actual title of Th. Let us. Hardy's novel. . viz. 71—72. In this way the meaning and function of the preposition become clear: the preposition of is here used as it is used in the phrases speak of something. much. or it gives the characteristic of the place where something not specified takes place ("Under the Greenwood Tree"). This is one more example of language phenomena requiringa careful and wholly undogmatic approach: it would be futile to expect that every single language fact would fit easily into one pigeonhole or another prepared for it in advance. Language phenomena have as it were no -obligation to fit into any such pigeonholes and it is the scholar's task to approach them with an open mind. SomersetMaugham's novel. and so its ties are one-sided: they point only forwards. not back. Thepreposition either expresses a relation between the thing expressed by the noun and something not mentioned in the text (as in "To a Skylark"). HARDY). "Under the Greenwood Tree". that is. So it will probably be right to say that something is implied (very vaguely.

. since when are too widely known to require illustrative examples. namely with the numeral. We also find two prepositions close to each other in differentcontexts. and to say that under the table denotes a certain place and from indicates movement from that place. Compare. which of course means that the number is given approximately. for instance. It rather approaches the status of a particle. which apparently become partly substantivized when so used. The group about three o'clock is a designation of a certain time as much as the group three o'clock. This is still more confirmed by examples in which the group introduced by about stands after another preposition. namely to suppose that from under is a phrase equivalent to a preposition. Prepositions can sometimes be followed by adverbs. The groups from there. namely in such sentences as. and has no connection at all with the preceding verb. There were about twenty people in the room. Another case in point is the following: She is beautiful with that Indian summer renewal ofphysical charm. as in the sentence. It seems quite possible to take this in the same way as we took at about in the preceding example.Use of prepositions We should especially note some peculiar uses of the prepositionabout. it makes an element of the subject group (about twenty people). the following sentence: He sat until past midnight in the darkness while grief and sorrow overcame him. from where. The preposition here has only a one-sided connection. (E. to be non-syllabic. к. This problem should be further investigated. it is also possible to view this case in a somewhat different way. and to establish its relation with the verb happened it also requires the preposition at to be used. since then. This greater independence of English prepositions manifests itself in various ways. which is the case with the three Russian prepositions в. However. which comes to a woman who loves and is loved particularly to one who has not found that love until comparatively late in life. and then we should not have two prepositions following one another here. Indeed we may be inclined to doubtwhether the word about is a preposition at all in such a case. say. It certainly does not express any relation between were and twenty. in Russian. (O'NEILL) Prepositions in English are less closely connected with the word or phrase they introduce than. This happened at about three o'clock. CALDWELL) Here also belongs the phrase from under in a sentence like The cat stretched its paw from under the table. с. Syntactically. It would be impossible in English for a preposition to consist of a consonant only that is. The group about three o'clock here follows the preposition at in quite the same way as the group three o'clock would follow it in the sentence This happened at three o'clock.

it may be doubted whether the word is really a preposition in that context (compare what has been said on p. will show the essence of the phenomenon: His industrywas marvellous. It should also be noted that a preposition does not necessarilyconnect the word which immediately precedes it with the one that follows. corresponding to the comma of the written text. Compare the following sentence: Their conference was put an end to by the anxious young lover himself. (J. Of course all this is made possible by the fact that prepositions in English do not require the word they introduce to have a specified case form. that pat an end is something of a phraseological unit and should therefore be treated as the predicate. g. and probably there is a pause. that is. which can. the fact remains that the noun end is included into the passive form of the verb. a state of considerable agitation. however. which is fairly characteristic of modern usage. e. by and among. The young lover put an end to their conference. where an end would be a nonprepositional. though perhaps not impossible would certainly be less idiomatic than that in the text. in the active construction. in its turn. 152. Be that as it may. namely. for instance. and its results remain embodied in about 40 books. and was followed by. rather than. Some weeks ago Mr Blessington came down to me in. another phrase. This may be seen. AUSTEN) The active construction would have been. showing the independence of the first preposition.There is the possibility of inserting. appeared in 1807. (COUSIN) The two prepositions. Examples of this use are well known. Cases are frequent enough in which there is no connection at all between the preposition and the . Sometimes even a parenthetical clause come between the preposition and the noun it introduces. the preposition by would come after the inserted phrase among others. as it seemed to me. The following sentence. The connection between followed and by appears tobe closer than that between by and the phrase which it introduces. is seen in some cases where the status of the second preposition may be doubted.. "The Fatal Revenge". would have been part of the prepositional object. "The Milesian Chief" . but there is certainly no syntactic connection between them. be introduced by a preposition. who came to breathe his parting sigh before he set off for Wiltshire. But that variant. Here is an example of this kind: The first of these. (CONAN DOYLE) The looseness of the tie between the preposition and the following noun can be offset by a closer tie between the preposition and the preceding word. Unless it were so. B. stand one after the other. It might be argued. Ilyish)). between a "preposition and the word or phrase it introduces. in some passive constructions with the phrase "verb + noun + preposition" acting as a kind of transitive unit. and the subject of the passive construction is the noun which.. among other. This way of making one preposition come immediately after another. of which about 25 are commentaries on books of Scripture (COUSIN). "The Milesian Chief". and to then conference a prepositional object.

just as we have done with prepositions. Here belong the groups out of. This should warn us against an oversimplified understanding of the tactical function of a preposition.) This would seem to imply that theconjunctions have no meaning of their own. in the sentence. He came because it was late. The preposition by is of course connected with the passive participle dimmed and the adverb now could be left out without affecting the connections and the functions of the preposition: This beauty is dimmed by traces of recent illness. This beauty is a trifle dimmed now by traces of recent illness (O'NEILL) there is no connection between the words now and by. as to. Many more examples of this kind might be given. 665. as for. instead of. as may be very easily shown by the simplest examples. Groups of words whose meaning and functions in the sentence are the same as those of prepositions Special attention must be given to groups of words whose meaningand functions in the sentence are the same as those of prepositions. we will return to this problem after having considered the conjunctions(B. The current haziness in the treatment of such groups and the vague terms "compound preposition" and the like are not conducive to a clear and consistent grammatical theory. Many authors. neglect of it would bring about a muddle both in grammar and in lexicology. Compare. limit themselves to indicating that they serve to connect words (or parts of the sentence) and clauses. Since much the same can be said about phrases equivalent in meaning and function to conjunctions. consider the question of the meaning of conjunctions. since a preposition is a word. We cannot term these groups prepositions. in defining a conjunction. which is separated from it by five other words. that they do not themselves express any phenomena of the extralinguistic world This is untenable. we must first of all. for instance. etc. For instance.(B Ilyish. The same may be said about the sentence I get the same tale of woe from every one in our part of the country (Idem): the preposition from every is not connected with the noun woe which precedes it.156. that is.preceding word. I. The different conjunctions obviously express different real relations between two extralinguistic phenomena: his . in spite of. not a word group. стр. т. the two sentences. p. it is connected with the verb get. and He came though it was late. Грамматика русского языка. Ilyish p150-155) THE CONJUNCTION • • DEFINITION PREPOSITIONS AND CONJUNCTIONS Taking up the definition of a conjunction given above in general survey of parts of speech. and it is essential to keep up the distinction between words and word groups.

Conjunctions in this respect are entirely different. The same observation can be made on comparing the two sentences. p.157) PREPOSITIONS AND CONJUNCTIONS . It is the so-called coordinating conjunctions that are found here. just as with prepositions. Conjunctions can sometimes lose their connecting function. we have. however. and We will come to see you after he comes back. We will consider such cases in Syntax as well. (B. When discussing prepositions. So we shall have again into this question when we come to syntax. In such cases the preposition has no meaning of its own. We will no longer inquire into the meanings of conjunctions. we noted that in a certain number of cases the use of a given preposition is predicted by the preceding word: thus the verb depend can only be followed by the preposition on (or upon}. like the following: If only she might play the question loud enough to reach the ears of this Paul Steitler. and even "the structure of the clauses there is no unmistakable sign of this (as is the case. We will come to see you before he comesback. Here we find both so-called coordinating conjunctions and so-called subordinating conjunctions. (BUECHNER) Probably we shall have to say that if here is no longer a conjunction but a particle. In studying the syntactical functions of conjunctions. as is the case with the conjunction if in sentences expressing wish. the adjective characteristic only by the preposition of. Now. On the phrase level it must be said that conjunctions connect words and phrases. etc. The causal connection between them exists outside the language.Ilyish. Ilyish.coming and its being late. with word order in Modern German). to distinguish between two levels — that of phrases and that of sentences. as this is a question of lexicology rather than grammar. and subordinating conjunctions imply subordination of clauses. expressing some connection or other existing between phenomena in extralinguistic reality.(B. p157) Here it will be sufficient to say that there is nothing in the conjunction itself to show whether it is coordinating or subordinating. and also in a number of other cases. So far our reasoning and our conclusions have been the same as in the case of prepositions. On the sentence level it must be said that conjunctions connect clauses (of different kinds). There is no difference whatever in the grammatical structure of the two sentences: the difference lies only in the meanings of the two conjunctions. The division of conjunctions into coordinating and subordinating is one that can hardly be dealt with outside syntax: coordinating conjunctions imply coordination of clauses. and so does the concessive relation expressed in the latter of the two sentences. All this goes to prove that every conjunction has its own meaning. and only very rarely subordinating ones. for instance. comes a point in which conjunctions are different from prepositions. The use of a conjunction is never predicted by any preceding word.

But the difficulty with the adverbs and preposition-conjunctions before and since would not be solved by this: it would not do to say hat an adverb and a word uniting the qualities of preposition and conjunction are the same word. words like and. words like when.. All this presents us with intricate problems. after. ' The difficulty with the word after would be overcome if we. As examples of similarity in meaning we may give. examples of complete identity in meaning and sound are the words before. But then the question arises what part of speech is after? If it can only function as a Position and as a conjunction. before . A fully convincing solution of this problem has yet to be found. from. and subordinating conjunctions. 33\ which would then have to be given a new name. words like of. supposes complete difference of meaning between saw ‘instrument for sawing' and saw 'old saying'. since) together with coordinating conjunctions (that is. where the meaning of after tie preposition and after the conjunction is absolutely the same. some prepositions are very close in meaning to subordinating conjunctions. Another way is to say that after the preposition and after the conjunction are homonyms. it remains doubtful how we should treat the relations between the Reposition after and the conjunction after (and similarly. which may function both as a preposition and as a conjunction. after. since . The difference between what we now call the preposition after and the conjunction would then be reduced to different syntactical uses of one word. for instance. None of the treatments so far proposed seems satisfactory. As to the relation between prepositions. p. These considerations apply as well to the words before and since and here the question further complicated by the fact that they can also be adverbs. On the one hand. An ideato this effect was put forward by the French scholar L. since). as. since. it seems doubtful whether we are right in uniting subordinating conjunctions (that is. there is the word after. before. Tesniere classes what are usually called coordinating conjunctions as a type for itself: he calls them . but. since}.. This will not do either. were to unite prepositions and conjunctions into one part of speech (as hinted above. this would mean that it is neither the one nor the other. On the other hand. One way is to say.In comparing prepositions with coordinating and subordinatingconjunctions we cannot fail to notice that while prepositions have nothing in common with coordinating conjunctions. by definition. after.. before. such phrases and clauses: during his illness = while he was ill.homonymy. or} into one part of speech and separating them from prepositions (that is. with which they obviously have much more in common. and in some cases a preposition and a subordinating conjunction soundexactly the same. coordinating conjunctions. it must be said that on the ground of the peculiarities which have been pointed out a completely different treatment of the three types of words is possible. Tesnierein a book on general participles of syntax.

in English no such change is necessary or. Ilyish. in which things are looked at from a synta. but which are similar to prepositions in meaning and in syntactical function. etc. as soon as. that. premier degre" (translatives. Among them we can quote such phrases as inother. where prepositions are closely connected with cases. while conjunctions have nothing whatever to do with them. indeed. So the distinction between preposition and conjunction is based here only on semantic criteria and also on the use of these words in other contexts. In discussing prepositions. as long as. In English with its almost complete absence of cases. p. second degre" (second degree). this different prepositions and conjunctions is very much obliterated. The same is true of conjunctions. since they are not words. where they are not interchangeable. whereas prepositions and what we call subordinating conjunctions come together under the name of ‘translatifs’ (translatives) and are distinguished from each other as subclasses of this large class: prepositions are called "translatifs. we noted that there are in English. certain phrases which cannot be termed prepositions. "translatifs. A certain number of phrases (consisting of two or three words) are similar in meaning and in function conjunctions. This is quite natural iii a book on syntax. While in Russian the substitution of a conjunction for a preposition makes it necessary to change the case of the following noun. junctives). conjunctions.‘jonctifs’(that is . possible.in Russian. first degree) and subordinating. It should also be noted that the difference between prepositionsand conjunctions is much less pronounced in Modern English than . . notwithstanding that. these will be analyzed in a special chapter in Syntax (B.158-159) ARTICLES • • • • • • • Definition Semantic properties (meaning) Morphological properties (form) Syntactic properties (function) USES of the DEFINITE ARTICLE USES of the INDEFINITE ARTICLE USES of the ZERO ARTICLE Definition: Article is determining unit of specific nature accompanying the noun in communicative collocation. as well as in Russian and in other languages. Just as prepositional phrases.tical angle and words classified according to their functions in the sentence.

might be defined as that of 'definiteness — indefiniteness'. c) the function of noun specifiers. the lexico-grammatical meaning of '(in)definiteness'. the morphological destination is its being a structural marker.Y. (semantic.A. J. for lack of a better term. Not being connected with the gender and case (as in German) the English article appears to be more independent of the noun. which. as usual. is not identical with their individual lexical meanings. M. the names of the article? ('definite'. semantically and functionally it acquires an exceptionally wide use in speech.The peculiar feature of the article is that the use of the article with the noun is obligatory. Perhaps. The definite article the and the indefinite article a/an at once discloses not two but three meaning characterizations of the nounal referent achieved by their correlative functioning. The lexical meaning of the in Modern English is a pale shadow of its original demonstrative meaning. As for the various uses of nouns without an article.Ilyish is of the opinion that the problem of the status of the article is impossible to solve because of the lack of objective criteria. The general lexico-grammatical meaning of these words. The status of the article in the system of the languages one of the most difficult and controversial problem. Taking into consideration these particular feature of the article. The definite article expresses the identification or individualization of the referent of the noun The indefinite article is commonly interpreted as referring the object denoted by the noun to a certain class of similar objects. J. Still we think that it is possible to distinguish three main criteria of an article to prove that its status is that of a part of speech. Semantic properties: The lexical meaning of a(n) in Modern English is a very weak reminder of its original meaning (OE.Opdicke. the indefinite article expresses a classifying generalization of the nounal referent. Some linguists treat the article as a morpheme on the ground that it has no lexical meaning of its own and that it is nothing but a structural element marking a word as a noun. morphological and syntactic characteristics) a. It abstracts itself from the meaning of 'oneness' in a(n) and the 'demonstrative' meaning in the. from the semantic point of view they all . Consequently. an = one). stating that combination of the article and the noun has the status of the analytical form. The English article differs greatly from the article in such languages as German and French where it has gender distinctions. 'indefinite') denote the nearest approach to this lexico-grammatical meaning. b) the right-hand combinability with nouns. Blokh qualifies the article as a special type of a grammatical auxiliary. in other words. b. In spite of the long process of weakening there remains enough of the original meaning in a(n) to exclude the possibility of its being attached to a 'plural' noun.Morell and some other representative of the traditional approach refer the article to the class of adjectives. B. the linguist is called to make a sound statement about its segmental status in the system of morphology.

In the first place. Majority of scholars and foreign scholars as well distinguish the zero morpheme. Language facts. The 'demonstrative' meaning of the is alien to a(n). Rogovskaya B. books — the books. Syntactic properties: Combinability: .I. a(n) are not grammatical word-morphemes. make use. at hand. dog and gun. and the absence of a word cannot be regarded as a zero word. Some grammarians speak of the 'zero article' l or the 'zero form of the indefinite article' 2. cast anchor) descriptive coordinative groups and repetition groups (man and wife. Cf.should be divided into two types. however. and the meanings of 'definiteness'. 1) A(n) and the are not devoid of lexical meaning as grammatical word-morphemes are. there are uses where the articles are deliberately omitted out of stylistical considerations. the members of an opposeme must belong to the same lexeme and have identical meanings (barring those opposed). All this corroborates the view that the articles are individual words with individual lexical meanings united by the general lexico-grammatical meaning of '(in)definiteness'. the notion “zero word” cannot be accepted as logical and grounded. As shown above.S. 2) Their meanings are not relative. are definitely against these terms. in debt). 'indefiniteness' as the particular meanings of some grammatical category. Alongside free elliptical constructions there are cases of the semantically unspecified non-use of the article in various combinations of fixed type. snow—the snow . They do not speak of zero prepositions or zero particles. But if the article is a word. in headlines. fixes verbal collocations (take place. Besides the meaning of 'indefiniteness' a(n) possesses the meaning of 'oneness' not found in the. contradict such views. Obviously there are two material articles that accompany the noun in English: the definite and the indefinite. The has the meaning of 'definiteness' not only when opposed to a(n). the articles are not grammatical morphemes and their meanings are not relative. such as prepositional phrases (on fire. and Haimovich B. if it is a morpheme the notion “zero morpheme” is no less illogical. One might be tempted to regard the two articles as members of an opposeme. As we know. and the. For similar reasons a hook — the hook are not analytical members of some noun opposeme. We see such uses in telegraphic style in titles. as a grammatical zero morpheme is created in an opposeme owing to the relative nature of grammatical meanings. They are words. Now a(n) and the do not belong to one lexeme and their meanings are not identical. day by day) Morphologicalproperties: Not only the status but also the number of the article in English has been debated for a long time.

we must distinguish between specific and generic reference (Quirk. the lexico-grammatical combinability of the articles is the same. (generic) The reference is specific when we have in mind particular specimens of the class “tiger”. Identical nounal positions for the pair “the definite-the indefinite article : eg: the train hooted (that train) . the reference is generic when we are thinking of the class “tiger” without specific reference to particular tigers. 265-286). A lion and two tigers are sleeping in the cage. p. and between singular and plural . 1. (specific) 2. The difference in their combinability can be explained by the difference in their lexical meanings. ie as referring to something which can be identified uniquely in the contextual or general knowledge shared by speaker and hearer. USES of the DEFINITE ARTICLE. Tigers are dangerous animals.3 direct: the reference to the noun modificati an head has on of the institution uniqueness “the” is of the often referent is used . Both of them have right-hand connections with the same part of speech.The common features in the combinability of the articles are due to their belonging to the same part of speech. There are several ways in which the identity of the referent may be determined or ‘recovered’ by the hearer. The definite article is used to mark the phrase it introduces as definite. Immediate situation general knowled ge Anaphor Cataphori ic c referenc reference e: Sporadic reference The ‘logical’ use of ‘the’ The use of ‘the’ with referen ce to body parts extralinguis unique tic situation denotati 1 on . The distinction between definite and indefinite.A train hooted (some train) 2. in other words. Compare sentences 1 and 2: 1. there is mud on the ground. _ Be careful. (as different from clean space) (Blokh.the absence of article” Be careful there is a puddle under you feet (a kind of puddle). are important for specific reference. nouns. P.72-81) The use of the article in a sentence: In discussing the use of articles . correlative nounal positions for the pair ‘the indefinite article .

2.5 noun phrase restricts the reference of the noun .10 1. largest instead of pronou ns my. Felicity bought a TV and a video recorder. Have you fed the cat? /which cat?/ Aren’t the red roses lovely? /what red roses?/ 3. the prime Minister the airlines the last war 1. last. .7 of human society . but found that one of the wheels was defective. only. their. best.9 explained by appeal to the logical interpretati on of certain word . 3.4 indirect: inferenc e from what has already been mention ed . her.11 first. but she returned the video recorder because it was defective. The President of Mexico is to visit China.or whatquestions 2 the larger situation which speaker and hearer share . the cover was filthy.already occurred in the text . next. /said in a garden/ Have you visited the castle? ?/ said in a given town/ Have you fed the cat? /said in a domestic context/ 2. but when he returned it . 12 which . The North Pole the Equator the earth the moon the sea the sky the cosmos the Renaissance 4. same. etc. sole. and the pages were torn. The roses are very beautiful . I lent Bill a valuable book.6 the whole phrase may have unique denotation -8 modern transport and communicat ion . John bought a new bicycle. your.

They pulled her by the hair. The use of the definite article with nouns in set expressions (Kayshanskaya. The indefinite article and the numeral one..36-37): it is out of the question. 8. on the whole.The girls sitting over there are my cousins. on the one hand . the use of the indefinite article with nouns in set expressions ( Kayshanckaya. p. p 36): . 1. Did you hear the ten o’clock news? What’s on the radio this evening? 10.. or more generally with noun phrases in a copular relationship: eg. 2. to tell the truth USES of the INDEFINITE ARTICLE The indefinite article in contrast to the definite article. Paganini was a great violinist. Non-referring uses of the indefinite article. My mother complains of a pain in the/her hip. The parents of Elvis Prestly. Sometimes a/an is non-referring in a stronger sense. the height of Mont Blanc 1. My sister goes to the theater every month. b. 1. to play the piano. in the original. It will improve your tennis if you keep the back straight when you serve. We found Lisbon (to be) a delightful city. When is the first flight to Chicago tomorrow? This is the only remaining copy . The indefinite article is strongly associated with the complement function in a clause. the other day. The indefinite article derives historically from the unstressed form of one. There are two possible uses of the indefinite article: 1. to keep the house. on the other hand. Mary took the bus/the train to Landon. a foot and a half of water cf: one and half feet. 12.. makes no assumptions about an earlier mention. and in present-day English there are still many contexts in which this numeral is uppermost: a mile or two cf: one or two miles. it may not refer to anything in reality at all: Leonard wants to marry a princess who speaks five languages. to take the trouble to do something.

husband and wife. 2. The best way to learn a language is to live among its speakers. d. Generic a/an is therefore restricted in that it cannot be used in attributing properties which belong to the class or species as a whole. a great many. indicating THE CLASS AS REPRESENTED BY ITS TYPICAL SPECIMEN . b. leave by bus. e.: Cigarettes are bad for your health 3. after nightfall. for supper illnesses :appendicitis. times of day and night: at sunrise. g. day by day. anaemia. face to face. out of step. have brunch. 3. parallel structures: arm in arm. be at school. with plural countable nouns b. to have a good time. to be at a loss. Phrases : USES of the ZERO article 1. influenza. with uncountable nouns 2. eye to eye. come by boat. e. The generic use of a/an picks out ANY REPRESENTATIVE MEMBER OF THE CLASS. set fire to. hand in hand. means of transport and communication: travel by bicycle. a) with singular noun phrases it is often formal or literary in tone. fixed phrases involving prepositions: on foot. it is a pity (shame). by night. be in bed. Tigers are becoming almost extinct. go to hospital. be in prison. be at church and etc. The generic use of the zero article identifies the class considered as an UNDIFFERENTIATED WHOLE e. in a low voice. as a result. to have a mind to do something. on top of. day by day. to flu into a passion. take advantage of Uses of the articles in generic reference 1. all day and etc. go by train. h.g.g. diabetes. The zero article compared with unstressed some. at a glance. in turn. from right to left. by way of. in summer. c. some institutions of human life and society: be in town. after dinner.in a hurry. to get into a fancy to. before tea. f. Thus: The tiger is becoming almost extinct. seasons :in spring. winter is coming meals: stay for breakfast. Phrases without article a. a great deal. a.

subjunctive and imperative moods is grammatical 'modality'. M.: A great deal of illness originated in the mind b. С.g.I. This is lexicogrammatical 'modality'. Kayshanskaya B. Theoretical English grammar .e. Svartvik A comprehensive grammar of the English language. the blind. M.Y.S. The 'modality' of the indicative. .К. pp.1967. Ilyish The structure of modern English. 6. When describing the meaning of 'modality' in the small group of modal verbs we are in fact dealing with lexical 'modality'. L. Their lexico-grammatical meaning of 'modality'. A course of theoretical English grammar. B.25-47 5. 1993.214-217 4. pp. 2/ Their negative combinability 3 Their functions of parenthetical elements and sentence-words Semantic characteristics: 'Modality' as a linguistic term denotes the relation of the contents of speech to reality as viewed by the speaker. eg: the unemployed. 265-286pp.72-83 3. London and New York 1994. pp. . Алма-Ата. Leech J. Blokh M. with plural noun phrases when they refer to the people of a nationality or ethnic group : the Chinese. pp. Методические рекомендации для самостоятельной работы студентов по курсу “теоретическая грамматика английского языка”. with plural noun phrases with an adjective head referring to a group of people.A. 1994 . the English a.Quirk S. 1971.48-59 THE MODAL WORDS • • • Semantic characteristics (meaning) Morphological characteristics (form) Syntactic characteristics (function) As a part of speech the modals are characterized by the following features: 1. Гатилова В. Rogovskaya B.Longman. !967 . R. Greenbaum G.. and others The grammar of the English language.L.. Now we are dealing with the meaning of 'modality' uniting a part of speech. Haimovich B. the rich Literature: 1..49-58 2.. L.

indeed. they were fully prepared for the coming of the visitors from England. b. Rogovskaya A course in English grammar. Those which denote various degrees of probability: maybe. etc.g. etc.. Moscow 1967. a. Morphological characteristics:negative Syntactic characteristics: 1. (Tracy) But sometimes it may be connected with a part of the sentence only.. B. Galsworthy. Haimovich. a modal word is usually connected with the sentence as a whole.. E. (Daily Worker). etc. 1. of course. Literature: 1. Those which denote various shades of desirability : happily. assuredly. We worked that land for m a y b e a hundred years. undoubtedly. E. They are means of urging somebody else to say something or do something. surely. very rarely in interrogative and almost never in imperative sentences. Those which denote various shades of certainty: certainly. E. probably. They but seldom function as head-words to some adjuncts.C. unhappily.Modal words indicate whether the speaker is sure that the contents of his utterance corrrespond to reality or he doubts it or he regards it as something possible. mostly adverbs of degree like very. Functioning as a parenthetical element of sentence. E. b. probable. whom most probably they were compelled to respect. 250 of them are in declarative sentences. really. Interrogative and imperative sentences are used not in order to express one's knowledge of reality with various degrees of certainty or doubt. quite. Kagan l there are 256 modal words in The Man of Property by J. According to S. c. g. pp. (Shaw). c) Their isolatability is greater than that of other words. possibly. (Dreiser). The relatively combinability of modal words manifest itself in various ways.203-204 . desirable etc Accordingly modal words can be divided into several groups . luckily. They very often make response sentences. g. They are almost never used as adjuncts to some headword.I. They are found almost exclusively in declarative sentences. But you can take a carpet to Caesar in it if I send one? — Assuredly. most. E. This fact can easily be accounted for. Apparently. Perhaps I shall never pray again. perhaps. The usage of modals depends upon the type of sentence. Function. (Shaw). a. etc. B. no doubt. fortunately. 6 in interrogative ones and none in imperative sentences. Combinability. g.

to) or four (notwithstanding) a particle may have one syllable (just) or four (exclusively). We will not discuss either their meanings. or many. for instance.THE PARTICLE Semantic properties (Meaning ) Morphological properties (form) Syntactic properties Three views The particle not To include a word in the class of particles we must find out whether it has the characteristic features of particles which we have described in our general survey of parts of speech.). this phonetic quality of a word is irrelevant to its grammatical status: just as. or two. We shall not inquire whether the word has one syllable. else. a preposition may have one syllable (of. probably. the connective particles also. man. for instance. more so than elsewhere because they are less uniform. which should be considered in the theory of word-building. (Shaw). phrase) immediately following and give special prominence to the notion expressed by this word (or phrase). too. if in the following .). for example. Its lexico-grammatical meaning of 'emphatic specification'. the particle too and the conjunctions and. / never thought of that then. With particles it is. the definitions of the lexico-grammatical meanings of parts of speech are not general enough. But there are particles in whose meanings there is as much 'emphatic specification' as there is 'action' in the verb belong or 'substance' in the noun faith. / notice that there is but one chair in it. Why. In most of them the meaning of 'emphatic specification' is quite obvious. nor the morphemes making them up. Pothius. In dealing with particles. Thus the diminutive suffix -icie should not be taken to refer to the length of the word. The particle as a part of speech is characterized by the following features: 1. Its function of a specifier . Its unilateral combinability with words of different classes. sometimes. but their properties are different. (Ib.). 3. depending on the meaning of the particle. Compare. Only sixteen hundred talents. even clauses. There are. we will limit ourselves to the grammatical side of the matter. Semantic properties meaning: When speaking of particles in our review of parts of speech we have noted already that they usually refer to the word (or. or single it out in some other way. groups of words. which belong to the sphere of lexicology. either 1. As we know. and we should not apply any other criteria. They seem to resemble the conjunction and lexically. (Ib. 2. (Ib. Ireland was peopled ] ust as England was.

not when he comes). The particle too in fact 'specifies' the pronoun you (you too can be dull). that the content of the clause. a n d no harm is done. the combinability of particles is unilateral and variable. Sometimes a particle occupies a different position in the sentence. not forty. yet. right. just. still. derivative (merely. merely. Intensifying particles: simply.). articles (the). Each of these three views entails some difficulties and none of can be proved . but as a condition of that specification it requires. predicate. Different lexically. (Ib. By George.sentence. Here are a few illus trations of the combinability of the particle only. but some particles follow it. merely. no typical stem-building elements. (Ib. etc. not seeing. Very few particles (else. they may be simp1e (just. but. barely. never.. either). You look only f i ft y in it. It would appear that the following three solutions are possible: (1) a particle is a separate secondary member of the sentence. conjunctions (but). A sestertius is only worth a loaf of bread. not to see.). only..' in accordance with which each of them shows the relation between two clauses without interfering lexically with their content. should be similar to the content of the previous clause. not beautiful. as in the case of too. solely) are not homonymous with other words. precisely. never. (3) a particle neither makes up a special part of the sentence. Morphological properties (form): Particles have no grammatical categories. Is it nothing to you what wicked thing you do if o n I y you do it like a g e n t I e m a n? (Ib. Most of them are identical in form with adverbs (exactly. the conjunctions if. Negative particles: not. pronouns (all. still). else). even. adjectives (even. in accordance with its lexical meaning. and have the same lexico-grammatical meaning of 'relations between. The question of the place of a particle in sentence structure remains unsolved. not yesterday. (Shaw). So. Most of them precede the unit they specify. of which the specified word is part. Thus it connects the two clauses lexically. solely. nor is it an element in any part of the sentence.). but. Function: Like most particles not can be used with different classes of words or clauses (not he. according to their meaning particles fall under the following main groups: Limiting particles: only.). etc. alone. just. Syntactic properties Combinability: As a rule. object. which should be given a special name. it stands outside the structure of the sentence and must be neglected when analysis of a sentence is given. etc. Connecting particles: too. even. They can specify different classes of words or clauses. still. simply. you can be dull too. if she o n I y knew that two men were talking about her like this! (Shaw). compound (also). / / life is dull. only). not the student. also. alone). simply. As far as their structure is concerned. (2) a particle is an element in the part of the sentence which is formed by the word (or phrase) to which the particle refers (thus the particle may be an element of the subject. just. quite. yet. all.

to be the correct one. The view that a particle is a part of the sentence by itself makes necessary to state what part of the sentence it is. Since it obviously cannot be brought under the headings either of object, or attribute or adverbial modifier, we should have to introduce a special part of the sentence which ought then to be given a special name. The second view would be plausible if the particle always stood immediately before (or immediately after) the word or phrase to which it belongs. But the fact that it can occasionally stand at a distance from it (for example, within the predicate, while referring to an adverbial modifier) makes this view impossible of realization; compare, for instance, / have only met him twice. The last view, according to which a particle stands, as it were, outside the sentence, seems rather odd. Since it is within the sentence, and is essential to its meaning, so that omission of the particle could involve a material change in the meaning, it is hard to understand how it can be discounted in analysing the structure of the sentence. Since, then, the second view proves to be impossible and the third unconvincing, we shall have to adhere to the first view and to state that a particle is a separate secondary part of the sentence which ought to be given a special name. THE PARTICLE Not The particle not deserves special attention. It can, as is well known, be used in two different ways. On the one hand, it may stand outside the predicate, as in the following sentence: Not till Magnus had actually landed in Orkney did he consider the many difficulties that confronted him. (LINKLATER) It also stands outside the predicate in a type of socalled short answers, in which the negative is expressed by the particle not, if it is accompanied by a modal word like certainly, perhaps, or a phrase equivalent to a modal word, e. g. of course: Certainly not. Perhaps not. Of course not. ' Compare also: / am afraid not, I think not, etc. In these cases the particle not appears to be the main part of the sentence.

Another use of the particle not is that within the predicate. In these cases it is customary to treat it as part of the verb itself. The usual way of putting it is this. The negative form of the present indicative, e. g., of the verb be, is: (I) am not, (he) is not, etc., or, the negative form of the present indicative, e. g., of the verb. Literature:
1. B.A. Ilyish The structure of modern English. L., 1971, pp.160-164 2. Blokh M.Y. A course of theoretical English grammar. M., 1994 , pp.39,

66-67, 72. 3. Rogovskaya B.I., Haimovich B.S. Theoretical English grammar . M., ! 967 , pp.217--220 4. Kayshanskaya B.L. and others The grammar of the English language. L.1967, pp219-221.

Notional parts of speech
The noun, the pronoun, the adjective, the verb, the adverb, the numeral are notional parts of speech as they 1) unite words of complete nominating meaning; 2) have specific morphological categories revealed in the changeability of forms, specific derivational affixes and 3) are characterized by independent functions in the sentence and peculiar combinability
2. Ilyish B.A. ThTHE VERB: MOOD THE INDICATIVE THE IMPERATIVE THE OTHER MOODS The category of mood expresses the relation of the utterance to actual reality, presenting it as real, desirable, unreal, etc. The category of mood in the present English verb has given rise to so many discussions, and has been treated in so many different ways, that it seems hardly possible to arrive at any more or less convincing and universally acceptable conclusion concerning it. Indeed, the only points in the sphere of mood which have not so far been disputed seem to be these: (a) there is a category of mood in Modern English, (b) there are at least two moods in the modern English verb, one of which is the indicative. As to the number of the other moods and as to their meanings and the names they ought to be given, opinions to-day are as far apart as ever. It is to be hoped that the new methods of objective linguistic investigation will do much to improve this state of things. Meanwhile we shall have to try to get at the roots of this divergence of views and to establish at least the starting points of an objective investigation. We shall have to begin with a definition of the category. Various definitions have been given of the category of mood. One of them (by Academician V. Vinogradov) is this: "Mood expresses the relation of the action to reality, as stated by the speaker." ' This definition seems plausible on the whole, though the yords "relation of the action to reality" may not be clear enough. What is meant here is that different moods express different degrees of reality of an action, viz. one mood

represents it as actually taking (or having taken) place, while another represents it as merely conditional or desired, etc. It should be noted at once that there are other ways of indicating the reality or possibility of an action, besides the verbal category of mood, viz. modal verbs (may, can, must, etc.), and modal words (perhaps, probably, etc.), which do not concern us here. All these phenomena fall under the very wide notion of modality, which is not confined to grammar but includes some parts of lexicology and f phonetics (intonation) as well. In proceeding now to an analysis of moods in English, let us first state the main division, which has been universally recognized. This is the division of moods into the one which represents an action as real, i. e. as actually taking place (the indicative) as against that or those which represent it as non-real, i. e. as merely imaginary, conditional, etc.

THE INDICATIVE
The use of the indicative mood shows that the speaker represents the action as real. Two additional remarks are necessary here. (1) The mention of the speaker (or writer) who represents the action as real is most essential. If we limited ourselves to saying that the indicative mood is used to represent real actions, we should arrive at the absurd conclusion that whatever has been stated by anybody (in speech or in writing) in a sentence with its predicate verb in the indicative mood is therefore necessarily true. We should then ignore the possibility of the speaker either being mistaken or else telling a deliberate lie. The point is that grammar (and indeed linguistics as a whole) does not deal with the ultimate truth or untruth of a statement with its predicate verb in the indicative (or, for that matter, in any other) mood. What is essential from the grammatical point of view is the meaning of the category as used by the author of this or that sentence. Besides, what are we to make of statements with their predicate verb in the indicative mood found in works of fiction? In what sense could we say, for instance, that the sentence David Copperfield married Dora or the sentence Soames Forsyte divorced his first wife, Irene represent "real facts", since we are aware that the men and women mentioned in these sentences never existed "in real life"? This is more evident still for such nursery rhyme sentences as, The cow jumped over the moon. This peculiarity of the category of mood should be always firmly kept in mind. (2) Some doubt about the meaning of the indicative mood may arise if we take into account its use in conditional sentences such as the following: / will speak to him if I meet him. It may be argued that the action denoted by the verb in the indicative mood (in the subordinate clauses as well as in the main clauses) is not here represented as a fact but merely as a possibility (I may meet him, and I may not, etc.). However, this does not affect the meaning of the grammatical form as such. The conditional meaning is expressed by the conjunction, and of course it does

Meaning alone may not seem sufficient ground for establishing a grammatical category. viz. A serious difficulty connected with the imperative is the absence of any specific morphological characteristics: with all verbs.and. it is limited in its use to one type of sentence only. As to the predicate verb of the main clause. then. This of course depends on what we mean by mood. Thus. as sentences like: You sit here! occur often enough. without any suffix or ending. it coincides with the infinitive. and to mention the ability of being used in various types of sentences as prerequisite for a category to be acknowledged as mood. Tessie— he pleaded.or. number. However. Such a view is possible but it has not so far been developed by any scholar and until that is convincingly done there appears no ground to exclude the imperative. but the meaning of the verb form as such remains what it was. The definition does not say anything about the possibility of using a form belonging to a modal category in one or more types of sentences: that syntactical problem is not a problem of defining mood. On the whole. . which is the main thing. its action is hypothetical.Most usually a verb in the imperative has no pronoun acting as subject. as distinct from the present or past indicative. going towards her. including the verb be. come(!'}.It differs from all other moods in several important points. except be. indeed. . it also coincides with the present indicative apart from the 3rd person singular. the pronoun may be used in emotional speech. The meaning of the plain clause cannot be affected by this. the other verbal categories) in terms of syntactical use. viz. It has no person. in spite of the fact that the subordinate clause is introduced by if and. tense.alter the modal meaning of the sentence. aspect distinctions. In the sentence // he was there I did not see him the action of the main clause is stated as certain. which expresses the action bound to follow the fulfilment of the condition laid down in the subordinate clause. the hypothetical meaning attached to clauses introduced by if is no objection to the meaning of the indicative as a verbal category. is not a reliable feature at all. and they have given rise to doubts as to whether the imperative can be numbered among the moods at all. things would indeed be different and the imperative would have to go. which would be its syntactical characteristic. Even the absence of a subject pronoun you. consequently. If we were to define mood (and. If we accept the definition of mood given above there would seem to be no ground to deny that the imperative is a mood. Imperative sentences. it is no more uncertain than an action belonging to the future generally is. CALDWELL) These are essential peculiarities distinguishing the imperative. as in the following example: "But. no fully convincing solution of the problem has yet been found. apparently because the past has a firmer meaning of reality than the future. and in all verbs. (E. THE IMPERATIVE The imperative mood in English is represented by one form only. This brings us to the question of a peculiar modal character of the future indicative. "You leave me alone!" she cried out loudly.

Y. It is quite clear. In a similar way. Ilyish B.1971.THE OTHER MOODS Now we come to a very difficult set of problems. The first of these two points may be illustrated by the sequence: we should come.L. which means one thing in the sentence I think we should come here again to-morrow (here we should come is equivalent to we ought to come). i. The second of the two points may be illustrated by comparing the two sentences. pp. A course in theoretical English grammar. The chief difficulty analysis has to face here is the absence of a straightforward mutual relation between meaning and form.L. . several meanings may be found in the sequence he would come in different contexts. I suggest that he go and / suggest that he should go. pp. while (he) go and (he) should go will fall under different headings). and we will for the present neglect the fact that the first of thetwo variants is more typical of American..105-120 e structure of Modern English. and it means another thing again in the sentence How queer that we should come at the very moment when you were talking about us! (here we should come denotes an action which has actually taken place and which is considered as an object for comment).or whatever other name we may choose to give these moods.120-129 . pp. . it means another thing in the sentence : we knew that he wants us we should come to see him (here we should come denotes a conditional action.M. This difficulty appears to be one of the main sources of that wide devergence of views which strikes every reader of English grammars when he reaches the chapter on moods. sometimes. and the second of British English. the same modal meaing will be expressed by two different series of external signs. The structure of Modern English. again.A.2000. conditional. an action depending on certain conditions). and outside the meaning of the verb. no matter in what context it may be used. and the other should come under another. then. Some times the same external series of signs will have two (or more) dif ferent meanings depending on factors lying outside the form itself. according as we make our classification depend on the meaning (in that case one should come will find its placeunder one heading. namely those connected with the (subjunctive. whereas (he) go and (he) should go will find their place under the same heading) or on form (in that case he should come will fall under one heading. . . Literature: 1.. e..1971. that we shall arrive at different systems of English moods.179-197 2. Blokh M.

it has the meaning of substance. attribute. it is to be noted that there is some difference between. dog — dogs.actress. predicative.a)performs the function of a subject. sister) .This category is expressed by the obligatory correlation of nouns with the personal pronouns of the third person. Modern English.is characterised by the following features : semantically . Whereas three houses are three separate objects existing side by side. However. Thus. The Modern English noun certainly has not got the categoryof grammatical gender. and the plural shows that more than one object is meant.on the basis of form of existance . number and case. The essential meaning of singular and plural seems clear enough: the singular number shows that one object is meant. There are only several suffixes which show the gender : actor . Thus.water) The noun in Modern English has only two main grammatical categories. German and Latin. in Russian. say. for example. distinguishes between two numbers. French. This holds good for many nouns: table —tables.singular and plural. as most other languages.a) the category of number.on the basis of personal quality .on the basis of type of nomination . The category of number in Englishnouns gives rise to several problems which claim special attention.countable and uncountable (pencil.human and non-human (boy. the opposition is "one — more than one".on the basis of a qualitative structure . adverbial modifier.widower. object. morphologically .proper and common (Mary.animate and inanimate (dog. The existence of case appears to be doubtfuland has to be carefully analysed. fish) . Classification of nouns: .. pupil — pupils. NUMBER The grammatical meaning of the category is oneness and more than oneness. language facts are not always so simple as that. which is to be found. b) has specific combinability. First of all. desk) . syntactically . b) certain word-building suffixes. three hours are a continuous period of time measured by a certain agreed unit of . widow . case and gender.THE NOUN Classification of nouns Number Pluralia Tantum and Singularia Tantum Collective Nouns and Nouns of Multitude Case Mutual relartions of number and case Noun . Not a single noun in Modern English shows any peculiarities in its morphology due to its denoting a male or a female being. etc. three houses and three hours. the words husband and wife do not show any difference in their forms due to the peculiaritiesof their lexical meanings.

We could not possibly say three waters. pincers. от three snows. there are the nouns which denote material objects consisting of two halves (trousers. would apply to such expressions as three miles. etc. Since. then. for example. g. but only one form. If we compare the English pluralia tantum with the Russian. The same. it is natural to say that the plural form has been lexicalized.? It is fairly obvious that the plural form in every case serves to denote a vast stretch of water (e. three acres.duration. g. breeches. the difference between the two numbers may increase to such a degree that the plural form develops a completely new meaning which the singular has not got at all. outskirts. to serve under the colours of liberty). Pluralia Tantum and Singularia Tantum We must also consider here two types of nouns differing fromall others in the way of number: they have not got the usual two number forms. What is essential from the grammatical viewpoint is the very fact that a difference in meaning which is purely grammatical in its origins is apt under certain conditions to be vershadowed by a lexical difference. and those which have only a singular and no plural are termed "singularia tantum" (the Latinfor "singular only").. as such. whereas the waters of the Atlantic refers to a geographical idea: it denotes a seascape and has. in these cases. On the one hand. etc. the title of a story by Jack London). g. the waters of the Atlantic). snow and snows. In the case of water and waters we can press the point still further and state that the water of the Atlantic refers to its physical or chemical properties (e. In the first place. etc. of course. " Daughter of the Snows". environs. scissors. g. a young lady). we shall find that in some cases they correspond to each other (e. in the arctic regions of Canada). dregs 'various smallthings remaining at the bottom of a vessel after the liquid has been poured out of it'. no numeral could be used with nouns of this kind. environs'areas surrounding some place on all sides'. As is obvious from these examples. on the other.). scissors. g.). we shall see that we are drifting further away from the original meaning of the plural number. an ocean). there are thosewhich denote a more or less indefinite plurality (e. a difference in lexical meaning develops between the plural and the singular. g. theplural form colours has the meaning 'banner' which is restricted to the plural (e. A considerable amountof examples in point have been collected by 0. dregs. In a similar manner. The nouns which have only a plural and no singular are usually termed "pluralia tantum" (which is the Latin for "plural only"). etc. What. the plural attentions has acquired the meaning wooing (pay attentions to. g. g. a peculiar stylistic value which the water of the Atlantic certainly lacks. or snows (e. It is not our task here to go into details about the specific peculiarities of meaning which may develop in the plural form of a noun. If we now turn to such plurals as waters (e. tongs. . the water of tfie Atlantic contains a considerable portion of salt). So we see that between the singular and the plural an additional difference of meaning has developed. Jespersen. Thus. This is a matter of lexicology rather than of grammar. Among the pluralia tantum are the nouns trousers. is the real difference in meaning between water and waters. or rather of ground covered by snow (e. Now. or of snow. etc. We cannot say how many waters we mean when we use this noun in the plural number. they include nouns of two types.

the nouns which have no plural form. But in the morphological and syntactical system of the English language a noun cannot stand outside the category of number. The variant those twentyfour hours would be inappropriate here. quicksilver. butter. appears to be a very common thing in present-day English. as it would imply that the statement wasreferring to every single hour of the twenty-four taken separately. g. mathematics. or even regularly.such as peace. mumps. The possibility of treating a plural form as if it were singular is also seen in the use of the phrase the United Nations. scissors — ножницы. (CARY) The unity of the space of time referred to is even more obvious in this example than in the preceding one. (CARY) The unity of the period of time. The reason why a given object is denoted by a plurale tantum noun in this or that language is not always quite clear. outside the sphere of number: e. / myself still wonder at that six weeks of calm madness. etc. usefulness. milk.). measured in the usual units of months. etc. it is typical of English that some of these pluralia tantum may. and days. Nouns of this kind express notions which are. and measles are accompanied by the appearance of a number of separate inflamed spots on the skin (rash).). The direct opposite of pluralia tantum are the singularia tantum. physics. when it is the subject of a sentence. etc. Now. or fluency. and some names of diseases. which may. This is practically the only externalsign (alongside of the absence of a plural inflection in the noun itself) which definitely shows the noun to be singular. the reasons are less obvious in the case of phonetics. had spent a nightwith Alice and a day with Muriel. . twenty-four hours is a commonly received unit of measurement of time (in Russian this would be expressed by a single noun—сутки). Theymay occasionally. This seems to depend on a different view of the objects in question reflected by the English and the Russian language respectively. and also names of abstract notions. e. Close to this group of pluralia tantum nouns are also some names. is of course connected with the structure of English as a whole. and also (if the phrase be the subject of the sentence) by using the predicate verb in the singular. Bessie. However. which would be unthinkable in Russian. for instance. Here are a few typical examples. The reason for this seems to be that. e. phonetics. strictly speaking. while in others they do not (деньги — money. etc. as it were.. Among these wemust first note some nouns denoting material substance. have the predicate verb in the singular. Examples of a phrase including a noun in the plural being modified by a pronoun in the singular and thus shown to be apprehended as a singular are by no means rare. incongruity. environs — окрестности. be accompanied by the indefinite article. e. i. With the nouns just mentioned the predicate verb is always singular. measles. and if they are the subject of a sentence the predicateverb may stand in the singular. the United Nations is a world organization.trousers — брюки. g. for example. If the noun is the subject of a sentence. mathematics embrace a wholeseries of various scientific disciplines. e. weeks. such as milk.. This way of showing the unity of a certain quantity of space or time by modifying the phrase in question by a pronoun in the singular. cease to be plural. This way of treating pluralia tantum. rickets. g. the predicate verb (if it is in the present tense) will have to be either singular or plural. g. of sciences.. is thus brought out very clearly. daring that twentyfour hours. also politics.

) can be used in two different ways: either they are taken to denote the group as a whole. and beautycannot be called singularia tantum. the noun people apprehended asa plural (There were fifty people in the hall) and serving as a kindof plural to the noun person (There was only one person in the hall). on the one hand. may have a plural form. etc. There is. but it may be used in theplural if it denotes several objects made of that metal (утюги). The same consideration would also apply to such sentences as The cattle were grazing in the field. People can of course be modified by the words many and few and by cardinal numerals (twenty people). with its plural peoples (meaning 'nations'). on the other hand. as well as the noun quicksilver." said John. but it may be used in the plural to denote objects exhibiting that quality. "they fully approve the scheme. g. or an object exhibiting the quality denoted by the noun.Some nouns denoting substance. this variant does not appear to be used anywhere. and usually termed "collective nouns" (in a restricted sense of the term). WILSON) With the noun people the process seems to have gone further than with any other noun of this kind. (A. Many more examples of a similarkind might be found. In the following sentence the word people is even modified by the phrase attribute one or two. Many cattle were grazing in the field. The perfect possibility of the phrase two people appears to be sufficient ground for making the phrase one or two people possible as well. and in that case they are treated as singulars. the nouns wine. the noun wine. party. but certainly not "everyone of them is small"). where the use of many (not much) clearly shows that cattle is apprehended as a plural. but is replaced by a plural pronoun in the second sentence: "Does the Board know of this?" "Yes. and there is. although in their chief application they no more admit of a plural form than milk. . The noun iron. Accordingly. Thus. however. and in that case they are usually termed "nouns of multitude". poultry. quicksilver. denotes a certain substance. the noun people. itis also quite lossible to say. government. etc. denotes a metal. but it has a plural form wines used to denote several special kinds of wine. is here connected with a predicate verb in the singular. clergy.) and also of animals (cattle. but no one said anything. Collective Nouns and Nouns of Multitude Certain nouns denoting groups of human beings (family. e. if they are used to denote either an object made of the material or a special kind of substance.His daughters were all beauties. or material." (A. as the noun board which is the subject of the first sentence. as well as the noun milk. as well as the noun ugliness. denotes a certainquality presented as an object. while in the other sentence the characteristic "good speakers" applies to every single member of the family ("everyone of them is a good speaker" is what is meant.The noun beauty. the beauties of nature. iron.The difference between the two applications of such nouns may be briefly exemplified by a pair of examples: My family is small and My family are good speakers It is quite obvious here that inthe one sentence the characteristic "small" applies to the family as a whole.or ugliness. WILSON) Strictly speaking we might expect one man or two people. or else they are taken to denote the group as consisting of a certain number of individual human beings (or animals). although the numeral one in itself could not possibly be an attribute to the noun people in this sense:the phrase One or two people looked at him curiously. The following bit of dialogue is curious. singular.

the plural number in the usual sense of the term.not coalescing together. i. at least. or even an indefinite quantity. at least two tenses are needed. in this view. and it may also be a "zero" sign. It seems therefore necessary to give as clear and unambiguous a definition of case as we can. The first of these can again be subdivided into the views that the number of cases in English nouns is three. whereas in houses the same meaning of the grammatical category combines with the lexical meaning of the noun. Thus. father's). which denotes an object consisting of two halves. etc. expresses fundamentally the notion of something consisting of distinguishable parts. The most usual view is that English nouns have two cases: a common case (e. or five. These views put forward by A. and manifested by some formal sign in the noun itself. to establish the category of tense in verbs. of the discussions and misunderstandings are due to a difference in the interpretation of case as a grammatical category. or four. CASE Case is the category of noun expressing relation between the thing denoted by the noun and other things. It is obvious that the minimum number of cases in a given language system is two. the resulting meaning is that of anumber of separate objects. It is more than likely that part. g. but of discreteness (расчлененность). to establish the category of mood two moods. The problem of case in Modern English nouns is one of the most vexed problems in English grammar. or actions. It will be . e. This can be seen from the fact that views on the subject differ widely. father) and a genitive (or possessive) case (e. we will not recognize any cases expressed by non-morphological means. which.). It is yet too early to say whether they can provide a final solution to the complex problem of number in nouns. or properties. Accordingly. expresses discreteness. view. combines with the lexical meaning of the noun. etc. and the meaning of quantity in the usual sense would then appear to be a result of combining the fundamental meaning of the category as such with the lexical meaning of the noun used in the plural.Before embarking on a detailed study of the whole problem it is advisable to take a look at the essence of the notion of case. which can be roughly classified into two main groups: (1) the number of cases in English is more than two. Thus case is part of the morphological system of a language. which denotes separate objects. According to this. g. Isachenko throw a new light on the problem of number in nouns and certainly deserve close attention. in Isachenko's view. Isachenko. in scissors the category of plural number.Recently a peculiar view of the category of number was put forward by A. Side by side with this view there are a number of other views. Case is the category of a noun expressing relations between the thing denoted by the noun and other things. i. as in the case of scissors. (2) there are no cases at all in English nouns. the essential meaning of the category (in nouns) is not that of quantity. e. The absence of any sign шау be significant as distinguishing one particular case from another. The plural. Among those who hold that there are no cases in English nouns there is again a variety of opinions as to the relations between the forms father and father's. since the existence оftwo correlated elements at least is needed to establish a category (In a similar way.Approaching the problem of case in English nouns from this angle. This sign is almostalways an inflection.

the dative by the preposition to and also by word order. but also Smith. We will now consider some of these phenomena. viz. and they would seemto prove that it is not absolutely necessary for a noun to denote aliving being in order to be capable of having an -'s-form. This indeed is the conclusion Academician I. Meshchaninov arrived at. that is. I. our master's arrival. mainly Germans. where the implied meaning of course is.). thisyear's elections). it seems obvious that the numberof cases in Modern English nouns cannot be more than two (father and father's). a work's popularity. nominative. the number of cases is bound to grow indefinitely. father's. This certainly means 'the officebelonging to both Smith and Brown'. Thus. The result of some recent investigations into the nature of the -'s form shows that its meaning is that of possessivity in a wide sense of the term. There are. viz. like at his fingers' ends. Thus. genitive. those which denote living beings (my father's room. the clog's head) and a few others. or at the water's edge. The essential meaning of this case would seem to require an exact definition. however. The latter form. the engine's overhaul life. Such views have indeed been propounded by some scholars. there are the expressions of the type Smith and Brown s office.therefore impossible to accept the theories of those who hold that case may also be expressed by prepositions (i. Of course it must be borne in mind that the possibility of forming the genitive is mainly limited to a certain class of English nouns. etc. and the accusative is stinguished from the dative by word order alone. whose name stands somewhat . but freely formed phrases. The real relation between the notionsexpressed by the two nouns may thus depend on the lexical meaning of these nouns. Alongside of phrases like my father's room. or word order. 'MrsBirch lost her daughter'.. there would seem no reason to deny that with the pen is an instrumental case. It should be noted. about the form in -'s being a case form at all. etc. and in so far we have stuck to the conception of a two-case system in Modern English nouns. it is the view of Max Deutschbein that Modern English nouns have four cases. Not only Brown. we also find such examples as nothing could console Mrs Birch forher daughter" s loss. etc. whereas the form in -'s merely denotes thepossessive relation. we can come across such phrases as. Thus. and also some substantivized adverbs (to-day's newspaper. and to the pen a dative case. while the former (father)may be termed common case. the young man's friends.. whose name is immediately connected with the -'s. by the phrase "preposition + noun") or by word order. or indeed any non-morphological means of expressing case. e. that this limitation does not appear be too strict and there even seems to be some tendency at work to use the -'s-forms more extensively. George's sister. certain phenomena which give rise to doubts about the existence of such a system — doubts. In the first place. of which the genitive can be -expressed by the -s inflection and by the preposition of. Thus. might be allowed to retain its traditional name of genitive case. which certainly are not stock phrases. That view would mean abandoning all idea of morphology and confusing forms of a word with phenomena of a completely different kind. The more exact limits of this possibility have yet to be made out. yesterday's news. if we admit that of the pen is a genitive case. in the pen a locative case. It should be recognized that once we admit prepositions. Thus the number of cases in Modern English nouns would become indefinitely large. dative and accusative. notably those denoting units of time (a week's absence. however. etc. Up to now we have seen the form in -'s as a genitive case.

. the possessive form father'sexists in contradistinction to the non-possessive form father.apart from it. is included in the possessive relation. Thus we may say that the -'s refers. and in the first place the impossibility of the phrase my class's mother.the man I saw yesterday's son. 'the speech of the Chancellor of the Exchequer'. . the King of England's residence. be an inflection making an integral part of a word: it is here part of a whole phrase. to-day's news. This subject has been variously treated and interpreted by a number of scholars. not to Brown alone. (The Pelican Guide to EnglishLiterature)The -'s is still farther away from its status as an inflection insuch sentences as the following: The blonde I had been dancingwith's name was Bernice something — Crabs or Krebs. Salinger's sentence. especially in colloquial style. by itself. the type "noun + attributive clause + -'s". The -'s belongs here to the group somebody else as a whole.and constantly aimed to suggest a man of the world's outlook and sophistication... Thus. (FORSTER) This is the type usually illustrated by Sweet's famous example. It cannot. no longer expresses a case. be in the genitive case. viz. It is obvious that the -'s belongs to the whole group. but a new grammatical category. that is. Inever knew the woman who laced too tightly's name was Mathson. The following views have been put forward: (1) when the -'s belongs to a noun it is still the genitive ending. etc. A further step away from the category of case is taken in the groups somebody else's child. g. the blonde I had been dancing with (it is her name he is talking about). e.All this seems to prove definitely that in the English languageof to-day the -'s can no longer be described as a case inflection innouns without. both in this country and elsewhere. or the Oxford professor of poetry's lecture. . for example. (2) since the -s can belong to a phrase (as described above) it is no longer a case inflection even when itbelongs to a single noun. the -'s belongs to the groups the Chancellor of the Exchequer and the Oxford professor of poetry. viz. Formations of this kind are by no means rare. and when it belongs to a phrase (including the phrase "noun + attributive clause") it tends to become a syntactical element.. respectively. (SALINGER). accordingly. many reservations. Thus. nobody else's business. my class's mother took us [to the movies] (SALINGER). Such constructions may not be frequent but they do occur and they are perfectly intelligible. that makes the syntactical connection clear.of this girl (who is) in my class.Compare also: . butto the whole group Smith and Brown. a syntactical. Here the word immediately preceding the -'s is an adverb which could not by itself stand in the genitive case (there is an obvious difference between somebody else's child and. at least. (3) the -'s when belonging to a noun. and many others. a postposition. in the following sentence the -'s is joined on to a phrase consisting of a noun and a prepositional phrase serving as attribute to it: This girl in. or yesterday's paper). not a morphological. An example of a somewhat different kind may be seen in the expression the Chancellor of theExchequer's speech. then.Let us have a look at J. D. and 'the lecture of the Oxford professor of poetry. which of course is equivalent to the mother. the category of "possession". and. The same of course applies to the groups the Duke of Edinburgh's speech. which means that they fit into the pattern of the language. It need hardly be emphasized that the preposition with cannot. It is only the lexical meaning ofthe words. element. These expressions certainly mean.

etc. This would correspond to the so-called objective genitive of inflected languages. my father arrives. though this particular use would seem to be far less frequent than the subjective. Now. we must recognize that there is much to be said in favour of this view. From this point of view it has been customary to point out that the relation expressed by the collocation "noun + + -'s + noun" is often a subjective relation. where the implied meaning of course is. is at presentextinct. shall be made with all possible dignity. and the latter by an o/-phrase following it. Though the question is still under discussion. We will. . the former is expressed by a noun . then. at least. ' Though the question is still under discussion. my father's arrival. The question now arises how wide this scope may be. This would then correspond to the so-called subjective genitive of inflected languages. 'Doughty was tried and executed'. and a final agreement on it may have to wait some time. such as my father's friends. my father's willingness. which has undergone a systematic reduction ever since the earliest times in the history of the language. which has undergone a systematic reduction ever since the earliest times in the history of the language. Besides phrases implying possession in the strict sense of the term (my father's books. conclude the discussion by saying that apparently the original case system in the English nouns. not do to say that the noun having the -'s could never indicate the object of the action: cf. the example Doughty's famoustrial and execution. and the only case ending to survive in the modern language has dveloped into an element of a different character —possibly a particle denoting possession. Itshould be noted that the views listed under (2) and (3) lead to the conclusion that there are no eases in the Modern English noun. however. the -'s is also found inother contexts. such as Russian or Latin. etc. it is by no means impossible or anomalous. and the only case ending to survive in the modern language has dveloped into an element of a different character — possibly a particle denoting possession. as in my father's arrival: my father's expresses the subject of the action. for instance. or Shakespeare's treatment of history. Parallel use of the -'s-form and the preposition of is seen in the following example: In the light of this it was Lyman's belief and it is mine — that it is a man's duty and the duty of his friends to see to it that his exit from this world. It would. My father was a happy man and My father's was a happy life). It should be noted that the views listed under (2) and (3) lead to the conclusion that there are no cases in the Modern English noun. if both the subject of an action and its object are mentioned. they can both be subject of the sentence (cf. and a final agreement on it may have to wait some time.). then. etc.with -'s preceding the name of the action. (TAYLOR) It should also be noted in this connection that. as in Coleridge's praise of Shakespeare.Different views have also been expressed concerning the scope of meaning of the -'s. that both the form without -'s and the form with -'s can perform the same syntactic functions. cf.An essential argument in favour of this view is. we must recognize that there is much to be said in favour of this view.My father was a happy man and My father's was a happy life). conclude the discussion by saying that apparently the original case system in the English nouns. as in Einstein's theory ofrelativity. The same of course applies to the phrases in which the object is not a living being. We will. Thus it would not be correct to formulate the meaning of the -'s in a way that wouldexclude the possible objective applications of the -'s-formation. is at present extinct.

like that of a cupid. the notions of number and case were alwaysexpressed by one morpheme. A change came already in Middle English. Paul's". A historical novel by the nineteenth-century English writer W. etc. a small cupid's mouth.The -'s form can also sometimes be used in a sense which may be termed qualitative.things: (1} 'the peace of mind of her child' (the usual possessive meaning). Mary. it may mean 'a cap of the type worn by officers'. Harrison Ainsworth bears the title "Old St. and she understood how fragile it was. is the usual possessive meaning (фуражка офицера). to take the facts for what they are and tosuppose that the -'s is here developing into a derivative suffix. Paul's Cathedral. there is no question of any child of hers. For another thing. of course. In the sentence as it stands in the text the surrounding words unmistakably point to the second. (GR. (CARY)'The meaning of the phrase her child's peace of mind is in itself ambiguous. Here are a few examples of the qualitative meaning. Paul. which was like a child's' (the qualitative meaning). in the Old English form stdna the ending -a expressed simultaneously the plural number andthe genitive case. namely I went to the baker's shop. and itappears to be quite impossible here to claim that this is an attribute to the noun cathedral which is "understood": if we were to restore the word which is supposed to be omitted. GREENE) The older view was based on the assumption that the -'s-form was an attribute to some noun supposed to be "understood". the qualitative interpretation: the whole sentence deals only with Amanda herself. The context also confirms that the intended meaning is the qualitative one. A somewhat similar expression is found in the phrase. Taken without the context. just as in any other phrase of this type: old John's views. Only the context will showwhich is meant. This is especially clear in . either the mouth of a small cupid. we spent a week at our uncle's house. However. This is best illustrated by an example. it may mean 'a cap belonging to a certain officer'. That was typical of an inflected language. A special use of the -'s-forms has also to be mentioned. Paul's. It seems more advisable. we spent a week at our uncle's. we should get Old St. MUTUAL RELATIONS OF NUMBER AND CASE In Old English.For one thing. this interpretation is doubtful. therefore.which might mean. Thus. It cannot be proved that a noun following the -'s-form is "understood". which may be illustrated by such examples as. The phrase an officer s cap can be interpreted in two different ways. etc. it is only the context that makes this clear: if it were not for thecontext the usual possessive meaning might be ascribed to the form. young Peter's pranks. it may mean one of two . I was going to write toMacmillan's and suggest a biography. This is also seen in the fact that the famous cathedral in London is very often referred to as St. so that the usual possessive meaning is not possible here. She perceived with all her nerves the wavering of Amanda's confidence. etc.that is. where the adjective old would seem to modify St. or a small mouth. or (2)her peace of mind. used to form a noun from another noun. Yes. I went to the baker's. and in Modern English the two notions have been entirely separated. rather than Cathedral. her child's peace of mind.. and this is its qualitative meaning (the Russian equivalent for this is офицерская фуражка). Outside the context both interpretations would be equally justified.. and that.

that ambiguity is better avoided by using the of-phrase instead of the possesive. Meaning (semantic property).. A course in theoretical English grammar. E.39-52 3. unless the context gives a clue. in the phrase [ 'boiz buks) is impossible to tell whether one or more boys are meant (in written English these variants would be distinguished by the place of the apostrophe: the boy's books as against the boys' books}. state and other characteristics both permanent and temporary.71. 1993.Y. therefore. . . часть 1. such as its material. The semantically bound character of the adjective is emphasized in English by the use of the non-substitute “one” in the absence of the notional head-noun of the phrase.48-61 2. let me have the green one over there. the opinions of our mothers. position. pp.2000.. The adjective expresses the categorical semantics of property of a substance. etc. e. сс36-40 Adjective as a part of speech • • • • • • • • • Definition Meaning (semantic property) Form (morphological properties) Function (syntactic properties) Subclasses of the adjectives Qualitative adjectives Predicative adjectives The statives Substantivized (adjectivids) Definition : The adjective is considered to be a part of speech as it has its own categorial meaning. It is natural. .whereas the notion of possessivity has no material expression in pronunciation (in the written language it is expressed by the apostrophe standing after the -s).L. in father s the -'s expressespossessivity. But this applies to nouns forming their plural in -s as well.К. In spoken English the two forms may of course be confused. E. pp. while the -'s expresses case alone. color. Методические рекомендации для самостоятельной работы студентов по курсу Теоретическая грамматика английского языка. Blokh M. Thus. АлмаАта. The structure of Modern English.g. g. dimensions. Literature: 1. the property of whose referent it denotes. whereas the notion of singular has no material expression.children's number is expressed by the root vowel and the inflection -ren.M. Ilyish B. In the plural fathers' the -s expresses the plural number. : I don’t want a yellow balloon. Гатилова В. g. It means that each adjective used in the text presupposes relation to some noun. form and function.A.the nouns which do not form their plural in -s: in the forms men's.

I.e. the rose-red grow had paled. (Mansfield). The combinability of statives is different from that of adjectives as they are not used in pre-positional attributive function. this leads to its substantivization. When he got into bed.Khaimovich and B. 1.Scherba and V.: But Johnny and Paddy were asleep.S. 4. Vinogradov. Rgovskaya criated their theory.Y. Relativeadjectives express such properties of substance as are determined by direct relation of the substance to some other substance. Predicative adjectives or The statives denote different states. And was called the “words of the category of state” . (Saxton)2. a predicative: 1. an enthusiastic reception. afraid.g. adequate or inadequate.a wooden hut. e.: an awkward situation .V. The categorial meaning of such adjectives is different . history .:Outside it was a beautiful day. and the sun tinged the snow with red . : afraid." (Heym) 2. table -tabular presentation.g.: wood . But unlike adjectives they cannot be placed before the words they modify. etc. adrift. E. B. e. optimal or excessive. afire. if the adjective is placed in a nominatively self-dependent position. as the adjectives denote not “quantity” in the narrow sense. aflame. as a separate part of speech in the Russian language by L. but while Alice was putting her to bed she grew suddenly afraid. Words of the category of state may be sometimes used as attributes.V.a historical event. B. mostly of temporary duration. he was sure he'd never fall asleep. "I'm afraid.). (Mansfield) II.g. we have to rely on the appeal of the leaflet. e. which was later changed into “stative words”. The statives do not possess the category of the degrees of comparison. bats were flying."He is awake!" Sally cried. 3.g.That was all right in the daytime. Statives are characterized by the specific prefix a-. and yet he was dog-tired.rather an enthusiastic reception. awake. They are mainly used in the function of: A.too difficult task. and still the bathers had not returned. a difficult task . sufficient or insufficient.: ablaze. 3. (Mansfield) Crearer said. and their two little children asleep upstairs were really too big for the doll's house. but “property” and formulates the meaning of the statives as “sative property” : the psychic . 5. (Wilson). The measure of a quality can be estimated as high or low. Statives may be treated as a subclass of adjectives (Blokh M. who sprawled very stiff as though they had fainted in the drawing-room.On the other hand.a very awkward situation . agog. etc. afoot. As attributes they may be only used in post-position: The father dolls. Words of the category of state may be used as objective predicatives: She was saying that she intended to leave him entirely alone again.g. Subclasses of the adjectives Qualitative adjectives denote various qualities of substances which admit a quantitative estimation. (Wilson) C. This class of adjective is problematic as it was first identified : I. 1.g. ablaze. or “statives”. E.adjectives denote “qualities” and statives denote “states”. asleep. explaining why it is a separate part of speech. General.

the evil. However.: Jack was the one most aware of the delicate situation in which we found ourselves. there are two cases of contradiction: 1 adjectives . worth.a far more mediaeval approach. Some wholly substantivized adjectives have only the plural form eatables. the singular. The most important suffixes and prefixes are: -ful(hopeful). Wholly substantivized adjectives have all the characteristics of nouns. are incapable of forming degrees of comparison: extinct. ablaze. deaf. Substantivized adjectives are : a Russian . well. afoot) -cf/ sound. the genetive case. one and the same adjective. they are used with the definite article. the French. (Kayshanskaya. curious. -ic (basic). 5. the plural. e. greens. • Partially substantivized adjectives acquire only some of characteristics of the noun .g.the statives are capable of expressing comparison analytically. the physical state of a person (astir. Partially substantivized adjectives are: the English. the state of an object (afire. the Chinese. Only qualitative adjectives are capable of forming degrees of comparison. 4. 2. e. refreshed. As for the veritable morphological features. sorry. They may also denote abstract notions: the good. Grammatical form.cf/happy. Prefix a. -ous (famous). having lost in the course of the history of English all its forms of grammatical agreement with the noun. the most bombastic speech . -ish (bluish). hungry. comparative.Russians. Form (morphological properties): • • Derivational features. they are associated with articles: a native . final. . glad. Functions . etc. Combinability .rather a mediaeval approach . pre.(Blokh M. 3. valuables. aslant). aware) .Germans.though the statives are not used in attributive position but like adjectives they are distinguished by the left-hand categorial combinability both with nouns and link-verbs. Among the adjectival affixes should also be named the prefix a-.state of a person (afraid. un (unprecedented).: a prettier girl. awry.many adjectives considered under the heading of relative still can form degrees of comparison when the property of a substance can be graded quantitatively : cf. 197-214) • • Substantivized (adjectives) are divided into wholly substantivized and partially substantivized adjectives. namely plural form . sweets.g. -less(flawless). -ive (decorative). In particular . due to and etc. ashamed. the poor. aglow) the state of an object in space (askew. In order to overcome the demonstrated lack of rigor in the definition the following additional linguistic distinction are introduced: “evaluable” and “specificative” . 50-51). a mediaeval approach . Degrees of comparison .(premature). Partially substantivized adjectives denote a whole class: the rich. the English adjective. superlative.Y. a quicker look. constructive for the stative subclass.the predicative and attribute like adjectives.which possess such qualities which are incompatible with the idea of degrees of comparison. the unemployed. spondent. the beautiful. a German . ancients.is not a prefix of a special part of speech because some adjectives do not have any affixes at all but display the stative set as well: ill. fixed. 2 .the natives. a native’s hut. immobile. is distinguished only by the hybrid category of comparison: primary.

serious about.Jespersen has quite rightly remarked that numerals have been treated by grammarians in a different way from other parts of speech.irrespective of its being basically relative or quantitative.. Почепцов Теоретическая грамматика современного английского языка М. ) With numerals.Г. 1971. Adjectives are distinguished by specific combinability with nouns in pre-position and occasionally in post-position.I. it is difficult to keep the strictly grammatical approach and not to let oneself be diverted into lexicological considerations. 75-83 И. both functional and notional. B. • In the sentence the adjective performs the functions of an Attribute and a Predicative. can be used either in the evaluative or specificative function Function (syntactic properties) • Combinability.П. Khaimovich . I.: fond of.В. (Attribute) LITERATURE: • • • • M. (Predicative) I will be like a silent grave. ". 1981 СС. jealous of. angry with.g.B. This is what he says.34-39 THE NUMERAL Meaning Form Function Cardinal numerals Ordinal numerals Имя числительное (по Ивановой И.Y. Ilyish The structure of modern English Leningrad. The complement-expansion of adjectives are effected by means of prepositions. sick with.Иванова. Blokh A course in theoretical English Grammar M. 0. Бурлакова . В. Rogovskaya A course in English grammar.В. he gives a complete and orderly enumeration of all the words belonging to this class. with modifying adverbs. etc. even more than with pronouns.58-66 B. In addition to the general combinability characteristics of the whole class are distinguished by a complementive combinability with nouns. grateful to.—B. pp." 2 . 2000.g.: I will be silent as a grave. M. и Бурлаковой В... pp.)..1967.197-214 B. with link-verbs.П.the grammarian in this chapter on numerals does what he never dreamed of doing in the two previous chapters (those on nouns and adjectives. E. Г. e. mad for. pp.

eighteen. Of the seven people 1 was looking /or / found only three. a hundred. e. and object) if the context makes it clear what objects are meant. . What. There are no grammatical categories to be discussed in numerals. twenty. thirty-three. thousand and million are always preceded by the indefinite article а о the numeral one. The latter is generally used when these numerals are followed by some other numerals. 0(0. (Form) Morphologically the numerals are. two.one. three. However a numeral can also perform other functions in the sentence (it can be subject. two hundred and twenty-eight. predicative. and also possibilities of their substantivization. Note 1. b) thousands of cars. b) millions of workers.000 cars).g. three thousand and fifty-two. 000 workers). The numerals hundred. Note 2. ten. nor any other morphological category. a thousand. a hundred but one hundred and twenty-three.It seems therefore all the more necessary to stick to the grammatical aspect of things when dealing with this particular category of words. Care should be taken to remember the following patterns: a) five hundred books (=500 books). ought to be said about numerals from a grammatical viewpoint? (Meaning )Semantically the numeral possess the categorial meaning of number. as in: We are seven. Numerals include two classes of words—cardinal numerals and ordinal numerals. Cardinal numerals indicate number: one. one hundred end forty-six. There is no category of number. (Function) Syntactically The most characteristic function of numerals is of course that of an attribute preceding its noun. a thousand but one thousand seven hundred and thirty. twelve. a) three thousand cars (=3. four. So there is only the function of numerals to be considered. to all intents and purposes. seven thousand three hundred and seventeen. invariable. etc. b) hundreds of books. seventy-five. ninety. a) two million workers (==2. indeed. nor of case.

1.e.—Twenty-two.000 are simple words (one. 1000. thousand. millions). those from 13 to 19 are . Thirty thousand years etc). When the word. etc. Cardinal numerals are used in the function of subject. million). are spelt with a hyphen. (Mansfield) (apposition) Cardinals are sometimes used to denote the place of an object In a series. sneering.). the young man opposite had long since disappeared. The numerals from 21 to 29. million may be used with articles (a hundred. more like forty laughing. but from the corner of the street until she came to No. (Mansfield) (object) At eight the gang sounded for supper. two.. a million)'. thousand.). million is followed by some other cardinal numeral only the first variant is possible. etc. 49. (Mansfield) (subject) Earle Fox was only fifty-four. The word million may be used with or without -s (two million.. 26 she thought of those four flights of stairs.g.: . there must be the word and after the word hundred.derivatives with the suffix -teen (thirteen. the cardinal numerals from 1 to 12 and 100. adverbial modifier and attribute (apposition).When used after other numerals they do not take -s (two hundred times. hundred. thirty. with a little girl. they may be substantivized and used in the plural (hundreds. etc.. page 27S. (Wilson) (predicative) And again she saw them. e. — In two hundred and twenty-three. but each night he took up his briefcase and walked home to dinner at 117th Street and Riverside .: All he wanted was to be made to care again. (Mansfield) (advfrbial MODIFIER) Four men in their shirt-sleeves stood grouped together on the garden path. thirty-five. four hundred and sixteen etc. the cardinal numerals indicating tens are formed by means of the suffix-ty (twenty. . Cardinals are used in reading indications: line 23. Note 1. thousand and million do not indicate any exact number but only a great multitude of persons or things. Such cardinal numerals as hundred. but he felt timeless and ancient. The functions of cardinal numerals in a sentence. Note 2. As to their structure.In the examples under (a) the exact number of persons or things is given. fourteen.. Chapter X. Now the other two got out. are composite: twenty-two. to look after the babies. No.. in the examples under (b) hundred. thirty-five. etc. thousands..000. etc. (Mansfield) (attribute) “And he remembered the holidays they used to have the four of them. two millions). two million five hundred inhabitants. etc. jeering. etc. from 31 to 39. object. but not four. Rose.g. a thousand. (Mansfield) Class nouns modified by a numeral in post-position are used without articles. three. predicate..

g. 1944—the first of September (September the first). (Mansfield) The functions of ordinal numerals in a sentence. twelfth. "Will you have another cup of tea?" "No. twenty-fifth. apartment 12D. Jane was the first to wake up. Ordinal numerals are generally used with the definite article (the first. second. second. With the exception of the first three (first. thank you I've had two. the tenth.Drive. Dates are read in the following way: 1st September. this is my first dance. Ordinal numerals show the order of persons and things in a series. 5/12=five twelfths. etc. 4. etc. (Mansfield) Almost immediately the band started and her second partner seemed to spring from the ceiling. Ordinal numerals may be used with the indefinite article when they do not show a definite order of persons and things in series :"I've torn simply miles and miles of the frill. eighteenth. two hundred and thirty-ninth. (the) twenty-third. 1807—the fifth of January (January the fifth). a) Three of the schoolboys fell ill with scarlet fever.03=eight point naught three. tenth. forty-seventh. 8. the fifth. The second was particularly difficult.5= three point five." b) We had three visitors that day.). 5th January. a hundredth." There were three questions in the test. LITERATURE: . third. Note 2. "No." wailed a third. In ordinal groups only the last member of the group takes the ordinal form: (the) sixty-fifth.3/8= three eights. The first visitor to arrive was my aunt Milly. As a rule ordinal numerals are used as attributes. Decimal fractions are read as: 8. Common fractions are read in the following way 2/3 = two thirds. "Which exercise would you like to do first?" "I think I'd begin with the third. (Wilson) Ordinal numerals indicate order: first. There were four of us there. (Mansfield) Note 1.76=four nni < seventy-six. row Function of cardinal and ordinal numerals Both cardinal and ordinal numerals can have certain functions of nouns (a) and of adjectives (b) in the sentence. eighteen hundred and seven. nineteen (hundred and) fourty-four. fourth. e. third) the ordinal numerals are formed from cardinal numerals by means of the suffix -th." she said.

0. Jespersen, The Philosophy of Grammar, p. 37. M.Y. Blokh A course in theoretical English Grammar M., 1994, pp.38 B. Ilyish The structure of modern English Leningrad, 1971, pp.66-74 B.B. Khaimovich , B.I. Rogovskaya A course in English grammar, M.1967, pp. 92-96 5. V.L.Kaushanskaya and others Practical grammar of the English language Leningrad 1967, pp.70-73 6. И.П.Иванова, В.В. Бурлакова , Г.Г. Почепцов Теоретическая грамматика современного английского языка М., 1981 , СС.39-40
1. 2. 3. 4.

ИМЯ ЧИСЛИТЕЛЬНОЕ В то время как существительные обладают всеми тремя признаками частей речи — морфологическими, синтаксическими и семантическими, а у прилагательных морфологический признак представлен слабее (1.3.3), числительные объединены только своей семантикой (см. 1.1.1). Они обозначают точное количество или точный по- рядок следования; соответственно, они подразделяются на количественные (one, two ...) и порядковые (the first, the second...). Словоизменительные признаки у них отсутствуют; синтаксически они могут занимать позиции, свойственные как существительным, так и прилагательным: She might be thirty or forty-five. (Christie) Two Italian primitives on the wall. (Christie) She
had not seen me for four days. (Snow)

Обе позиции в равной степени свойственны числительным; следует, однако, указать, что субстантивная позиция, как правило, связана с анафорическим употреблением: after a minute or two... Количественные числительные могут употребляться неанафорически, если они обозначают отвлеченное число: Two and two is four. В атрибутивной позиции количественные числительные обусловливают форму числа существительного: one day — two days. Порядковые числительные, обозначающие знаменатель дроби, подвергаются полной субстантивации; они получают морфологическую форму множественного числа: two thirds. Количественные числительные способны обозначать порядок следования, когда речь идет о годах, страницах или главах книги: in ten sixty-six; Chapter seven. Отсутствие морфологических признаков, а также особых, только им свойственных синтаксических функций были причиной того, что некоторые лингвисты (Есперсен, Керм) не признавали за числительными статуса части

речи, причисляя их к существительным и прилагательным. Однако, как мы видели, оба подкласса числительных способны выступать в равной мере в функциях, свойственных и существительному, и прилагательному; они имеют специфическую семантику, их объединяющую, и, наконец, у них имеется свойственная им словообразовательная система: для количественных от двенадцати до двадцати — образования с суффиксом -teen, от двадцати до ста — с суффиксом -ty, для порядковых, начиная от пяти, с суффиксом -th. Количественные hundred, thousand, million являются числительными, когда они обозначают точное число: two thousand five hundred and ten. Омонимичные им существительные употребляются для обозначения большого количества приблизительно, не называя точной цифры, причем эти существительные выступают тогда в форме множественного числа: hundreds of people, by twos and threes.

PRONOUNS
• • • • • • • •

Introduction Semantical properties (meaning) Morphological properties (form) CASE PERSON GENDER NUMBER Syntactical properties (function)

Introduction Pronouns share several characteristics, most of which are absent from nouns. Their name implies that they 'replace' nouns, but it is best to see pronouns as comprising a varied class of closed-class words with nominal function. By 'nominal' here we mean 'noun-like' or, more frequently, 'like a noun phrase'. Semantically, a pronoun has a categorial meaning that of deixis (indication). It may be a 'pro-form' in any of the three senses illustrated in the following example Margot longed for a bicycle, and at last (C) somebody gave (B) her (A) a brand new one (A) It may substitute for some word or phrase (as one may substitute for a noun, and therefore be a 'pronoun in a quite literal sense)
B. It may signal, as personal pronouns like her do, that reference is being made to

something which is given or known within the linguistic or situational context

C. It may stand for a very general concept, so that its reference includes the

reference of untold more specific noun phrases somebody, for example, indicates a broad class of people including a girl, a man, a secretary, etc. Subclasses of pronoun according to their meaning: demonstrative That interrogative Who, whose, what, which. relative Who whose that which as conjunctive who whose what which defining each, every, everybody, everyone, everything, all, either, both, other, another. indefinite some, any, somebody anybody something, anything someone anyone, one. negative No, none, neither nobody, no one, nothing

ocal

one this r. these those such same +

+ and how much, how many

-

+ and how much, how many that

-

+ 1.proper 2.distribu-tive
3. quanti-

-

tative + -

+

+

_

-

According to E.M. Gordon and I.P.Krylova emphatic pronouns have the same forms as reflexive pronouns - they are homonyms, but are used for emphasis, e.g.: You yourself told them the story. Indefinite pronouns are subdivided into the following groups: 1. proper some, any, no somebody, anybody, nobody, someone, anyone, no one, something, anything, nothing one, none distributive pronouns

few. Personal pronouns with subjective. a little. she. myself we. our.all. (genitive case) According to the point of view of Quirk there are the following cases: 1. ours.genitive case (someone’s) However. everyone. and 3rd persons for personal. yourself. my. indefinitepronouns: personal pronouns: she / her. other. every. somebody/somebody’s and etc. each. everything quantitative pronouns: much. many. mine ours yours  his  hers  its   theirs whose There is a contrast between 1st. a great many Morphologically. possessive. their ( genitive case) interrogative pronouns: who/whom. reciprocal pronouns: each other / each other’s (genitive case) defining pronouns: everybody/ everybody’s . they and the wh-pronoun: who have a further distinction between subjective and objective cases Table 1. .common case (someone) 2. we/us and etc. our. but excludes the speaker(s)/writer(s). whose etc. the five personal pronouns /. me. neither. lots of. possessive pronouns: my. ourselves 2ND PERSON PRONOUNS you. mine. little. interrogative pronouns. yours. defining. it. either. a few. objective and genitive case forms  Subjective  Objective   I  we   he    it   who  you  she they   me  us  my  you  him  his  her  it  her  its them  who(m  Possessive   our your their whose determinative    independent PERSON. he. some pronouns have characteristics that nouns have: CASE There is a contrast between subjective and objective cases for personal. her. we. genitive case for reciprocal. both everybody. possessive. your. I/me. us. he/him. a great deal. other/other’s (genitive case) indefinite pronoun: one/one’s. yourselves The reference of these pronouns includes the addressee(s). 2nd. a lot of. his. interrogative . reflexive pronouns: 1ST PERSON PRONOUNS I.

etc. defining (other/others) pronouns: . particularly in the United States. NUMBER There are morphologically unrelated number forms. he. theirs. i. itself . hers. their. possessive. In recent decades. etc. The choice between masculine and feminine pronouns is primarily based of the sex of the person (or animal) referred to: Fred looked at himself in the mirror. him. So defined. them. her.e. the use of he.). Freda looked at herself in the mirror. he) to a car. but may also include supernatural beings (the Deity. that/those). his. There are overt grammatical contrasts between (1) personal and non-personal gender. by those campaigning against sexual bias in language. its. The choice between personal and nonpersonal gender is determined primarily by whether the reference is to a 'person'. himself she. The 1st and 2nd person pronouns are inevitably of personal rather than nonpersonal gender. she (or. to a being felt to possess characteristics associated with a member of the human race. him.Gender distinctions are largely restricted to 3rd person singular pronouns of the categories of personal. angels. fairies. for some women. 'persons' are not only human beings.3RD PERSON PRONOUNS. No pronouns other than those in Table2 manifest a masculine/feminine contrast. gods. In poetry and fiction (especially children's fiction) there are virtually no limits to the kinds ofobject which can be personified in this way. as in personal. as an 'unmarked' pronoun when the sex of the referent is undetermined has been opposed.they. possessive. etc). herself it. them. reflexive demonstrative (this/these. and higher animals. themselves All noun phrases (except those having 1st and 2nd person pronouns as heads) are 3rd person for purposes of concord GENDER . as shown in Table 2 Gender distinctions in pronouns:   he  she  it  him  her  it  his  her  himself  herself  itself masculine  PERSONAL   feminine  neutral hers  its NONPERSONAL These gender distinctions are neutralized in the plural: they. and between (2) masculine and feminine gender . Exceptional uses such as it referring to babies and she referring to ships have already been noted. etc. The occurrence of he and she in cases of outright personification is common in informal use: he may refer to a computer. and reflexive pronouns. but the personal/nonpersonal contrast is also found in relativepronouns (who/whom contrasted with which) and in indefinite pronouns (somebody contrasted with something.

their. our. for example. to -selves in the plural :   singularyourself himself/herself /herselfherself itself  themselves yourselves Pronouns belonging to other classes.Quirk. those. like the predeterminer both. relative. and. plural: we. you with plural reference normally means 'you (singular) and one or more other persons. it is to personal pronouns above all that we turn in exemplifying these characteristics. and indefinite pronouns. has dual meaning. although often misunderstood as a singular by outlanders) There is also a colloquial genitive ) alls /J3:lz/. she. this. yourselves. plural reference is sometimes indicated by lexical additions. S. only the reflexive forms yourself and yourselves preserve a distinction between singular and plural: Harry. they.g.singular : I . we means 'I plus one or more other persons'. Except when it refers to. are invariable for number. e. like the corresponding determiners. you boys. others. behave yourselves! Reflexive pronouns in general show number contrast in the manner of nouns.  plural  ourselves  . the singular/plural distinction has been reformed through suffixation of the originally plural form You-all (y'all /jo:i/) is widely used on all social levels in Southern AmE (always with a plural meaning by those to whom the form is native. etc. other. his. themselves. by the addition of a sibilant suffix. as opposed to the typical regular formation of noun plurals girl/girls. herself. and was restricted to oblique cases A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language R. such as interrogative. but not me'. himself. ourselves. But contrast of number is neutralized with you: in current standard English. by contrast. her.Greenbaum. my. itself. and the indefinite pronoun onewhen used as a substitute Other pronouns. The pronoun both. as in I really like у all s new car ['your family's new car'] [c] You in earlier English was a plural pronoun only. similarly. you people. he. but is plural for purposes of concord. it. These special distinctions associated with pronouns are found most notably in the class of personal pronouns. yourself. Exceptions are the demonstratives this/these and that/those. and you guys [b] The low-prestige plural form youse /ju:z/ is current in Northern American English and certain areas of Britain such as Liverpool and Glasgow In Southern AmE. it. Note [a] In the absence of a singular/plural distinction in the 2nd person pronoun. collective authorship. do not in general have number contrast. behave yourself Harry and Susan. The suffix -self the singular changes. myself. which may be regarded. It is also worth noticing that the plurals of the 1st and 2nd person have a more specific meaning than do those of nouns. as the most important and central class of pronouns. that. Accordingly. these. by reason of their frequency and their grammatical characteristics.

has been to see you... (indefinite pronoun) Nobody seemed to know him well. ( personal pronoun) . who’s he?’ ‘Oh. (indefinite pronoun)  ‘Now. (negative pronoun)  ATTRIBUTE   1. (indefinite pronoun) PREDICATIVE  But I think that was him that I spoke.Leech. look here.We are convinced that the Government has made a grave mistake in imposing this tax. incorporate their own determiner. that is all. (possessive pronoun) In that moment of emotion he betrayed the Forsyte in him . Dad? She couldn’t wait.. Marian. he realized that she was making an effort to talk his talk.. Pronouns may perform several functions such as : SUBJECT : 1.’ (interrogative pronoun)  He just loved me. (possessive pronoun). ‘F... that most pronouns. (negative pronoun) OBJECT I met him in the street.F. (defining pronoun) In the next house someone was playing the piano.G. (reciprocal pronoun) Tell me just how you did this. when all is said and done. (reflexive pronoun)  The only honest people ..forgot himself. (demonstrative pronoun) ‘Who do you mean?’ I said. he strove to follow her.was capable of almost anything. (interrogative pronoun) And Martin forgot all about it.. (personal pronoun)  When he turned round again he saw Fleur standing near the door holding a handkerchief which the boy had evidently just handed to her.. said old Jolyon. London and New-York 1994. I think that appeals to me. pp. and he resolved to get away from it and talk hers. (reflexive pronoun) Elizabeth and George talked and found each other delightful.if they existed .What he likes is anything except art. ‘Fleur Forsyte . indeed..SvartvikLongman. and while she rattled on. his property . It’s all right. ‘ (demonstrative pronoun)  ‘No. (interrogative pronoun) . he heard her say.335-345 Syntactically. do you think. ( demonstrative pronoun) Who . (possessive pronoun) . most pronouns function like noun phrases rather than nouns. (personal pronoun) 2. Thank you ever so. marvelling at all the knowledge that was stowed away in that pretty head of hers.it’s mine all right. but I’d rather try my hand at brokerage.were those who said : ‘ This is foul brutality. being either definite or indefinite. (negative pronoun) Where is his home? He didn’t have any. this is nothing but nonsense.’ Yours (sum of money) won’t come short of a hundred thousand. ‘. (defining pronoun)  . he’s a Polish Jew. ( defining pronoun) We’d have nobody to fight the war. his interests. We can say. J.’ (possessive pronoun)  When she came back she was herself again. They combine in only a limited way with determiners and modifiers. my boy’..

since the adjective is a word expressing a substantive property. rather. defines the adverb as a notional word expressing a non-substantive property. quantity (very. why. 204-205). firstly) Three groups of adverbs stand aside : interrogative (where. never) adverbs of place or direction (inside. ever. backward. measure. In attempt to overcome this drawback Blokh M. when. If June did not like this. (Blokh M. (reflexive pronoun)  Not until moon and stars faded away and streaks of daylight began to appear. who). tomorrow. It is true. seldom.Y. (defining pronoun)  We approved neither plan. nearly. I’d give it to him. 204-205) . This definition. (negative pronoun)  ‘It’s anybody’s right. pp.Y. almost. anxious to keep away from the subject of herself. here. too.(Kayshanslaya . (Kayshanslaya . accordingly) adverbs of manner (kindly.’ he thought. 214-222) Meaning (semantic property): Adverbs fall under several groups: • • • • • • • adverbs of time (today. every line of it. though certainly informative and instructive. fails to directly point out the relation between the adverb and adjective as the primary qualifying part of speech. This formula immediately shows the actual correlation between the adverb and adjective. quickly.’ Martin heard somebody said. twice..’ she ventured to observe. (reciprocal pronoun)  ‘If that young fellow wanted a place. did Meitjie Brinker and Hans look hopelessly in to each other’s face. relative. she could have allowance and live by herself. (indefinite pronoun)  DVERBIAL MODIFIER    1. or points out some characteristic features of an action or a quality. consequently. soon) adverbs of repetition or frequency ( often. (demonstrative pronoun)  ‘Which day is it that Dorloote Mill is to be sold?’ (interrogative pronoun)  This is something more than genius. upstairs) adverbs of cause and consequence ( therefore. conjunctive. (reflexive pronoun)  Adverbs as a part of speech • • • • The definition Meaning (semantic property) Form (the morphological properties) Function (the syntactic property ) The definition: The adverb is a part of speech which expresses some circumstances that attend an action or state. hard) adverbs of degree.‘I fancied you looked a little downcast when you came in .

Smirnitsky). placed in postposition to the verb.Y. to give out. so. to give away.A.Y. A. headlong).today.Y. or to introduce a lexical modification to its fundamental semantics. place manner. The difference consists in the fact that their parts are semantically not blended into an indivisible lexemic unity and present combinations of a preposition with a peculiar adverbial substantive -a word occupying an intermediatery lexico-grammatical status between the noun and the adverb. comparatively.to cause to happen. classes these words as a special functional set of particles. sometimes. considers that composite adverbs differ in principle from the one cited above.g.to give up. By combining with these elements. The lexico-grammatical standing of the elements in question has been interpreted in different ways. others as preposition-like functional words (I. As for the name to be given to the words for their descriptive identification (“postpositions”. B.Blokh M. The function of these post-positional elements is either to impart an additional aspective meaning to the verb-base. when. enough. circumstantial (adverbs of this type may be divided into notional and functional. E.: • • The pale moon looked at me from above. Many of these adverbs are used as connectives and question forming functionals -now. cause. slightly.. time . ridiculously. where. enough.: to bring about . and that is the idea of the functional character of the analyzed elements. One fundamental idea is common to all various theories advanced.Palmer.Khaimovich and B. likewise. how. recently. Functional include adverbs of time. N. as peculiar prefix-like suffixes similar to the German separable prefixes (Y.) .Ilyish. e. divides adverbs into qualitative (adverbs which express immediate.Rogovskaya). hardly and etc. finally some scholars have treated these words as a special set of lexical elements functionally intermediate between words and morphemes (B.S. form a semantic blend with it. late etc.( Blokh M. plainly). still others. then. utterly. quantitative (words of degree .very.Y. why. to give in. highly. . Blokh M. to give over. consequence.e. derivative (slowly. there). E. Blokh M. here. seldom.Zhluktenko). Notional include adverbs of place. inherently non-graded qualities of actions and other qualities : bitterly.Anichkov.g. words of semi-morphemic nature . 214-222) Form (the morphological properties): a. at last). “adverbial postpositions) we prefer the term “postpositives” introduced by N. pp.I.g. correlative with prepositions and conjunctions. compound (anyhow. shortly. etc. Some scholars have treated these words as a variety of adverbs (H. to bring down -to kill or wound. etc. entirely. composite (at once.: • to give . i. dreadfully.Amosova). The departure of the delegation is planned for later this week. Of quite a different nature are preposition-adverb-like elements which. thus. Amosova. “adverbial word-morphemes”. As to their structure adverbs are divided into simple (long. systematic multiplication of their semantic functions. verbs of broader meaning are subjected to a regular. nowhere) . surprisingly. awfully.

(adverbial modifier of time) We shall meet here. badly-worse-worst. 204-205) Adverbs can also refer to whole situations.: • • The world today presents a picture radically different from what was before the Second world War.. the then President of the United States. 3. wide : He rode fast. 2. proclaimed the “New Deal” .Y. usually mixed up with other parts of speech. Combinability: An adverb may modify verbs (verbals). 4. nouns: • • • • • Annette turned her neck lazily ( verb + adverb) And glancing sidelong at his nephew he thought . The function of the verb is that of an adverbial modifier: 1. (an adverbial modifier of manner. Adverbs can also combine with nouns acquiring in such cases a very peculiar adverbial-attributive function. (adverb + adverb) She is very beautiful (adverb + adjective). (adverbial modifier of degree) She is busy now. (adverbial modifier of manner). in lefthand contact combination with the verb-predicate) Wilson looked at him appraisingly. (Kayshanslaya . adjectives and adverbs. pp. essentially in post position.. . late. That is very good. (adverbial modifier of place) She sings beautifully. but in some cases also in pre-position.g. Franklin D. (word of the category of state + adverb) Harris spoke quite kindly about it.Some adverbs have degrees of comparison: 1. Roosevelt. Adverbs ending in -ly form the comparative form by means of more and the superlative by means most. : • • The woman was crying hysterically (an adverb modifier of manner. • Adverbs coincide with an adjective: fast. in lefthand contact distant combination with the verb-predicate).(Blokh m. words of the category of state. (verbal + adverb) And now the morning grew so fair. little-less-least) Function (the syntactic property ): a. loud. The teacher always reads loud enough. If the adverb is a word of one syllable. Adverbs.. She opened her eye wide. and all things were so wide awake. much-more-most. She waited long. in this function they are considered under the heading of situation-“determinants”. 214-222) b. Some adverbs have irregular forms of comparison: (well-better-best. 3. E. cf. the comparative degree is formed by adding -er and the superlative by adding -est.a new Government economic policy. Such adverbs may be distinguished only from the context. 2.

Cf. since. (adverb) Adverbs coincide with conjunctions: when.: When did you speak to her? (adverb) When she returns. before. . : I shall speak to you after. but. I shall go to see her. Cf. where.• • Adverbs coincide with prepositions: after. I shall tell you about it after. (preposition).

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