12 MasterBeam: Composite Beam Design

12.1 Getting Stared with MasterBeam Composite Design MasterBeam Composite Beam Design is an interactive program for the design of composite beams with or without web openings to BS 5950. MasterBeam Composite Design is a very powerful and an extremely user friendly program with a short learning curve. 12.1.1 Design Features • • • • • • • • • • • • Analysis and design of simply supported composite beams Primary beams Secondary beams Combined primary-secondary beams Option for non-composite analysis and design Propped or un-propped design Natural frequency checks Notched supports Web openings, with or without stiffeners Factored beam loads automatically calculated from floor loading Additional point and distributed loads The steel section can be a rolled I-section, a rolled channel or a built-up symmetrical or asymmetrical I-section

12.1.2 Operational Features • Easy to use, very fast with powerful editing facilities • Analysis and design checks are carried out automatically and instantaneously as beam input data is changed. • Store multiple beam designs in one file. • Global definition of particular parameters, which apply to all design briefs in a file. • In-built library of standard British sections and open libraries for other sections • In-built and open libraries of metal deck profiles and shear connectors • A full summary of the design data is displayed with clear warnings of non-compliance • Whilst viewing the results, AutoChange facilities are provided which enable the Engineer to rapidly select the most appropriate steel section. • AutoDesign function to automatically select the lightest or smallest adequate section. • Automatic transfer of data from one beam to another for rapid analysis and design of similar beams • In-built on-screen training • Clear and concise output • Engineer friendly
MasterBeam - Composite design 7 MasterBeam Composite Design 7-1

12.2 Primary Program Interface Regions

The screen above shows four main areas as follows: • The bar menu and tool bar. • The detailed output and graphics area with its scroll bar. • The design summary with the paragraph and section design output navigator spin buttons. • The editing area comprising the five data input tabs: Floor Information, Beam Section, Additional Loads, Web Openings and Open Library. Please note that the information in the detailed output and the design summary areas change dynamically as the beam data is altered in the editing area. 12.2.1 The MasterBeam Tool Bar Create new file using the current defaults Open file Save current file Delete the current brief Copy the current brief to clipboard Add new brief form clipboard Add new brief based on current defaults Enter global editing mode (changes all briefs) Graphics always on top
7 MasterBeam Composite Design 7-2

2.Next/Previous brief spin button Un-propped during construction stage Propped during construction stage Secondary beam Primary beam with one transverse beam Primary beam with two transverse beam General (User defined) beam Mixed primary secondary beam Apply transverse beams (Primary beams ON/OFF) Use continuous metal deck profile Apply additional point loads Apply additional uniformly distributed load Apply circular web openings Apply rectangular web opening Export / print graphics ON/OFF Project title and Job references Print current brief Print all briefs Export current brief to Word Export all briefs to Word The tool bar provides quick and easy access to some of the primary MasterBeam file management. 12.2 The Detailed Design Output and Graphics Area 7 MasterBeam Composite Design 7-3 . editing and printing/exporting functions.

Upper and lower web-flange classifications. Column 4 – Design check verdict. The overall graphics scale. reinforcement. axial resistance and moment capacity design checks at critical locations along the beam. Column 3 – Calculation result or permissible values.Graphics The on screen graphics of the current design brief changes dynamically with any modifications to the information in the editing area. Vierendeel moment. shear connectors. shear connection. • Summary of design data – details of beam geometry. Composite / Non-composite moments. with axial and shear force capacity checks. Detailed Design Output The design output is presented in a detailed and concise format. OK or Warning. item or numerical value. By clicking the Graphics always on top button in the tool bar the graphics will remain visible as you scroll through the design output. • Vibration Analysis – natural frequency check • Openings – summary of location and size. 7 MasterBeam Composite Design 7-4 . axial force design check.2. Column 2 – Design data or calculation. The unity ratios are dynamically updated with any alteration of information in the editing area. 12. metal deck profile. • Section Properties • Ultimate limit state – beam shear. concrete slab. The design output includes. steel section. as well as the point loads and partial UDL scales may altered using the spin buttons as indicated above. By clicking on any of the items in the design summary area. the corresponding detailed design output is displayed. Column 1 – Description of calculation. in the format. steel stress and concrete stress design checks. The various deign checks are clearly divided into headed sections.3 Design Summary Area The design summary area permits immediate evaluation of the fundamental design checks. The paragraph and section navigator spin buttons also provide useful tools for scrolling the detailed design output. and applied loading. Dimensional checks. • Transverse reinforcement • Serviceability limit state – deflection. The results are generally displayed over four columns.

Additional Loads.4 The Editing Area The Editing Area is divided into 6 tabs: Floor Information.Any unity ratios exceeding 1.0 represent a design failure and are highlighted in red. Analysis and design is carried out automatically and instantaneously as any influential input data is changed. Beam Section.2. 12. making any design failure immediately apparent. Open Library and Defaults. 7 MasterBeam Composite Design 7-5 . The background colour of the design output and graphics area also changes to Cyan. Web Openings.

In the unpropped condition an ultimate limate state at construction stage design check for shear and moment capacity is applied.3 Floor Information or using the Simplified Menu (PowerPad and PowerPad Plus) 12. These values may be changed in the defaults tab.2 kN/m2 for Deck/Mesh and 0. Distance from main beam to parallel left and right hand beams. The program automatically adds 0. Construction stage support The metal deck profile support condition at construction stage may be specified as propped or unpropped.5 kN/m2 for Construction Loading. For an edge beam either b or c is set to zero. Floor Area Loading The general floor area loading in kN/m2 is defined in three categories.12.3. The concrete slab and the steel beam self-weights are calculated and added automatically.1 Floor Information Input Areas Beam Geometry Main Beam span (primary or secondary) b & c. 7 MasterBeam Composite Design 7-6 .

This funtionality is not included where only the simplified menu is available.Transverse Beams Defines the position and section size of transverse beams in a primary beam design. 7 MasterBeam Composite Design 7-7 . The Overwrite Area function enables the user to redefined the transverse beam lengths and supported floor widths for each beam. and the defintion is limited to the application of 1 and 2 No. The transverse beams apply a concentrated load to the primary beam bases on their length and supported floor width as defined in the beam geometry. Therefore the in beam graphics the metal deck is shown in section through the hollow rib profile.2 Composite Beam Types The design of composite beams is categorised into the following types. Displays the defaults tab and the customised program defaults are used Prints the combination of load groups and load factors in the design output Prints steel and concrete stress details in the serviceability limit state design check.3. Use the simplified input menu only. Option Buttons Apply design check at construction stage when propped. 1. equedistant transerve beams. 12. Secondary Beam Represents the beam spanning between two primary beams. The direction of the metal deck profile spans between primary beams. The number of shear studs is specified per trough.

The beam size for the transverse beams is required to enable the correct value of their self-weight to be included. 3. please note: The floor width supported directly by the beam is 1. The program automatically calculates the floor area supported by each beam. In the above screen. Mixed Primary-Secondary Beam The mixed – primary secondary option is used for instances where the metal deck profile spans in different direction on either side on the beam. Primary beams may support transverse beams.5 m = ½ the distance to the right hand beam The transverse beam floor length supported is 4.5 m = ½ the distance to the left hand beam 7 MasterBeam Composite Design 7-8 . Primary Beam The primary beams represent the main structural beams.2. The Overwrite Floor Area option enables you to specify your own data for special cases.

and concrete slab properties. Spacing_01 7 MasterBeam Composite Design 7-9 . The wet density of the concrete 1850 for light weight. The shear connectors type. 15 for light weight. HD. HE. 3. metal deck. The percentage deck contribution you wish to consider (100% for full contribution. The metal deck profile thickness. HPX. section sizes and grades in the main open library for steel sections. singly or in pair. You can select and add new rolled section types. The overall concrete slab depth (zero for steel beam only). The metal deck profile type including solid slab.12. reinforcement. In secondary and mixed primary-secondary beams this can be One per Alternate Trough.. HL.4 Beam Section The Beam Section tab defines steel section. IPN. can be specified for each region between supports and transverse beams Spacing values are used in primary beams where the metal deck profile troughs run parallel with the beam. shear connection. The area of steel mesh provided perpendicular to the span of the beam. 10 for normal weight and 0 to allow the program to calculate a default value based on the concrete type (light or normal weight) and the ratio of the long term and short term loads.16 The Steel Sections and Open Library The metal deck profile condition: Continuous or NonContinuous. In primary beam. 0% for no-contribution). RSJ. and Channels. The steel section type UB. One per Trough. UBP. You can add other metal deck profiles in the Open Library tab. UC. W. You can add other shear connectors from the Open Library tab. The modular ratio. The section size. …. The concrete grade (zero for non-composite). The section grade. Two per Trough or Spaced @ the specified centres singly or in pair. IPE. The section size list can be sorted by serial size or weight order using the Sort check box. the spacing. 2350 for normal weight. The shear connectors spacing.

the auto design scans through the selected beam section list to find a section which satisfies the failing design criteria. The failures are prioritised in the following order. • If any failure (with the exception of transverse shear) is detected. Using the Auto design The auto design function will attempt to rectify failures related to the beam section and transverse shear. Add new brief (composite beam design) to data file based on current brief. Spacing_02 refers to the portion between the 1st and the 2nd transverse beams and so on. If a transverse shear failure is detected the auto design scans the list of standard steel mesh sizes to find a mesh which satisfies the failing criteria. otherwise the contribution will be assumed to be the same as for a discontinuous profile with ribs running perpendicular to the span of the beam. MasterBeam will ignore the contribution if the profile is discontinuous. If a spacing is left to a value of zero. The sort spin button moves the position of the current brief in the brief list. • 7 MasterBeam Composite Design 7 . The current brief beam reference title.10 . The Ignore Deck Contribution in Primary Beams is provided because BS 5950 is unclear about the contribution. then it defaults to the previous value Left and right hand width of concrete flange in composite section b1 and b2. Increase the number of shear connectors by one.refers to the portion between the left-hand support and the 1st transverse beam. AutoDesign button as described below. The last spacing you need to define is between the last transverse beam and right hand support. Delete current brief.

e.ovr. Alternatively you can copy the open library file C:\msprowd\combeam1. Reset the Standard Library to original MasterBeam values (Metal Deck Profiles No 1 to 14 and Shear Connectors No 1 to 7 Only). Metal Deck Profiles Please note that the profile name is limited to 23 characters.11 . Shear Connectors The shear connector name is limited to 28 characters. Feel free to investigate the various options provided in the open library.5 Open Library The open library area is used to add new definitions of metal deck profiles and shear connectors. To enter an item in the open library Enter the data for the item Be sure to use a new reference number for the item unless you wish to overwrite an existing item Click on Other editing functions Delete the currently selected items from the library. i. 7 MasterBeam Composite Design 7 . but please be careful not to remove or change properties for items which have been added by other users in your company.12. If you wish to use the MasterBeam Composite Design on a number of machines then remember to enter the same items in the open library on all the machines where the program is being used. Reset the complete library. delete all user defined metal deck profiles and shear connectors.

6 Additional Loads MasterBeam provides the facility to apply: 1. as described in section 12. Other editing functions Delete the currently active load. Live and Super Imposed Dead. ! Note: • • Dead loads are applied at the construction stage before the composite action. Additional partially distributed load positions (X1/X2 refer to start/end) and values including Dead. Delete all point or partial loading. The applied point and partial uniformly distributed loading are displayed in the beam graphics.12. Mirror copy the loading information from either the line above or below to the current line.2. Live and Super Imposed Dead. Live and Super Imposed Dead loads are applied after the composite action. and 2.2 Design Output and Graphics area. The individual graphical scale of either load may be altered using the spin buttons provided.12 . Additional point load positions (X) and values including Dead. The “Copy load from” spin buttons enable you to copy loads data from previous or subsequent rows (loads are copied symmetrically on the beam). 7 MasterBeam Composite Design 7 .

Rectangular Openings. one at the top and the other at the bottom of the opening. The Top Edge distance is measured from the top of the steel beam to the top edge of the opening The Stiffener Area is the area of one of the two stiffeners provided. depth. The default Edge distance from the centre of a stiffener to the edge of the opening is 12 mm Diameter of the circular wed opening. The distance to the opening is always defined from the left-hand support to the centre of the opening in meters. Depth of rectangular web opening Width of rectangular web opening The program uses default values for the opening diameter. Circular Openings. 2. width and the top edge distance.13 . The default values are based on the beam depth and aim at positioning each opening at the centre of the beam.12. use the Section Navigator spin button to view the opening’s data in the detailed output area. A notch at the support is a rectangular opening with a distance from the support equal to or less than ½ its width. To check the exact values used. Further guidance for the 7 MasterBeam Composite Design 7 . and 3. Stiffener sizes and arrangements are suggested in the detailed design output based on the area of stiffener provided and for a compact section.7 Web Openings The “Web Openings” area is where you can define: 1. The two stiffeners are positioned so that their centres are at the specified edge distance from the edge of the opening. Notches at supports (special case of rectangular opening).

19812. [1] Lawson.M. Option Buttons Use a refined analysis method Recommended check for web openings. 7 MasterBeam Composite Design 7 . must be used at the discretion of the Engineer and should definitely not be used blindly. Technical Reference Manual 118. as outlined in [1]. Steel Construction Institute. Strengthening of Web Openings in Steel Beams. however should be used at the discretion of the design engineer. Extracts from this technical note [2] concerning the detailing are given in Appendix A. Other editing functions Delete the currently active web opening.. We believe the technical content of Appendices A and B provide good best practice guidance. R. Please note that some design check options.14 . 2001. Extracts from [2] on this subject are given in Appendix B. SCI Publication 068. where To = axial force arising from non-composite action N1 = number of shear connectors from support to start of opening Pd = design strength of the shear connectors Ignore web opening dimensional checks.detailing of stiffeners is given in [2]. Show error report on web openings. Rev 1. such as “Ignore dimensional checks in web openings”. Delete all circular or rectangular web openings. MasterBeam Composite Beam Design performs the dimensional checks on web openings as outlined in [1]. Mirror copy the web opening information from either the line above or below to the current line. Design for Openings in the Webs of Composite Beams. Additional guidance is provided by [2] which is principally based on [1] but also draws on other publication by AISC and ASCE. Civil and Structural Computer Services would like to acknowledge the co-operation and contribution of the WSP Group in Appendices A and B. [2] Stuart Alexander. WSP Group.

The user may customise. • Load factors for dead. according to each of the listed design checks. • Span/deflection ratios.8 Customisation of Default Settings This area can be accessed using the button on Floor Information Tab. and click Open to active the files default settings.12. • Minimum natural frequency value • Option to include loading defined in the additional loading tab in the calculation of natural frequency. Choose the desired previously saved MBD file. Instantaneously resets to the original MasterBeam program defaults. super imposed and live load groups. using different file names for different default values. 7 MasterBeam Composite Design 7 .15 . • The load group associated with service and partition floor area loads specified in the floor information tab. Saving customised settings Save the current customised settings to a Master Beam Default (MBD) file. • Construction load and deck self weight.

MasterBeam provides the facility to globally modify particular parameters for all beam design briefs stored in a single data file. separate beam designs. The multiple design briefs may perhaps be associated with a common floor area. 7 MasterBeam Composite Design 7 . floor level or an entire project. Once complete the global editing mode is deactivated. Analysis and design is automatically updated.e. in one data file.16 . Upon modifying a global parameter the program then applies that change to all design briefs in the data file. i. button.4 Beam Section.9 Globally Defined Input Values As described in section 12. Input parameters that can be To enter the global editing mode click on the globally edited are highlighted in Cyan for text boxes and Red for option labels. The global editing button must be selected for each individual modification of a global parameter.12. the user may save a number of design briefs. To exit the global editing without making any changes simply click again on the button to deactivate the mode.

10 Printing and Exporting Results Export / print graphics ON/OFF Edit Project title and Job references Print current brief Print all briefs Export current brief to Word Export all briefs to Word Sample of Design output exported to PowerPad 7 MasterBeam Composite Design 7 .12.17 .

18 . 2001. the capacity of the weld anchoring the extension beyond the opening at each end must also be at least the yield strength of the stiffener section. WSP Group. Strengthening is generally only needed for rectangular openings. This gives convenient geometry in which the extension length is one quarter of the length of the opening. Stuart Alexander. Figure 1. Strengthening of Web Openings in Steel Beams. Similarly. This detail also locates the stiffeners as close to the opening as possible. American publications recommend welding one side only for the length of the opening (ie the side away from the opening) and welding both sides of the extension.11 Appendix A – Detailing The Stiffeners in Web Openings Appendix A is an extract from the following reference. Web opening with stiffeners showing elements and dimensions Stiffener section The stiffeners must be sized to be compact. see figure 1. Civil and Structural Computer Services would like to acknowledge the co-operation and contribution of the WSP Group. Technical Reference Manual 118. 7 MasterBeam Composite Design 7 . Rev 1. Welding Stiffeners must be welded continuously throughout their length. ie the ratio b/Ts T 8.5 for grade 275 and 7.12. We believe the technical content of Appendix A provides good best practice guidance.5 for grade 355 steel. it is usually provided in the form of longitudinal stiffeners placed immediately above and below the opening on one or both sides of the web. however should be used at the discretion of the design engineer. Vertical stiffeners are not normally required in rolled sections. The capacity of the weld from the mid-point to each end of the opening must be at least the yield strength of the stiffener section.

5 B = (80 + 4. the length of the extensions ls must satisfy ls U V3 Ar / 2 t. it is recommended that this limiting ratio is adopted. some computer programs can only handle equal stiffeners. If the stiffeners are predominantly restoring the overall moment capacity (as described above). or even to omit one altogether if the hole is very high or low. However. Nevertheless.8) / 104 = 0. Web strength In order to ensure that the stiffeners are anchored without overstressing the web. welds both sides may be preferable. the tests reported by Lawson et al were carried out with stiffeners on one side only with no adverse effects observed. Stiffeners on one or both sides? The guidance is generally based on stiffeners being located in pairs symmetrically each side of the web. Until further evidence is forthcoming.9. 7 MasterBeam Composite Design 7 . It is recommended that paired stiffeners are used if a single stiffener would exceed this ratio. it is likely that the joint will widen slightly. Shear lag This describes the phenomenon in which at the free end of the stiffener the stress close to the web is very much higher than the stress at the outer edge.5 t) / 0. No guidance on this aspect is provided in any of the quoted publications. ie with a ratio ls/b = 1. the tests reported by Lawson et al were carried out with stiffeners 80 x 10 mm extending 150 mm beyond the opening. they should be symmetrical about the web.81. the longer the extension the more the stress will be able to equalise at the critical section. Equal stiffeners top and bottom? It is theoretically OK to have different stiffeners top and bottom.However. Remember to leave enough height between the stiffener and the opening to get the weld in. The ratio of stiffener width to beam half-flange width in the tests was (b + 0. If this creates a corrosion risk.19 . Clearly. say at least the weld size plus 4 mm. However.

7 MasterBeam Composite Design 7 . there are a number of geometric criteria which should be met. a notch can be used instead. the combined vierendeel action may overload the post between them. however should be used at the discretion of the design engineer.5 D in some cases.12 D for composite beams). Point loads should not be applied at less than D from an opening (SCI 068. The ratio v = lo / st or lo / sb should not exceed 12 (AISC. Strengthening of Web Openings in Steel Beams. Openings should have corner radii r not less than 2 t nor 16 mm (AISC and ASCE). If openings are closer together. ASCE). Rev 1.15 D for non-composite beams or 0.12. American practice is more conservative).0 D applies only to openings not requiring stiffeners. 2001. this work shows that the lower limit of 1.7 D and lo T 2. We believe the technical content of Appendix B provides good best practice guidance. and calculations should be carried out for other cases. AISC and ASCE limit is D).1 L. WSP Group. fin plate connections can be detailed to create the required stiffeners). Openings should not be less than 1. The depths of the upper and lower sections of web sb. where L is the span (SCI 068.12 Appendix B – Dimensional Checks in Web Openings Appendix B is an extract from the following reference.5 D (SCI 068).6 D and lo T 1. sb U 0.20 . Civil and Structural Computer Services would like to acknowledge the co-operation and contribution of the WSP Group. Stuart Alexander.7 D only).15 D.0 D or 0. Stiffened openings should generally have ho T 0. AISC and ASCE require ho T 0. No opening should be closer to a support than 2. as follows: Unstiffened openings should generally have ho T 0. AISC and ASCE limits are st U 0.0 D (SCI 068. If the point loads arise from secondary beams. otherwise bearing stiffeners are required.0 D apart (SCI 068. AISC and ASCE give criteria for reducing this to 0. Technical Reference Manual 118. For rectangular openings. see below. st. should not differ by more than a factor of two (SCI 068.

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