COURSE: GROSS ANATOMY

2004-2005

STRUCTURAL BASIS OF MEDICAL PRACTICE
ANATOMY EMBRYOLOGY RADIOLOGY CLINICAL CORRELATE

http://www.humangrossanatomy.ws

THE STRUCTURAL BASIS OF MEDICAL PRACTICE/
PATIENTS, PHYSICIANS AND SOCIETY WeekI
Gross Anatomy

Week 2
Physical Diagnosis Clinical Correlate Radiology

Week 3
Block Exams # 1, #2

Week 4
Clinical Interviews

WeekS

I

Week 6
Block Exams # 3, #4

Week 7

I

Week 8
Block Exams # 5, 1M

Week 9

Week 10
Block Exam #7

Week 11
Block Exams #8, #9

The Structural Basis of Medical Practice Co-Director: Drs. Ian Zagon and Donald Mackay Com~onent Gross Anatomy Radiology Embryology Clinical Correlate Instructor Dr. Zagon Dr. Leure-duPree Dr. Hartman Dr. Zagon Dr. Bollard Dr. Berlin Room Number C3729 C3710 CG525 C3729 C6860 C7833 Phone Number X8650 X8650 X6891 X8650 X8390 X8006

Patients, Physician and Society Co-Directors: Drs. John George and Michael Green Com~onent Physical Diagnosis Clinical Interviews Instructor Dr. Bahadori Dr. Lewis Room Number 4100UPC C1619 Dr. Richard Simons Glenda Shoop Phone Number X8161 X8752 C1708 C1704 X3876 X3877

Associate Dean of Medical Education Curriculum Coordinator

STRUCTURAL BASIS OF MEDICAL PRACTICE INVENTORY
Gross Anatomy Lecture: Small Group/Lab: 38 hours 126 hours TOTAL: Radiology Lecture: Small Group/Lab: Review: 164 hours (80%)

5 hours 7 hours 4 hours TOTAL: 16 hours (7.8%)

Embryology Lecture-Basic: Clinical:

7 hours 6 hours TOTAL: 13 hours (6.3%)

Clinical Correlate Lecture/Small Group: 12 hours TOTAL: 12 hours (5.9%) 205 hours

SUBTOTAL: Exams 17 hours TOTAL: 17 hours

STRUCTURAL

BASIS OF MEDICAL

PRACTICE GRAND TOTAL: 222 hours-Ll week schedule

Williams and Wilkins 5. reasonably clean and in good condition. 5 1/2" Sharp scissors. Color Atlas of Anatomy. Recommended Masks (optional) Supplies: Clipboard Pens/Colored Pencils . E.H. Williams and Wilkins Netter F. P.. Williams & Wilkins Agur. 5" Kelly hemostat. Ith ed..K. N. Saunders 7. Novartis Rohen....D... Williams & Wilkins 6.. Anatomy: A Regional Atlas of the Human Body. T. C.STRUCTURAL BASIS OF MEDICAL PRACTICE 1.. Gloves are required for dissection.. 4 112" Forceps. must be worn in the dissecting laboratory at all times. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 4 1/2" Scalpel handle.. A.. Williams & Wilkins 4.. Recommended Dictionary: Stedman.. 3rd ed. Grant's Atlas of Anatomy. Required Textbooks: Rosse. 5th ed.. 4th ed. Gaddum-Rosse. thumb dressing. Mosby Clemente. Bard-Parker #4 (equivalent) Scalpel blades. 3. C. Dorland's Illustrated Dictionary. 5th ed. McMinn's Color Atlas of Human Anatomy. Required Atlas (only one is required): Abrahams. 11thed. Lutjen-Drecoll. Williams and Wilkins Dorland. Lippencott.W. C. Hollingshead's Textbook of Anatomy. and P. Grant's Dissector. I..W. 30th ed.. 9th ed. Lee. Required Dissector: Sauerland. 5 112" 2. Stedman's Medical Dictionary. Yokochi. Langman's Medical Embryology. Required Dissecting Instruments: Mayo-pattern dissecting scissors. Lippincott-Raven Sadler. and E.. 27th ed. Laboratory Coat and Gloves: A white. knee-length coat. s" ed. Bard-Parker #22 (or equivalent) Huber probe Flexible probe Forceps sharp.

a repair/replacement cost will be determined and divided equally among group members. etc.300 10. Other materials including lab coats. Cabinet keys will be issued with a $5. gloves. Tanya Heatwole.students are responsible for actual replacement costs). Notices regarding monies due will be distributed to students in November. As a group you will be responsible for the appropriate use and safe return of the material upon the completion of the final exam. . books. Should action not be taken by you in accordance with the due date specified in the memo. Skull Clavicle $800 $30 Articulate Hand Tibia $150 $60 Fibula Complete box $40 $2.00 deposit. a "hold" will be placed on your student loan and additional course registration until either the outstanding material orfoe is received. a doctor's excuse must be presented to the Curriculum Coordinator (Ms. Bone boxes are to be stored in the storage cabinets provided. Note: Nothing except bone boxes can be stored in the cabinets. and arrangements can be made to reschedule the examination. Bone Boxes Each table will be assigned a numbered bone box to utilize during the lab portion of this course. 9. Course Evaluations Students will need to complete course evaluations prior to receiving course grades. Problems with taking exams: In the event a student becomes ill and cannot be present for an examination. supplies. If the box is returned with broken or missing specimens.8. Sample replacement costs (These are estimated . Note: the bone box must be returned in order to receive your final exam and course grades. will be discarded during periodic checks. C1704B) prior to the exam.

TEACHING FILMS The Dissection of the Thorax Thoracic Wall (24 min.2 copies Posterior Aspect of the Thigh (10 min.2 copies Posterior and Superior Mediastina (17 min.2 copies Pleurae and Lungs (24 min.) .2 copies The OsteoloKYof the Skull Series Osteology Osteology Osteology Osteology of of of of the the the the Skull: Skull: Skull: Skull: An Introduction (26 min.) .) .) . min.2 copies .5.2 copies Anterior Aspect of the Leg and Dorsum of the Foot (10 min.) .) .2 copies Inferior Surface of the Cranium (26 min.) .) .) .2 copies The Cranial Cavity (28 min.) The Temporal Bone (30 min.) .2 copies The Anatomy of the Hand The Functional Anatomy of the Hand (33.) .2 copies The Dissection of the Lower Extremity Anterior Aspect of the Thigh (15 min.2 copies Plantar Aspect of the Foot (15 112min.2 copies The Development of the GI Tract (40 min.) .) .2 copies Middle Mediastinum (32 min.2 copies The Human Emhryolo&:ySeries The Placenta & Fetal Membranes (24 min.) .2 copies The Anatomy of the Arm An Appreciation of Shoulder and Arm Anatomy (40 min.2 copies Posterior Aspect of the Leg (Calf) (9 min.) .) .

The Upper Extremity Tape 2. The Head and Neck.) . Part 1 Tape 5. The Internal Organs ALL FILMS ON RESERVE IN THE LIBRARY .2 copies The Abdomen.) . Part 2 Tape 6.The Anatomy of the Human Eye Series The Extraocular Muscles (17 1/2 min. The Trunk Tape 4. The Head and Neck. The Lower Extremity Tape 3.2 copies Acland's Video Atlas of Human Anatomy Tape 1. Pelvis & Perineum The Female Pelvic Viscera (18 min.

STRUCTURAL BASIS OF MEDICAL PRACTICE COURSE OBJECTIVES .

2.DR.cross-sections. air studies. magnetic resonance images. IAN S. ZAGON STRUCTURAL BASIS OF MEDICAL PRACTICE OBJECTIVES 1. organ. Identify the position and extent of normal structures in radiographs. OF BLOCK Describe and identify the essential features of normal human anatomy at the tissue. CT scans. Describe the embryological development of organs and organ systems in a manner sufficient to understand the underlying defects in major congenital malformations. . angiograms. echograms. 3. State the anatomical basis of clinical procedures and pathological processes and seek an anatomical solution to a clinical problem. contrast studies. 4. and system level. and osteology material.

9. Learn problem solving. Learn to be a keen observer.DR. . 7. 17. 12. Present fundamental information of basic science with clinical overtones. 13. compassion.000 new terms. Emphasize small group learning and interaction. internet. 5. Learn structural terminology . Give a broad based educational experience and generate individual training with general knowledge rather than small pockets of information or superficial skills. 3. IAN S. MEDLlNE. Encourage independence. Learn pronunciation of medical terms. Provide a firm background of knowledge for application of today's medicine. Make competent physicians.10. 15. 16. 4. 2. email. Learn resources such as CD ROMS. and knowledge. Provide a firm background of knowledge for application of tomorrow's medicine. 10. 11. 6. Emphasize that accomplishment of terminology/pronunciation is the basis for communication to colleagues. 14. Display role models for responsibility. 8. Develop skills in working with others. Orient students to patient care. ZAGON STRUCTURAL BASIS OF MEDICAL PRACTICE OBJECTIVES FOR STUDENT LEARNING 1. Develop rigorous thinking and work habits.

embryology. Stress organizational skills for acquiring knowledge. 21. 24. . and physical diagnosis. 19. short answer. 20.18. clinical correlates. histology. Emphasize accurate diagnosis. Emphasize variability of the human body. Relate that future medical practice will rely on physical diagnosis and skills of the physician rather than expensive testing. Emphasize disease processes and the seamless transition of basic science skills to clinical practice. Understand human body and its construction so as to be a correlative basis for physical diagnosis. Train physicians to make complicated decisions and evaluate facts. and photographs/diagrams. 25. radiology. 22. 23. Integrate knowledge from gross anatomy. 26. Examine students using broad range of testing material: essay.

. Review questions 9.questions and discussions 8. 3. 4. WEB site . Lecture Laboratory Textbooks Peer interactions Instructors Films 7. 5. Previous tests 2. 6.LEARNING OF THE STRUCTURAL BASIS OF MEDICAL PRACTICE 1.

what movement is checked by the iliofemoral ligament? Can you think of three reasons why the lateral meniscus of the knee is less frequently damaged than the medial one? What is the locking mechanism of the knee joint? Of the hip joint? Why do intrascapular fractures of the neck of the femur (. 6. 17. 4. hip and knee joints respectively? In walking.broken hip') commonly lead to necrosis of the head of the femur. 15. where might the occlusion be? Loss of sensation over the back of the leg and the lateral dorsum of the foot would indicate damage to what nerve? What are the four ligaments of the sacroiliac joint and what movements are each designed to prevent? Where is the center of gravity of the body at lumbo-sacral. 8.REVIEW QUESTIQNS • LOWER LIMB I. 11. the valves and the communication of the deep veins contribute to the saphenous veins commonly becoming varicosed? Pains on the upper lateral thigh could indicate irritation of what nerve? Loss of sensation between the first two toes. but not over the other toes would indicate damage to what nerve? Loss of the dorsalis pedis pulse would indicate occlusion of what artery? If the medial malleolar pulse were also absent. 3. 10. 9. 5. what would characterize the gait of the patient? What would be the effect of damage to the tibial nerve and what would characterize the gait of the patient? Why does the extensor muscle in the leg become extremely painful (shin splints) if they swell to any extent? What tendons do you feel on the medial side of the knee? On the lateral side? Can you feel the ilio-tibial tract or the abductor tubercle? What are all the muscles which can aid in plantar flexion? In dorsiflexion? How does the fascia lata. 7. 2. 14. 13. If the common peroneal nerve is damaged as it passes around the neck of the fibula. 12. but extrascapular fractures do not? What ligamentous structures support the arches of the foot . 16.

23.Continued 18. 20. 26. the destruction of the superior or the inferior gluteal nerve? Give reasons for your answers. 25. Where does flexion and extension of the foot take place? What limits each? Where does aversion and inversion of the foot take place? What muscles aid in each movement? What exercise could you use to strengthen the short muscles of the foot to improve their support of the arches? Paralysis of gluteus medius and minimus seriously effect walking in what way? Damage to the common peroneal nerve abolishes what action in walking? Mat will happen to the arches of the foot if gastrocnemius and soleus are paralyzed? What effect will spasm of the peroneal muscles have on the arches? Why does the ankle almost invariably sprain on its lateral side? What if the lateral malleolus is fracture. 21.REVIEW OUESTIONS • LOWER LIMB. 29. 22. 24. 28. 19. 27. in what position will the foot of the patient be? Which would be the most serious loss. How do you determine the position of the sciatic nerve in the buttock of a patient? What two muscles can assist the hamstrings in extension of the hip joint? .

8. 6. 15. Where would you expect to find it? Why? What is the level of the inferior border of parietal pleura in the rnidaxillary line during full inspiration? What are the anatomical differences between the right and left lungs? What is the primary function of the fibrous pericardium? Of the serous pericardium? What chambers of the heart are visible anteriorly? What was the fossa ovalis in the embryo? What was its function? What are the features which distinguish the right ventricles? What is the blood supply of the interventricular septum? Where are the four heart valves best heard? Which valves are thicker. A three-year-old child was rushed to the emergency room. 5. 9 10. 16. 11. . 2. What is the significance of this anatomical arrangement? Where does the thoracic duct terminate? Outline the general route for venous drainage of the thoracic wall. surrounded by muscle of the right crus.REVIEW OUESTIONS . 14. having aspirated a peanut. THORAX 1. 4. 7. 13. the aortic or pulmonary? Why? Where does heart muscle refer pain? What is the action of the papillary muscles? What nerves give sensory supply to the diaphragm? How can this information be useful in a clinical situation? The inferior vena cava penetrates the central tendon of the diaphragm. while the esophagus passes through the muscular portion. 12. 3.

22. 19. 12. . 13. What structure gives the most strength to the posterior wall of the inguinal canal? What is the relationship of the inferior epigastric artery to the deep inguinal ring? How would you distinguish anatomically between a direct and an indirect inguinal hernia? What is the blood supply to the stomach and in what mesenteries are the vessels found? What is the marginal artery? What are the characteristics of the colon? What is the lymphatic drainage of the colon? What is the relationship of the first part of the duodenum? What was the ligamentum teres in the embryo? What holds the liver in place? Where can you palpate the liver? Where is the functional division between right and left lobes of the liver located? What is the blood supply of the pancreas? What are the posterior relationships of the pancreas? Why does a ruptured spleen refer pain to the shoulder? What is the relationship of the transverse mesocolon to the pancreas? What are the hepatic veins? 7. 23. how would you proceed. Explain where you would make the incision. 11. ABDOMEN 1. 18.REVIEW QUESTIONS. 20. 9. 3. 8. 6. 17. 4. 2. What forms the sernilunaris? What is its superior limit? What is the purpose of the tendinous intersections in rectus abdominis? Where would you find the accurate line? What is the inguinal ligament? What is its purpose? What is the sensory supply to the umbilicus? You want to make a vertical incision through the rectus sheath and its contents to gain entry into the peritoneal cavity. 5. 14. to. 16. 15. and what important structures you would want to avoid. 21.

What structures can be palpated anterior to the rectum in the male? In the female? What separates the internal sphincter of the anus from the external sphincter? muscles contribute to continence of the anus? How do the external sphincter and the puborectalis What is the nerve supply to each? What structures make up the pelvic diaphragm? What are the special actions of the levator prostaticus and puborectalis parts of the levator ani? If the levator ani is weak and a hernia occurs.REVIEW QUESTIONS· PERINEUM & POSTERIOR ABDOMINAL WALL 1. 4. 8. 6. 11. 2. 8. 4. 10. 5. N arne four structures What male/female which lie against the kidney posteriorly. 13. 7. 3. 5. 6. pouch? fossa? List the contents of the superficial 'W'11at efines the superficial d What are the boundaries perineal of the ischiorectal What are the three branches of the pudendal nerve and what do they innervate? REVIEW QUESTIONS· PELVIS 1. 12. 9. 2. 7. where would you find the loop of intestine? What are the three areas supplied by the inferior rectal nerve? Of what clinical significance sensory distribution? What attachment site must not be damaged if the levator ani is to function properly? is its . 3. structures cross the ureters near the bladder? anteriorly? What suspends the bladder to the umbilicus What lies posterior to the bladder in the male and female? of the sympathetic of the perineum? innervation of the trigone? What is the significance What are the boundaries 'W'11at igament is adjacent to the coccygeus? l What does Camper's 'W'11at oes Scarpa's d fascia become in the perineum? fascia become in the perineum? perineal pouch in the male.

18. 21. and renal pelvis? What is the relationship of the ureters to the common iliac arteries? What are the anterior relationships of the right kidney? What structure crosses over the ureter as it enters the bladder in either sex? What is the position of the uterus relative to the vagina? What structures help to maintain this relationship? Where is the inferior limit of peritoneum in the pouch of Douglas? What is the relationship of the uterine artery to the ureter? Why is this important? Name 6 structures enclosed within the folds of the broad ligament? What might be the consequences of a torn perineal body in the female? What is the usual route of lymphatic drainage of the vulva? What is the purpose of the urogenital diaphragm in females? . 20. 19. What is the relationship of the internal pudendal artery to the dorsal nerve and the perineal nerve? What three factors help hold the kidney in place? What is meant by renal sinus. 13. 10. 16. 14.REVIEW QUESTIONS· PEL VIS CQntinueQ 9. renal hilum. 12. 11. 15. 17.

spleen F. What are the relations of the left colic flexure? Discuss the actions and innervations of the muscles that contribute to ejaculation. Discuss the anatomy and clinical significance of the right and left hypogastric nerves. Pelvis. .6 directions. and quadratus? 5. diaphragm O. vessels. Relate 4. Discuss the ligaments derived from the external oblique aponeurosis. stomach B. parts of the colon including flexures J. jejunum H.motor and sensory. ileum I. function. vagina Q. Perineum Recommended Text: Hollinshead and Rosse plus lecture notes 1.4) G. boundaries.Human Gross Anatomy Review Questions Abdomen. Discuss the anatomy (relations . 7. What spinal levels mark the inferior extent of the diaphragm as it crosses the aorta. 6. prostategland S. urinary bladder R. abdominalaorta N. duodenum (parts 1 . support. innervation . uterus and ovaries P. Discuss the anatomical course followed by secretions traveling from the testis to U1eseminal vesicle and then continuing to the penile urethra. vertebral levels. pancreas E. structure. gall bladder D. liver C. 3. kidneys M. psoas major. three of these ligaments to the course of a femoral hernia. suprarenalglands L. urogenital diaphragm 2. surfaces. rectum K. clinical significance) of the: A.

lymph) of the urinary bladder. and 4) postganglionic sympathetic fibers to each of the following areas? In addition. Where would you test cutaneous sensation to assess spinal cord damage at the levels of: 1) T8. What are the relations of the psoas major muscle within the abdomen? 20. 9. J. What is the cremasteric reflex and what nerves (including spinal levels) are involved? 18. 3) postganglionic parasympathetic fibers. What fascial layers lie anterior to the rectus abdominus muscle at levels below the arcuate line and at levels above the umbilicus? 16. right colic flexure F. Discuss the vascular supply (including lymphatics) to the uterus? 10. What is the significance of portacaval shunts (anastomses)? Where are they located? 11.8. duodenal cap (part 1) C. 19. What structures support the urinary bladder within the pelvis? 14. 2) T1 0. stomach 8. rectum H. left colic flexure G. head of the epididymus l. Discuss the course taken by each of the arteries that contribute blood supply to the colon (large bowel). I. kidney E. 2) preganglionic sympathetic fibers. discuss the anatomical pathways (plexuses) followed by autonomic fibers traveling to each area. ascending duodenum (part 4) D. cervix of uterus ovary testis K. Discuss the vascular supply (arteries. What critical vessels must the surgeon preserve when removing the spleen? 17. and 3) T12? . What is the location of cell bodies that provide: 1) preganglionic parasympathetic fibers. A. corpora cavemosum 12. 15. What relation must the surgeon consider when ligating the uterine artery? 13. Discuss the anatomy that could explain symptoms of vomiting paired with left renal failure. veins.

Explain. intestinal arcade G. minor duodenal papilla E. ligamentum venosum F. . Short definitions A. 32. inferior anterior and posterior pancreaticodudenal N.21. Include mention of 23. Compare the autonomic innervation of the tail of the epididymus to autonomic innervation of the testis. Discuss the anatomy that explains why are femoral hernias are prone to strangulation. 27. How is the puborectalis muscle different from the pubococcygeus? 29. What is the difference between a pelvic splanchnic nerve and a sacral splanchnic nerve? 30. medial inguinal fossa O. floating gall bladder M. supravesical fossa arteries 26. In terms of the component autonomic fibers. Discuss the anatomy of the prostatic urethra. What are the relations of an indirect hernia from its neck to its lowest extent in the scrotum? 28. lateral inguinal fossa P. Discuss the course of the pudendal nerve and its branches. median arcuate ligament 8. J. lumbar splanchnic nerve neurovascular plane K. What prevents a direct hernia from entering the scrotum? What fascial layers are involved? 24. key relations. what is a primary difference between the superior mesenteric plexus and the inferior mesenteric plexus? 31. What is the relation of the conjoint tendon to a direct hernia? 25. During the course of worsening appendicitis there is a characteristic progression in the experience of pain. esophageal vein O. mesoovarium I. parietal pelvic fascia L. 22. vasa recta H. arcus tendineus C.

Explain the anatomy of the "caput medusa" that results from portal hypertension. L. rectum below pectin line superior third of rectum middle third of rectum K. tunica albuginea and the head of the epididymus G. lumbosacral trunk and S 1 (usually) F. 37. 36. What fadallayers are penetrated by a stab wound through the rectus abdominus muscle at the level of the umbilicus. psoas majer and the fifth lumbar vertebra 8. vascularization. Discuss the anatomy of the transverse colon including the left and right colic flexures. fourth part of duodenum H. scrotum D. anterior and posterior lamina of broad ligament H. superior fascia of UG diaphragm and inferior fascia of pelvic diaphragm E. upper 2/3 of vagina O.33. Assume that the penetrating injury stopped within the peritoneal cavity. The uncinate process and the head of the pancreas . cervix of the uterus C. J. lateral arcuate ligament and quadratus lumborum C. Where is the primary lymph drainage from the following areas? A. fundus of the uterus 8. kidney 38. first part of duodenum G. Include structure. relations. tail of pancreas I. 35. ovary F. superior and inferior fascia of the urogenital diaphragm in the female I. lumbosacral trunk and S 1 (usually) J. What is the anatomic pathway followed by parasympathetic nerves that innervate the corpora spongiosum of the male. anus M. layers of the hepatoduodenalligament K. distal third of vagina N. right colic flexure Q. What structure(s) are between: A. left colic flexure P. innervations. stomach and pancreas D. 34. testis E.

Discuss the anatomy of the posterior free edge of the UG diaphragm? 42. What major vessel is associated with the bare area of the liver? . 44. Along what part of the gastrointestinal tract is there an anastomosis between the celiac arterial supply and the superior mesenteric arterial supply. Within the rectus sheath and below the arcuate line. What are these derivatives and boundaries? 45. what fascial layers lie posterior to the rectus abdominus muscle? Above the arcuate line? 41. 46. Discuss the parasympathetic innervation to the hindgut. Along what part of the gastrointestinal tract is there an anastomosis between the superior mesenteric supply and the inferior mesenteric arterial supply. What arteries directly contribute to these anastomoses? 43.39. 40. Extravasation of urine into the superficial pouch will fill a potential space limited by the boundaries of Scarpa's fascia and its derivatives. Discuss the anatomy of the prostatic urethra. How does strengthening the vertebral column? the anterior abdominal wall muscles help to stabilize 47. Explain why the transverses abdcminis muscle dces not contribute a tunic to the spermatic cord.

GROSS ANATOMY .

patella. Nerves 1. ischium. profunda femoris (lateral and medial circumflex femoral. structures innervated E. Attachments. pattern of drainage G. Origin (segmental division). arterial anastomoses around the hip joint (cruciate anastomis) F. tibial tuberosity. Thigh A. genital and femoral branches of the genitofemoral nerve. motor branches 2. and Imaging Anatomy A. Living. cutaneous branch of the obturator nerve. femoral triangle. Functional anatomy: functional muscle groups. vastus lateralis. Muscles 1. iliotibial tract. Medial compartment: adductor longus. iliopsoas. Subinqinal compartment (lacunae). medial and intermediate cutaneous nerves of the thigh. and magnus. articularus genu 2. Functional. inguinal ligament and fold. tibia. and intermedius. Anterior compartment: sartorius. Obturator nerve: anterior and posterior branches 3. course. Vessels: femoral. pectineus. brevis. medial and intermediate cutaneous nerves of the thigh). Anterior and Medial Thigh Osteology: bones of the pelvic girdle [pelvic bones: ilium. sacrum. obturator extemus 3. origin. coccyx] and lower limb (femur. anterior superior iliac spine. gracilis. Palpable landmarks: iliac crest. fibula) II. Lymphatics: superficial and deep inguinal lymph nodes. perforating). origin. actions. Deep Fascia (fascia lata): medial and lateral medial intermuscular septa. course B. rectus femoris. course. area of distribution Great saphenous vein: valves. origin. medialis. saphenous hiatus C. the shaft of the femur. and obturator (abnormal obturator artery) vessels. pubic tubercle. Superficial Facia: Cutaneous nerves (lateral and posterior femoral cutaneous and ilioinguinal nerves. innervation D. Femoral nerve: cutaneous branches (saphenous nerve. fascial (funtional. neurovascular) compartments. blood supply to the head vs. quadriceps mechanism B.Subinguinal Region LEARNING OBJECTIVES Subinguinal I. Region. iliotibial tract . adductor canal III. Living anatomy 1. pubis. tendon of the quadriceps femoris at the knee.

aneurysms B. Vascular: varicose veins. and femoral nerve. Surface projections: projections of the courses of the femoral artery. thrombophlebitis. . Diagnoses 1. Musculoskeletal: intermittent claudication. artery. vein. Therapeutic orocedures: vein harvest for coronary artery bypass grafting D. saphenous hiatus). great saphenous vein. and dermatomes to anterior and medial thigh c. lateral) and MRJ selected sequential images (coronal.2. Imaging anatomy: normal: radiographs (AP. oblique) of the thigh and hip Clinical Anatomy A. sagittal. Preventive procedures: quadriceps exercises IV. and canal. femoral hernia 2. Trendelenburg test for the competence of valves of the superficial veins of the lower extremity C. area of the femoral triangle (femoral nerve. transverse (axial). occlusive atherosclerosis. Diagnostic procedures: femoral artery/vein catherization.

obturator intemus. including articular surfaces and areas of muscular/tendinous attachment II. sacrum. tensor fasciae latae 2. Palpable landmarks: posterior superior iliac spine. Functional. Pathological: hip fracture. innervation F. Imaging Anatomy 1. pubis. role in resisting movement at the sacroiliac joints C. Living. course. Living Anatomy 1. Trochanteric and Ischial Bursae IV. posterior femoral cutaneous. Greater and Lesser Sciatic Formina: boundaries. Nerves: sciatic. nerve to the obturator intemus. superior and inferior gemellus. and inferior clunial nerves. origin. Arthrology: iliopsoas bursa Gluteal Region A. ischial tuberosity. coccyx] and lower limb (femur). Sacrospinous and Sacrotuberous Ligaments: attachments. Normal: radiographs (AP. and pudendal nerves. Functional Anatomy: functional muscle groups B. quadratus femoris 3. avascular necrosis of the head of the femur . greater trochanter. Surface projections: projection of the course of the sciatic nerve C. ischium. nerve to the quadratus femoris. Cutaneous Nerves: superior. sacrum. structures transmitted D. Osteology: bones of the pelvic girdle [pelvic bones: ilium. area of distribution B. III. Muscles: 1. gluteal fold 2. Gluteal muscles: gluteus maximus. origin. Lateral rotators: piriformis. superior and inferior gluteal. lateral) and MRI selected sequential images of the hip 2. and their bony landmarks. and Imaging Anatomy A. origin (segmental derivation). and minimus. structures. course G. medius. innervations E. actions. Attachments. Vessels: superior and inferior gluteal vessels. middle. coccyx.GLUTEAL REGION AND ISCHIORECTAL FOSSA LEARNING OBJECTIVES Gluteal Region and Ischiorectal Fossa I.

hip replacement surgery . Infectiousllnflammatory: ischial bursitis.v. gluteal. paresis of gluteal muscles (Trendelenburg's sign) 2. obturator 3. Clinical Anatomy A Diagnoses 1. Musculoskeletal: fractures of the femur (avascular necrosis of the femoral head). Therapeutic procedures: intramuscular gluteal injections. Nervous: sciatica. gluteal abscess B.

fascial (functional. Posterior Thigh and Popliteal Fossa I. Posterior compartment: biceps femoris. pattern of drainage G. Functional Anatomy: functional muscle groups B. common peroneal. head and neck of the fibula. semimembranosus 2. individual muscles can be palpated by placing the fingers on the skin superficial to the muscle belly and then performing the action of the muscle against resistance 2. perforating) vessels. tibial and fibular collateral ligaments. Popliteal Fossa: boundaries. lateral) and MRI selected sequential images of the thigh and knee. Superficial Fascia: cutaneous nerves: lateral and posterior femoral cutaneous. including articular surfaces and areas of muscular/tendinous attachment II. origin. Normal: radiographs (AP. medial cutaneous of thigh. innervation. Sciatic nerve: tibial and common peroneal divisions 3. dermatomes on the skin of the posterior thigh and popliteal fossa C. Nerves 1. vascular supply D. Surface Projections: projections of the courses of the sciatic. pubis. Imaging Anatomy 1. and deep peroneal nerves. medial and lateral femoral condyles. Origin (segmental derivation). profunda femoris (lateral and medial circumflex femoral. course. Living. area of distribution B. projections of the courses of the femoral and popliteal arteries. contents III. tibial. course F. neurovascular) compartments C. LymDhatics: superficial and deep inguinal lymph nodes. Vessels: femoral. DeeD fascia (fascia lata): medial and lateral intermuscular septa. popliteal fossa. coccyx) and lower limb (femur. A. femoral and popliteal arteriograms (MRA) and selected . Attachments. tibia.ilium.THIGH AND POPLITEAL FOSSA LEARNING OBJECTIVES Thigh and Popliteal Fossa Osteology: bones of the pelvic girdle (pelvic bones . fibula). obturator. lateral sural cutaneous nerves. semitendinosus. Obturator nerve: cutaneous branches 4. Muscles 1. biceps femoris. superficial peroneal. and their bony landmarks. Living Anatomy 1. actions. sacrum. Femoral nerve: cutaneous branches (medial and intermediate cutaneous nerves of the thigh) 2. ischium. structures innervated E. Functional. patella. semitendinosus. tendons of the semimembranosus. Palpable landmarks: ischial tuberosity. origin. pulse of the popliteal artery in the popliteal fossa. and Imaging Anatomy A.

femoropopliteal bypass. Musculoskeletal: strains (pulled hamstrings) 2. lymphedema. Pathological: occlusion of the femoral artery IV. tibial and common peroneal nerve palsies 3. compression syndromes (adductor hiatus) 4. Therapeutic procedures: therapy for bursitis/tendinitis. Nervous: sciatica. Clinical Anatomy A. atherosclerosis. Diagnoses 1. knee replacement. resection of a popliteal aneurysm . femoral artery compression. nerve blocks. Vascular.venous phases. aneurysms. Infectiousllnf1ammatory: ischial bursitis B. amputations. MRI selected sequential images of peripheral nerves 2. Diagnostic Procedures: monitoring function of hamstrings c. thrombophlebitis.

posterior. Deep (Crural) Fascia: intermuscular septa (anterior. area of distribution 2. peroneus (fibularis) brevis 3. tarsals. fascial (functional. superficial peroneal. innervations D. middle. arterial anastomoses around the knee Living. Cutaneous nerves: saphenous. flexor digitorum longus) 4. Nerves 1. course. tibialis posterior. neurovascular) compartments C. and Imaging Anatomy dynamic anatomy of the knee and ankle joints (range of motion. Superficial Fascia 1. and sural nerves. actions. Muscles 1. course. transverse). Common peroneal (fibular) nerve: superficial and deep peroneal (fibular) nerves 3. lateral and medial sural. deep muscles (popliteus. Tibial nerve 2. flexor hallucis longus. course B. Osteology: bones of the lower limb (femur. Anterior compartment: tibialis anterior. A. fibula. phalanges). and inferior genicular vessels). weight-bearing axes. Attachments. Arthrology: Leg muscle groups producing movement. Great and small saphenous veins: origin. origin. including articular surfaces and areas of muscular/tendinous attachment II. tibia. Functional Anatomy: . Functional. bony landmarks. Lateral compartment: peroneus (fibularis) longus. peroneus (fibularis) tertius 2. soleus. extensor hallucis longus. Posterior compartment: superficial muscles (gastrocnemius. functional muscle groups. Tendocalcaneus (Achilles tendon) 5. anterior tibial. origin. Origin (segmental derivation). structures innervated E. Vessels: popliteal (superior. knee and ankle joints A. extensor digitorum longus. and posterior tibial (peroneal/perforating branches) vessels. quadriceps mechanism IV.LEG LEARNING OBJECTIVES Leg I. III. metatarsals. locking/unlocking mechanisms of the knee). plantaris).

common peroneal nerve lateral to the neck of the fibula. Diagnostic Procedures: patellar/Achilles tendon reflex. projections of the great and small saphenous veins. tendons of the tibialis anterior. Achilles/plantaris tendon rupture 2. tendons of the peroneus brevis and longus posterior to the lateral malleolus 2. tendons of the tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus posterior to the medial malleolus. Palapable landmarks: head and neck of the fibula. Surface projections: projections of the courses of the sciatic. and deep peroneal nerves on the skin of the lower limb. subcutaneous medial surface and anterior border of the tibia. Clinical Anatomy A. Nervous: common/deep/superficial (foot drop) nerve palsies B. lateral) and MRI selected sequential images of the leg. posterior tibial. Normal: radiographs (AP. and peroneal arteries. Imaging Anatomy 1. extensor digitorum longus.B. extensor hallucis longus. Pathological: fractures of the tibia and fibula V. dermatomes C. Diagnoses 1. Living Anatomy 1. and peroneus tertius on the dorsum of the foot. superficial peroneal. tibial. pressure monitoring of the fascial compartments . common peroneal. medial and lateral malleoli. projections of the courses of the anterior tibial. arteriograms of the vessels in the leg 2. Musculoskeletal: crucal compartment syndromes.

AND GAIT LEARNING OBJECTIVES Foot. longitudinal Functional. fibrous tendon sheaths 3. extensor hallucis brevis. medial and lateral plantar). origin. attachments. origin. muscular insertions B. Nerves: medial and lateral plantar nerves. superior and inferior extensor. biomechanics of the arches of the foot (passive and dynamic support) B. Deep peroneal nerve: course. fibula. abductor digiti minimi). Muscles: extensor digitorum brevis.FOOT. lumbicals). course. course C. Vessels: medial and lateral plantar vessels. actions. Muscles: first layer (abductor hallucis. Superficial fascia: cutaneous nerves (medial calcaneal. Extensor expansions: composition. tendons of the peroneus brevis and longus posterior to the III. Superficial fascia: cutaneous nerves (saphenous. superior and inferior peroneal) 3. dynamic anatomy of the joints of the lower limb (range of motion. plantar arch. structures innervated 5. weight-bearing axes). structures innervated 5. superficial peroneal. and Gait I. sural). Dorsum 1. extensor hallucis longus. second layer (tendon of the flexor digitorum longus. area of distribution. course 6. tendon of the flexor hallucis longus. phalanges) and their bony landmarks. Arches: transverse. quadratus plantae. tibia. Palpable landmarks: tendons of the tibialis anterior. Dorsalis pedis artery: origin. Osteology: bones of the lower limb (femur. and Imaging Anatomy A. adductor hallucis. tendons of the tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus posterior to the medial malleolus. third layer (flexor hallucis brevis. origin (segmental derivations). II. Deep fascia: plantar aponeurosis. fourth layer (plantar and dorsal interosseoi). . flexor digiti minimi brevis). dorsal venous arch 2. innervation 4. metatarsals. innervation 4. Plantar ASDect 1. extensor digitorum longus. Living Anatomy 1. tarsals. including articular surfaces and areas of muscular/tendinous attachment Foot A. Living. Deep fascia: retinacula (flexor. functional muscle groups. actions. Functional Anatomy: principles of gait. and peroneus tertius on the dorsum of the foot. attachments. origin. flexor digitorum brevis. ARCHES. area of distribution 2. Arches.

Musculoskeletal: sprains (inversion and eversion sprains). calcaneus. Diagnoses 1. calcaneal spur. talipes 2. Pathological: fracture of bones in the foot A. talus.lateral malleolus. cuboid. pulse of the dorsalis pedis artery on the dorsulm of the foot between the tendons of extensor hallucis longus and extensor digitorum longus. metatarsals. pulse of the posterior tibial artery posterior to the medial malleolus. peroneal. arteriogram (MRA) of the foot and selected venous phases 2. Surface projections: projections of the courses of the femoral. Preventive Procedures: support of the ankle in sports IV. projections of the courses of the great and small saphenous veins. . anterior tibial. dermatomes. cuneiforms. Normal: radiographs (AP. lateral) and MRI selected sequential images of the leg and foot. hallux valgus. cutaneous innervation c. popliteal. and dorsalis pedis arteries. bunions. pes planus ("flat foot"). sustentaculum tali. individual muscles on the leg that course to the foot 2. navicular. Infectiousllnflammatory: plantar fasciitis 8. posterior tibial. Imaging Anatomy 1.

tibia. Other Joints of the Lower Limb: proximal and distal tibiofibular subtalar (interosseosus talocalcanean ligment). and pubofemoral ligaments. Ankle Joint 1. relative strength D. lateral ligament (anterior and posterior talofibular. biceps femoris. Knee Joint 1. phalanges). arcuate and oblique popliteal ligaments) 2. Bursae: suprapatellar. attachments. acetabular labrum (transverse acetabular ligament) 2. role in resisting movement at the hip joint 3. fibrous capsule 2. prepatellar. and their bony landmarks. Ostelology: bones of the pelvic girdle [pelvic bones (ilium. Ligaments: medial (deltoid) ligament. anserine. patella. fibula. ligament of the head of the femur. Articular components: bony components. Articular components: bony components. sacrum.JOINTS OF LOWER EXTREMITY LEARNING OBJECTIVES Joints of Lower Extremity I. Iliopsoas bursa B. attachments. tarsals. transverse ligament of the knee. Hip Joint 1. attachments. changes in position during movements of the knee. popliteal. including articular surfaces and areas of muscular/tendinous attachment Arthrology A. superficial and deep infrapatellar. fibrous capsule. ischium pubis). role in resisting movement at the ankle joint. attachments. Ligaments: iliofemoral. metatarsals. patellar ligament. medial and lateral patellar retinacula. Articular components: bony compnents. semimembranous. ischiofemoral. talocalcaneonavicular II. Synovial membrane: infra patellar fat pad. alar fold 5. coccyx] and lower limb (femur. fibrous capsule (quadriceps tendon. coronary ligament 4. role in resisting movement at the knee joint 3. and gastrocnemius bursae C. Ligaments: tibial and fibular collateral and anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments. . Medial and lateral menisci: shape. calcaneofibular).

interosseous membrane E. producing them F. Functional. chondromalacia patellae . Innervation III. locking/unlocking mechanism of the knee). calcaneocuboid (long and short plantar ligaments). Movements: muscles/muscle groups. Functional Anatomy: principles of gait. Clinical Anatomy: musculoskeletal: tom ligaments (anterior cruciate ligament tear). Living. tarsometatarsal. and Imaging Anatomy A. metatarsophalangeal. dynamic anatomy of the joints of the lower limb (range of motion. and interphalangeal joints. "unhappy triad" of the knee. weight-bearing axes. transverse tarsal.(plantar calcaneonavicular ligament). functional muscle groups 8.

costochondral. xiphoid process). attachments. location (intercostal space) in male 2. course E. inferior mediastinum (anterior. Mediastinum Divisions: superior mediastinum. manubriostemal. Living Anatomy 1. Functional. foramen for the inferior vena cava. subcostal. interchondral. Suspensory ligaments 4. movements C. Vessels: internal thoracic (perforating branches) and anterior and posterior intercostal vessels. stemocostal. axillary tail 3. structures innervated 4. and lateral thoracic vessels. Fasciae: external and internal intercostal membranes. arcuate ligaments)]. innervation and blood supply. superior and inferior thoracic apertures B. transversus thoracis. and Imaging Anatomy A. costal. course 5. Vessels: anterior and posterior intercostal. and innermost intercostal. boundaries III. ribs (true. endothoracic fascia 3. . course.THORAX LEARNING OBJECTIVES Thorax I. and stemum (manubrium. central. Arthrology: costovertebral. Lymphatics: axillary (apical. aortic and esophageal hiatuses. and posterior mediastinum). body. and their bony landmarks. Intercostal nerves: origin. middle. and xiphisternal joints. pectoral. Nipple: areola. Osteology: thoracic vertebrae. pattem of drainage D. lactiferous sinuses. Nerves: anterior and lateral cutaneous branches of intercostal nerves. Diaphragm: parts {stemal. lactiferous ducts. central tendon. Thoracic Wall A. costotransverse. innervation 2. intemal. Intercostal Space 1. actions. movements II. subscapular. floating). manubrium of the sternum. costal arch. Breast 1. course 6. lumbar (crura. jugular notch. infraclavicular fossa. Muscles: external. costal margin. origin. Palpable landmarks: clavicle. lateral) and parasternal lymph nodes. false. body of the sternum. sternal angle. origin. Glandular tissue: lobes. Living. origin (segmental derivation).

tension pneumothorax.xiphisternum. thoracentesis. flail chest 2. tuberculosis IV. ribs. Surface Projections: midclavicular. Diagnoses 1. sternal marrow aspiration C. orange-peels texture of the skin. thoracotomy . costal arch. Infectionslinflammatory: costochondritis. dimpling. retraction of the nipple). Musculoskeletal: rib/sternal fractures. Clinical Anatomy A. pleurisy 4. lumpectomy. thoracic outlet syndrome. radiographs (PA. and posterior axillary lines. lateral). Diagnostic Procedures: breast examination (palpable mass. Pathological: carcinoma of the breast. pneumomediastinum B. pericardial tamponade. and CT and MRI selected sequential images of the thorax 2. midaxillary. pleural effusion. Other: pneumothorax (tension pneumothorax). Imaging Anatomy 1. dermatomes on the skin of the thoracic wall B. Therapeutic Procedures: thoracentesis (intercostal drainage). mediastinoscopy. breast/pleural biopsy. flail chest. intercostal nerve block. hemothorax. thoracostomy. costal margin. mastectomy. Neoplastic: malignant'nonmalignant tumors of the breast 5. Vascular: pleural effusion. projections of the pleural reflections. intercostal spaces 2. chylothorax 3. Normal: mammogram. anterior axillary.

posterior). tuberculosis . Bronchopulmonary Segments 1. pulmonary ligament. selected sequential images of the thorax 2. Pleural Cavity: visceral pleura. diaphragmatic (base). lobes [superior. costal. Pathological: carcinoma of the lung. Normal: bronchogram. Functional. middle lobe (medial. and posterior basal) F. superior and inferior lingular). apex. postganglionic sympathetic fibers (thoracic pulmonary nerves). radiographs (PA. root. posterior). Bronchial Vessels: origin. pneumonia. visceral afferent fibers II. mediastinal]. postganglionic parasympathetic cell bodies (terminal ganglia). Imaging Anatomy 1. horizontal (right lung)]. and vertical dimensions) B. anterior. lateral. anterior. hilum. External Anatomy of the Lung: surfaces [costal. innervation and blood supply B. lateral). Right lung: superior lobe (apical. inferior] C. pattern of drainage I.LUNGS AND MEDIASTINUM LEARNING OBJECTIVES Lungs and Mediastinum I. bronchopulmonary. transverse. Functional Anatomy: mechanics of respiration (changes in thoracic anterior-posterior. and Imaging Anatomy A. tension pneumothorax. lobar. lateral. Pulmonary Plexus of Nerves: preganglionic parasympathetic fibers (vagus nerves). impressions on mediastinal surface. Living. carina D. course H. and CT and MRI . middle (right lung). lateral). course (relationship to the bronchial tree) G. Pulmonary Vessels: origin. tracheobronchial. borders (inferior. trachealis muscle. and posterior basal) 2. Trachea: cartilaginous "rings". Left lung: superior lobe (apicoposterior. anterior. fissures [oblique. anterior. Living Anatomy: projections of the pleural reflections. parietal pleura [diaphragmatic. inferior lobe (superior and medial. costomediastinal). Bronchi: principal. recesses (costodiaphragmatic. cervical (suprapleural membrane)]. Lungs A. and paratracheal lymph nodes. lobes and bronchopulmonary segments of the lung C. anterior. Lymphatics: pulmonary. mediastinal. bronchomediastinal lymphatic trunk. and segmental bronchi E. inferior lobe (superior and medial.

pleurisy 3. Other: upper respiratory obstruction (aspirated foreign object). Infectiousllnflammatory: pneumonia. lobectomy. Vascular: pulmonary embolism/edema. segmental resection . bronchoscopy C. ruptured trachea/bronchus B.III. pleural effusion 2. Diagnoses 1. Clinical Anatomy A. Therapeutic Procedures: cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Neoplastic: malignant/nonmalignant tumors of the lung 4. Diagnostic Procedures: breath sounds (auscultation).

borders (right. marginal. left. aortic vestibule. ostium of the inferior vena cava. and atrioventricular nodal arteries 2. oblique vein of the left atrium. apex. Cardiac Veins: great cardiac vein. chordae tendineae. innervation and blood supply C. and right cusps. ostium of the coronary sinus. left atrioventricular valve (anterior and posterior cusps) 4. Coronary Arteries 1. atrioventricular (coronary)]. Right coronary artery: sinuatrial nodal. Pericardial Sac: fibrous and serious pericardium. pericardial cavity (oblique and transverse pericardial sinuses). auricle. coronary sinus (middle and small cardiac veins). left atrioventricular orifice. right. Orientation of the heart chambers in situ E. pulmonary trunk 3. and posterior cusps. Divisions of the Inferior Mediastinum: anterior. chordae tendineae. right atrioventricular valve (anterior. pulmonary orifice. atrium proper. boundaries B. pulmonary semilunar valve (anterior. aortic sinuses). sternocostal). left. middle. Left atrium: ostia of the pulmonary veins. pectinate muscles. aortic semilunar valve (left. ascending aorta 5. septomarginal trabecula. and septal cusps) 2. limbus ovalis. orientation of the heart in situ D. inferior). posterior. papillary muscles. conus arteriosus. ostium of the superior vena cava. pectinate muscles. and posterior. Patterns of coronary artery "dominance" F.HEART LEARNING OBJECTIVES Heart Heart and Middle Mediastinum A. fossa ovalis. diaphragmatic. valve of the coronary sinus. superior. sulci [anterior and posterior interventricular. Right atrium: crista terminalis. aortic orifice. posterior interventricular (septal branches). valvular sinuses). auricle. Left coronary artery: anterior interventricular (septal branches) and circumflex arteries 3. ostia of coronary arteries. interatrial septum. valve of the inferior vena cava. right atrioventricular orifice. papillary muscles. and anterior and smallest cardiac veins I. sinus venarum. Internal Anatomy of the Heart 1. Right ventricle: trabeculae camae. Left ventricle: trabeculae camae. . interventricular septum (membranous and muscular parts). External Anatomy of the Heart: surfaces (posterior.

II. Functional Anatomy: anatomical basis of heart sounds (systole. pericardiocentesis C. Diagnostic Procedures: heart sounds (sites of auscultation). . valvular disease (mitral valve prolapse). insertion of a transvenous cardiac pacemaker. Living Anatomy 1. fibrous trigones H. Imaging Anatomy 1. Pathological: pericardial tamponade. pericardial effusion. aortogram. postganglionic sympathetic fibers (cervical and thoracic cardiac nerves): postganglionic parasympathetic cell bodies (superficial and deep cardiac plexuses. visceral afferent fibers I. apex beat C. internodal bundles. aortic aneurysm/dissection/rupture. atrioventricular bundle. diastole). cardiac catheterization (cardiac angiography). balloon angioplasty. Visual inspection: precordium. myocardial infarction. pericardial tamponade. terminal ganglia). cardiac outline. percardiocentesis. right and left bundle branches Functional. Living. intracardiac injections. Normal: radiographs of the thorax. implantation of a cardiac pacemaker. Therapeutic Procedures: cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Cardiac Plexuses (superficial. deep): preganglionic parasympathetic fibers (vagus nerves). coronary bypass surgery.G. Surface projections: projections of the apex beat. venous phase studies from selected arterial images 2. ventricular hypertrophy Clinical Anatomy A. coarctation of the aorta 8. bifurcation of the pulmonary trunk) 2. aortic arch. coronary and pulmonary arteriograms. Diagnoses: vascular: angina pectoris. mechanism and timing of filling of coronary arteries 8. heart transplantation III. Skeleton of the Heart: anuli fibrosi. cardiac valves (anatomical and auscultation sites). Conducting System: sinuatrial and atrioventricular nodes. and Imaging Anatomy A.

least. left common carotid artery. and least splanchnic nerves (as strictly defined. thoracic aorta (posterior intercostal. thoracic pulmonary and thoracic sympathetic nerves. aortic and esophageal hiatuses. thoracic pulmonary nerves). Thoracic Wall: Diaphragm. and phrenic nerves. esophageal plexus. azygous and hemiazygous veins. Parasympathetic Nervous System III.DORSAL MEDIASTINUM LEARNING OBJECTIVES Dorsal Mediastinum I. Superior. esophageal. ligamentum arteriosum. esophagus. costal. aortic arch. left subclavian artery. Contents of the Anterior Mediastinum: internal thoracic vessels. and Anterior Mediastinum A. inferior hypogastric plexus)]. Posterior. course. sympathetic ganglia. Contents of the Posterior Mediastinum: esophagus. superior and inferior mesenteric. efferent fibers (white rami communicantes. thymus. sympathetic ganglia. brachiocephalic trunk. thoracic duct. Postganglionic neurons: cell bodies [sympathetic ganglia. the thoracic sympathetic trunks and their associated sympathetic ganglia and gray and white rami communicantes do not lie within the boundaries of the posterior mediastinum). efferent fibers (gray rami communicantes. parasternal lymph nodes. areas of distribution 2. paratracheallymph nodes. left recurrent laryngeal. relationshi ps B. lumbar. Sympathetic Nervous System 1. . foramen for the inferior vena cava. thoracic duct. thoracic sympathetic trunks. sternopericardial ligaments. relationships C. greater. Contents of the Sucerior Mediastinum: thymus. arcuate ligaments)]. gray and white rami communicantes. and bronchial arteries). Preganglionic neurons: cell bodies (lateral horn of spinal cord segments T1-L2). greater. lumbar (crura. thoracic sympathetic trunks. transversus thoracis muscle. cervical and thoracic cardiac nerves. course. movements II. gray and white rami communicantes. Parts [sternal. lesser. lesser. collateral ganglia (celiac. and sacral splanchnic nerves). areas of distribution B. innervation and blood supply. vagus. trachea. central tendon. relationships Overview of the Autonomic Nervous System A. and aorticorenal ganglia.

glossopharyngeal. thymectomy . right and left brachiocephalic veins. areas of distribution C. lateral hom of spinal cord segments 52-54).1. vagus. facial. direct pleural/pericardiallcardiac pain) 8. referred vs. Diagnoses Nervous: phrenic nerve palsy Other: ruptured esophagus or diaphragm Diagnostic Procedures: esophagoscopy Therapeutic Procedures: sympathectomy. Living Anatomy: projections of the brachiocephalic trunk. Preganglionic neurons: cell bodies (brain stem nuclei. Clinical Anatomy A. efferent fibers (oculomotor. 8. 1. superior vena cava. Living. left subclavian artery. pain vs. course. reflex visceral afferents. Imaging Anatomy: barium swallow V. parasymapthetic. and Imaging Anatomy A. Functional Anatomy: physiology of the autonomic nervous system (sympathetic vs. Visceral Afferents IV. and bifurcation of the trachea C. Functional. left common carotid artery. 2. and pelvic splanchnic nerves). C.

vasculature C. rectus abdominis. Peritoneum: parietal and visceral peritoneum B. pattern of drainage I. innervations. epigastric fossa. Fasciae: transversalis fascia. linea alba F. conjoint tendon (falx inguinalis). contents. subcostal. umbilicus. course H. Intraperitoneal and retroperitoneal viscera III. Living Anatomy 1. transversus abdominis. linea semilunaris. Anterolateral Abdominal Wall A. iliohypogastric. course. Nerves: thoracoabdominal. Palpable structures: costal margins. median. inferior border of liver 2. anterior superior iliac spine. contents (spermatic cord/round ligament of uterus) J.ABDOMINAL WALL LEARNING OBJECTIVES Abdominal Wall I. Folds: median. and Imaging Anatomy A. attachments. and subcostal vessels. structures innervated G. linea alba. Inguinal Triangle: boundaries II. actions. Rectus Sheath: layers (formation). posterior intercostal. Living. pectineal. Fasciae: superficial fascia (fatty and membranous layers). pubic tubercle. Surface projections: abdominal quadrants and regions. deep fascia B. origin. and medial umbilical ligament E. xiphisternum. arcuate line. medial. Functional. Inguinal Canal: inguinal rings. rectus abdominis. thoracoepigastric vein. Muscles: external and internal abdominal oblique. transpyloric. Lymphatics: superficial inguinal and axillary lymph nodes. origin (segmental derivation). deep circumflex iliac. and lateral umbilical folds D. inguinal ligament and fold. projections of the domes of the diaphgram. Ligaments: inguinal. extra peritoneal connective tissue C. aponeuroses. Vessels: superior and inferior epigastric. dermatomes on the skin of the thoracic/anterolateral abdominal wall . Abdominopelvic Cavity A. lacunar. subcostal. and ilioinguinal nerves. umbilical.

Vascular: caput medusae B. TherapeutiC Procedures: abdominal paracentesis. peritoneal dialysis. Diagnoses 1. Clinical Anatomy A.IV. paraumbilical. laparotomy . laparoscopic surgical procedures. Musculoskeletal: ventral. and incisional hernias 2. hernia repair.

INGUINAL CANAL LEARNING OBJECTIVES Inguinal Canal I. origin. vasculature C. Anterolateral Abdominal Wall A. attachments. course H. origin (segmental derivation). Rectus Sheath: layers (formation). Nerves: thoracoabdominal. and subcostal vessels. pectineal. thoracoepigastric vein. Vessels: superior and inferior epigastric. Fasciae: superficial and deep fascia B. Inguinal Canal: inguinal rings. arcuate line F. course. transversus abdominus. Diagnoses: Musculoskeletal: direct and indirect inguinal hernias B. subcostal. deep circumflex iliac. posterior intercostal. and ilioinguinal nerves. actions. conjoint tendon (falx inginalis). Therapeutic Procedures: hernia repair . pattern of drainage I. contents (spermatic cord/round ligament of uterus) II. rectus abdominis. and lateral umbilical folds D. innervation. iliohypogastric. and medical umbilical ligaments E. Ligaments: inguinal. median umbilical. Lymphatics: superficial inguinal and axillary lymph nodes. lacunar. contents. structures innervated G. aponeuroses. medial. Folds: median. Clinical Anatomy A. Muscles: external and internal abdominal oblique.

mesenteries and "ligaments" 2. infracolic space (paramesenteric and paracolic gutters) 3. Lesser sac (omental bursa): recesses (superior. splenic). lesser omentum (hepatoesophageal. Greater sac: supracoloic space (subphrenic and hepatorenal recesses). gastrospleniC. hepatogastric. Peritoneum: parietal and visceral peritoneum. inferior. Abdominopelvic Cavity General Structure 1. omental foramen 4. Intraperitoneal and retroperitoneal viscera II. and splenorenal ligaments). and hepatoduodenal ligaments). Clinical Anatomy A.ABDOMINAL CAVITY AND DEVELOPMENT LEARNING OBJECTIVES Abdominal Cavity and Development I. Diagnoses Musculoskeletal: paraumbilical and ventral hemias 8. laparoscopic surgical procedures. greater omentum (gastrocolic. laparotomy . Therapeutic Procedures: peritoneal dialysis.

inferior mesenteric artery (left colic. celiac trunk. right testicular/ovarian. vasa recta 2. Inferior vena cava d. right and left gastric. innervation and blood supply. innervation and blood supply. greater). ileocolic. Posterior Abdominal Wall 1. pyloric antrum and canal). Ascending lumbar veins: orijln. right gastroepiploic (gastro-omental) b. Hepatic veins: left. Arteries: superior mesenteric artery [inferior pancreaticoduodenal. sphincters (cardiac. and right suprarenal veins. lymphatics (pattern of drainage) 2. intestinal). pylorus. lymphatics 3. superior mesenteric vein (middle colic. marginal artery. arcades. pyloric). Abdominal portion of the esophagus: relationships. sigmoid. renal (left renal-let testicular/ovarian. left hepatic]. course b. relationships. rugae. origin. Veins a. course. course. origin (vertebral level). portal-systemic anastomoses b. Abdominal aorta: inferior phrenic arteries. Splenic artery: pancreatic branches. Left gastric artery: esophageal branches d. course C. inferior mesenteric (left colic. Celiac Trunk and its Branches a. left suprarenal). . cystic. right hepatic (cystic). course B. Inferior vena cava: common iliac. Origin. inferior mesenteric. origin. Foregut 1. Portal vein: splenic vein [short gastric. left gastroepiploic (gastroomental) and short gastric arteries c. left gastroepiploic. Arteries a. sigmoid. Origin. and common iliac arteries. Veins: superior and inferior mesenteric veins. gastroduodenal artery [superior pancreaticoduodenal. middle. right. ileocolic (appendicular). right colic. central veins c. median sacral. superior rectal)]. and paraumbilical veins. Midgut and Hingut 1. anastomoses I. lumbar. parts (cardia. superior mesenteric.ABDOMINAL VASCULATURE LEARNING OBJECTIVES Abdominal Vasculature Abdominopelvic Cavity A. course c. origin. middle and right colic. intestinal]l. testicular/ovarian. body. course 4. middle suprarenal. lumbar. Stomach: curvatures (lesser. fundus. renal. Common hepatic artery: proper hepatic artery [right gastric. superior rectal).

hemorrhoids). Therapeutic Procedures: portocavallsplenorenal shunt III.II. Living. Functional Anatomy: concept of a "portal.vein B. and renal arteriograms. Living Anatomy: projection of aortic bifurcation C. Diagnostic Procedures: auscultation of the abdominal aortic pulse (bruits) C. caput medusae. aortic aneurysm/dissection/rupture. inferior mesenteric. superior mesenteric artery syndrome B. and Imaging Anatomy A. superior mesenteric. venous phase studies from selected images 2. Functional. Diagnoses: dilation of portal-systemic anatomoses in portal hypertension (esophageal varices. Pathological: abdominal aortic aneurysm Clinical Anatomy A. Nonnal: celiac. . Imaging Anatomy 1. aortogram.

ligamentum venosum). Lymphatics: celiac [and posterior mediastinal (liver)] lymph nodes. extrahepatic (right. Pathological: liver abscess. intestinal trunk. coronary. duodenum. greater). Pancreas: parts [head (uncinate process). ligaments (falciform. spleen. Duodenum. and Imaging Anatomy A. patter of drainage Functional.LIVER. Living Anatomy 1. rugae. caudate). neck). Gall bladder: parts (fundus. pyloric antrum and canal). lymphatics 6. innervation 7. body. lymphatics 5. relationships. Imaging Anatomy 1. sphincters (cardiac. innervation and blood supply. lymphatics 3. common bile. cystic. porta hepatis. lymphatics (pattern of drainage) 2. inferior border. Surface projections: projections of the gall bladder. parts (cardia. relationships. innervation and blood supply. and Pancreas I. duodenojejunal flexure. borders. Stomach: curvatures (lesser. relationships. innervation and blood supply. pylorus. innervation and blood supply. head of the pancreas 8. cisterna chyli. indentations. innervation and blood supply. fundus. Spleen: surfaces. lymphatics 4. AND PANCREAS LEARNING OBJECTIVES Liver. bare area. relationships. left. descending (greater and lesser duodenal papillae). Living. relationships). II. Duodenum: parts [superior (duodenal bulb). functional (surgical)]. pancreatic pseudocyst. body. relationships. Normal: radiographs (AP) and CT (especially for imaging of the pancreas) and MRI selected sequential images of the abdomen 2. pyloric). hepatopancreatic ampulla and sphincter. ligamentum teres hepatis. Palpable structures: inferior border of liver 2. triangular. root of the mesentery. . ascending]. Bile ducts: intrahepatic. lobes [anatomical (right. ligament of Treitz. DUODENUM. liver. left. Abdominopelvic Cavity FOREGUT 1. horizontal. hepatorenal. quadrate. and common hepatic.

hepatic resection.III. Other: obstructive jaundice B. Neoplastic: carcinoma of the stomach/pancreas. Infectious/Inflammatory: cholecystitis. Therapeutic Procedures: gastric aspiration and lavage. metastatic cancer to the liver 3. Diagnostic Procedures: rebound tenderness. cholecystectomy. liver transplantation . pancreatitis 2. Clinical Anatomy A. esophagogastroduodenoscopy c. liver biopsy. Diagnoses 1.

preganglionic sympathetic fibers (greater splanchnic nerves). aortic and esophageal hiatuses. visceral afferent fibers 2. cisterna chyli. intestinal and lumbal trunks. genitofemoral. AND ABDOMINAL AUTONOMies LEARNING OBJECTIVES Kidneys. and common iliac arteries. pattern of drainage 8. lesser. Lumbar Plexus: iliohypogastric. innervation 8. Appendix: external and internal anatomy of the appendix and cecum. lateral femoral cutaneous. testicular/ovarian. celiac trunk. inferior mesenteric. mesoappendix 2. pelvic splanchnic nerves).KIDNEY. Foregut 1. Abdominal Aorta: inferior phrenic arteries. and lumbar splanchnic nerves)] 3. Vessels 1. renal. origin (vertebral level). Muscles: quadratus lumborum. iliacus. Midgut and Hindgut 1. Abdominopelvie Cavity A. course. foramen for the inferior vena cava. psoas major and minor. intestinal trunk. median sacral. Posterior Abdominal Wall A. and lumbar splanchnic nerves). arcuate ligaments)]. ilioinguinal. structures innervated D. costal. origin (segmental derivations). Diaphragm: parts [sternal. SUPRARENALS. attachments. postgangionic parasympthetic cell bodies (terminal ganglia). femoral and cbturator nerves. course . postganglionic sympathetic cell bodies (superior and inferior mesenteric ganglia). least. intestinal and lumbar lymph nodes. central tendon. visceral afferent fibers. movements C. intermesenteric plexus [preganglionic sympathetic fibers (greater. middle suprarenal. Lymphatics: celiac [and posterior mediastinal (liver)] lymph nodes. cisterna chili. innervation and blood supply. less. Celiac Plexus: preganglionic parasympthetic fibers (vagal trunks). superior mesenteric. Superior and Inferior Mesenteric Plexuses: preganglionic parasympathetic fibers (vagal trunks. pattern of drainage II. postganglionic parasympathetic cell bodies (terminal ganglia). and Abdominal Autonomies I. actions. Suprarenals. lumbar. lumbar (crura. Lymphatics: superior and inferior mesenteric lymph nodes. preganglionic sympathetic fibers (greater. lumbosacral trunk. postganglionic sympathetic cell bodies (celiac ganglia).

Neoplastic: renal cell carcinoma 2. left suprarenal). Living Anatomy 1. renal biopsy C. ureteral calculus. colon cancer. supracristal. . Pathological: diverticulosis. pancreatic pseudocyst Clinical Anatomy A. and transtubercular planes (vertebral levels). intravenous pyelogram. aortogram. sympathetectomy. lymphatics (pattern of drainage) Functional.2. right testicular/ovarian. medulla). ureter (course. cholecystogram. Living. Lumbar Sympathetic Trunks: sympathetic ganglia. lithotripsy. lumbar lymphatic trunks. innervation). Diagnoses 1. Palpable structures: abdominal aorta 2. abdominal aortic aneurysm. medulla). III. Lymphatics: lumbar lymph nodes. lymphatics (pattern of drainage) G. hydronephrosis. cisterna chyli. bowel obstruction. direct peritoneal pain B. Suprarenal Gland: parenchyma (cortex. pyelogram. renal pelvis. cholelithiasis. Imaging Anatomy 1. Normal: radiographs (AP) and CT (especially for imaging of the kidney) and MRI selected sequential images of the abdomen. anastomoses 4. reflex visceral afferents. abdominal ultrasound. referred rebound tenderness. Other: renal ptosis. liver abscess. guarding. white and gray rami communicantes. kidneys. relationships. lumbar splanchnic nerves F. superior mesenteric. inferior mesenteric. aortic bifurcation. projections of the kidneys on the skin of the posterior abdominal wall. pattern of drainage E. Surface projections: abdominal quadrants and regions. vagotomy. Therapeutic Procedures: appendectomy. minor and major calyces. and Imaging Anatomy A. transpyloric. innervation and blood supply. McBurney's point C. hydronephrosis B. Inferior Vena Cava: common iliac. kidney transplantation. origin. lumbar. Functional Anatomy: pain vs. psoas sign. subcostal. ganglionectomy. Diagnostic Procedures: rebound tenderness. barium swallow/enema. course. celiac plexus blockade IV. innervation and blood supply. Kidney: parenchyma (cortex. cholangiogram. and right suprarenal veins. and renal arteriograms. renal (left renal-left testicular/ovarian. hilum. relationships. perirenal and pararenal fat. renal fascia. renal sinus. celiac. nephrectomy. projections of the domes of the diaphragm. referred vs. Iymphangiogram 2. Ascending Lumbar Veins: origin. course 3.

sacroiliac joints. ampulla. relationships. innervation and blood supply. and Imaging Anatomy A. internal. neck. Functional Anatomy: mechanisms of urinary and fecal incontinence. and lateral and median sacral veins. internal pudendal. sacrum. and their bony landmarks. suspensory ligament of the ovary. sacrotuberous. relationship to intemal iliac artery E. lymphatics (pattern of drainage) 3. origin. lymphatics (pattern of drainage) 2. mesosalpinx. coccyx.TOPOGRAPHY OF PELVIC VISCERA LEARNING OBJECTIVES Topography of Pelvic Viscera I. peritoneal relations (vesicouterine and rectouterine pouches). obturator membrane c. relationships. Lymphatics: sacral lymph nodes. Living. Viscera 1. vaginal (female). uterine (female. inferior and superior gluteal. rectal. support of pelvic viscera (active and passive mechanisms) . superior and inferior vesical. Uterine tube: parts [infundibulum (fimbriae). apex). including articular surfaces and areas of muscular/tendinous attachment 8. ischium. uterine (female). Pelvis A. and sacrospinous ligaments (attachments. isthmus. orientation (anteflexion. course. Vagina: walls. Internal iliac artery: anterior trunk [umbilical. prostatic (male). Urinary bladder: parts (body. lymphatics (pattern of drainage) D. relationships. puboprostatic (male). transverse cervical (cardinal). internal pudendal inferior gluteal. peritoneal relations [vesicouterine (female) and rectovesical (male) pouches]. course. extemal. ligaments [broad. and obturator arteries]. Uterus: parts (fundus. Arthrology: pubic symphysis. Internal iliac vein: middle. Functional. Osteology: pelvic bone (ilium. Vessels 1. lymphatics (pattern of drainage) 5. and lateral sacral arteries). anastomoses 2. round. obturator. uterosacral]. sacroiliac. cervix). anteversion). vesical. fornices. and rectal venous plexuses. body. Ovary: mesovarium. role in resisting movement at the sacroiliac joint). pubovesical (female). vaginal (female). innervation and blood supply. middle rectal. posterior trunk (superior gluteal. ligament of the ovary. and median umbilical ligaments. blood supply. intramural part]. relationship to ureter). innervation and blood supply. pubis). and common iliac lymph nodes. blood supply 4. origin. pattern of drainage II. iliolumbar.

ductus deferens. ectopic pregnancy. and canal. Preventive Procedures: intrauterine conceptive device insertion .B. Vascular: intrapelvic hemorrhage. Neoplastic: endometriosis 6. iliac bone marrow biopsy c. rectum. vagina. and fissure fistula. Normal radiographs (AP. Nervous: impotence. body of uterus. ultrasound of non-gravid uterus. ovarian cyst. pubic tubercle. pelvic fracture. Pathological: carcinoma of the cervixlovary. emergency delivery. Pap smear. vaginal fornices. Infectious/Inflammatory: cystitis 5. inguinal ligament and fold. varicocele III. infertility. ectopic pregnancy (rupture). Clinical Anatomy A. and bladder 2. Therapeutic Procedures: intrauterine contraceptive device removal. culdoscopy. ischial spine c. Musculoskeletal: pelvic fractures 2. spermatic cord. Diagnoses 1. ischial tuberosity. oviducts. lateral) and CT and MRI selected sequential images of the pelvis. urinary and fecal incontinence. aortogram. venous phase studies. ureters. cervix. membranous urethra in the male (extravasation of urine) 8. hysterectomy D. posterior superior iliac spine. pelvic/perineal abscess. common/external/internal iliac aneurysm 4. Diagnostic Procedures: rectal and vaginal examinations. vaginismus 3. intemal iliac arteriogram. Living Anatomv: palpable structures: iliac crest. cystourethrogram. ovaries. sacrospinous and sacrotuberous ligaments. urinary bladder. and rectum. hysterosalpingogram. Other: prolapse of the urinary bladder. uterus. gravid uterus. tubercle of the iliac crest. Imaging Anatomy 1.

acticns. crura and bulb of tl"Ie penis (male) 3. cremaster artery. spermatic cord [fasciae (external spermatic.r. ccrpcra spcnqicsurn (bulb of the penis). Potential space: eeep and superfic. labia minora. vacina (female). vestibule of the vagina (external urethra and vaginal orifices. Urccenital Triancle 1. greater vestibular glands. dartos rncsc'e: innervation and blced supply). 2.. nerves (ilioinguinal nerve. deep perineal fascia. lnnervaticn): crus of the clltcris. pudendal cleft. vagina.nalTMancle 1. and urethra (fef'iiaJe). scrotum (fascia. Female external genitalia. sccerticial transverse perineal. Deep perineal POI.JbrTi~c=sal VEr. orifices of the duds cf the greater vesticutar glanes). Perineal body: composition. bultcurethral glanes (male) 2. recesses: cement C.CUS plexus). tunica albuginea. Male external genitalia: penis [rcot. epididymis . lnnervaticn anc blccd supply. parnplnltcrrn plexus. Su~erfidal perineal pouch: lntericr fascia cf the urogenital diaphragm (perineal membrane). lnnervaticn): rnerncranccs urethra.es and Divisicns 8 . suspensory anc! ft..1). glans.tericr mesenteric . Ischlocaverncsus. labia rnajcra. and bulccsccnqicsus muscles (attachments. lnnervation): ductus (vas) deferens. superficia! anc deep penile fascia. Iym!=hatics (ir.. prepuce. lymphatics (pattern of drainage)1. frenulum) 6. 8cl!near. . and sccerflcial inguinal lyml=h ncces: pattern of crainase.itai jiar:hragm (perineal rnerncrane): schincter urethrae anc! dee. cremasteric. tunica alt:uginea.LEARNING 08JECT1VES PERINEUM pgrineum A.A. actions. infer:or fasc. bdt:s of the vestibule.C. serninitercus tubules. vessels (testicular artery. Ischicanal fossae: walls.: transverse perineal muscles (artacornents.c!iicf7i'1 ligaments. prepuce. genital branch of genitofemcral nerve).. artery of the ductus deferensj]. Anal canal: internal anatomy: anal sphincters: innervaticn and blccd Sl. glans. muscular inserticns 5. ccrpcra caverncsa. mons pubis. cremaster muscle (acticn. intemal spermatic). scpericr fascia of the urccenitat diaphragm. testis [tunica vaginalis.' (urcqerutat dia!=hrasr. cccy.:!=ply (si. innervation anc! bleed supply}.a] perneal fasdae 4. clitoris (body.a cf the urcger.

artery of the bulb. structures innervated. genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve. and superfidal inguinal Iymr:h nodes. pattern of drainage . postganglionic parasympathetic cell bodies (tenninal ganglia). course 9. postganglionic sympathetic cell bodies (inferior hypogastric plexus). Lymphatics: internal iliac. Nerves: pudendal nerve [perineal nerve (posterior scrotal/labial nerves).7. perineal branch of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve. and ilioinguinal nerve: origin (segmental derivation). lumbar. Vessels: internal pudendal artery (perineal artery. course. lnnervation of perineal viscera . dorsal nerve of the penis/cfitorisl.preganglionic sympathetic fibers (hypogastric and sacral splanchnic nerves). visceral afferent fibers 8. origin. deep artery of the penis/efiteris. dorsal artery of the penis/clitoris) deep dorsal vein of the penis/cHtoris.

isthmus. role in resisting movement at the sacroiliac joint). transverse cervical (cardinal). Pelvis A. mesosalpinx. internal anatomy (trigone. attachments. relationships. Pelvic wall: piriformis. sacroiliac joints. lymphatics (pattern of drainage) 4. Viscera 1. internal and external urethral orifices 3. obturator membrane c. iliococcygeus). pelvic inlet and outlet. uterosacral]. innervation and blood supply. and their bony landmarks. and sacrospinous ligaments (attachments. pubococcygeus. peritoneal relations (vesicouterine and rectouterine pouches). round. Prostate gland. Uterus: parts (fundus. sacrotuberous. coccygeus. ligaments [broad. peritoneal relations [vesicouterine (female) and rectovesical (male) pouches]. innervation and blood supply Iymphyatics (pattern of drainage) 2. blood supply 6. ureteral and intemal urethral orifices). actions. relationships. Uterine tube: parts [infundibulum (fimbriae). relationships. anteversion). orifices of the prostatic utricle and ejaculatory ducts. innervation 2. lymphatics (pattern of drainage) . ejaculatory duct. and median umbilical ligaments. actions. attachments. seminal vesicle. innervation and blood supply. innervation D. Male urethra: prostatic (urethral crest. orientation (anteflexion. coccyx. suspensory ligament of the ovary. prostatic sinuses).PELVIC MUSCULATURE AND FASCIA LEARNING OBJECTIVES Pelvic Musculature and Fascia I. Urinary bladder: parts (body. blood supply. pubis). neck. ligament of the ovary. including articular surfaces and areas of muscular/tendinous attachment. detrusor muscle. body. colliculus seminalis. Muscles 1. membranous and penile (navicular fossa) urethrae. ischium. Osteology: pelvic bone (ilium. intramural part]. ductus (vas) deferens. major and minor pelvis B. apex). sacrum. cervix). lymphatics (pattern of drainage) 5. ampulla. pubovesical (female). sacroiliac. Pelvic diaphragm: levator ani (puborectalis. puboprostatic (male). obturator intemus (obturator fascia). Arthrology: pubic symphysis. Ovary: mesovarium.

nongravid uterus. internal and external orifices 9. Living Anatomy 1. ischial tuberosity. pattern of drainage Functional. superior and inferior vesical. per rectum-intersphincteric groove. lateral) and CT and MRI selected sequential images of the pelvis. inferior and superior gluteal. pelvic fracture. Vagina: walls. intemal iliac arteriogram. lymphatics (pattern of drainage) E. and lateral sacral arteries). . vaginal fornices. urinary bladder. internal pudendal. internal iliac arteriogram. origin. spermatic cord. inguinal ligament and fold. internal pudendal. uterine (female). relationship to ureter). relationships. anterior superior iliac spine. Pathological: carcinoma of the cervix/prostate/testis/ovary. and lateral and median sacral veins. cervix (female). hysterosalpingogram. and bladder 2. rectum. ischial spine. seminal vesicle (male). Palpable structures: iliac crest. vaginal (female). vesical. oviducts. per vaginam-urethra. and rectal venous plexuses. ischial tuberosity. cervix. external. internal. gravid uterus. ischial tuberosity. cystourethrogram. Normal: radiographs (AP. posterior superior iliac spine. Rectum: external and internal anatomy. ovary. Imaging Anatomy 1. fornices. pelvidperianal abscess. relationships. sacrospinous and sacrotuburous ligaments. course. anastomoses 2. pubic tubercle. ureters. innervation and blood supply. ultrasound of testis. peritoneal relations. ductus deferens. prostate (male). anorectal ring. posterior trunk (superior gluteal. Vessels 1. origin. ductus deferens (male). body of uterus. Internal iliac vein: middle rectal. obturator. sacrum. Surface projections: projection of the dermatomes on the skin of the perineum B. and Imaging Anatomy A. iliolumbar. venous phase studies from selected arterial images. tubercle of the iliac crest. relationship to internal iliac artery F. anal canal.7. ovarian cyst. relationships. ischial spine. vaginal (female). uterine (female. inferior gluteal. Living. innervation and bloody supply. and common iliac lymph nodes. coccyx. course. Lymphatics: sacral lymph nodes. Female urethra: orientation. ectopic pregnancy. lymphatics (pattern of drainage) 8. variococele II. aortogram. middle rectal. sacrospinous and sacrotuberous ligaments 2. ovaries. prostatic (male). and obturator arteries]. Internal iliac artery: anterior trunk [umbilical.

sigmoidoscopy. carcinoma of the prostate/cervixlrectum/ovary/testis. resection of the rectum. Nervous: impotence. and testicular examinations. cirumcision. iliac bone marrow biopsy c. priapism 4. straddling injury and rupture of the membranous urethra in the male (extravasation of urine) 8. hysterectomy. pudendal/penile block. Other: prolapse of the urinary bladder. proctoscopy. emergency delivery. fracture of the penis. cesarean section. Clinical Anatomy A. Diagnoses 1. intrauterine contraceptive device removal. epidural and sacral anesthesia. aspiration of a hydrocele D. phimosis. varicocele. intrapelvic hemorrhage. ectopic pregnancy (rupture). radical). vasectomy . penile implant. prostatectomy (transurethral. orchidectomy. Neoplastic: benign prostatic hyperplasia. Infections/Inflammatory: cystitis. culdoscopy. epididymitis. Musculoskeletal: pelvic fractures 2. episotomy. urethral catheterization. hysteroscopy. uterus. Vascular: hemorrhoids. dilation and curettage. hemorrhoidectomy. anal fissure. testicular torsion. prostatitis. urinal and fecal incontinence.III. and rectum. and greater vestibular gland abscesses 5. fistula. pelvimetry. vaginismus 3. Diagnositc Procedures: rectal. Pap smear. infertility. Therapeutic Procedures: urethral catheterization. pelvic (supralevator). hydrocele. vaginal. urethrocytoscopy. ischioanal. Preventive Procedures: intrauterine contraceptive device insertion. . vagina. common/external/internal iliac aneurysm. perinanal. endometriosis 6.

and posterior femoral cutaneous nerves. dorsal nerve of the penis/clitoris]. visceral afferent fibers 8. course. Nerves 1. origin. Somatic nerves (branches of the sacral plexus): sciatic. deep dorsal vein of the penis/clitoris. vaginal (female). course. course. levator ani. 1. innervation of perineal viscera . vesical. external. and ilioinguinal nerve. uterine (female). Pelvis A. pattern of drainage c. perineal branch of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve. lumbar. obturator. posterior trunk (superior gluteal. structures innervated . middle rectal. pudendal. and common iliac lymph nodes. iliolumbar. and obturator arteries]. deep artery of the penis/clitoris. inferior gluteal. coccygeus. and lateral sacral arteries). course c. course. origin (segmental derivation). Vessels: internal pudendal artery (perineal artery. relationship to intemal iliac artery 8. Nerves: pudendal nerve [perineal nerve (posterior scrotal/labial nerves). origin. internal. artery of the bulb. vaginal (female). superior and inferior gluteal. pattem of drainage II. Internal iliac artery: anterior trunk [umbilical. Lymphatics: sacral lymph nodes. superior and inferior vesical.PELVIC NERVES AND VESSELS LEARNING OBJECTIVES Pelvic Nerves and Vessels I. intemal pudendal. Perineurm A. and superficial inguinal lymph nodes. Lymphatics: internal iliac. and lateral and median sacral veins. dorsal artery of the penis/clitoris). obturator internus. structures innervated. origin (segmental derivation). postganglionic sympathetic cell bodies (inferior hypograstric plexus). preganglionic sympathetic fibers (hypogastric and sacral splanchnic nerves). postganglionic parasympathetic cell bodies (terminal ganglia). prostatic (male). Intemal iliac vein: middle rectal.preganglionic parasympathetic fibers (pelvic splanchnic nerves). and rectal venous plexuses. Vessels 1. uterine (female. genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve. nerves to the piriformis. origin. internal pudendal. anastomoses 2. and quadratus femoris. relationship to ureter). inferior and superior gluteal.

Autonomic nerves: sacral sympathetic trunks. Nervous: impotence. gray rami communicantes. urinary and fecal incontenence. Vascular: hemorrhoids. postganglionic parasympathetic cell bodies (terminal ganglia). priapism III. common/external/internal iliac aneurysm. intrapelvic hemorrhage. sympathetic ganglia.2. varicocele.preganglioniC parasympathetic fibers (pelvic splanchnic nerves). hypogastric and sacral splanchnic nerves). visceral afferent fibers Clinical Anatomy Diagnoses 1. . preganglioniC sympathetic fibers (superior hypogastric plexus. postganglionic sypathetic cell bodies (inferior hypograstric plexus). visceral afferent fibers. vaginismus 2. innervation of pelvic viscera .

thoracodorsal. coracobrachialis. relations Roots: origin. origin.r. medial root of the median nerve. thoracoacromial.\. course and innervations nerve to subclavius. posterior cord (upper and lower subscapular. Nerves: brachial plexus. :.g 'esicn of each nerve derived from the brachial plexus . short head biceps C. relations B. central. subclavian (referred pain) D. Imaging: bilateral MRI sequential images of the brachial plexus (coronal. accessor! nerve palsy. subscapular. and radial nerves). Trunks: C. pattern of formation. teres major.i1c. ulnar nerve). Vessels: axillar! artery (superior throracic. course and innervations B. Imaging Anatomy A.ar. apex. course D. Erb's paralysis. origin and course pectoral. Diagnosis and treatment 1. Axilla: contents and relations A. and lateral lymph nodes. latissimus dorsi. posterior. Axillary sheath: fascial continuity III. base. medial brachial and antebrachial cutaneous nerves. Brachial Plexus: pattern of formation. Clinical Anatomy A. precict all cefic. circumflex scapular. axillary vein. Boundaries: Axilla and Brachial Plexus walls.. Cords and branches: lateral cord (lateral pectoral nerve. medial cord (medial pectoral nerve. thoracodorsal. intercostalbrachial II. musculocutaneous nerve). suprascapular nerve. Musc!es: serratus anterior. structures innervated E. oblique transverse) IV. Nervous: Klurnpxe's paralysls. subscapular. lateral root of the median nerve."::53 ":. Divisions: anterior. lymphatic trunk. pattern of drainage E.. Lymphatics: apical.cmy • sacx and Upper Lrnc: Axilla and Srachial Plexus Learning Objectives: I. subscapulularis. deltoid.ts 7cilcwir. sagittal. anterior and posterior circumflex humeral). origin. course. axillary. long head triceps.:r. long thoracic and dorsal scapular nerves. transverse. pattern of formation. pectoralis major and minor. winging of :he scacula. lateral thoracic. A.

. roie in trunk). transverse cervical. coracobrachialis. suprascapular. ccracoacrcmial maintaining the integrity of the shoulder joint Subscapular and subacromial bursae 'IS. triceps. Nerves: accessory. related innervatlons. structures innervated nerves.eacx and Upper Lmc: scacura anc cnouicer Learning Objectives: I. Osteology: Scapular and Shoulder Regions pectoral girdle (clavicle. teres major. Ligaments: transverse scapular.. clavipectoral fascia B. 3. rotator cuff muscles (subscapularis. attachments.. infraspinatus. Spaces: quadrangular H. IV. boundaries and contents movement. Muscles: deltoid. levator scapulae. nerve to the subclavius. functional muscle groups. course trunk. attachments. and circumflex scapular vessels. Movements: and triangular spaces. Arnculer components: bony components.:<. latissimus dorsi. teres minor). actions. suprascapular. innervation C. rotator cuff mechanism. attachments. rhomboid major and minor. Nerves: medial and lateral pectoral nerves. Muscles: pectoraliS major and minor. and Imaging Anatomy A. Living. coraccnumeral.s . 4. ascending br. actions. deltoid. axillary. rotator cuff. L!gaments: glenohumeral. origin. deltoid. course.~ . intrinsic extrinsic III.-:~. Joints: scapulothoracic C. course arterial anastomoses around the scapula G. trapezius.. cephalic vein.-. innervation E. scapula). Shoulder joint 1. (thoracoacromial cephalic v. subclavius. coracoacromial D. cs. coracoclavicular B. thoracoacromial origin. biceps B. origin. Scapular Region A. Fascia: cutaneous nerves. and thoracodorsal origin.. Movements: muscle groups and innervations. nerves: brachial plexus D. scapular fossae and attachments "joint. scapulohumeral rhythm." acromioclavicular (subacromial bursa). Vessels: superior thoracic. Vessels: branches of axillary a. dorsal scapular. Functional. Vessels: posterior circumflex humeral. pectoralis major and minor. C. fibrous capsule glenoid labrum llqs.. Muscles: trapezius. muscle groups Scapulohumeral II. D. F. Pectoral Region A. lateral thoracic vessels. rotator cuff and shoulder joint stability . Shoulder Region A. supraspinatus. course. structures innervated. origin.~na. from brachial. area of distribution.crr:y .. 2.:. serratus anterior. Function anatomy: dynamic anatomy of shoulder joint.

. superior and inferior angles of the scapula. acromion. coracoid process. surface projections of brachial plexus. sprains. Nervous: shoulder dislocation and upper lateral cutaneous nerve . ~iagnosis: strains. oblique sagittal. bursa V. frozen shoulder. medial and lateral borders of the scapula. Imaging anatomy: radiographs and MRI. and axillary artery and branches C. rotator cuff tears. Clinical Anatomy A. acromioclavicular separation. synovial cavity. shoulder dislocation B. sagittal. spine of the scapula. infraclavicular fossa.B. acromial angle. Living anatomy: palpate clavicle.

coracoacromial ligament. fracture of the surgical neck of the humerus . bony landmarks and attachments role in II. course. Anterior compartment: 8. Clinical Anatomy A. and radial nerves. ulnar groove X. Imaging: arteriograms. course. and median cubital veins. basilic. Osteology: humerus. teres major). Living. Muscles A.Human Gross Anatomy . upper lateral brachial (axillary). axillary. annular ligament. brachialis septa. dislocated elbow. ulnar nerve in the ulnar groove. bicipital aponeurosis. area of distribution and 8. Functional anatomy: dynamic anatomy of the joints of the upper limb. profunda brachii (middle and radial collateral). Cutaneous nerves: intercostobrachial. projections of the courses of the axillary and brachial arteries and branches. projections to parts of axillary artery and relevance to stab wounds in respect to anastomotic vessels D. Musculoskeletal: dislocation of the humeral and radial heads. biceps brachii. median. Surface projections: projections of the courses of the musculocutaneous. and Imaging Anatomy A. functional groups 8. Superficial veins: cephalic and basilic veins. Functional. course and origin IV. tendon of the long head of the biceps brachii in the intertubercular sulcus.Cubital fossa: boundaries. superior and inferior lateral brachial cutaneous. and superior and inferior ulnar collateral vessels. tendon of the insertion of the biceps brachii. Vessels: brachial. Nerves: musculocutaneous. actions. Attachments. subcutaneous border of the ulna. Posterior compartment: coracobrachialis. relations IX. attachments. radius. and posterior brachial cutaneous nerves. Ligaments: radial and ulnar collateral. median. Oeep fascia: medial and lateral intermuscular V. anterior axillary fold. ulna. attrition of the supraspinatus tendon. head of radius C. ulnar. medial brachial antebrachial cutaneous. origin. medial and later epicondyles inf medial and lateral supracondylar crests of the humerus. innervated ulnar. structures VII. innervation VI. cephalic. dislocation/rupture of the tendon of the long head the biceps brachii.8ac~< and Upper Limb: Arm and Elbow Learning Objectives: Arm and Elbow I. origin. contents. olecranon. Superficial fascia A. posterior axillary fold (latissimus dorsi. contributions to elbow anastomosis VIII. anconeus C. muscle Palpable landmarks: head of the humerus. and radial nerves. fascial compartments triceps brachii. maintaining the integrity of the elbow joint III.

median nerve palsy due to supracondylar fracture of the humerus. pressure within fascial compartments .Back and Upper Limb: Arm and Eibow B. axillary nerve palsy due to glenohumeral dislocation or fracture of humerus. ulnar nerve at intermuscular septum and at ulnar groove. tendon reflex. Nervous: entrapment neuropathies. radial nerve palsy due to fracture of humeral shaft (are triceps affected?) C.Human Gross Anatomy . Diagnostics: brachial pulse and blood pressure.

Human Gross Anatomy - Bacx and Upper Lrnb: Forearm

Learning Objectives: Forearm
I. Osteology: humerus, radius,

ulna,

bony landmarks and attachments

II. Ligaments: radial and ulnar collateral, annular ligaments, interosseous membrane, radioulnar !igs.; attachments, role in maintaining the stability of the radioulnar joint Ill. Superficial fascia
A. Cutaneous nerves: medial, lateral, and posterior antebrachial cutaneous; origin, area of distribution

B. Superficial veins: cephalic, basilic, and median cubital veins; course and origin IV. Deep fascia: medial, lateral, and intermediate intermuscular septa, fascial compartments; common flexor and common extensor tendons, insertion of biceps brachii on radial tuberosity V. Muscles
A. Anterior compartment: superficial muscles (pronator teres, flexor carpi radialis, palmaris longus, flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor digitorum superficial is), deep muscles (flexor poflicis longus, flexor digitorum profundus, pronator quadratus)

B. Posterior compartment:

superficial muscles (brachioradialis, extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis, extensor digitorum, extensor digiti minimi, extensor carpi ulnaris), deep muscles (supinator, abductor polficis longus, extensor pollicis brevis and longus, extensor pollicis brevis and longus, extensor indicis; anatomical snuff box

C. Attachments, actions, innervation

VI. Nerves:
A. Radial nerve: superficial and deep branches, posterior interosseous nerve nerve

B. Median nerve: anterior interosseous

C. Ulnar nerve: branches to forearm muscles

VII. Vessels:
A. Ulnar vessels: anterior and posterior ulnar recurrent, common interosseous, interosseous recurrent; elbow anastomosis,

B. Radial vessels: radial recurrent vessels
C. Origin, course, and structures innervated

VIII.Functional, Living, and Imaging Anatomy
A. Functional anatomy: dynamic anatomy of the joints of the upper limb, functional muscle groups border of the ulna, head of the radius, tendons of flexor carpi ulnaris, palmaris longus, flexor carpi radialis, brachioradialis, abductor polJicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis, and extensor pollicis longus at the wrist, anatomical snuff box, styloid process of the radium, dorsal radial tubercle, head and styloid process of the ulna, pulse of ulnar artery lateral to the tendon of flexor carpi ulnaris at the wrist,

B. Palpable landmarks: subcutaneous

Human Gross Anatomy - Sack and Upper Limb:

Forearm

pulse of the radial artery between the tendons of flexor carpi radialis and brachioradialis at ~ewri~ . C. Surface projections: projections of the courses of the musculocutaneous, ulnar, median, axillary, and radial nerves, projections of the courses of the radial and ulnar arteries and branches, D. Imaging: arteriograms, dislocated elbow, ulnar groove, wrist, Colles' fracture, fractured scaphoid (blood supply), Qislocation of the lunate (nerve compression) IX. Clinical Anatomy A. Musculoskeletal: dislocation of the humeral and radial heads, avascular necrosis of the scaphoid, B. Nervous: nerve palsies; ulnar nerve lesion at the wrist (claw hand), median nerve compression in carpal tunnel (carpal tunnel release),superficial and deep radial nerve C. Diagnostics: ulnar and radial pulse at the wrist, radial pulse in the anatomical snuff box, pressure within fascial compartments

human Gross Anatomy - 8ac~~and Upper Limb:

Hand

Learning Objectives: Hand
I. Osteology: radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges; bony landmarks and attachments

II. Arthrology
A. Wrist joint 1. articular components: bony and fibrocartilaginous components, fibrous capsule

2. Ligaments: radial and ulnar collateral ligaments; artacarnents, role in resisting movement at
the wrist 8. Distal to wrist: intercarpal, carpometacarpal, [oints metacarpophalangeal, and interphalangeal

III. Superficial fascia
A. Palm of hand: cutaneous nerves (palmar and digital branches of the median and ulnar nerves); origin, area of distribution; palmaris brevis 8. Dorsum of hand: cutaneous nerves (superficial branch of the radial nerve, dorsal branch of the ulnar nerve, digital branches of the median and ulnar nerves); origin, area of distribution; dorsal venous network

IV. Deep fascia
A. 8. Palm of hand: flexor retinaculum (carpal tunnel - boundaries, contents), palmar aponeurosis, fibrous tendon sheaths, thenar and hypothenar fasciae Dorsum of the hand: extensor retinaculum

V. Muscles
A. Thenar: abductor and flexor pollicis brevis, opponens pollicis 8. Hypothenar: abductor digiti minimi, flexor digiti minimi brevis, opponens digiti minimi

C. Other intrinsic: adductor pollicis, lumbricals, palmar and dorsal interossei D. Attachments, actions, lnnervation E. Extensor expansions: composition, muscular insertions, actions

F. Flexor tendon pattern of insertion and action, mesotendons

VI. Nerves:
A. 8. Recurrent branch of the median nerve Superficial and deep branches of the ulnar nerve

C. Origin, course, structures innervated D. Median vs. ulnar nerve dominance

VII. Vessels:
A. Ulnar vessels: superficial palmar arch (common and proper palmar digital arteries), deep palmar branch

pressure within fascial compartments. extensor polllcis brevis. princeps pollicis artery.Functional. phalanges. and radial nerves. brachioradialis. Venae comitantes D. radial pulse in the anatomical snuff box. Palpable landmarks: tubercle of the scaphoid. ulnar nerve lesion at the wrist (claw hand). and Imaging Anatomy muscle Functional anatomy: dynamic anatomy of the joints of the upper limb. styloid process of the radius. Diagnostics: ulnar and radial pulse at the wrist. Clinical Anatomy A.Human Gross Anatomy. course. flexor carpi radialis. dorsal radial tubercle. pulse of the radial artery between the tendons of flexor carpi radialis and brachioradialis at the wrist C. Radial vessels: superficial palmar branch. and extensor pollicis longus at the wrist. Nervous: nerve palsies. anatomical snuff box. hook of the hamate. tendons of the extensor digitorum on the dorsum of the hand D. B. pisiform.Sack. functional anatomy of the hand and hand placement. palmaris longus. Musculoskeletal: avascular necrosis of the scaphoid. pulse of ulnar artery lateral to the tendon of flexor carpi ulnaris at the wrist. arteriograms IX. Surface projections: projections of the courses of the ulnar. recurrent median nerve injury C. Living. Origin. and Upper Limb: Hand B. 8. metacarpals. tendon sheath infection and spread . projections of the courses of the radial and ulnar arteries and branches. and structures innervated . radialis indicis artery C. abductor pollicis longus. functional groups. pulse of the tendons of flexor carpi ulnaris. median. VlIl. Imaging: dislocation of the lunate (nerve compression). head and styloid process of the ulna. A. deep palmar arch. median nerve compression in carpal tunnel (carpal tunnel release).

Human

G(CSS

Anatomy • Back and Upper Limb: Joims of the Upper Extremity

Learning Objectives: Joints of the UpperExtr~mity
I. Shoulder joint
A. Articular components: bony components (glenoid fossa and head of humerus), fibrous capsule, glenoid labrum B. Ligaments: glenohumeral, coracohumeral, coracoacromialligs., maintaining the integrity of the shoulder joint C. Subscapular and subacromial bursae attachments, role in

D. Movements: muscle groups and innervations, intrinsic vs. extrinsic

II. Elbow joint (humeroulnar,

humeroradial, and proximal radioulnar joints)
head of

A. Articular components: bony components (trochlea, olecranon fossa, capitulum, radius, coronoid process), fibrous capsule B. Ligaments: radial and ulnar collateral and annular ligaments; attachments, stabilizing the elbow joint C. Olecranon bursae D. Carrying angle E. Elbow arterial anastomosis

role in

III. Wrist Joint
A. Articular components: capsule B. Ligaments: joint bony and fibrocartilaginous (articular disc) components, fibrous

radial and ulnar collateral; attachments, role in limiting movement of the wrist

IV. Common learning objectives
A. Movements: muscles/muscle

for each joint
groups producing them

B. Innervation: to the joint

proper anastomoses

C. Blood supply and associated

V. The above learning objectives general

are integral to the objectives for the upper limb in

r.~r:-:a~ (;iOS3 Anatomy- 8ad< and Upper Limb: vertebral column ar.d muscles of back

Learning Objectives:
I. Vertebral Column

Vertebral Column and Muscles of Back

A. Osteology: cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae and sacrum and coccyx, and their bony landmarks including articular surfaces 8. ligaments: posterior and anterior longitudinal, flavum, interspinous, supraspinous

C. Arthrology: 1. Synovial joints: atiantcoccipital, mecial and lateral atlantoaxial, zygapophyseal joints. innervaticns. possible mechanisms of pain 2. F:orocartilaginous joints: intervertebral disc anatomy and relations primary and secondary

:0 intervertebral

fcrarnen

D. Normal Curvatures:

II. Muscles: deep and superficial (intrinsic and extrinsic)
A. Fascia: superficial, 8. Superficial muscles: deep (thoracolumbar) trapezius, latissimus dorsi, levator scapulae, rhomboids

C. Intermediate muscles: serratus posterior superior and inferior D. Deep muscles: splenius et cervices, splenius et capitus, erector spinae (iliocostalis, longissimus, spinalis), transversospinalis E. Nerves: dorsal and ventral rami, plexuses, pure sensory, segmental, pattern of distribution and relation to origins

III. Functional Anatomy
A. mobility and range of motion, center of gravity, shock absorption, posture, stabilization abdominal pressure by

IV. Living Anatomy
A. 8. Palpable landmarks: external occipital protuberance, spinous processes (C7), iliac crest, anterior and posterior superior iliac spines, sacrum, sacral hiatus, coccyx, erector spinae Surface projections: spinal cord ending, dural sac, lumbar puncture, posterior superior iliac spines, iliac crests

V. Imaging A. Normal: vertebral anatomy, intervertebral foramina, intervertebral space, spinal cord and
nerve relations to canal and foramina 8. Pathological: excessive curvatures (kyphosis, lordosis, scoliosis), herniated disc and spinal cord or root compression, osteoporosis, fractures, osteophytes, spondylolisthesis

VI. Clinical Anatomy A. Diagnosis and treatment
1. Musculoskeletaf: muscle strains/spasms, curvatures, displacements. osteophytes. whiplash injury. herniated intervertebral disc. ostecporosis, dislocations and fractures, spondyloysis, spondylollsthesls. coccydynia, spinal stenosis 2. 8. Nervous: sciatica, radiculopathies, cord and nerve compression. neoplastic injury lumbar puncture, laminectomy, epidural, spinal, and caudal anesthesia Procedures:

~uman

GiOSS

Anatomy - 8ac:< and Upper Limb: Lumbar spine and Spinal Canal

Learning Objectives:
I.

Lumbar Spine and Spinal. Canal

Lumbar Vertebra and associated structures
A. Osteology: cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae and sacrum and coccyx, and their bony landmarks including articular surfaces B. ligaments: C. Arthrology: posterior and anterior longitudinal, flavum, interspinous, supraspinous

1. Synovial joints: zygapophyseal joints, innervations and possible mechanisms of pain
2. D. Fibrocartilaginous joints: intervertebral disc anatomy and relations to intervertebral (intrinsic) foramen Muscles: Transversospinalis

E. Nerves: dorsal rami F. Functional Anatomy 1. mobility anc range of motion, center of gravity, shock absorption, posture, stabilization abdominal pressure 'Jy

G. Living Anatomy 1. 2. Palpable landmarks: Surface projections: spines, iliac crests iliac crest, sacrum, sacral hiatus, coccyx, erector spinae spinal cere ending, dural sac, lumbar puncture, posterior superior iliac

H. Imaging 1. 2. Normal: disks, ivf, conus mecullaris. Pathological: herniated disks, narrowing of ivf, pedicle fractures, spurs, cord compression

II. Spinal Canal, Spinal Cord, and Meninges
A. Meninges 1. 2. 3. Dura mater: epidural space, internal and external vertebral vencus plexuses Arachnoid: arachnoid trabeculae, subarachnoid space, lumbar cistern, cerebrospinal fluid Pia mater: denticulate ligaments, filum terminale

B. Spinal Cord 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Spinal nerves: dorsal and ventral rootlets and roots, spinal gar.glia, dorsal and ventral rami; cauda equina: lntervertebral Foramina and boundaries Regions: cervical and lumbar enlargements, conus rnedullaris Internal organization: gray matter, white matter Spinal vessels: anterior and posterior spinal, segmental, and radicular vessels; origin, course Surface projections: inferior extents of the spinal cord and dural sac, site of lumbar puncture, projections of vertebral levels in relation to spinal segments

C. Clinical Anatomy 1. 2. 3. Nervous: sc.atica. raciculopathies. compression of a spinal nerve, compression of the spinal cord/cauda squina, spinal cord transections Vascular: metastasis via the vertebral venous plexuses lumbar puncture, laminectomy, dlscectorny, vertebral fusion Procedures:

rectus capitis posterior major and minor.. 3. and raclcuiar vessels.Cac. 2. 2. innervations and actions nerves: suboccipital nerve. posterior tubercle of atlas. laminectomy. 3. attachments. inc!uding articular surfaces B. 4. internal and external vertebral venous plexuses Arachnoic: arachnoid trabeculae. Cervical Spine and Suboccipit~1 Region cervical vertebrae and their bony landmarks. Boundaries and contents 1. II. 4.d Deep muscles 1. median and lateral atlantoaxial. D. Arthrology 1. Muscles: obliquus capitis superior and inferior. Osteology: 1. nuchal lines.-:\. 2. Spinal nerves: dorsal and ventral rootlets and roots.. articular components.~:cmy . Meninges 1. supraspinous (nuchal) C. radlculopathies. Cervical Spine A. spinal ganglia. scenius capitus et carvic. origin. transverscsplnaiis (rotatores. Fibrocar':ilagincus joints: intervertebral discs (anutus ibrosus. 4. Synovial joints: atlanta-occipital. 2. spinal cord transecticns Vascular: Prccecures: cervical puncture. transverse foramina and processes. and zygapophyseal joints. white matter anterior and posterior spinal. Suboccipital Region A.':'r. raclcclopamies. innervaticn 2. 5. Ligaments 1. subarachncic Pia mater: denticulate ligaments. Nervous: sciatica. course dural sac.''::55 . 3. trapezius.:i7':3n (. Clinical Anatomy 1. Dura mater: epidural space. 3. filum terrninale space. Spinal vessels: conus mecullarts Internal organization: gray matter. vertebral fusion cord and nerve compression. spinous precess of C2 Palpable landmarks: B. interspinous. greater occipital nerve. posterior and anter'or longitudinal. dorsal and ventral rami. projections of vertebral levels :n relation to spinal segments Surface projections: G. course anc structures innervated Vessels: vertebral artery and relations to atlas Posterior atlantooccipital membrane and foramen magnum . lumbar c'stern cerebrospinal fluid F. of a spinal nerve. Osteology 1. segmental. compression cord/cauda equina. cauda equina: intervertebral foramina and bcundaries Regions: cervical and lumbar enlargements. Spinal Cord 1. nucleus pulposus) ar. neoplastic injcry Nervous: sciatica. multifidus) E.s. flavum.~ ace 'J~per '_:mo: Sucoccipital Re~ion and CaNical Spine Learning Objectives: I. compression of :he spinal metastasis via the vertebral venous plexuses ciscectcrny. external occipltal protuberance.

and bony landmarks. temporal. squamosal. course D. and coronal sutures c. Face A. Clinical Anatomy: Knowledge of functional II. lymph nodes: pattern of drainage E. zygomatic. Clinical Anatomy: venous drainage and spread of infection. Clinical Anatomy: parotid. aponeurosis (galea aponeurotica). Know each component Functional Components of CNS. Fetal skull: fontanels. metopic suture III. Functional Components A. and palatine bones. buccal. innervation and blood supply loose connective B. zygomatic. Layers: skin. medial and lateral palpebral). later nasal). origin. OCCipital. lacrimal. including foramina and structures traversing. zygomaticofacial. Vessels: facial artery (inferior and superior labial. Skull. nasal. superior and inferior labial). supratrochlear. Superficial 1. facial vein (superior ophthalmic. course. deep facial. submandibular. Face for each cranial nn and each branch deficits unique to each nerve branch B. superficial temporal artery (transverse facial). zygomaticotemporal). sphenoid. marginal. inferior nasal concha. Parietal. area of distribution Musc!es of facial expression: key functions and innervation (VII) 2. buccal. Scalp A. Face Learning Objectives: J. ophthalmic artery (supraorbital. ethmoid. dorsal nasal. paricranium. supratrochlear.Heaa ana NeCK: Functional Components of CNS. mandibular branches (mental. mandibular. Lymphatics: submental. frontal. lacrimal). maxillary artery (infraorbital. fascia Cutaneous nerves: ophthalmic branches (supraorbital. maxilla. auriculotemporal). and cervical branches. muscles innervated C. course. connective tissue. Sutures: sagittal. mental).cavernous sinus IV. Skull A. mandible. profuse bleeding . Scalp.Human Gross Anatomy . and deep cervical venous drainage and spread of infection . maxillary branches (intraorbital. infratrachlear. Skull. lambdoid. tissue. vomer. and areas of muscular/tendinous attachment B. superficial cervical. Scalp. Facial nerve: temporal. B.

accessory. pia 3. sigmoid. origin. internal carotid plexus. Clinical anatomy: acoustic neuroma and surgical approaches . epidural space. Dural Venous Sinuses. subdurat space 2. inferior sagittal. Meninges Cranial Meninges. parietal. Cranial Fossae. Cranial Fossae. confluence of the sinuses C. maxillary. and posterior cranial fossae: bony landmarks. cavernous (traversing structures . Clinical Anatomy: Cavernous sinus infection. transverse. and condylar emissary veins. trochlear. diploic veins D. foramina and contents B. Emissary veins: mastoid. anterior. and posterior meningeal arteries. straight. internal carotid artery). Dura mater: dural septa ( falx cerebli. and cervical spinal nerves 4. epidural hematoma and herniation II. oculomotor. Nerves: meningeal branches of the ophthalmic. Meninges Learning Objectives: I. falx cerebe iii. and sphenoparietal sinuses. and Emissary Veins A. maxillary. deep petrosal. Dural venous sinuses: superior sagittal. Cranial Fossae A. greater superficial petrosal. mandibular. diaphragma sellae).Human Gross Anatomy· Head and Neck: Cranial Nerves. Addition layers: arachnoid. middle. course B. sympathetic root to ciliary ganglion. Anterior. superior and inferior petrosal. vagus. basilar venous plexus. tentorium cerebelli.ophthalmic. abducens. occipital. Cranial Nerves. Vessels: middle. radical neck dissection and intracranial drainages. Cranial meninges 1. meningeal veins.

lacrimal III. optic (meningeal coverings. facial nerve palsy. ciliary ganglion (preganglionic and postganglionic pathways) VII. Fasciae A. shape and orientation of the bony orbit. oculomotor (superior and inferior divisions). maxillary. posterior and anterior ethmoidal. roof. origin. common annular tendon and contents V. superior and inferior oblique. intennuscular membrane. trochlear sling VI. abducens. greater superficial petrosal. infraorbital. lacrimal lake. levator palpebrae superioris. structures innervated. lacrimal. lateral and medial walls. supratrochlear). canaliculus. periorbita. floor. innervation. pattern of flow of lacrimal fluid. nasolacrimal duct (opening into nasal cavity). Clinical Anatomy: Homers syndrome.bulbar sheath. Nerves A. zygomaticotemporal. Bones of the orbit A. ciliary root of ciliary ganglion. palpebral conjunctiva. zygomatic. nerve of the pterygoid canal. Eyelids A.HumanGrossAnatcmy . medial. lacrimal gland and papilla. foramina and fissures IV. subarachnoid space). fascial sheaths. and sac. actions. superior and inferior tarsal muscles. nasociliary (long ciliary. lateral superior. innervation of the ciliary and sphincter pupillae muscles. tarsal glands. Lacrimal apparatus A.pterygopalatine ganglion (facial. and inferior rectus. tarsi.Head and Neck: Learning Objectives: Orbit I. and zygomatic nerves. course. mechanical lesions . parasympathetic innervation of the lacrimal gland . frontal (supraorbital. communicating. trochlear. Muscles A. orbital septum II. punctum. infratrochlear). attachments.

splenius. great auricular. transversecervical.omohyoid 2. sternocleidomastoid. medius and posterior. subdivisions: (occipital and subclavian triangles). Oeep fascia 1. levator scapular. and supraclavicular nerves. Muscles 1. dorsalscapular. Cervical Plexus Learning Objectives: Posterior Triangle. cervicalplexus: great auricular. Pericervical: occipital. innervation. origin. Cervical Plexus I. Cervical Fascia A.Head and Neck: Posterior Triangle. transversecervical. suprascapular. Patternof drainage G.and submental lymph nodes 2. C. lesser occipital. area of distribution 2.Cervical Fascia. carotidsheaths. Clinical Anatomy: torticollis occipital bone. clavical . Brachialplexus: divisions. spread of infection II.structures invested. cords 4. and pretracheal fasciae. boundaries. structures innervated E. Cutaneousnerves: lesser occipital. course B.prevertebral.. parotid. Phrenicnerve 3. Superficialveins: anterior and external jugular veins. Accessorynerve 2. retrovisceral.actions. and "danger" spaces. contents B. relations O.HumanGrossAnatomy . Vessels 1. Lymphatics 1. supraclavicular 6. course. 5. Posterior Triangle A. Deep neck: scalenus anterior.origin. suprascapular. long thoracic. Sternocleidomastoid. Cervical Fascia. transversecervical. investing. Clinical Anatomy: Pretrachael. Superficial fascia 1. Origin. 3. Superficialand deep cervical lymph nodes 3. dorsal scapular F. course. Attachments. submandibular. superiorand inferior continuations C. Nerves 1. retroauricular.platysma. Boundaries: trapezius.

innervation and blood supply . divisions (involves posterior triangle) Sympathetic trunk: superior. 3. relationships Trachea and esophagus: relationships. and inferior thyroid veins. Nerves Vagus nerve: pharynqeal branches. 1. pattern of drainage Surfaces and relations Parathyroid glands: size. 5. and submental triangles). 5. gray rami communicantes. omohyoid. boundaries. inferior to mandible. geniohyoid Deep neck: scalenus anterior. 5. course. and capsule Vessels: superior and inferior thyroid arteries. and inferior cervical ganglia. 4. 6. 8. Muscles 1. parotid. actions. 6. middle. recurrent larynqeal nerve Accessor)' nerve: short course in anterior triangle hypoglossal nerve Phrenic nerve Ansa cervicalis: superior and inferior roots Brachial plexus: roots. 4. contents 1. retroauricular. mylohyoid. internal and external carotid plexuses. Lobes. ansa subclavia 2. Autonomic Innervation of Head and Neck Learning Objectives: Anterior Triangle.Human Gross Anatomy . relations C. Pericervical: occipital. platysma 2. structures innervated D. 3. submandibular. 2. Subdivisions: (submandibular. 7. 2. Origin. and submental lymph nodes Superficial and deep cervical lymph nodes Pattern of drainage E. nerves to the carotid body. trunks. longus capitis and colli. innervation. sternothyroid. origin. digastric. isthmus. infrahyoid: sternohyoid.Head and Neck: Anterior Triangle. carotid. 3. Anterior triangle A. Thyroid gland 1. medius and posterior. 4. superior lar)'ngeal nerve (internal and external larynqeal). Autonomic Innervation of Head and Neck I. rectus capitis anterior and lateralis Attachments. cervical cardiac nerves. muscular. Stemocleidomastoid. superior to sternum and B. Lymphatics 1. course Lymphatics: paratracheal and deep cervical nodes. thyrohyoid 3. Suprahyoid: stylohyoid. Boundaries: clavical medial to stemocleidomastoid. middle. superior.

internal and external carotid plexuses. Origin (cell bodies). origin (cell bodies). structures fibers. origin (cell bodies).Head and Neck: Anterior Triangle. 4. course and innervations B. Autonomic Supply to the Head A.Human Gross Anatomy . postganglionic fibers. postganglionic preganglionic fibers. structures fibers. Clinical Anatomy: Bell's palsy. 2. postganglionic fibers. superior cervical sympathetic trunk ganglion. postganglionic fibers. Sympathetic system: cervical sympathetic trunk. Parasympathetic system 1. Submandibular ganglion: structures innervated preganglionic C. Pterygopalatine ganglion: structures innervated Otic ganglion: innervated preganglionic fibers. 3. Autonomic Innervation of Head and Neck II. origin (cell bodies). Ciliary ganglion: innervated preganglionic fibers. Homer'S syndrome .

ternpcralis A. fibrous capsule. Parotid and temporal TMJ Joint. actions.Head and Neck: TMJ Joint. parasympathetic innervation (IX. otic ganglion. innervation c. Temporomandibular joint 1. lesser superficial petrosal. Ligaments: sphenomandibular. Parotid gland: parotid fascia. medial and lateral pterygoids. Movements: elevation. Articular components (bony components. parotid duct. origin. intra parotid nerve plexus. attachments. and plexus.tympanic br. protraction. vessels (external carotid artery. actions. isthmus. depression. Muscles of Mastication. articular disc) 2. retraction. lateral temporomandibular 3.Human Gross Anatomy . lobes. Muscles of Mastication: masseter. facial) B. Associated muscles and innervations II. retromandibular vein. abduction 4. communicating. innervations . course). auriculotemporal. Parotid Region region A. Parotid Region Learning Objectives: I. Muscles of Mastication. Masseter and temporalis muscles: attachments.

maxillary vein (pterygoid venous plexus). structures innervated D. Boundaries B. deep auricular. inferior alveolar (nerve to the mylohyoid). Origin. course II. attachments.and anterior and posterior deep temporal. infraorbital. Nerves: mandibular nerve (auriculotemporal. deep temporal.Human Gross Anatomy . posterior superior alveolar. origin. accessory meningeal. pterygoid. descending palatine. nerveto the lateral pterygoid. sphenopalatine. buccal. chorda tympani nerve. nerve to the medial pterygoid. masseteric. buccal. anterior tympanic. innervation C. Pterygopalatine A. Muscles: medial and lateral pterygoids. Vessels: maxillary artery (inferior alveolar. lingual.Head and Neck Learning Objectives: Infratemporal Region I. masseteric. middle meningeal. course. actions. Infratemporal fossa A. Bony communications and traversing structures . posterior superior alveolar nerve. Boundaries B. Contents fossa C.

medial cricothroid structures membrane aryepiglotticus. Prevertebral Region A. ossicles . thyroarytenoideus. Skeleton: thyroid and cricoarytenoid 8. superior laryngeal nerve (internal and external larynqeal): nerves to the carotid body. thyrohyoid membrane. Muscles 1. anterior posterior atlanto-occipital membranes. parts Middle ear 1. Craniovertebral Joints and to A. Deep neck: scalenus anterior. innervation. fibrous capsule). Vagus nerve: pharyngeal branches. actions. 7. 6. course. 2. relations B. 8. 4. Nerves: superior E. Craniovertebral Joints. structures innervated II. of the dens cruciform ligaments III. Atlanto-occipital and median and lateral atlantoaxial joints: movements and muscles producing them. innervation D. epiglottis. posterior and lateral cricoarytenoid. thyroepiglotticus. middle. origin. rectus capitis anterior and tateralis 2. Nerves 1. pattern of drainage IV. recurrent laryngeal nerve 2. Vestibule: laryngeal aditus. hypoglossal nerve Phrenic nerve Brachial plexus: roots.Head and Neck: Larynx. course retropharyngeallymph Bone nodes. internal and external carotid plexuses. innervation 8. cartilage. ansa subclavia S. Prevertebral Region Learning Objectives: I. Lymphatics: laryngeal and recurrent laryngeal nerves. Accessory nerve: short course in anterior triangle 3. cricothyroid ligament Regions and associated 1. actions. External ear. Tympanic cavity: boundaries. Ear and Temporal A. alar ligaments. quadrangular Ventricles: vestibular folds C. attachments. Origin. gray rami communicantes. arytenoideus. apical ligament membrana tectoria.Human Gross Anatomy . Prevertebral Region Larynx. cervical cardiac nerves. articular components (bony components. Tympanic membrane 2. articulations. Ansa cervicalls: superior and inferior roots 8. arytenoid cartilage. and inferior cervical ganglia. Attachments. medius and posterior. cricoid cartilage. Muscles: cricothyroid. trunks. Larynx A. Fibrous joints between the axis and occipital: the atlas. longus capitis and colli. divisions (involves posterior triangle) Sympathetic trunk: superior. Craniovertebral Joints.

innervations C. Bony labyrinth: components D.Human Gross Anatomy . lnnervatlcn 4. Clinical Anatomy: Bell's p~lsy . Facial canal: course and contents E. attachments actions. Muscles: tensor tympani stapedius.Heaa ana NeCK: Larynx. courses. =reverteorai I"'(eglon 3. branches. Inner ear 1. Nerves: facial nerve. cramovertebrai Joints.

buccopharyngeal B. middle. anterior and posterior ethmoidal. parasympathetic innervation of the nasal glands . Mouth. Temporal Bone and Ear. greater palatine. Tongue. respiratory and olfactory regions Boundaries: roof. 2. torus levatorius Oropharynx: faucial isthmus (palatine tonsils. Pharynx A. 2. 2. posterior inferior lateral nasal. Lymphatics: retropharyngeal lymph nodes. Palate. Mouth.GSPN. B. 3. pharyngeal ostium of the auditiory tube. origin. Pterygopalatine fossa submucosa (pharyngobasilar fascia). and lateral nasal vessels. medial wall. Vessels: F. and Paranasal Sinuses A. Nose. innervation. salp'ingopharyngeus. stylopharyngeus. and maxillary (posterior superio lateral and medial nasal. Nose: bony and cartilaginous components Nasal cavity 1. Paranasal sinuses: frontal. gap between the middle and inferior pharyngeal constrictors (lnternal laryngeal nerve. Nasal Cavity. maxillary nerve branches Vessels: sphenopalatine. 4. palatopharyngeal piriform recess and palatoglossal arches) Laryngopharynx: c. superior laryngeal artery) D. stylophamgeus muscle). Pharynx. origin course E. innervation and blood supply . attachments. Vidian. Regions 1. pattem of drainage and maxillary sinuses. anterior orifice. 3. Nerves 1. PTG. layers: fascia mucosa. openings into 4. superior laryngeal. C. infraorbital) nerves. Muscles 1. pattern of drainage spaces: boundaries G.Head and Neck: Temporal Bone and Ear. 5. sphenoidal. Pharynx. Regions: vestibule. lateral wall. actions. 3. torus tubarius. floor. Tongue Learning Objectives: I. ethmoidal. course. pharyngeal recess. gap between the superior and middle pharyngeal constrictors (glossopharyngeal nerve. Retropharyngeal and lateral pharyngeal II. palatopharyngeus. structures innervated. pharyngeal plexus of veins. and inferior constrictors). superior labial. course. posterior orifice Nerves: olfactory. nasal cavity. external muscles (superior. ophthalmic (anterior ethmoidal. anastomoses Lymphatics: retropharyngeal lymph nodes. structures innervated ascending pharyngeal artery. and recurrent laryngeal nerves Maxillary nerve: pharyngeal branch Course. Glossopharyngeal nerve: pharyngeal branches (pharyngeal plexus) Vagus nerve: pharyngeal branch.Human Gross Anatomy . muscularis. Palate. and associated structures Nasopharynx: pharyngeal tonsils.

Parts: hard and soft palates 2. lesser. Palate 1. air pressure equalization of pressure between middle ear and external environment .Head and Necx: Temporal Bone and Ear. Palate. sublingual and submandibular glands and ducts. associated glands and surface anatomy Muscles: extrinsic. 3. innervation palatopharyngeus. course Lymphatics: submental. hypoglossal. Nerves: lingual. 4. 3. origin. palatoglossus. Parts: root. vocalization. actions. attachments. Functional Anatomy A. Tongue 1. origin. Oral Cavity A. Mouth. course. parasympathetic innervation of the palatine glands Vessels: descending. 4. submandibular. and deep cervical lymph nodes. lingual and hypoglossal nerves B. Deglutition. Pharynx. origin course IV. dorsum. 2. pattern of drainage D. intrinsic internal laryngeal nerves. and ascending palatine vessels. structures innervated. mastication. glossopharyngeal. greater. Tongue III. musculus uvulae. chorda tympani.Human GiOSS Anatomy . Muscles: levator and tensor veli palatini. Floor of mouth: sublingual fold. Parasympathetic innervation to glands C. Nerves: greater and lesser palatine and nasopalatine nerves.

RADIOLOGY .

examples Diagnostic Radiology 1. tomography Marnrnoqraphy 1. magnification 6. C. complications D. 2. fat. PA Chest) Radiographic Density 1. X-Ray 1. E F. schematic of x-ray to production of radiograph Terminology 1. II. definition 2. Iodine Angiography 1. calcium. 4. composition 2. how studies are named (e. sensitivity/specificity Contrast Radiography 1. interface/silhouette 5. basic densities (gas. Barium 2. 5 major areas to H & P B. metal) 3. thickness water. . INTRODUCTION A.Basic Radiology LEARNING Basic OBJECTIVES Radiology I. C. tissue. definition & properties B.g. example of technique 2. Role of radiology relative Cost effective imaging 1. RADIOGFAPHY A. effectiveness in screening 2.

NUCLEAR MEDICINE A. D. C. anechoic 2. signal Contraindications without contrast . detect flowing blood lexicon 1. superior density lexicon 1. V. image in any plane 3. ULTRASOUND A. B.. hot spot IV . C. photopenic. MAGNETlC RESONANCE IMAGING A. 8. How image produced Utilization/advantages Lexicon 1. independent of function lexicon 1. hyperechoic 4. 8. Basic principles Advantages 1.III. D. B. Basic principles Advantages 1. C. no radiation 2. COMPUTED TOMCGRAFHY A. How image produced Utilization/advantages 1. shadowing lim ita t ion s C. echogenic 3. no ionizing radiation 2. attenuation resolution V I.

EMBRYOLOGY .

Fertilization A. the student should be able to explain when male and female gametes are generated and describe the process of cytodifferentiation for each. In addition. Ovulation A. Timing and stages of generating haploid gametes B. Origin of Genetic Diversity Chromosome A. Correlates Prevention of Pregnancy B. Structural Events B. Translocations III1IV. Ovarian and Testicular Hormones C.Medical Embryology: Learninc Obiectives LEARNING OBJECTIVES Gametogenesis & Fertilization 8y the conclusion of this section the student will be able to describe the origin of genetic diversity and the mechanism and consequences of chromosome abnormalities that occur during meiosis. Inferti lity . Stages of fertilization B. Consequences of fertilization VIII. Nondisjunction B. Cytodifferentiation V. Clinical A. 8y the conclusion of this section the student also will be able to describe the events and endocrine regulation of OVUlation and fertilization. Female Reproductive Cycle VII. Spermatogenesis/Oogenesis A. I. abnormalities II. Completion of Meiosis VI. Hormonal Regulation of Gametogenesis and Ovulation A. Hormonal Cascade B.

Genetic Regulation of Development III. Embryo Malformations . Pre-Implantation A. Histolcgy of Uterus B. Clinical Correlates A. Blastocyst Formaticn Prtnciptes of the Developmental Process A. Clinical Correlation Placental Development IV. II. Differentiation D. Embryo Deve!opment . the student should be able to describe the time course and process of implantation and identify the structural components that comprise the bilaminar germ disc. In addition.Medical Embryology: Learning Obiectives LEARNING OBJECTIVES Implantation and Formation of the Bilaminar Germ Disc By the conclusion of this section the student will be able to discuss early cleavage and principles of differentiation. Development Early Cleavage Stages B. Embryonic Structures B. Trophoblast Invasion/Early C. Restriction B.Week 2 V. Multiple Embryos B. I. Extraembryonic Structures C. Implantation A. Determination C. The Bilaminar Embryo A.

C. Gastrulation A. Mesoderm Induction Neural Induction Genetic Ccntrol of Neural Induction Correlations Clinical A. Formation And Ivligraticn Of Germ Cells E.Medical Embryology: Learning Objectives LEARNING OBJECTIVES Gastrulation and the Trilaminar Embryo 8y the conclusion of this section the student will be able to identify the forming germ layers during gastrulation and discuss the biological basis of inductive processes during mesoderm formation and the initiation of the nervous system. Primary Neural Induction A. B. C. Formation Of Axial Structures D. B. Gastrulaticn Formation of Embryonic Body Plan Establishment of External Body Structures Organogenesis . Formation Of The Germ Layers C. B. IV. C. I. Genetic Control Of Gastrulation II. Tne Primitive Streak B. III. D. Embryonic Teratomas Caudal Dysgenesis Detection of Pregnancy Period Overview: Weeks 3-8 Embryonic A.

Cephalocaudal Body Cavities Establishment and Transverse Folding: Formation of Gut and Circulation III. B. C. Placental Circulatory System Embr/cnic Circulation Estab-lishment of Functional Circulaticn Period: Chronological Overview Embryonic A. identify the destinies of the three embryonic germ layers and identify the origin of all basic organ systems. Endodermal Derivatives D. Formation of the Embryonic Body Plan A. I. Segmentation C. Ectccerrnal Derivatives B. Tne 28 Day Embryo B. of the Uteroplacental A. Formaticn Of Rudimentary Organs II. IV. Mescdermal Derivatives C. Clinical Correlations . Derivatives of the Germ Layers A. Neurulaticn B.Medical Embryology: Learning Objectives LEARNING OBJECTIVES Embryonic Period By the conclusion ot this section the student will be able to outline the events that occur to establish the basic body form. Initiaticn of Oranogenesis C.

this section the student will be able to describe formation of the larynx. Larynx Development A. Laryncsal Cartilages III. C. Developmental Stages IV. Development A. Diaphragm B. Early Lung Development A. D. bronchi and lungs and identify the major defects associated with formation of the respiratory system. Lurie Bud B. trachea. Diaphragmatic Hernia . I. Innervation C. E. Partitioning of Larynx and Esophagus C. Lung Morphogenesis A. Septum Transversum Pleurcperitoneal Folds Body Wall Definitive Diaphragm Innervation F. Pharyngeal Arches B. Branching B.Medical Embryology: Learning LEARNING OBJECTIVES Respiratory System Objectives By the conclusion of. Tracheoesophageal Malformations II.

transposition great vessels. Factors Influencing Normal Cardiovascular Development of VI. A. Aortic Arches B.Medical Embryology: Learning Obiectives LEARNING OBJECTIVES Cardiovascular System At the conclusion of this lecture. septal defects. twists. V.. Umbilical Veins C. Vitelline Veins B. Formation of the Mature A. Mechanical Influences C. Changes Required Breathing Infant for Normal Circulation from the Fetus to Defects of the Heart and Vessel Formation . (2) knowledge about the origin and fomation of the major components of the arterial and venous systems. and (3) knowledge about major defects associated with cardiovascular development. Heart Rctaticn cf the Heart Tube Sectation of the Vantricles Se~tation of the A~ria Formation of Valves Septation of the Input and Output Vessels of the Arterial System II. E. Development of the Venous System A. D. C. truncus arteriosus.g. and partitions to form the multichambered mature heart. the student should have (1) an understanding of how the cardiac tube folds. B.e. I. tetralogy of Fallot. Genetics B. Cardinal Veins IV. Development A. Grcwth Factors . Dcrsal Aorta C. Vitelline and Umbilical Arteries III.

Renal Blood Vessels and Ascent of the Kidneys J. D. Urinary Tract Kidney and Ureter Development Pronephroi Mescnehproi Metanephroi E. Male genital duct and gland development 3. Development of the Urethra I. Male external genitalia 4. Indifferent Staee 1. External genitalia B. Development of the Nephron F. Genital System A. Kidney Function and Post-Natal Development B. II. Adrenal (Suprarenal Glands) A. . Female Genital Svstem 1. C. Male Genital Svstem 1. Formation of the inguinal canals and testicular descent C. Female external genitalia III. Develcpment of the Bladder H. Gonadal development 2. Ductal develcpment 3. Testicular development 2. Ovarian development 2. Develcpment of the Collecting System G. Female genital ducts and glands 3. I.Medical LEARNING Embryology: Learning Objectives OBJECTIVES Urogenital System By the conclusion of·this section the student will be able to describe the origin and formation of the fetal and neonatal (adult) urinary systems as well as the formation of the male and female reproductive systems with reference to commonalities and differences in structures and origins.

Malfcrmaticns of the Vertebral Column E. Head and Neck Musculature D. Muscular system A. Muscle Differentiation F. Origins and Muscle Types B. the student will be able to outline the formation of the vertebral column and limbs and will be able to discuss the mechanisms of ossification. Clinical Correlaticns: Malformations and Diseases . Formation of the Vertebral Column D.Medical Embryology: Learning Objectives LEARNING OBJECTIVES Musculoskeletal System and Limb Formation By the conclusion of·this section the student will be able to describe the embryonic origins and differentiation of the skeletal and muscular systems. Limb Formation G. Clinical Correlations: Limb Malformations H. Skull L Ossification II. System Origins B. Skeletal A. In addition. I. Differentiaticn of the Semites C. Limb Musculature E. Ribs and Sternum F. Trunk Musculature C.

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