You are on page 1of 6

BANGLADESH

Mohammed Abdul Latif

Introduction
Bangladesh is situated on the north-eastern side of the South Asian subcontinent and is bordered by India in
the east, west and north; by a small part of Myanmar in the south-east and by the bay of Bengal in the south.
Bangladesh is mainly a flat alluvial plain, criss-crossed by the world's three mighty river systems, namely the Padma,
the Jamuna and the Meghna and their innumerable tributaries.

The land mass of Bangladesh is home to 120 million people. The hill districts are situated in the eastern
fringes of the country reaching an average elevation of 660 meters. The slopes and valleys are covered with virgin
forests that are home to numerous flora and fauna. In the south are the Sundarbans, the world's largest mangrove
forest and the habitat of the Royal Bengal1iger.

The climate of Bangladesh is sub-tropical with a hot and humid summer and a cool and dry winter. Annual
rainfall ranges from 160 to 200 cm. The best period to visit Bangladesh is from November to March whentemperatu
ranges from 13.50 C to 26.50 C.

Tourism potential of Bangladesh

Bangladesh is located conveniently on the east-west air-corridor making it a gateway to the Far East. It is
endowed with resources and the potential for a tourism industry. In the south-east the country has a 120 km long
beach of soft silvery sand, perhaps the world's longest, in a Riviera-like setting with crescent-shaped low hills
overlooking the Bay of Bengal. The range of the hills clad in lush green thickets are treasured locations for
eco-tourists and wildlife watchers. At the head of this terrain is Cox's Bazaar which is as romantic as its name is to
the outside world. The Hill Districts to the north and north-east of Cox's Bazaar nestle the Kaptai and Rangamatilakes,
a 840 sq.km body of crystal clear water lying in sylvan shadows not far from where a dozen hill tribes follow
their traditional life-styles. The Tea District of Sylhet in the far north-east of the country has prospects of tourism, as
does the Sundarbans, a large mangrove forest in the South which is home of the Bengal tiger; remains of palaces of
old principalities and archaeological sites of Buddhist monasteries. Shrines and holy places, mosques and temples,
particularly in the northern part of the country, are among the tourist treasures of Bangladesh.

General trends in inbound tourism


Unfortunately, since its independence in 1971 following a devastating war of liberation, Bangladesh has gotten
publicity about negative incidents like natural calamities, cyclones, floods and epidemics, in the international media,
and this adversely affected international tourist flows to the country. The trend appears to have continued in recent
years. Statistics showing foreign tourist arrivals for ten years to July 1996 is presented in annex table 1. For three
consecutive years up to 1995, there has been encouraging annual growth in international tourist arrivals. It is
expected that the growth rate would further increase in the coming years. It is also expected that eco-tourists and
special interest tourists will increasingly choose Bangladesh as one of their destinations. Tour operators of the country
are expected to intensify their efforts to bring in more groups and package tours. In order to develop tourist products,the
country has already begun development of a second sea resort at Kuakata, a half-day trip from the Sundarbans.

As shown in annex table 2 which shows the nationality of tourist arrivals, India is the top tourist generatingcountry
for Bangladesh, closely followed by United Kingdom and the United States of America. Trends for in boundtourism
from traditional tourist market areas like Germany, France and the Scandinavian countries appear to bepositive.
Bangladesh can count on a "favored nation" status with respect to tourist arrivals from Japan.

Foreign exchange earnings from tourism

When considering foreign exchange earnings from tourism or tourism receipts. the amount might seem rather
small. Annex table 3 shows foreign exchange earnings from tourists and other travelers. The annual growth rate
over the last three years is noteworthy.

Though tourism has not assumed a significant role in the national economy yet, it is hoped that tourism shall
grow to contribute significantly to the national economy in the future.

General policy and priorities of tourism policy

The Government has recognized the importance of the tourism industry and declared the National TourismPolicy
of Bangladesh in February 1992. The Policy declared that it is possible to change the socio-economic

13

A.
1.
3.
2.
4.
5.
condition of the country through the development of its tourism resources. In addition, tourism shall be considered as
an industry of due priority, and this will be appropriately reflected in the annual five-year plans and development
partners shall be apprised of this accordingly.

Tourism planning
Tourism planning has remained largely a state-sector responsibility. The development planning of the country
is done by annual development programmes (ADP) within a broader Five-Year-Development-Plan (FYP). The
national development planning process has a Planning Commission at its head. Development projects are initiated
at the level of agencies, divisions, departments, local government bodies. They are then channeled upward through
the relevant ministries into the appropriate divisions and sections of the Planning Commission. The administrative
ministries concerned are authorized to approve (under recommendation to the Plan Commission) projects involving
costs at a designated level. Projects involving costs beyond that level are recommended to the Planning Commission
for consideration, approval and allocation. Monitoring implementation of individual projects is also the responsibility
of an organ of the Planning Commission, while concerned ministries oversee matters mainly through monthly ADP
review meetings.

Tourism development planning conforms to the national planning process. The nature of development planning
in this sector, however, means that various agencies and several ministries may be involved. For example, infrastructure
development like roads and highways may come within the purview of the National Department of Roads andHighways,
while in certain cases such responsibility may devolve to a local body, a district authority or even a local
government institution.

Specialized agencies for tourism development

The state corporation, Bangladesh Parjatan (Tourism) Corporation (BPC), was established in 1973 and tourism
has mostly been the subject of this state body ever since. Somewhat later, the Ministry of Civil Aviation and Tourism
was created and brought three agencies together in the Ministry, namely BPC, the national flag carrier Biman and the
Civil Aviation Authority.

A process to integrate tourism planning development through the Ministry of Civil Aviation and Tourism is
already in place. Given the fact that tourism is so diverse and multi-dimensional, the National Tourism Policy of 1992
states that a multi-dimensional industry as tourism in its developmental activities at tourist spots and centres will
involve programmes of work of various ministries and, therefore, this industry will have to be developed by overcoming
governmental dilatory processes through effective coordination at the highest level. With that end in view, a National
Tourism Council has been formed with the Prime Minister as the head of the Council and other relevant ministries
participating.

In order to implement the tourism policy, an Inter-ministerial Coordination and Implementation Committee has
been formed with the Secretary of the Ministry of Civil Aviation and Tourism as the convenor.

Tourism master planning


Since 1988, the Government accepted and launched a Strategic Masterplan for Tourism developed by theWorld
Tourism Organization (WTO) in consultancy with MIS Pannel Kerr and Associates of the United Kingdom with
UNDP funding. Recommendations of the Masterplan are now taken into consideration for preparing and implementation
of individual projects. However, in view of the time that has passed since adopting the Strategic Masterplan, a review
in order to update relevant matters is now under consideration.

Major tourism projects

We tend to put major emphasis on certain tourist areas rather than individual projects. Cox's Bazaar Resort is
among our major preoccupations, because we want to develop this resort in a sustainable way. Another priority isKuakata,
the second resort area of the country. We are encouraged to develop the tourism resources of theSundarbans.
Projects for development and conservation of our archaeological sites are no less important for
development of educational and cultural tourism.

10. Problems and constraints

Infrastructure development and the resources required for that purpose are major problems standing in theway
of tourism development. Planned development of the tourist product is partly dependent on the socio-economic
conditions of the country, and this is problem as well. Marketing of Bangladesh tourism abroad faces constraints
created by inadequate funds and lack of know-how.

14

6.
8.
7.
9.
(Q 0> .-ro C\I C\I ro co 0'-1"-.-01"-.-
0)
0) ... coOro.-v.-o
LOMo>.-C\l.-v
.-'- '-'-'-.-
ll)
-~
(Y) 0 .q- (Y) I'-. I'-. N (Y) N .q- 0 CD T- 0
N T- (Y) It) T- .q- CD T- It) 0 0 CD (Y) It)
1t)00I'-.OO(y).q-NOOT-OOT-N.
00 0 (Y) N N N (Y) T- 0 (Y) N It) CD ~
T- T- T- T- T- T- T- T- T- T- T- T- It)
T-
-~
co r-.. ro II) .-ro co OJ OJ 'Ot co C') C\/ C\/
C\/ 0 'Ot 'Ot .-ro C\/ 'Ot r-.. C') 'Ot CO c\/ II)
0) ro r-.. ro II) CO II) CO CO OJ 'Ot .-d
CO OJ 0 0 .-0 .-0 ro 0 C') II) 0 .-.-'-'-'-'-'-.-
'Ot
.-
<0
0)
...
0) C¥) ~ co
.-L()
ro co "-!" "-!" 0> co
0> "-!" ro C\J 0 (') CO 0> (')
ro
(')
L() co
ro I'-.
I
f'-. ,... COI'-.O'-OI'-.C\JC\Jro"-!"COO>I'-.~
~ (')oroO>OO>OO>I'-.'-'-"-!"CO.-
...
0)
.-
C\J
It)
ca
>
"~
- -~
... m
f'..
CD
C\I
0
CO
T-
f'..
T-
0
0
m
II)
T-
M
T-
f'..
C\I
T-
f'..
T-
-.t
T-
CD
II)
f'..
-.t
-.t
<II 0) T- m C\I CD f'.. CO CO 0 CD m CD f'.. -.t (\i
It) T-COCOf'..f'..COCOOCOOmmo'
T- T- T- T-
.~ T-
-~
0
c:
OJ
- T- OJ T- ,... OJ M T- IX) C\I M ~ II) C\I ~
- -~
"Qj
... ~ ~ OJ a a IX) II) T- ,... CD M T- ~ IX)
0 M II) ,... ,... C\I a OJ OJ IX) M ~ T- C\I ,..:
T- IX) ,... C\I T- T- a ,... II) IX) IX) OJ M '
>-
-
T- T-T-T-T- T-
T-
.c
c:
0
~
.c c M 00 00 0 C\I CO 00 C\I 0 LD M ~ 0> .-
It)
Q)
"C
-
g?;
LD LD CO C\I 0
C\I ~ 00 0> 00 0
0> C\I LD 0
0
MO>OOOOO>O>OOOOO>t'--O>LD
CO 0>
t'-- t'-- M LD
M CO 0>
LD M m
'

-u;-
~
(.)
~
OJ
.- "iO
§.
c: c:
<II 0
m "(ij
"5
is
... .-I()
C\I OJ C\I
0 ~
0
<0 ~
0
I() .-<0
C') ~ I() .-~
C\I .-OJ ~
OJ C') <0 0
C\I
(J)
~ ,... I() .-f'- OJ .-OJ <0 ~ <X) .-0 I() 0 ~ I-
a.
- ~ C\I 0 OJ .-0 OJ f'- <X) 0 0 C\I <X)
.c '-.- C\I
<II .- c:
.2
><
Q)
~0
c: c.
c: 0
ct ()
-~
C\I ?- ?- C') 0 It) IX) It) OJ 0 r-.. ?- C\I C')
r-.. <D OJ 0 ~ C\I It) C') C\I IX) It) C') IX) ?-
~
0)
OJOJO~OJ?-r-..?-~IX)Oor-..c.;
?-
?-?-
IX) 0 OJ OJ ?-
?-?-
OJ 0 <D OJ ?-
?-
C\I
?-
0
C\I
?- ~
to
?- a.
.c
cn
OJ
"0
II!
-c,
'"
CX)
ll)
(')
0
0
0
~
<0
V
(')
C\J
(')
IX)
0>
t-.
<0
0>
<0
0
C\J
~
~
V
V
(')
ll)
<0
c:
II!
0> t-. <0 0> C\J <0 ~ ~ 0> t-. V IX) cry t-. m
T-
C\J 0> 0 IX) IX) 0> 0> <0 0> IX) ll) t-. <0 .c
~ ~ 0 (.)
~ c:
II!
IIi
0> '- ""iij
OI(\! "u
C 0> OJ
(\! >- c.
.c: (J)
u In
:J
'- '- '- 0>0
~~ .c ,-.c.c
0> 0> 0>
~~
01.-
~
'"
:J
(\!(\!.c:
:Ju iijEO>EE
:J O>.c 0>0> Co..
0> 0
~.a '-'"E >-~ >-OIE.£ > u"§ ~Q; (/)
(\! O>~ a.~:J"S:J 0> U 0 0> 00»
-,u..~«~-,-,«(/)OZOFc..o
15
~
I.c)
-~ (0
(0
(0
0
C\J

~
,-
C\J (0
C\J
(X)
0
0>
(X)
(X)
(')
L()
C\J
(')
C\J

(X)
0
~
(')

L()
,-
0 C\J
L()
,-
,-

(0
~
(X)
L()
C\J C\J ~
C\J

0
(0
C\J

(X)
0
(')
0>
(')
L()
,-
0
(0

L()
0
L() ~
L()
,- (0
(0
~
(0
L()
C\J
~
L()
,-

0
0
(0
L()

,-
0>
,-
L()
C\J (')
L()

~
C\J
L()
~
0
C\J
0>
0
C\J
C\J

(0
C\J
L()
0>
0>
C\J
~
"t ,- co M 0) ,- ,- <D ~ <D C\I <D ~ U') U') co 0) ,- ,- ,- C\I MOo) ,- U') U') 0 0) U') U') CO
-
~ 0) ,-
0)
,-

0
C\I
,-
U')
~ CO ,-
C\I'-
C\I C\I

M
0)
C\I C\I
,-,-
U')
,-

,-
M
CO CO
0
C\I
~,-
C\I

CO C\I ~
M
r---
~

0)
~
r---
C\I
<D CO r--- M
C\I r---
,-

~
r---
U')

<D
,-
M
<D
~

<D
C\I
<D ,- C\I
~
C\I

M CO
C\I
C\I
C') to CX) C\I 0 r--- 0) C\I CX) 0 r--- r--- It) ~ It) r--- It) ~ CX) It) 0) It) It) r--- CX) 0) to C\I C\I It) CX) CX)
~
,...
~ (')
It)
,-
It) 0) 0
(') ~ ,-
C\I r--- It) C\I CX) C\I C\I (')
(') CX) r---
,- (')
0) C\I 0)
,-
(') to
C\I (')
C\I
C\I CX) It)
C\I ~
C\I
~
C\I,-
0 ~ CX) CX) 0
,- to C\I ,-
,-
0
It)
It) CX) to
CX) C\I
(')
to ,-
CX)
C\I 0
C\I
CX)
C\I
~
co
0)
0)
~
co
I
~
0)
co
a>
co
r-..
0)
a>
r-..
~
a>
~
a>
It)
0)
0)
~
0)
0
('>
r-..
(X)
C\I
(X)
C\I ('> ('>
C\I
It)
(X)
('>
('>
r-..
0
It)
C\I
a>
(X)
C\I
It)
r-..
It)
0)
r-..
('>
It)
('>
r-..
C\I
.-~
0) 0)
r-..
('>
r-..
0
(X)
C\I
CO
~
.-It)
It)
CX)
0)
,.. C\I .-('> ('> It) .-r-..
~
('> ('>
C\I
~
C\I
('> CO ('>
It)
('>
('> 0)
.-It)
.-~ C\I CO (X)
~
>.
~co
c
0 -
-~
,... LO C') (X) C') <0 <0 ,... ,... <0 <0 LO (\I C') (\I ,... <0 ~ <0 0 ,... 0 ~ (X) 0> (\I 0 ,... <0 .-
:;:: ,... 0 0> C') ,... .-C') C') C') C') (X) (X) LO LO (\I ~ C') (X) <0 .-~ 0> LO 0 ,... LO LO LO C') C') (\I
CO .-C') (\I <0 0 0 (\I <0 <0.- (X) C') .-(\I 0> 0> .-C') ~ C')""
C C') LO ~ .-(X)
>- (\I (\I
.a
.!J.
CO
>
.~
... 0) ~ to T- (0 (0 Q) ,... C') T- ,... (0 T- (0 ,... C\J to 0) ~ C') ~ ~ to Q) 0) Q) C') (0 0) 0 Q) C\J
- -
CO
(I)

&;
0)
T- C\J
Q)
to
T-
0
C')
C') 0)
to
~,...
0
C\J
to
C\J

(0 to
,...
,...
T-
to
~
T-

to
,...
T-

C\J
T-
C\J ~
T-
0)
C\J

,...
(0
C\J
C\J
Q) C')
C\J
0
T-
Q)
Q)
T-
T-
~

,... Q)
to
C\J

0) ~ ~ to
C\J
C\J ,...
C')
~
o~
-~
c
0
C)
-~
co (Y) (\J 0> a <0 (\J (Y) ~ I'-. (\J I'-. <0 (\J a a ~ co ~ L() .-(Y) (\J ~ <0 ~ .-(\J ~ <0 (\J ~
on;
... 0)
~ <0 .-a
(Y)
L() ~ .-a
<0 0> (Y)
(\J
.-co
I'-. co
(\J ~
~ (\J
0>.-
a ~ .-I'-.
(Y) (Y) (Y)
(\J 0> ~
.-(\J
(Y) 0>
0> L()
(\J <0 <0
0>.-
<0 co <0 .-(\J
(Y)
.-
(Y)
0
u. (\J co
~
~ ~
.r.
(I)
Q)
"U
~ IX> <D <D C\I <D a <D a a C\I IX> <D <D <D m I'-. <D ~ C\I Il) C') Il) C') IX> ~ IX> T- <D a IX> IX> C')C\I
c
C)
co
ID
-
~ m
a
T-

IX> ~
~
C') m
a
T-

a
<D
T-

I'-.
m
C\I

T- m <D
IX>
C')
C\I
C')
C\I
T-

T-
m
.-a

a
T-
<D C\I
IX>
Il)

T- Il)
IX> C')
<D I'-.
T-
IX>
C\I
I'-.
mOT-
T-
~

a I'-.
C')
C')

I'-.
T-
m m <D ~
T-
.-C\I

<D
<D
N
Q)
-~ -~
co
><

t ~
~
0
t'-
~
(0 N
CX) II)
~
(0
C'>
t'-
~
0>
~
C'>t'-C'>
~
CX) .-II)
'-II)N~(o.-
(0 .-0
~
(0
CX) 0>
(0
C'>
0
II)
0
0>
C'>NC'>
II) C'>
CX) 0
~ 0
CX) .-(0
'-NON
~ .-N
~ t'-
II)
0>
~
N
0>.-
0
~
II)
CX)
C'>
CX)
t'-
0
.-t'-
II) 0
0>
Q) N .-N t'- .-~ N
C ~
c
<t
~
0)
(\I
0
..,.
.-(\I
0> C')
(\I
CD
.-OJ')
CD .-0
C') (\I 0>
r--
(\I
CX)
0>
(\I
r--
(\I
(\I C')
OJ') C')
(\I
0>
..,.
r--
C') OJ') 0>
.-C')
.-CD
OJ') CX) .-CD
r-- CX) CD
C') r--
.-0
0 ..,.
r--
CX)
CD
r--
r--
.-(\I
C') CD
0
..- (\I ,. (\I r-- 0> r-- (\I C') .-OJ') C') (\I .-OJ') (\I CX).- (\I C')
(\I 0 .., C')
CD .-
c
e
'0 (\I
U Q)
(\I .-'-
.--0
~ .c ,...
(\I :J ~
~ > OJ 0. '0-
-'- .Q C (\I Q) 0
In (\I (\I In ~ >. 0 "'" .-II: U C
C ""iij (\I .-1J
E C E (\I
In
0
(\I ~
~
Q)
C
(\I ~
,...
(\I
t;.. In
Q) U C 1J C :is .~
.- 0 .-(\I
In 0
2. ~ .5 .:2 e C (\I :g 2 -5 E ~ g E OJ OJ (\I C .E Q) C ~ (\I :J (\I ~ (\I ~.~ ""iij
OJ In In .Q>.I::
'O-:J:J (\I C .-0.
Q) (\I >.(\1.1:: >'N Q) C
Q) --'-
C ~ Q) C0 C .-0
:J1J1J- (\I E
Q) 0" (\I >.
(\I""Q5""iij 0. 1J
'- 0. ~ .cQ).c >.
Q):J -x 0.
(\I Q) Q)
« « « m m ~ () () () () 0 iI: u. (!J :I: :I: E. E. .!!!. >- -= -= ~ ~ ~ II: ~ -l ::J ~ ~ z
16
,-
..,.
C\I
~
0)
0>
I'-.
0
C\J
0>
V
0>
I'-.
(V)
0
to
I'-.
V
I'-.
C\J
0
(V)
0>
to
V
I'-.
(V)
to
I'-.
CX> to
V 0>
to
I'-.
I'-.
to
0>
CO
0>
.-0>
CX> .-V
I'-.
.-0>
CX> V
CO CO
CX> CX> C\J
CO
C\J
.-
(V)
,... C\J to to 0> CX> C\J .-to 0> C\J (V) to CO to C\J 0> to I'-. (V) C\J
(V) C\J 0 (V) CO
.-(V) .-to
.-
~ 0 ,... L() V V L() L() <0 ,... 0) V C\J <0 C\J ...L() M <0 CX> CX> C\J L() ...CX> ...M C\J
-~ CX> L()
,... V
C\J

M
<0
,... 0) MOo)
...0)...
V

0 <0
...v,...
C\J
M
L() 0) L()
...L() <0
,... CX> C\J M M
V... M M
,...

M M L() C\J C\J


,... <0
0)
<0
M

C\J
...
0
...
V
(') ~ I'-. C') co 0 0 C') .-CO I'-. CO OJ ~ 0> 0> to OJ .-I'-. CO C') 0 I'-. 0 to C') to
-~ C')
(\J
(\J

CO
~
(\J
to
C')
.-(\J
(\J
(\J

(\J
I'-.
OJ CO CO
.-to
to C') CO
to
CO
.-~
0> to
0
(\J
to
CO C')
(\J.-
to I'-.
C')
C')
CO (\J
to

(\J
OJ

CO
to
to
0>
(\J

OJ
I'-.
CO
.-
(\J
0) - I'-
0
~
..-~

00 ..-00
0 ~
cry ~
II)
..-0
<0
<0
~
II)
~
C\J cry C\J ~
I'- 0> ~
<0 ~ C\J I'- <0 0
cry cry cry C\J 00 ~
0> ..-II)
0
'-'-'-

00 00
II) 0
.-C\J
~ cry cry 00
cry I'- 0 <0
C\J I'-
01'-

0 00 cry I'- II)


I'- C\J ..-0
cry ~
~O

I'-
~
.-" ..-
- C') ,- C\J 0 0 0> 0> ,... IX> IX> ID CO C') CO 0 C\J 0 ,- 0 0 ~ 0 IX> ,- ,- C\J C\J
-~ ~ CO (X) 0> ID CO IX> 0>
~C')C') C\JCO
0
,-

~ C\J IX> ,- 0
O>'-'-O>IX>~
,-
(X) ~ (X) ,... 0 ID IX> IX> C') CO ID
O'-'-~CO~
,- COlD
~ 0> ~
O>C\J,-
IDC')
,-
,-
'C)'
Q)
:3
c:: C') -.to L() 0 (\J 0 to 0 .-C') r--- 00 (\J r--- .-00 .-0) .-r--- 0 0 .-0) <0 0)
~
c::
0
~
-~ C')
.-(\J
.-0)

-.to -.to
C')
-.to
.-<0
0 0
C')
-.to
(\J
00
.-r
to r--- to C')
0)
C')
r---
00
C')
<0 (\J
0.-
-.to .-0
(\J .-L()
L()

-.to
<0

0
.-00
.-0

<0 L() r--- <0


C')
L()
C') .- .-
N
Q)
-:0 -~
CO
><

CX)
U')
U')
~
Cf)
~
U')

co
~
.-Cf)

U')
(\I
OJ co
CX) ~
0 CO

OJ
OJ
.-U')
~
.-(\I
(\I
0 CO
CX) r--
0.-

OJ
r--
OJ
U')
~

.-r--
Cf) OJ
(\I ~

.-OJ (\I
OJ CX) .-CX)
0
Cf) Cf) (\I

0
Cf)
0

CX) CO
~ ~
Cf) Cf)

U')
~
Cf)
~
~

U')
Cf)
r--

~
CO
0
Q) .-(\I U') r-- r-- .-CX) CX)
C
C
~
.-(\I
.- :[ .ou;
~
§:.
~ I'-. I'-. LC) .-'" 0 '" 0 0 IX) .q- C\J I'-. .-C\J LC) IX) C\J .-0> IX) I'-. C\J IX) '" I'-. C\J c:
-
~ LC)
.q-
.-0><0
.q-
'"
'"
<0
.-LC)
C\J C\J
.-.q-
'" <0
.-'" 0 0>
IX)
IX)
0
'-'-'-'-
.q- I'-.
o.-.q-
0 .q- LC) 0>
C\J
'"
'"
LC)
C\J
IX)
0
<0<0.-
<0 '"
.-LC)
.-'"
.q-
.q-
<0
"'0
IX)
I'-.
0
"Uj
"5
is
.-
C\J
(/)
Ii:
c:
'"
~ C\J <0 0
<0 C\J CI) 0
II) 0>
"'"
II) "'"
..-0
r--
II)
<0
0>
II) C\J CI) 0
C\J <0 II) II)
r--
0>
0
..-C\J
<0 CI) <0
<0 (')
II)
"'"
<0
II)
0
"'"
II) C\J r-- CI) 0> II)
CI) r-- ..-C\J r-- <0
"2

0) "'" (') "'" ..-0 <0 II) 0> 0 (') <0 0 CI) C\J "'" ..-r-- r-- 0
c.
0> <0 <0 C\J <0 0
0 u
..-
l
(ij
(Q
a.
-~
a) v co co T- T- I'- V T- M lC) 0 C\I 0 a) 0) 0 0) 0 M CO a) M CO C\I lC) 0 .c:
T- lC) T- 0) M T- I'- a) 0) T- CO lC) V a) C\I 0 lC) a) a) 0) M C\I CO T- T- 0 I'- (/)
MVT-C\lCOT- T-O)O) MT-lC) MC\lT-COOM T-MO Q)
"C
0) T-T- T- I'-CO Mo) t1I
C\I -0,
T- c:
t1I
ID
.c:
u
c:
In t1I
0> m
"iU
"- "iij"(3
.E E Q)
"0 CtS w.glna: c.
In c: .-"O.c 0> 0> U) (/)
"0 CtS In .c 0> c: CtS c: "iU U) CtS
c:
CtS 0> >-
""iU
c:
0>
c: ""iU .- "- 0 «
CtS CtS"-
~ c: -"0
CtS
« ~
CtS
U)
"- .--::)
E CtS
'S: Q)
~ N -CtS'5."O 0> c: a. c: 0> "- 0> c: >- "0 "0 "0 "- ZCtS -In
0>
.r= ,..
'u
~
c: "(ij a.
CtS
c:
CtS ::I
"- CtS .-CtS
CtS E "0 0>.-
c: CtS "0
-J 0> .!::! CtS =
CtS 0>
~ 0> 0> 0>
0>
E
In "-
0 0> ""iU ~
-;.
0> 0>
c
0
E ~ =
CtS.r=
-t
0 0
-::I
CtS 0
c: CtS
CtS .-a...:
,...>":
;. ;. >-.r=
CtS "- ."!::: ."!::: ."!:::
::I c: c: c:
"- "d)
0 .-::I
O>.r=
--0 ~
zzzo~~~~aa:U)U)U)U)U)U)U)~~::)::)::)~>~o~
17
~
-~
000000000000000
00000000000001"-
0)
r-.: ctj r-.: 0 ..,f r-.: ctj N ctj cD cD N N Lri
(!) 0> 0> 0 L(} (!) I"- 00 V (!) 0 0 L(} t\I
(!) (!) (!) (!) (!) (!) I"- (!) ~ 0> 0 0 L(}
~ ~~O>
OOOOOOOOOOOOOCO
-~ 00000000000001"-
Lri
C")
<0
"'"
LC) LC) "'"
<Xi r-..: ~
I"- a)
"'"
I"-
oj
.-LC)
-o:t <0
CO CO LC) CO LC) I"-
CO
<Xi N
0 .-0>
-o:t -o:t -o:t r-..:
CO .-LC)
C\J 0> C\J
.-I"-
It)
0'1
0'1
Y- (Y) 0000000000000.-
-~
I
CD OOOOOOOOOOOOOtO
CO cri ~ 0 Lri c.j m Lri ...:. Lri cri <ri 0 ~ 0
0'1 lC) .;t 0 C\J C\J lC) , 0> .;t 0> ;t CX)
Y- .;t , , .;t lC) C') C') .;t .;t C') lC) lC) 0>
lC)
iii
L-
~Q)
>
-~
ca 0000000000000(\1
...
L-
0)
00000000000001"-
M Lri Lri cO cO N cO r-.: Lri ~ Lri r-.: ...: d.
L-
Q)
(\1011)1"-11)00>0>001"-(')000>
~ (') ~ .-(') (') .-(\I (') (\I (\I
...
oC
0
(')
"C
c:
ca
...
I/) -
-~
ooooooooooooo..to
I/)
ooooooooooooo..to
"~ ct:)crioo>cri~o><cict:)ct:)Nct:)l.Cio>
~ C')
C\I
CX)
.-C')
C\I 0>
C\I
0
C\I
r--
.-C')
CX) C\I
C\I
0
..to
0
C')
C\I
C')
l!}
C\I
.-
C')
0
C')
L- ca
o~
-~
1/)-0
C)c: c
"-c: cIS
-~
OOOOOOOOOOOOOM
OOOOOOOOOOOOOCO
c: (/)
L- :J
,..: M M Lri .q: Lri d Lri N cx> ,..: N 0> r-.:
a> 0) C\I 0) co .-a> C\I 0) .-1D 0) C\I M
ca 0 .-1D 'Ot C\I .-C\I C\I C\I 0
Q).c
M
Q);
C)Q)
c: ...
ca-o
oCC:
U :J (» ooooooooooooo~ -;;;-
><.c
Q)-
c:
-
~ 0000000000000,-
cci t-.:-.t'o"':'-.t'-.t'ai
OOf'-.Of'-.C')\X)C')U)U)O\x)O'
C\J C\J,- C\J,- ,- ,- ,-
0"':'
,- C\J C\J,-
Lriooai
C\J
~
u
'CO
C)
"G)
C\J f!i
L- c:
0
0
u. "00
">
is
oC ~
-
OOOOOOOOOOOOOM
I/)
Q)
"C
~ 0000000000000,-
<ci~ oj cri N '" oj ~ <ci N I.(j '" I.(j '"
IX> 0 IX> 0 .q- I'-. M .q- M C\J Ii) 0 0> ,-,-

r/)
~
~C) M ,- C\J C\J,- ,- C\J,- ,- C\J C\J M
C\J
c:
02
c:
ca
~
m 8.
0
M '" 00000000000001"-
()
~
.c
-~ 0000000000000ll)
Lri r-.: cD ct) r-.: ~
~ ll) 0
C')
aJ
CD I"-
Lri d
C') C\J
..t ai r-.: ct) r-.: (\i
CD C') C') 0>
C\J
.-ll)
C\J

c:
(1j
'CO
0':-
(1j
ca
... a.
>< .c:
In
Q) a>
c: -g
c: -a,
ct co 0000.-0000000.- ffi
-~ OOOONOOOOOOON
roo: roo: <ri roo: <ri ,..: roo: c\i ~
0)
CD
~
C')
N
~
f'.
C')
CD
C')
C')
C')
Ii)
~
CD
C')
N
C')

,..: c:i <ri ~


IX)
C')
IX)
N
.-CD
.-~

CD
.c:
u
c:
~ ~
CD
ro
"0
a>
'- (ij 0-
Q) Q) r/)
'- Q»>-
Q) Q) Q) o>°cn
""'~ .D '-.D.D ~Q):J Q)
~(\3
(\3 :J .I::
-E
cn Q) .D
Q) E E 1::0>0
Q) I:: "5
~
~
:J
I::~
,-u- '-
~ "-
'-
>- Q) ~
I::~~'
:J-
~ c. 0
--'-.1::'-
> U
Q)Q)- (\3 U (\3 Q) I
(\3 Q)~ c.~:J"5:J Q) Ou 0 Q) 0 Q)uc.
c?)
JU-~~~JJ~(/) zo~a.
18