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AXIAL-FLUX ELECTROMAGNETIC DIFFERENTIAL INDUCTION MOTOR
F. Caricch, F. Crescimbini, E. Santini
University of Rome, Italy
Abstract - This paper presents an axial-flux induction motor which has a single stator and two squirrel-cage rotors mounted on individual, independents shafts driving two wheels of an electric vehicle. This novel induction machine inherently behaves as an electromagnetic differential motor and thereby performs the function of both the engine and the differential of a conventional vehicle. Features of the proposed motor topology are described, and an equivalent circuit is derived from the analysis of the magnetic and electrical behaviour of the machine. Basic machine design and characteristics of a 20 kW motor prototype are finally discussed.
1. torque density of the motor may be accepted in consideration of benefits arising from a reduction of the power electronic devices needed, if compared with electric vehicle drives using itwo individual in-wheel motors. To this aim, one particularly advantageous solution is accomplished with the drive arrangement shown in Fig. 1, in which a disc-type induction motor having a single stator and two individual, independent rotors is used to drive directly two wheels of a vehicle. This novel induction machine inherently behaves as an electromagnetic differential, arid thereby combines in a single motor drive the function of both the engine and the differential of a conventional vehicle. Early studies on induction motors having a single stator and two rotors were developed by considering the conventional arrangement of cylindrical machines with rahal airgap flux . Recently, design and performance of a disc-type tvvin rotor machne have been discussed in reference IS]. The same machine structure as in reference [SI is considered in this paper, but a different arrangement of 1.he stator winding which allows a shorter length of the end-windings is proposed. An equivalent circuit is derived from the analysis of the magnetic and electrical behaviour of the proposed machine. Consideralion on machine design and characteristics of a 20 kW motor prototype are finally discussed.
Axial-flux &sc machines are drawing considerable attention for application in electrical vehicles as wheeldirect-coupling motors. Particularly, slotless axial-flux machines with permanent-magnet rotor excitation (AFPMs) allow machine designs with substantially improved performance, typically in terms of higher torque density or increased efficiency. Therefore, in the last few years such an axial-flux machine topology has found a growing interest for a number of motor applications [l-41, and recently an axial-flux directdrive wheel motor prototype has been used for the development of a scooter drive [5, 61. The basic layout of AFPMs comprises a toroidal stripwound stator core which carries a slotless toroidal winding and is placed between two mild steel discs. These rotor discs are connected rigidly to the machine shaft and cany axially-polarised magnets. The active conductor lengths are the two radial portions facing the magnets, whose polarities are arranged to induce adhtive emf, around a stator coil. The axially-directed end-windmg lengths are relatively short, yielding low resistance. Since the working surfaces of the stator core are both used, in comparison with conventional machines the structure of AFFMs allows the exploitation of a higher percentage of active materials for production of torque. However, because of the large airgaps in the magnetic circuit, the high performance of AFPMs are achieved at the price of using high-energy magnets (i.e. typically Nd-Fe-B with energy density of tens of MGOe), which to date, unfortunately, still have a high cost if compared with the cost of other machine active materials. Hence, whilst AFPMs proved to be one best solution for the hgh-torque-density motors required in motor-inwheel drives, on the other hand, there is an interest to avoid the use of permanent magnet machines. This led to explore other drive arrangements in which a lower
Fig. 1 Direct drive of electric vehicle wheels by a single converter-fed motor having one stator and two rotors. 2.
The basic layout of the proposed axial-flux induction machine comprises a single stator and two squirrelcage rotors. These rotors are mounted on two individual shafts and may rotate independently. The stator comprises an iron core obtained from iron tape wound in a toroidal fashion. The two surfaces of the stator core are slotted by means of shearing techniques, being the slots in the radial direction. The rotors have same magnetic structure as the stator, but the rotor slots
‘Electrical Machines and Drives; 11-13 September 1995, Conference Publication No. 412,O IEE, 1995
Ot2 airgap flux Dr2 rotor flux where the suffixes s. whereas the suffixes 1 and 2 refer to rotor 1 and rotor 2. i Fig. It is possible to identlfy the following fluxes: .e. 2) may have either same or opposite direction depending on the connection between the two halves of the stator winding. E EQUIVALENT CWCUIT Fig. 4 shows recridied view at the mean radius of the machne to be used for electromagnetic considerations. the active conductors placed in back-to-back slots can be connected as shown in Fig. 2 . The magnetic circuit shown in Fig. but electrically independent. Fig. 2 is that the two winding halves can be manufactured separately and then placed into the slots.Rectij?ed view of the machine (not in scale). 5 represent the stator and rotor equations ( A denotes permeance. as proposed in reference 181. stator flux stator leakage flux . 3 show a rectified view of the stator core with winding coils placed in slots. izi number of turns and R resistance).a) magnetic circuit of the machine. r and t refer to stator. one advantage of the winding arrangement shown in Fig. The currents flowing down any hvo back-to-back slots (i. Magnetic and electric circuits as shown in Fig. 5 is useful for an analysis of the electromechanical behaviour of the machine when used to dnve two wheels of an electric Fig. polyphase windings which are then connected in series. The end-windmgs are accomplished in the conventional way by connecting active conductors placed in slots belonging to one side of the stator core.Dfl. as well as a sigruEicant reduction of stator resistance and leakage inductance.3 . The following relationshps can be written: @t=@t1+ @t2 (1) @ds=@dsl-k @ds2 . Fig. With reference to a machine having one slot per pole and per phase. 3. 4 .@ds Fig. respectively. However. A and B in Fig. As the machine must be excited through the stator winding. the airgaps must be reduced as much as possible to produce adequate airgap flux densities and achieve acceptable values of efficiency and torque density. rotor and airgap. lying the end-windings on both the inner and outer cylindrical surfaces of the stator core. T h s winding arrangement allows a great saving of copper. 2 and Fig. b) electric circuits (stator and two rotors). It is found that such advantages become particularly prominent for machmes having high number of poles. 2 results in two identical.Conventional end windings (dotted lines) 4 @t L @t2 To reduce the length of the end-windings.Proposed end windings (dotted lines).L present an inclination respect to the radius to reduce mechanical vibrations. The coils of the stator winding coils are wound in a toroidal fashion around the stator core and placed into slots. 5 . Both rotors carry a squirrel-cage winding which is accomplished by means of bars inserted into the slots and short-circuited by end rings.0s . 3. The coil arrangement shown in Fig.
and k is the ratio between the no-load voltage V A B ~ A-B terminals and the phase voltage. R S + ds - where X = w (zdr + Llu). If a is the number of parallel-connected paths per pole and per . is the magnetising inductance. if s1 = s2 then the current in the branch AB shown in Fig. being V. respectively. at R. w dr Fig. the maximum torque can be expressed as: (3) where w is the angular frequency of the currents. if results TI = T 2 . Neglecting the voltage drop onL . while the stator flux keeps constant. and therefore there is a greater current and electromagnetic reaction. as it mainly depends on Vs and the number of turns of the stator winding. whereas s denotes the slip. Whenever the vehicle is on a curve path and considering a constant feeding frequency. independently on the flux distribution in the airgaps and therefore the stator iron is always in the optimum design conditions. The flux in the stator is practically always the same. electromagnetic torque on rotor 2 decreases..3 vehicle. Ns. Whenever occurs that s1 f s2. the distribution of the fluxes in the two airgaps changes.E. since it is L p >> Ldr. Currents in the cage winding of rotor 1 decrease: the same holds for its electromagnetic reaction on the stator. In this figure R.. f I. Linkage of electric and magnetic circuits based on the principle of transfiguration of the network allows to determine the equivalent circuit shown in Fig. Xis of the same order of uLP The electromechanical behaviour described above suggested the name of an electromagnetic differential induction motor (EDIM) for the proposed machme. Hence. If the vehicle moves on a straight path. 6. Rotor resistance and leakage inductance are indicated as R. It yields: It should be noted that the reactive term X presents a great value since it is the sum of the rotor magnetising and leakage inductance. In practice. and Lds are the stator resistance and leakage inductance. and Ldr. and therefore the point B is at the potential VJ2. as desired. On the other hand. Xeq = 2 Xd. Of course. if SI = s2. Therefore. 6 it is possible to deduce the torque developed by each rotor as a function of SI and SI. and the mechanical behaviour is same as in an EDIM. . I . . it yields VB # VJ2 and I.Equivalent circuit of the machine By neglecting the leakage flux with respect to the magnetising flux. is the stator voltage. the: condition results in dr t I . In this case. 6 is zero. since in rotor 2 there is a greater slip. + 2 Xd.. From a magnetic point of view it is found that EDIMs allow a reduction of the weight of the stator iron. the stator voltage divides into the two portions depending on the equivalent impedance cif each machine. Moreover. the external wheel increases the speed and the relevant rotor (say rotor 1) approaches the synchronous speed. being both the rotors in a same electromagnetic conditions. When the rotors present the same angular speed. then the stator flux divides into two equal parts. . This behaviour represents an improvement with respect to that of the conventional mechanic differential: to the external wheel can be applied a greater torque since it is generally the more loaded in a curve trajectory. From the equivalent circuit shown in Fig. and L. then it the torque ratio can be approximated as and therefore the torque is greater on the faster rotor. 6 . The stator flux tend to flow in rotor 1.. is related to the total flux linked with one stator phase. the coupling between the fluxes in the airgaps is absent. The equivalent circuit of EDIMs is similar to that one resulting from the connection in series of two conventional induction machines. Therefore. respectively.
=-u U @ . magnetic properties of the machine are aEected by this construction technique. is proportional to R2. the Authors designed and built a 20 kW machine whose parameters are listed in Table 1.. If L. The airgap length. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS On the basis of the described considerations. hypotheses. In order to increase the maximum power of the machme. the dimensions of the slots and the axial thickness of the stator core. The stator slots are not semi-closed. is = related to the rms value of the flux in the airgap: 1 where Ot = 2 p q 0 . 6. the same holds for the slot opening b and for the slot magnetising mmf nZp while the slot area A . it is possible to deduce the maximum torque value. For an effective design point of view. the maximum torque is proportional to an R power e ual to 4. The general design criteria of the machine were introduced. and the layout of a prototype built by the Authors was shown.4 phase. The stator geometry is mainly determined by the inner radius r and outer radius R (or. the same hold for the stator flux cDt. and it can be related dlrectly to the geometrical and magnetic parameters. 6. since by hypothesis Lds = Ldr: Consequently. The stator copper volume is proportional to R2. but open. the rms value of the mmffor a desired values of the flux density is calculated.lot is the slot inductance of one slot presenting one conductor. and the voltage drop on Es In terms of magnetic fluxes. i. other quantities are calculated with a straightforward process. is deduced. The main results of the design procedure can be summarised as follows. the dimensional analysis will be conducted having the external radius R as main parameter. The stator weight is proportional to Rj. 4. n' E. the maximum torque do not depend upon the number of turns or on the end-windmg arrangement. the slot depth h is proportional to R since h = A .e. and the equivalent circuit for steady state unbalanced operation was derived. one has: 20 kW MACHINE PROTOTYPE and therefore. since the manufacture process short-circuits the iron sheets and iron losses are increased. This was due to the fact that the construction of a semi-closed stator slots can be obtained either by the progressive punching of the continuous iron tape constituting the stator. 5. On the other hand. The machine design proceeds as follows: an expression forthe slot opening b as a function of k.. (4) where @ is the total stator flux. is the flux in one pole. and therefore is suitable for the electrical traction. In particular. Therefore. With the same . It should be noted that several Merences between the design of the machine and the realisation exist. or by milling a toroidal core. Obviously. neglecting R. Rotor slots were obtained by milling of the rotor discs. by the outer radius and kr = rm). can be assumed to be proportional to R. the slot height is then calculated. 7 shows the stator and one of the two rotors of the prototype machine before assembling (the rotor is shown before the preparation of the cage winding).and therefore the maximum specific torque is proportional to R. once the slot CONCLUSIONS The pager presented a newly conceived axial flux induction motor. =-n'w a @I since the flux linked with each t r is the flux into the un joke. equivalently. and they are dlscussed in the following. The electrical and magnetic characteristics were dscussed. / b. which has the property to behave as a mechanical dfierential gearbox. Fig. . that. the Authors studied and realised a water-cooling of the machine. V'B~ is the difference between E. Simplicity reason in the realisation lead to a circular design of the slots. The Authors chosen this second way for cost reasons. and n' the number of conductors seriesconnected in one slot: geometry is known. it can be said that V A B ~ k E. once the slot area is known. and therefore: 2Pq kE. by definition. the stator iron volume is proportional to R3.
B. Vol. Honorati. "Toroidally-Wound. Santini. Fedeli. Spooner. 1988. G. 2. Vol. T. MAchine". pp. Marquette University. Proceedings of the 12th International Electrical Vehicle Symposium. "Motoring Performance of the Toroidal Permanent Magnet Machine Torus". Axial-Flux. Proceedings of the 1994 IEEE-IAS Annual Meeting. Zurich. B. F. Anaheim (USA). Wu Wei. Crescimbini. 7 . "Analog Computer Simulation of an Axially Aligned Two Rotor A. 36 . C. "Development of an IGBT Inverter Driven AxialFlux PM Synchronous Motor Drive". Permanent-Magnet. Renfrew.H. 482 487. Proceedings of the LEE 5th International Conference on Electrical Machines and Drives. 81-86. Spooner. F.A. Chalmers. Master Thesis. BrushlessDC Motors". 0. Crescimbini. Proceedings of the International Conference on Electrical Machines. Wisconsin (USA). Smith "Twin Rotor Drive for an Electric Vehicle". Crescimbini.63 degrees I I I a) bl Fig. "Design and Construction of a Wheel-DirectlyCoupled Axial-Flux PM Motor Prototype for EVs". TABLE 1 List of main design parameters of the prototype I I flux density in the stator joke ROiTOR I I 1. A. E. G. 3.Proceedings of the International Conference on the Evolution and Modern Aspects of Synchronous Machines.C. M. pp. F. J.  D.A. 2-7 October 1994. Di Napoli. March 1993.8 T I slot skewing number of slots first harmonic skew coefficient 8. Di Napoli. Lipo. Noia. 1991. Part B. Lipo. B. 131-138. Caricchi. Noia. F. E. Noia. Proceedings of the 4th EPE Conference. 1 Slotless. A. E. Crescimbini.REFERENCES [ 1 E. 140. 5-7 December 1994. 161 F. Noia. 1991. Platt. A.29. Caricch. Chalmers.40. "Design Criteria of a Low-Speed Axial-Flux PM Synchronous Machine" . E. 1991.  T. G. Denver (USA). F. 111. "Prototype of an Innovative Electrical Scooter for Application in Zero-Emission Urban Mobility".a) Stator and b) rotor ofthe prototype machine (the rotor is shown without conductor winding) . G. pp. 1964. Santini. pp. IEE Proceedmgs. J. M. Vol. Caricchi. August 27 . Ca&chi. No.  F. 141 F. El-Missiry.
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