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Manas.H.R(28),Manohar Bhat(30), ’V’ sem ’A’ section November 27, 2009
As mentioned in the Software Requirements speciﬁcation, we are supposed to create a university database on any platform in MySQL or ORACLE-9i or even MS-SEQUEL SERVER. We are also supposed to make a user-friendly front-end desktop environment, using PHP on MySQL or using VB.NET on ORACLE-9i and MS-SEQUEL SERVER. We should also see that, we maintain the database classiﬁed, by authenticating users with passwords and suitable IDs. We also need to maintain the SSL( Secured Socket Layered) communication by authenticating the users and maintaining a ﬁrewall by the root or the administrator to take a clean look over authorised and unauthorised users community.
PHASES IN DESIGNING THE DATABASE:
ENTITY RELATIONSHIP MODELLING-
An entity-relationship (ER) diagram is a specialized graphic that illustrates the interrelationships between entities in a database. ER diagrams often use symbols to represent three diﬀerent types of information. Boxes are commonly used to represent entities. Diamonds are normally used to represent relationships and ovals are used to represent attributes. On seeing the details given by the client to create the database, we have researched out the following details: The entities and the attributes that we discovered were: a)PROFESSOR- PROFESSORSSN,NAME,AGE,RANK,SPEC,HOURS,DNO. b)PROJECT- PROJECTNO,SPONSER,STARTDATE,ENDDATE,BUDJET MANAGERSSN,SUPERVISORSSN. c)STUDENT- STUDENTSSN,NAME,AGE,DEGREE,DNO,PGCOURSE,PROJECTNO. d)DEPARTMENT- DEPARTMENTNO,NAME,CHAIRMAN,MAINOFFICE. e)CO-INVESTIGATOR- PROJECTNO,COINVESTIGATORSSN. f)STUDENT CO-ADVISOR- STUDENTSSN,STUDENTADVISORSSN.
AGE.E.(1.PGCOURSE.NAME. normalization is a systematic way of ensuring that a database structure is suitable for general-purpose querying and free of certain undesirable characteristics insertion. Associative entities and cardinality are seperated into new tables. (1 : 1). So. c) STUDENT.N).2 LOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE E-R DIAGRAM: Entities and Attributes with respect to relationships are brought into tables. introduced the concept of normalization and what we now know as the First Normal Form (1NF) in 1970. Codd.SUSSN. Codd went on to deﬁne the Second Normal Form (2NF) and Third Normal Form (3NF) in 1971.PSSN.N). c) Student workOn Project(1. The content indexes are shown below: e) CO-INVESTIGATOR.COSSN.ENDDATE.RANK. A clear view of the Entity-Relationship Diagram is shown in (ﬁgure-1).SSN.SPONSER. d) DEPARTMENT. 2.M : 1.STARTDATE. the relational table or view of the database inferring from the E-R diagram.CHAIRMAN. and deletion anomalies that could lead to a loss of data integrity.MAINOFFICE.M : 1.N). is shown in the (ﬁgure-2).DNO. The content indexes are as shown below: a) PROFESSOR.SSN.M : 1.MSSN.We ﬁnd two associative entities:-(Entity + Relationship + Attributes) a)Co-investigator.PNO. d) Student belongTo Department.DNO.DNO. f) STUDENT CO-ADVISOR.and Codd and 2 . 2.DEGREE.F.BUDJET.PNO. We have also found out cardinality ratios between relationships: a) Professor supervises Student (1. e) Student advises Student. b)Student Co-adviser.HOURS.NAME. Here both have the attributes including relationships. b) PROJECT. update. b) Professor co-investigates Project (1 : N).NAME.AGE.PNO.SPEC. the inventor of the relational model.SASSN.3 NORMALISATION OF THE DATABASE TABLES:- In the ﬁeld of relational database design.
a relational database table (the computerized representation of a relation) is often described as ”normalized” if it is in the Third Normal Form.e. there is exactly one value of attribute B. because a particular Employee ID value corresponds to one and only one Employee Address value. it is common to express this relationship in mathematics as F(A) = B.A standard piece of database design guidance is that the designer should create a fully normalized dsign. update.However.Higher normal forms were deﬁned by other theorists in subsequent years. The dependent variable (or the dependent attribute using the terminology above). Employee Address would no longer be functionally dependent on Employee ID. for each value of attribute A. and therefore want to allow Employees to have more than one Employee Address. and 5NF (but typically not 6NF).e. is the value of F(A). designs that in large part do not adhere to 3NF. b) Another way to look at the above is by reviewing basic mathematical functions: Let F(x) be a mathematical function of one independent variable.Most 3NF tables are free of insertion. i. For example. The independent variable is analogous to the attribute A. understanding this. Boyce deﬁned the Boyce-Codd Normal Form in 1974. If value of A is repeating in tuples then value of B will also repeat. or. Hugh Darwen. A is an independent attribute. In our example.. Notationally speaking. some modeling disciplines. an Employer may require certain employees to split their time between two locations. i. explicitly recommend non-normalized designs. Employee Address has a functional dependency on Employee ID. and hence the term functional dependency. and deletion anomalies. 4NF. requires knowledge of the problem domain.e. in turn. It is not possible to determine the extent to which a design is normalized without understanding what functional dependencies apply to the attributes within its tables. As we know. this is referred to as multivariable functions. (Note that the reverse need not be true: several employees could live at the same address and therefore one Employee Address value could correspond to more than one Employee ID. Employee ID is therefore not functionally dependent on Employee Address. the most recent being the Sixth Normal Form (6NF) introduced by Chris Date. and Nikos Lorentzos in 2002. F : A to B. In this case. such as New York City and London. Background to normalization: a) Functional dependency: Attribute B has a functional dependency on attribute A (i. This idea represents an attribute being 3 . such as the dimensional modelling approach to data warehouse design.Raymond F. A to B) if.Informally. mathematical functions can have only one output.) An attribute may be functionally dependent either on a single attribute or on a combination of attributes. in most cases 3NF tables adhere to BCNF. There are also functions of more than one independent variablecommonly. selective de normalization can subsequently be performed for performance reasons.
Employee ID. F(x. but not a full functional dependency. a super key for which we can say that no proper subset of it is also a super key. that is. Employee Address has a functional dependency on Employee ID.z) contains three independent variables. We have used four basic normal forms for the normalisation:- 4 . h) Candidate key: A candidate key is a minimal super key. because it is also dependent on Employee ID. c) Trivial functional dependency: A trivial functional dependency is a functional dependency of an attribute on a superset of itself. namely. Skill would be a super key for the ”Employees’ Skills” table. f) Join dependency: A table T is subject to a join dependency if T can always be recreated by joining multiple tables each having a subset of the attributes of T. Employee ID. Employee Id. Skill would be a candidate key for the ”Employees’ Skills” table. Hence. A primary key is a key which the database designer has designated for this purpose. Skill would also be a super key.y. g) Super key: A super key is an attribute or set of attributes that uniquely identiﬁes rows within a table.y. In multivariable functions. Employee Address Employee Address is trivial. F(x. or independent attributes. as is Employee Address Employee Address. or attribute. rather than a number of possible unique keys. and one dependent attribute. Employee ID. Full functional dependency An attribute is fully functionally dependent on a set of attributes X if it is functionally dependent on X. there can only be one output. i) Non-prime attribute: A non-prime attribute is an attribute that does not occur in any candidate key. Skill. j) Primary key: Most DBMS’ require a table to be deﬁned as having a single unique key.functionally dependent on a combination of attributes. d) Transitive dependency: A transitive dependency is an indirect functional dependency. Employee Address. or one dependent variable. two distinct rows are always guaranteed to have distinct super keys. Employee Address would be a non-prime attribute in the ”Employees’ Skills” table. in other words. and not functionally dependent on any proper subset of X. one in which X to Z only by virtue of X to Y and Y to Z.z). e) Multivalued dependency: A multivalued dependency is a constraint according to which the presence of certain rows in a table implies the presence of certain other rows.
DNO.BUDJET. So. directly dependent) on every key of R. c) Third Normal Form: The third normal form (3NF) is a normal form used in database normalization.NAME.NAME.AGE.a) First Normal Form: First normal form (1NF or Minimal Form) is a normal form used in database normalization.SSN.COSSN.PGCOURSE. h) DEPT DETAILS.F.STARTDATE. considering to remove all constraints we get four more extra entities. It is a slightly stronger version of the third normal form (3NF). given any candidate key and any attribute that is not a constituent of a candidate key.F.DEGREE.CHAIRMAN. After applying the normalisation.SSN. d) Boyce-Codd Normal Form: Boyce-Codd normal form (or BCNF) is a normal form used in database normalization. X is a super key that is. They run as follows:a) PROFESSOR.SUSSN.MSSN. A relational database table that adheres to 1NF is one that meets a certain minimum set of criteria.PNO.PSSN. These criteria are basically concerned with ensuring that the table is a faithful representation of a relation and that it is free of repeating groups. b) Second Normal Form: Second normal form (2NF) is a normal form used in database normalization. f) STUDENT ADVISOR. X is either a candidate key or a superset thereof.SASSN.e. b) PROJECT. Codd’s deﬁnition states that a table is in 3NF if and only if both of the following conditions hold: i) The relation R (table) is in second normal form (2NF). the relational table or view of the database after Normalisation pertain5 .DNO.DNO. ii) Every non-prime attribute of R is non-transitively dependent (i. two produced during the 1NF and two during 2NF. c) STUDENT.TIME.SPEC. A table that is in ﬁrst normal form (1NF) must meet additional criteria if it is to qualify for second normal form.MAINOFFICE.ENDDATE.SSN.RANK.SPONSER. Codd in 1971. g) PROJECT RECORD. 2NF was originally deﬁned by E. for every one of its non-trivial functional dependencies X to Y. Speciﬁcally: a 1NF table is in 2NF if and only if.NAME. Codd in 1971.PNO.PNO. the non-key attribute depends upon the whole of the candidate key rather than just a part of it. e) CO INVESTIGATOR.AGE.PSSN. 3NF was originally deﬁned by E. A table is in Boyce-Codd normal form if and only if. d) DEPARTMENT.
Fundamentals of Database Management Systems by Elmasiri and Navathe.wikipedia.org. So they can be called primitive datastructures. This is developed by an object oriented mixture of JAVA and C++. is shown in the (ﬁgure-3). These are the Datastructures usedindirectly when we switch on an MySQL server or else where. 3 DATA STRUCTURES- The datastructures usually used in manufacturing DBMS are hash tables. 4 PERFORMANCE- DBMS does not particularly have any packages with respect to performance.co.google. The whole thing itself is designed super-beneﬁcially and user friendly for high performance purpose. www. 6 .ing to the E-R diagram. 5 INPUT AND OUTPUT DESIGN- Input is given in the front-end and the output is processed from back-end like mySQL or VB. linked lists and trees. www.NET 6 1) 2) 3) 4) REFERENCESSoftware Requirements Speciﬁcation.in.