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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Magnetics

Switching Regulator Inductor Design

In switching regulator applications the inductor is used as compromise between inductor and capacitor size a ripple

an energy storage device, when the semiconductor current value of 10-30% of maximum inductor current

switch is on the current in the inductor ramps up and should be chosen. This also means that the current in the

energy is stored. When the switch turns off this energy is inductor will be continuous for output currents greater that

released into the load, the amount of energy stored is 5-15% of full load.

given by;

Inductor Selection for Buck Converters

Energy = 1/2L.I 2

(Joules) (1)

When selecting an inductor for a Buck converter, as with

Where L is the inductance in Henrys and I is the peak all switching regulators, you will need to define or

value of inductor current. calculate the following parameters:

The amount by which the current changes during a • Maximum input voltage

switching cycle is known as the ripple current and is • Output voltage

defined by the equation; • Switching frequency

• Maximum ripple current

V1 = L.di/dt (2) • Duty cycle

Where V1 is the voltage across the inductor, di is the For the example shown in figure 2 lets assume a

ripple current and dt is the duration for which the voltage switching frequency of 250kHz, input voltage range of

is applied. From this we can see that the value of ripple 12V±10% and a max ripple current of 220mA.

current is dependent upon the value of inductance.

Buck Inductor

Switch

Choosing the correct value of inductance is important in

order to obtain acceptable inductor and output capacitor

sizes and sufficiently low output voltage ripple. Input Voltage 5V

12 V Freewheeling Output Output

Diode Cap Voltage

Buck Inductor Vout

I load 1 2

dI

I Inductor ESR

0 Figure 2

Figure 1 For an input voltage of 13.2V the duty cycle will be:

As can be seen from figure 1 inductor current is made up D = Vo/Vi = 5/13.2 = 0.379 (3)

of AC and DC components, because the AC component

is high frequency it will flow through the output capacitor Where Vo is the output voltage and Vi is the input

as it has a low HF impedance. This will produce a ripple voltage.

voltage due to the capacitor ‘equivalent series resistance’

(ESR) that will appear at the output of the switching Voltage across the inductance:

regulator. This ripple voltage needs to be sufficiently low

as not to effect the operation of the circuit the regulator is V1 = Vi - Vo = 8.2V when the switch is on (4)

supplying, normally in the order of 10-500mVpk-pk. V1 = - Vo = -5V when the switch is off (5)

Selecting the correct ripple current also impacts on the Require inductance:

size of inductor and output capacitor, the capacitor will

need to have a sufficiently high ripple current rating or it L = V1.dt/di = (8.2 x 0.379/250 x 103)/0.22 (6)

will overheat and dry out. In order to get a good L = 56.5µH

Application Notes

Magnetics

Inductor Selection for Boost Converters Inductor Selection for Buck-Boost Converters

(including Cuk & SEPIC)

In order to calculate the require value of inductance for a

Boost converter we follow the same procedure as The procedure shown here is for the Cuk converter but it

described for the Buck converter, the difference being that applies equally well to the SEPIC and the single inductor

the equations for duty cycle and inductor voltage change. Buck-Boost topologies. Initially we will consider the circuit

utilizing two separate inductors of equal value and then

Taking maximum input voltage as 5.5V, switching look at some of the advantages of using coupled inductors.

frequency as 100kHz and maximum ripple current as

0.1A. For this example we shall use a switching frequency of

200kHz and a maximum ripple current of 200mA.

Diode

Boost Inductor

-12V

Inductor 1 Coupling Inductor 2

Cap

12V Input 5-18V

Input Voltage Switch Output Output Output

Output Switch Cap Voltage

5V Cap Voltage

Diode

Figure 4

Figure 3 Duty cycle:

Duty cycle: D = Vo/(Vo + Vi) = 12/(12+18) = 0.4 (10)

D = 1 – (Vi/Vo) = 1 – (5.5/12) = 0.542 (7)

Inductor voltages:

Inductor Voltage: V1 = Vi = 18V when the switch is on (11)

V1 = Vi = 5.5V when the switch is on (8) V1 = Vo = 12V when the switch is off (12)

V1 = Vo – Vi = 6.5V when the switch is off (9)

Using equation 6, inductance:

Using equation 6, inductance: L = (18 x 0.4/200 x 103)/0.2

L = (5.5 x 0.542/100 x 103)/0.1 L = 180µH

L = 298µH

Both the SEPIC and Cuk topologies offer advantages

One thing to note about the Boost converter topology is over the single inductor Buck-Boost design. Input current

that, unlike the Buck converter, inductor current does not is continuous resulting in lower peak values, drive circuit

continuously flow to the load. During the switch ‘on’ period requirements are simple due to switch location and the

the inductor current flows to ground and the load current use of a coupled inductor reduces the cost and PCB

is supplied from the output capacitor. This means that the space penalties of these topologies.

output capacitor must have sufficient energy storage

capability and ripple current rating in order to supply the One thing to note when using coupled inductors, for the

load current during this period. total ripple current and total inductive energy stored to

remain the same the inductance of each winding should

be halved (for our example Lcouple = 90µH).

Inductor App Note

4/06 1225 Broken Sound Pkwy. Suite F Boca Raton, FL 33487

Tel: +1-561-998-4100 Toll Free: +1-888-414-2645 Fax: +1-561-241-6640

© Cooper Electronic

Technologies 2006 This bulletin is intended to present product design solutions and technical information that will help the end user with design applications. Cooper Electronic

Technologies reserves the right, without notice, to change design or construction of any products and to discontinue or limit distribution of any products. Cooper

Electronic Technologies also reserves the right to change or update, without notice, any technical information contained in this bulletin. Once a product has been

selected, it should be tested by the user in all possible applications.

Life Support Policy: Cooper Electronic Technologies does not authorize the use of any of its products for use in life support devices or systems without the

express written approval of an officer of the Company. Life support systems are devices which support or sustain life, and whose failure to perform, when

properly used in accordance with instructions for use provided in the labeling, can be reasonably expected to result in significant injury to the user.

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