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INTMEAS Report for contract –2007‐2094/001 TRA‐TRSPO
Final report: 11. Spain
Mariano Fernández Enguita
Lepelstraat August 2009
This is an independent report commissioned by the European Commission's DirectorateGeneral for Education and Culture. The views expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the official position of the European Commission. Drafts of this report benefited from comments and advice from the consortium’s reference group members and from other experts in this field. Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged. The electronic version of this report is available at: http://www.docabureaus.nl/INTMEAS.html Available INTMEAS-reports: 1. Summary/sommaire/Zusamenfassung 2. Comparative conclusions 3. Discussion and recommendations 4. France 5. Germany 6. Hungary 7. Italy 8. The Netherlands 9. Poland 10. Slovenia 11. Spain 12. Sweden 13. UK 14. Experts and PLA
INTMEAS Reference Group George Muskens, project leader Jaap Dronkers, expert adviser José Ramón Flecha, expert adviser Jill Bourne, expert adviser Danielle Zay, leader French research team Ingrid Gogolin, leader German research team Pál Tamás, leader Hungarian research team Francesca Gobbo, leader Italian research team Michał Federowicz, leader Polish research team Albina Neçak Lük, Sonja Novak Lukanovic, leaders Slovenian research team Mariano Fernándes Enguita, leader Spanish research team Elena Dingu Kyrklund, leader Swedish research team Rae Condie, leader UK research team
POLICIES AGAINST EDUCATIONAL EXCLUSION
Spanish draft Report
Mariano Fernández Enguita and David Doncel Abad Universidad de Salamanca April, 2009
Contract -2007-2094/001 TRA-TRSPO, Strategies for supporting schools and teachers in order to foster social inclusion Project coordinated by DOCA Bureaus for The European Commission (Draft paper, please do not quote)
INDEX 0. Introduction .................................................................................................................. 3 1. Framework.................................................................................................................... 3 2. Structures and inclusive function ................................................................................. 7 3. Early School Leavers / Dropouts from school.............................................................. 8 3.1. Schools and level ................................................................................................... 9 3.2. Special groups at risk ........................................................................................... 10 3.3. Measures .............................................................................................................. 11 3.3.1. Measures at school........................................................................................ 12 3.3.2. Measures targeting the home ........................................................................ 12 3.3.3. Occupational training and job seeking ......................................................... 12 3.3.4. Measurements for favouring coordination.................................................... 12 3.4. Interim conclusions, research conclusions........................................................... 13 4. Priority education for disadvantaged pupils ............................................................... 14 4.1. Types of disadvantaged pupils............................................................................. 14 4.2. The aims of priority education: success, segregation and discrimination ........... 14 4.3. Priority measures for better individual achievement ........................................... 16 4.4. Priority measures for less segregation, discrimination ........................................ 17 4.5. Interim conclusion, research conclusion.............................................................. 18 5. Inclusive Education .................................................................................................... 19 5.1. The policy objective: Keeping challenging pupils on board ............................... 19 5.2. Inclusive measures ............................................................................................... 19 5.3. Interim conclusion: research conclusions ............................................................ 21 6. Safe Education............................................................................................................ 21 6.1. The first ideal: the school as a safe haven............................................................ 21 6.2. The second ideal: schools without bullied and harassed pupils........................... 21
6.3. Safety measures ................................................................................................... 22 6.4. Measures to protect pupils at risk from bullying and harassment ....................... 24 6.5. Interim conclusion, research conclusions ............................................................ 25 7. Teacher support .......................................................................................................... 26 7.1. The ideal: being a good teacher for children at risk............................................. 26 7.2. Teacher support measures.................................................................................... 26 7.3. Cross-referenced measures .................................................................................. 28 7.4. Interim conclusion, research conclusion.............................................................. 29
This report presents a current review of the policies rolled out by the various education authorities and an analysis of their general characteristics, as regards those deemed to be of greatest interest. Overall, a review has been made of a broad array of actions published over the period 2000-2008 that include, or whose general purpose is to provide, assistance to schools and teachers for fostering inclusion in the education system. Although the sample is not intended to be exhaustive, it is undoubtedly representative of the actions undertaken by the education authorities within this sphere.
This section lays out the set of principles and objectives articulated in a manner that favours inclusion in Spanish society in general and in the education system in particular. The aim is to describe the framework from the general to the particular, that is, by showing how the fabric of the education system is woven according to the values of integration from the source of a legislative nature that sets forth the general principles through to the specification tailored to suit each individual. This provides a comprehensible perspective of the education system that can be used to verify the work undertaken by the authorities as they seek to build a better education system. An initial stage describes the basic pillars that uphold the principles of inclusion contained in the 3rd National Action Plan for Social Inclusion in the Kingdom of Spain (III Plan Nacional de Acción para la inclusión social del Reino de España) 2005-2006 and in Organic Law 2/2006, of 3 May, on Education (LOE). a) 3rd National Action Plan for Social Inclusion in the Kingdom of Spain 20052006 The 3rd National Action Plan for Social Inclusion in the Kingdom of Spain 2005-2006 has been drawn up within the framework of European strategy on social inclusion, based on the successive agreements adopted at the summits held in Lisbon, Nice, Barcelona and Copenhagen. The objective consists in updating and covering the period 2005-2006, in accordance with the plan to work towards a rationalised process of coordination in the area of social protection and inclusion policies, as laid down in the latest guidelines approved by the Social Protection Committee, thereby regularising the pace of work with the countries that have recently joined the European Union.
Regarding education, the main objective set forth has been to provide quality education for everyone, with effective equal opportunities and adapted to their needs, in partnership with all the players and institutions that make up the education community and, in general, society as a whole. b) Organic Law 2/2006, of 3 May, on Education (LOE) Fostering inclusion in schools prevails as one of the pillars upholding Organic Law 2/2006, of 3 May, on Education, approved by the Spanish Ministry of Education, Social Policy and Sport. In its Preamble, the LOE understands education to be the way of fostering democratic coexistence and respect for individual differences, promoting solidarity and avoiding discrimination. The core objective is to achieve good social cohesion and guarantee the exercise of democratic, responsible, free and active citizenship, as aspects that are deemed essential to the formation of advanced, dynamic and fair societies. In turn, the Preliminary Title consists of four chapters, although this report will focus solely on the first and fourth. Chapter I, dedicated to the Principles and Aims of Education, presents the core aspects around which the education system as a whole should be orchestrated. It presents two basic principles. The main one is to provide quality education for all children regardless of their conditions or circumstances. The other one is equity, thereby guaranteeing equal opportunities, classroom inclusion and non-discrimination, moreover acting as a factor for compensating personal, cultural, economic and social inequalities, paying special attention to those forthcoming through disability. Concerning the Aims of Education, a learning framework is established centred on the equal treatment and nondiscrimination of people for reasons of sex, disability, etc. Likewise, it champions the exercise of tolerance and freedom within the democratic principles of coexistence, the prevention of conflicts and their peaceful resolution. In addition, it stresses the importance of instructing children in citizenship and their involvement in economic, social and cultural life with an informed and responsible attitude. Chapter IV, dedicated to the cooperation between education authorities, contains the basic elements that govern the coordination between the various agencies. Thus, these may agree upon the establishment of common objectives and criteria for improving the quality of the education system and guarantee equity. It is specified that the education
authorities and local corporations are to coordinate their actions, each one within the sphere of its powers, in pursuit of the greater effectiveness of the resources earmarked for education and contribute to the aims laid down in this Law. Title I of the LOE establishes the organisation of the teaching system, its stages and the objectives pursued for each one of them. Nevertheless, the section dedicated to Structures and inclusive functions analyses the organisation of the education system in greater detail. With a view to guaranteeing equity, Title II addresses the suitable response education should provide for all pupils based on the principle of inclusion, on the understanding that only in this way is development ensured for everyone, favouring equality and contributing to greater social cohesion. Respect for diversity is understood to be a need that encompasses all stages of schooling and each and every pupil. In other words, it considers the diversity of pupils as a principle and not as a measure that corresponds to the needs of just a few. The work to be performed by teaching staff in pursuit of quality education is developed in Title III of the Law. It pays priority attention to their initial and lifelong training. Accordingly, one of the duties befalling teachers involves their contribution to ensure that activities at school are undertaken in a climate of respect, tolerance, participation and freedom in order to instil in the pupils the values of democratic citizenship. Title IV governs the basic principles that inform the legal status, ownership, curricula and accessibility of each school. Especially, as regards the curricula of the school network, a highlight is the general principle that stipulates that the education authorities are to programme the courses that are specified as free of charge by the LOE taking into account the existing offer of schools and, as a guarantee of the quality of education, a suitable and balanced schooling of children with a special need for teaching support. Furthermore, note is made of the need to ensure suitable accessibility to schools as a basic guarantee of equal treatment for all pupils. The LOE understands participation to be a key value for forming citizens who are independent, free, responsible and engaged, and therefore urges the authorities to guarantee the involvement of the education community in the organisation, governance, operation and assessment of schools, as laid down in Title V.
Title VI, dedicated to the assessment of the education system, considers this to be a key factor for improving the quality and equity of education and for increasing the transparency of the education system. The importance given to assessment is stressed in the treatment of the different spheres in which it is to be applied, which encompass the pupils’ learning processes, the work of teaching staff, education processes, the management role, the operation of schools, inspection and the education authorities themselves. c) The Framework of the Autonomous Communities Due to the peculiarity of Spain's education system, in which powers are shared out amongst the various authorities (state, regional and local), there is a need to distinguish between who is involved, and how, in the drafting and development of education policies and, in this case, those designed to uphold equality within schools. Education is not the exclusive domain of any one authority, but rather this responsibility is shared, with each one being vested with certain specific powers according to the criteria laid down by law. Regarding the body of powers in education set out in the Spanish Constitution, some are exclusive to each authority, whilst others are shared. For example, the Ministry of Education is solely responsible for regulating the basic conditions that guarantee the equality of all Spanish citizens in exercising the right to education1, whereas the Autonomous Communities have sole control over the management of grants and study aid. In the specific case of fostering equality, the Autonomous Communities do not have the powers to amend the general rule developed by the State on this matter. This circumstance means that the scenario of education policies developed by the Autonomous Communities provides an array of actions with uniform profiles (CIDE 2008, Bonal 2005), and that the Ministry of Education is one of the necessary referents for understanding how inequality is being combated through Spanish schools. Nonetheless, and bearing in mind this conditioning factor, the education authorities within the sphere of the Autonomous Communities, each one within its own jurisdiction, have drawn up a series of actions, some in cooperation with the ministry and others on an individual basis, which feature the main measures adopted for fostering inclusion in education. In short, the authorities have created a general education framework that is committed to flexibility as a quality that ensures pupils overall are provided with better options in
Article 149.1.1 Spanish Constitution, 1978.
schooling and pursuing their school lives, as well as empowering teaching staff to act to address the challenges posed by today’s education scenario.
Schooling in the Spanish education system is governed by the principles of normalisation and inclusion. The aim of both criteria is to guarantee non-discrimination and the effective equality of access to and permanence in schools of those children with special education needs, those who belong to ethnic minorities or whose personal circumstances place them in those groups of pupils who require greater attention. The general objectives set out for the collective of pupils who need to receive special support at school are those laid down in the LOE on a general basis for all children. However, specific lines are set out for each level and stage of schooling that are adapted to the pupils’ different age requirements, which translate into a distribution of principles focused on fostering inclusion that are suited to each level or stage. In Infant Education, teaching is based on the principle of pupil diversity. Consequently, teaching is adapted to the individual traits, needs, interests and cognitive style of the children, given the importance at these ages of the pace and process of personal development. The emphasis in Primary Education is on addressing pupil diversity and preventing learning difficulties, acting as soon as these are detected. Teaching at this level should be based on the principle of pupil diversity, understanding that this is the way to guarantee development across the board at the same time as providing individual attention according to each one’s needs. Compulsory Secondary Education combines the principle of a standard education with respect for pupil diversity, thereby enabling schools to adopt the organisational and curricular measures that are more in tune with the children’s characteristics, in a flexible manner and using their teaching independence. This stage considers, amongst other things, the following goals: exercising tolerance, cooperation and solidarity between people and groups; preparing to become a respectful citizen; appreciating and respecting the differences between sexes, and equal rights and opportunities; rejecting stereotypes that lead to discrimination between men and women, violence, prejudices of all kinds and resolving conflicts peacefully.
The purpose of the latter stages of Secondary Education is to help pupils develop the skills that will enable them to become respectful citizens, from a global perspective, and acquire a responsible civic awareness, inspired by the precepts of the Spanish Constitution and human rights. The aim pursued at this level is to foster shared responsibility in the building of a fair and equitable society, at the same time as each individual's maturity is consolidated on a personal and social basis. It is understood that the combination and consolidation of these values in individuals should allow them to act in a responsible and self-reliant manner, develop a questioning mind, pre-empt and peacefully resolve personal, family and social conflicts, as well as analyse and critically assess existing inequalities and seek true equality and the non-discrimination of disabled people. Concerning Occupational Training, in order to successfully achieve its goal of “preparing students for the qualified undertaking of the various professions, access to employment and active involvement in social, cultural and economic life”, the target pursued is “to instruct in the prevention of conflicts and in the peaceful resolution of the same in order to gain access to training that will lead to all nature of professional options and the exercise of the same”. In short, it is clear that each stage is informed by the principles and general objectives that are understood to lie at the heart of an inclusive education system. Their obvious expression is the establishment of common goals by levels and stages for all kinds of pupils. Nevertheless, this generalisation does mean that certain collectives may require specific measures for guaranteeing them the highest possible levels of equality.
One of the issues that most urgently need to be remedied in Spain is the number of early school leavers and truancy. This country currently has one of the highest rates of school dropouts in Europe. For example, 31% of young people finish their compulsory education without the most elementary qualification of Educación Secundaria Obligatoria2. In view of the seriousness of the matter, there is a series of education policies aimed at resolving this shortcoming.
Aunión, J, (2008), “Educación multiplica las vías para repescar a los jóvenes sin la ESO, El País, Madrid.
The Ministry of Education, Social Policy and Sport, in cooperation with the Autonomous Communities, has rolled out the Programa para la disminución del abandono temprano de la escolarización (2008-2009)3. This programme is designed to support those specific actions whose purpose is to reduce the impact of those factors that lead to early departure from the education system. There are others, such as the Programas de Cualificación Profesional Inicial (2008-2009)4, designed to provide students with basic level 1 training for the job market, as contained in the National Register of Qualifications (Catalogo Nacional de Cualificaciones). The central government’s expectations for the 2008-2009 academic year are that these schemes will be attended by 48,500 students. Applied exclusively within the sphere of the Autonomous Communities, an analysis is made of the Plan Integral para la Prevención, Seguimiento y Control del Absentismo Escolar (2003)5, drafted by the Department of Education of the Autonomous Community of Andalusia. The aim pursued is to eradicate all forms of absenteeism from schools. Then there is the Programa para la prevención y control del Absentismo escolar (2005-2007)6 of the Community of Castilla y León, whose purpose is to bring truant pupils back into normal schooling. 3.1. Schools and level Understanding the importance of these policies and the trends involved requires making the necessary distinction between compulsory and voluntary stages of schooling. The former caters for children aged 6 to 12, including Primary Education, Compulsory Secondary Education and the First Level of Training Cycles. Voluntary schooling applies to those aged 16 to 18, and comprises the final years of Secondary Education and the Training Cycles in Higher Secondary Education. By observing table 1 and considering the actions overall, two aspects stand out. The first and most significant is that these encompass all stages of pre-university education, from Infant Education through to Higher Secondary. The second is that the stage that focuses most of the measures is Compulsory Secondary Education.
Programme for reducing the number of early school leavers Occupational Training Starter Programmes 5 Comprehensive Plan for the Prevention, Monitoring and Control of School Truancy 6 Programme for the Prevention and Control of School Truancy
When the actions are classified according to the goal pursued, there is significant variation in the profile of the education level targeted. As is only to be expected, those policies designed to monitor schooling and class attendance are focused on Basic or Compulsory Education, which consists of Primary and Compulsory Secondary Education, as shown by the programmes in Andalusia and Castilla y León. In turn, the policies designed to eradicate early school leaving concentrate on all stages of
Secondary Education, including Compulsory and Higher Secondary.
CHARTER 2 EDUCATIVE POLICIES AGAINST ABSENTEEISM, DROP OUT FRON SCHOL, EARLY SCHOOL
LEAVINGT and EDUCATIVE LEVEL
Source: own elaboration
3.2. Special groups at risk With a view to guaranteeing equity, Title II of the LOE addresses those groups of pupils who need to receive special teaching as they have some form of specific educational requirement, and it details the resources required for undertaking this task in order to achieve their full inclusion and integration. It specifically refers to those pupils who require special support and specific attention due to their social circumstances, physical, mental or sensorial disability or who have serious behavioural disorders. Yet the reality of education indicates that alongside these there is another kind of pupil, generally from social groups in a disadvantaged socio-economic position or with specific personal and family issues, who attend school on an irregular basis, which frequently leads to situations of truancy or early departure from the education system before having acquired the necessary schooling for accessing the job market. A link has also been found between age (pre-adolescence) and the child's lack of motivation as factors to be considered when analysing this phenomenon.
Programa para la disminución del abandono temprano de la escolarización (2008-2009) – Programme for reducing early school leaving
All the factors related to truancy and are contemplated throughout the selected actions. In overall terms, two tendencies are apparent according to whether one or other objective is pursued by the action. On the one hand, when the aim is to reduce truancy, the following groups are involved: the gypsy population, as they are the largest ethnic minority in Spanish schools; the migrant population, who numbered 609,6118 in the 2006-2007 school year, and those in disadvantaged social and economic circumstances who encounter difficulties in guaranteeing their children’s schooling. On the other hand, when the established goal is to reduce early school leaving, the range of groups is greater and the measures target almost all the pupils. By focusing on strictly educational criteria, these specific actions extend the target population to almost any pupil with educational disadvantages regarding learning difficulties in basic instrumental areas, lack of study habits, etc. independently of their sociological profile.
CHARTER 3 EDUCATIVE POLICIES AGAINST ABSENTEEISM, DROP OUT FRON SCHOL, EARLY SCHOOL LEAVING
and GROUPS AT RISK
POLÍTICAS Program for reducing early school leaving. Program for the prevention, follow up and Control of School Absenteeism. Program for the prevention and Control of School Absenteeism. Programs of Initial Professional Qualification. Source: own elaboration
X X X
Absenteeism Early School leaving
3.3. Measures The measures contained in the actions are grouped into four areas: school, home, job market and coordination. Obviously, different measures are specified for each area depending upon the particular sphere to which they are being applied. There follows an overall analysis of those selected, thereby providing a global view of the tools designed with a greater level of detail for eradicating these problems from the education system.
Estadísticas de la Educación en España (Statistics on Education in Spain). 2006-2007. Advance data, MEPSYD (Ministry of Education).
3.3.1. Measures at school
Schools articulate their sphere of action by adapting the teaching process to the needs and interests of those children who are at risk of, or already involved in, truancy. To do so, they introduce specific measures such as the preparation or adaptation of curricular materials, software applications, books or teaching resources that involve the pupils in the education process or improve the system for controlling class attendance. A highlight amongst all these measures, given its innovative nature, is the opening up of the system to those students aged between 16 and 24 who have not successfully completed Compulsory Education and who wish to return to their studies.
3.3.2. Measures targeting the home
These measures have the same common denominator, which involves convincing those families whose living conditions, lifestyles and culture are the cause of the children's truancy to become involved and agree to ensure that their children attend their necessary schooling on a regular basis. An important aspect along these lines is that household benefits are not limited to schooling, as welfare instruments are also introduced in cooperation with child welfare authorities, the education services and even the local police whenever circumstances so require.
3.3.3. Occupational training and job seeking
The actions included in this sphere focus on preparing young people for accessing the job market. These range from training schemes tailored to suit the students’ needs and interests with a view to facilitating their integration in society and employment, such as Professional Induction Programmes, Training Workshops, Linked Work and Training Centres and Occupational Training Courses. There are even measures that provide a new learning opportunity for those who already have a job and wish to improve their training and can reconcile it with their working life.
3.3.4. Measurements for favouring coordination
These measures seek to foster the greater engagement of management teams, guidance teams and departments and the inspection service through the organisation of seminars and meetings, the drafting of provincial programmes and training courses adapted to combat truancy and early school leaving. They also seek to introduce mechanisms of institutional coordination between the different administrative levels. For example, a common measure involves the local and provincial committees that accept the
responsibility and commitment to control and prevent truancy by deploying human resources, material means and premises for ensuring the success of the measures.
CHARTER 4 EDUCATIVE POLICIES AGAINST ABSENTEEISM, DROP OUT FRON SCHOL, EARLY SCHOOL
LEAVINGT and MEASURES
Source: own elaboration
3.4. Interim conclusions, research conclusions The actions designed to correct the Spanish education system’s poor results in truancy and early school leaving focus on two aspects. On the one hand, on specific programmes for preventing the departure of those pupils at greatest risk of failure (migrants, the gypsy population or people living in especially disadvantaged areas) and on the specific training of teachers for the early diagnosis and care of individuals at risk. On the other hand, they seek to cater for those young people aged between 16 and 24 who did not successfully complete their Compulsory Education and seek another chance to obtain a professional qualification that will enable them to access more qualified employment, as well as pass Compulsory Education by studying a voluntary module. It is interesting to see how the measures are being extended to include the voluntary stages in the education system, with the clear intention of keeping pupils at school, prolonging their schooling in response to the new criteria defining successful schooling in EU countries.
The LOE states that it is the responsibility of the public authorities to pave the way for the incorporation within the education system of pupils from other countries, pupils who belong to ethnic or cultural minorities, or those who for whatever reason join the Spanish education system at a later stage. This incorporation is to be guaranteed, nonetheless, for those of school age. In the case of those pupils who are late joining the education system, they are to be ensured of proper schooling according to each one’s personal circumstances. Specifically, the authorities are to introduce the appropriate channels so that these collectives can enter the school year best suited to their circumstances and prior knowledge, providing the necessary support and so ensuring they continue to make the most of their education. An overview is now presented of the measures established and developed for attending to the educational needs of those pupils with some form of disadvantage. 4.1. Types of disadvantaged pupils Title II of the LOE, dedicated to compensating for inequalities in education, in its Article 80, Section 1 and 2, states that those pupils in situations of disadvantage are those in the following circumstances: “inequalities forthcoming from social, economic, cultural, geographic or ethnic factors or of any other kind.” Such is the manner in which it is embodied in the education policies analysed. Nevertheless, it can be seen how a new group of disadvantaged pupils is emerging. It does not correspond to classical risk groups, but rather applies to those children with a deficient academic performance. This new profile, not considered by the LOE, can be added to the list of risk groups. Testifying to this tendency are the education policies whose aim is to favour academic success, especially the PROA9 Plan, which seeks to improve the performance not just of specific groups but of the overall population as well. 4.2. The aims of priority education: success, segregation and discrimination In view of the actions undertaken, some at the initiative of the Ministry of Education, Social Policy and Sport in cooperation with the Autonomous Communities and others at the decision of each regional authority within its territorial scope, two major lines of priority work can be singled out that underpin education policy in this decade: academic success and the fight against discrimination.
Programas de Refuerzo, Orientación y Apoyo – Programmes for Reinforcement, Guidance and Support
There is no doubt that one of the best indicators of the healthy state of an education system is the success attained by its pupils. Not only is this because it fulfils one of its core mandates, namely, to have conveyed knowledge in a suitable manner and thereby provide greater guarantees of achieving a more prosperous future both individually and collectively, but also because the children’s overall success helps to reduce social inequalities. However, it is true that not all the measures share the same criterion of academic success, which depends on the target collective. In certain cases, success means schooling groups with backgrounds that bar their normal access to education; in others, it is achieving a minimum qualification, which the European Commission now defines as successfully completing Higher Secondary Education, as the necessary gateway to social inclusion10. Another priority line in education involves fighting against the discrimination and segregation of pupils in the education system. Within this sphere, policies transcend the search for equal opportunities in education to foster the sense of individual or personal equality, that is, the respect between students regardless of their cultural background, etc. This line of work has become increasingly important in recent years due to the increase in the migrant population enrolled in schools and, therefore, the melting-pot of cultures in classrooms. Consequently, the policies articulated under this objective seek to favour equal treatment amongst pupils and a mutual awareness based on respect for all those cultural or personal idiosyncrasies present in Spanish schools.
Bonal, X, et. Al (2005), La descentralización educativa en España, Ed. D´esrudis autonomics i locals, Barcelona, page 19.
CHARTER 5 OBJETIVES AND MEASURES IN PRIORITY EDUCATION
Source: own elaboration
4.3. Priority measures for better individual achievement The measures adopted for achieving academic success combine aspects that are basically of an educational nature with others of a political or social bias. The measures adopted of an educational nature combine teaching aspects with others of an organisational nature. For example, those related to the curriculum resort to the use of rewards together with modifications in content to help students learn. Especially, changes are made in instrumental subjects that help to improve the basic skills of those with some difficulty or who are lagging behind, or simply to achieve a suitable level in them. In the case of those pupils whose language is not the one used for teaching, other measures are provided to enable them to make swift progress in learning the language and thereby ensure the basic qualities for successfully addressing their schooling. Although these measures are based on the notion of fostering equal opportunities as a necessary condition, they do not forget to encourage measures that in turn recognise interculturality and respect for diversity in the classroom. A further aspect of interest is the boost given in Secondary Education to training focused on the job market through the setting up of Occupational Courses, Training Workshops and specific workshops, as provided for in the Programas de Cualificación Profesional Inicial11. In turn, on a social and political level there are two specific measures, namely,
Occupational Induction Training Programmes
coordination and cooperation with outside services. One issue that is being particularly stressed is the achievement of effective coordination between the different institutions. This involves applying innovative schemes, which tend to include institutional mechanisms for stimulating involvement or else those between the authorities at different state and regional levels.
CHARTER 6 MEASURES FOR SCHOOL SUCCESS
Source: own elaboration
4.4. Priority measures for less segregation, discrimination The measures taken by the education authorities to reduce segregation and discrimination at school should be understood from the perspective of integrating all the parts within the same whole. Firstly, there are such highlights as those that seek the recognition, through respect, of all existing cultures and the introduction of channels that favour the learning of the language used in the education system as a basic tool for enabling pupils to communicate on the same level. In this holistic approach, families are the main focus of the measures, with their involvement in the education process being encouraged as a crucial way of ensuring their children receive proper schooling and of achieving the full integration of these groups within the school community. Elsewhere, one of the focal points attracting the greatest number of measures is the establishment of support channels between experts and services from outside the schools and the schools themselves whereby they can jointly address this challenge on
a collective basis. The creation of new models of mediation, classroom monitoring and support with the backing of social services, or the creation of socio-educational areas outside the school is just some of the measures proposed accordingly. Institutional cooperation is also sought as a key element in the fight against discrimination. It is required at all administrative levels – state, regional and local — and between both education authorities and those of another nature, basically those related to social matters and employment. The aim is to join forces and achieve the full cooperation of the institutions within a school’s immediate environment. Finally, in addition to this block of measures, there are also a number of other schemes: adapting legislation for the schooling of ethnic and cultural minorities and those at socio-educational disadvantage, the preparation and diffusion of teaching materials and support for teacher training.
CHARTER 7 MEASURES AGAINST SEGREGATION & DISCRIMINATION
Source: own elaboration
4.5. Interim conclusion, research conclusion All-in-all, the analysis of this section throws up two main ideas or changes. On the one hand, a new group of disadvantaged pupils is formed by those with an inadequate academic performance, a profile that is not provided for in the LOE, adding to the number of risk groups. Proof of this are the education policies whose purpose is to encourage academic success, which focus on improving the performance of children across the board.
On the other hand, in terms of reducing discrimination and segregation, one of the characteristics is intensifying the coordination and cooperation between all the education authorities and social services. It is understood as being a priority objective not only for education, but also for society as a whole. Furthermore, the engagement of parents and mutual cultural respect are consolidated as priority measures.
5.1. The policy objective: Keeping challenging pupils on board The LOE stipulates that pupils with specific needs in schooling are those children who need to be taught in a different way to the main body, as they have special learning difficulties, either because they are gifted or because they have been late joining the education system. The goals for these collectives are the same as those set out on a general basis for all the other pupils. Consequently, the purposes of the different stages in education are the benchmark for individual syllabuses or the curricular adaptations for such collectives. Nonetheless, this does not stop the education authorities from also developing specific programmes during the schooling of children and within mainstream groups, in accordance with the level and evolution of their learning process. Their aim is to tailor the education process to the personal circumstances of these children and insofar as possible provide them with a normal school experience. 5.2. Inclusive measures The decision to take some form of action regarding children with special needs is reached on the basis of a prior diagnosis and is the responsibility of the services deployed by each Autonomous Community. This means that the measures designed to foster inclusion at school vary from one region to another. Firstly, they include curricular adaptations or modifications. There are two types of adaptations. On the hand, for accessing the curriculum through the creation and edition of contextualised teaching materials suited to the reality of these disadvantaged groups. On the other, curricular adaptations that seek to adjust the knowledge content in the curriculum to the needs of each collective. Secondly, a highlight for gifted children is the possibility of adjusting the levels and stages in the education system, although it should be noted that such a measure has to be
authorised by the school inspectors in each Autonomous Community, following the procedure that each one has laid down and in all cases after the corresponding psychological assessment of the child. Thirdly, a large number of Autonomous Communities provide help services through interdisciplinary teams in Educational and Psychopedagogical Guidance and from Guidance Departments12, to facilitate the diagnosis of special needs children. As supplementary measures, the education authorities provide schools with specialist staff (teachers skilled in Therapeutic Pedagogy and in other necessary fields in accordance with each school’s requirements), so that they can join the teams responsible for diagnosing those pupils that so require. They also provide the necessary resources (materials and adapted furniture and fittings, etc.) so as to guarantee the schooling of these same pupils. Fourthly, when pupils have serious disorders in different areas of development or family circumstances impede them from attending school on a regular basis, or when they are in hospital or for medical reasons have to miss school for long periods of time. The authorities have introduced a range of measures amongst which special mention should be made of the creation of travelling school support units and school units for providing support in hospitals. Fifthly, coordinating all administrative and institutional spheres is once again a measure that is widely used. For example, the Education Committee of the Programa de Desarrollo del Pueblo Gitano13 provides coordination for the Ministry of Education (MEPSYD) and the Autonomous Communities of Aragon, Asturias, the Canary Islands, Cantabria, Castilla-La Mancha, Castilla y León, Extremadura, Galicia, Madrid, Murcia, Navarre, the Basque Country and La Rioja, as well as other authorities and experts. Likewise, the Programa Teleeducación, developed by the CNICE14, involves a good many Autonomous Communities: Aragon, Asturias, Cantabria, Castilla y León, Castilla la Mancha, Extremadura, Balearic Isles, La Rioja, Madrid and Murcia.
CHARTER 8 INCLUSIVE MEASURES
Eurybase-España (2007-08), page 281. Development Programme for the Gipsy Community 14 Centro Nacional de Información y Comunicación Educativa – National Centre for Education Information and Communication.
Source: own elaboration
5.3. Interim conclusion: research conclusions To conclude, the education authorities are designing actions that guarantee the appropriate care for children with special education needs, gifted pupils or those late joining the system. Together with traditional measures for school inclusion, such as grants and curricular adaptations, there is also the use of new technologies, teacher training and institutional cooperation as significant factors when effectively providing all the pupils with equal opportunities.
This section analyses the more pertinent actions related to protection, bullying and coexistence at school. The aim here is none other than to shed light on the responses made to provide a suitable context for learning and integration in schools. 6.1. The first ideal: the school as a safe haven Mindful of the relationship between the education children receive and their future conduct as adult citizens, school and family are understood to be the basic framework for social integration, the acquisition of social values and skills, as well as for embracing non-violent behaviour. For these reasons, the public authorities understand that schools should be places for learning how to coexist and examples of the civic values and of the protection they seek to inculcate, and hence the reason they share the aim of creating schools that provide an atmosphere of peace and security. 6.2. The second ideal: schools without bullied and harassed pupils
A distinction has to be made at this point between the concepts of bullying and coexistence within a school context in order to better understand the evolution of the education policies of the Autonomous Communities. a) On the one hand, the term bullying is the best known and most widely used in Europe. The standard definition of this concept was made in 1993 by Dan Olweus, professor and researcher at the University of Bergen (Norway), who referred to bullying as those violent and aggressive acts that occur at school. b) Coexistence or improving the school climate: the climate is based on the collective perception of the interpersonal relations that take place at school and is a factor that has a bearing on the behaviour of all those attending. It is specifically defined as the overall atmosphere of a school determined by all those physical factors, structural, personal, functional and cultural aspects of the school that imbue it with its own particular nature, which in turn conditions the various education processes. 6.3. Safety measures Consistent with the need to ensure schools are safe havens for pupils, in 2006 the Consejo Nacional de Seguridad Ciudadana15 agreed to set up a working party on “Youth and Safety”, for the purpose of proposing measures, in the realm of police cooperation with the education authorities and social services, to address those issues of public safety involving young people. One of the conclusions reached by this working party led to the drafting and subsequent approval of the Acuerdo Marco entre el Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia y el Ministerio del Interior (2006)16 on coexistence and improving school protection. With a view to implementing this Agreement, the Secretary of State for Security approved Instruction 3/2007, which contains the lines of action to be pursued in this matter and the cooperation to be provided by other institutions, such as the central government’s regional delegations and sub-delegations. In compliance with the provisions of this Instruction, the police authorities, the Dirección General de la Policía y la Guardia Civil drafted the Plan Director para la convivencia y mejora de la seguridad escolar (2007)17, which covers the principal measures rolled out for
National Council for Public Safety Framework Agreement between the Ministry of Education and Science and the Interior Ministry 17 Master Plan for coexistence and improving protection in schools
upholding safety in school. This plan lays out a broad array of measures, which are as follows:
• To help ensure that the curricular content in the various stages of education includes topics on teaching personal and public safety. • • To dedicate special attention to instruction on improving safety targeting management and teachers, given their important role as energisers and promoters of initiatives in schools. To encourage channels of information and participation to help families contribute to fostering responsible attitudes and habits and respect for the rules. • To provide information and supplementary actions that will teach the pupils skills, attitudes, habits and values for prevention, detection and swift action when faced with circumstances that cause insecurity. • To compile, analyse and draw up representative nationwide studies, with a prior diagnosis of the problems of safety and security in families, schools and leisure areas with a bearing on childhood and youth: bullying, violent youth gangs, exposure to drugs and alcohol, xenophobia and racism and the link existing between academic failure, social exclusion and youth violence. • To support and disseminate best practices for improving coexistence and safety by the most suitable means: inclusion in the section on best practices on the coexistence portal of the Ministry of Education and Science; talks in schools by the people or agents responsible for them.
As involved parties, the authorities in the Autonomous Communities also adopt organisational measures that guarantee protection in schools. In Andalusia, schools have the powers to set up Aulas de convivencia, or coexistence classrooms, which are attended by those pupils who have been denied the right to take part in normal classes following the imposition of a corrective or disciplinary measure. La Rioja organises Programas de adaptación curricular en grupo - Group curricular adaptation programmes – designed for those children with serious learning difficulties and with behavioural disorders that disrupt the normal teaching process in schools.
CHARTER 9 SECURITY AT SCHOOLS MEASURES
Source: own elaboration
6.4. Measures to protect pupils at risk from bullying and harassment Table 10 presents a comprehensive look at the measures established for eradicating bullying and harassment in schools. By grouping these measures according to three criteria - teachers, outside services and schools - the following information is forthcoming:
The most widespread actions involving teachers share two common aspects: the inclusion of bullying and coexistence in Lifelong Teacher Training as a specific line or through the modes of ordinary training and the fostering of regular and dynamic teachers’ meetings - Juntas de Profesorado.
Amongst those measures grouped together under the heading of outside support and cooperation, there are the following highlights: the creation of websites or the posting of content on teaching portals; the setting up of a monitoring centre for coexistence at school; the arrangement of publicity and awareness campaigns; the involvement of school inspectors in monitoring coexistence in schools; the reporting and electronic processing of information related to coexistence in schools, and finally, the fostering of the engagement of families. Within this group of measures, it should also be noted that there are other types
of actions that consist of prizes, financial aid, projects or grants for the development of different schemes designed to improve coexistence or prevent violence in schools; support for initiatives and best practices in schools or the formation of autonomous school networks that pursue projects involving a culture of peace or the improvement of coexistence.
The measures designed and contemplated for application in schools also encompass a wide range of factors, namely, the drawing up of a coexistence plan for the school; the instruction of all members of the school community; the incorporation of content and programmes for the improvement of coexistence and the prevention of violence in educational guidance and tutorial sessions. Measures are also designed to improve the perception pupils have of their school and of the teaching it provides; the preparation, collection and dissemination of materials and/or guides in different media, and extracurricular and extramural activities linked to improving coexistence.
CHARTER 10 MEASURES AGAINST BULLYING
Source: own elaboration
6.5. Interim conclusion, research conclusions The authorities have pledged to ensure schools are free from any violent behaviour, especially peer violence, harassment and bullying. Although this task is being
undertaken mainly within schools by boosting the mechanism of tutoring and mediation, ways of coordination are also being sought between the school community and police experts to facilitate knowledge sharing and address the solution of those cases of greatest concern. Accordingly, pupils are taught about the various roles of the police forces to enable them to learn about the implications of associated values in safety and security, public cooperation and the development of pro-active conduct in the rejection and reporting of those violent acts they witness or suffer from. Regarding bullying and harassment at school, highlights amongst the main actions rolled out are the regional plans and monitoring centres for preventing violence. Such measures suggest that the education authorities share the notion that a suitable school environment is essential if schools are to perform well, and so they prefer to take measures focusing on the school population as a whole rather than dealing solely with problematic individuals.
7.1. The ideal: being a good teacher for children at risk The LOE specifies that the lifelong training of teachers is essential for cementing the principles of fairness and quality that should prevail in Spanish schools. The education authorities are therefore called upon to arrange specific training programmes, through a varied programme of instruction that develops the individual's professional competencies whereby they can suitably respond to the fresh challenges posed by the Spanish education system. Consequently, and in order to deal with these challenges, the initial training of teachers has been reformed to take into account the requirements of the European Higher Education Area. Nevertheless, the authorities are not the only institutions concerned with fostering integration in schools. There are relevant teacher support projects that should be mentioned in this section, namely: Comunidades de Aprendizaje18 and AtlántidaEscuelas Democráticas19. 7.2. Teacher support measures In the drafting of training measures by the authorities, a series of priority lines are defined that inform the programme of schemes designed for teachers. These measures
Learning Communities Atlantis – Democratic Schools
are grouped into four general areas: cooperation, training, new resources and organisation. • The area of cooperation involves: courses, seminars, symposia, working parties, etc. • The following are organised in training: foreign language learning for specialist and non-specialist teachers; training of guidance teams and of teaching staff linked to caring for diversity and to special education needs, the promotion of training in schools and innovation by schools, or providing the necessary assistance for the development of the different programmes of Apoyo a la Acción Educativa20, amongst others. • Concerning the use of new resources: backing is given for new innovation projects; the use of Information and Communications Technologies and their classroom integration, etc. • From the perspective of organisation: support is given to the autonomy of schools and the application of quality and efficiency models in their management and organisation. Focusing on the initiatives highlighted earlier: within the Comunidades de Aprendizaje project for example, supportive relations are sought between teachers, families and the pupils themselves, regardless of the internal social make-up in the classes in which all the groups of children, whether at risk or not, co-exist side by side. In turn, the Atlántida project also promotes the building of networks that allow for the sharing of original experiences and cooperation between teachers. Nonetheless, these are not the only aspects common to both projects that ensure these schemes are very well received by teachers, schools and local institutions, constituting the basis of their success. These are measures that in certain circumstances should be seen as more than just tangible instruments, as may be increasing the number of computers or the hours dedicated to a subject, referring to an approach to the learning process, specifically to: a) A positive attitude towards the teaching of abilities by schools and the pupils’ ability to learn.
Support for the Teaching Process
b) The introduction of horizontal cooperation networks between teachers and schools, between teachers and pupils, between teachers and/or schools and families, between schools and their surrounding communities. c) The fostering of channels of communication between schools and the education authorities in order to establish efficient sources of funding. d) The promotion of professional development and for upholding the daily practice of recapitulation and support for self-esteem.
CHARTER 11 SUPPORT TEACHER MEASURES
Source: own elaboration
7.3. Cross-referenced measures It has been evident throughout this report that training is a mainstream measure that is present in all the actions related to the priority lines of work undertaken by the
authorities, to inclusive education and to safety and security in schools. For example, one of the main policies adopted to drive academic success, the PROA plan, includes a specific measure for adapting teacher training to today's reality in education. Concerning education and safety, the Director Plan for coexistence and improving school protection seeks to analyse the training needs of teachers in this field and take part in a scheme that caters for such needs. This approach stresses the importance given to teachers as a key factor for achieving inclusive schooling and a quality system that ensures all children are treated as equals.
CHARTER 12 SUPPORT TEACHER MEASURES AND CROSS REFERENCED FRAMES
Teacher support Cross referenced measures. Yes No
From early school leaving From Inclusive education Priority Education From safe education Source: own elaboration
X X X X
7.4. Interim conclusion, research conclusion The main ideas to be highlighted in this section deal with the flexibility of training schemes as a way of responding to a complex situation with a raft of challenges to be faced. Teacher training is normally undertaken through regional plans of a general nature. Such plans set out a series of objectives, lines of work and measures of a varying nature with specific mention made of those related directly to the issues covered by this report, namely, respect for diversity, coexistence, etc. Furthermore, training schemes adopt a flexible programming approach, which is developed annually through priority training lines and short-term objectives, whereby new proposals can be made each year to cater for the needs of either the teachers themselves or of the actual education system.