ATOMIC STRUCTURE

Describe a model of the atom that features a small nucleus surrounded by electrons. Rutherford Model: the atom consists of a small dense positive nucleus, surrounded by electrons that orbit the nucleus as result of electrostatic attraction between the electrons and the nucleus. Outline the evidence that supports a nuclear model of the atom. In the Geiger and Marsden experiment, alpha particles were bombarded at a sheet of gold foil. Most passed through, meaning that atoms mostly consist of empty space. Some particles, though, that were deflected bounced straight back from the foil²the huge deflection of the alpha particles must have been caused by electrostatic repulsions between the positive alpha particles and a dense, positive nucleus. Outline one limitation of the simple model of the nuclear atom. y Why do the electrons orbit the nucleus and not attract to it? y Why are not the positive particles in the nucleus repulsing each other? Outline evidence for the existence of atomic energy levels. The evidence for the existence of atomic energy levels is found through emission and absorption spectra. Each element emits a different amount of energy through pulses of photons. These photons, depending on what the substance is, affect the visible light spectrum for different frequencies of light. In emissions spectra, a hot gas will emit photons with the certain wavelengths corresponding to the transitions between energy levels of certain atoms or molecules in a gas. These properties are shown with bright lines that are removed from the spectrum to stand alone. In absorption spectra, a hot gas will follow the same tendencies as in the emissions spectra; however, in absorption spectra these properties are shown with lines of color that are removed from the spectrum to leave black lines for corresponding wavelengths of a substance.

NUCLEAR STRUCTURE
Explain the terms nuclide, isotope and nucleon. y Nuclide: A nucleus that has a specific number of protons and neutrons. y Isotope: A particular type of atom having the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons. y Nucleon: A proton or a neutron Define nucleon number A, proton number Z and neutron number N. y The nucleon number A is the atomic mass number. y The proton number Z is the number of protons y The neutron number N is the number of neutrons. Describe the interactions in a nucleus. y Gravitational forces are proportional to the mass of the objects and inversely proportional to the distance between them; thus they are negligible within the nucleus. y Repulsive electromagnetic forces between the protons would cause the nucleus to disintegrate if it were the only force.

Describe alpha. In the same way that a rock at a top of hill is not stable and has ³too much´ potential energy and ³wants´ to get rid of it by rolling down the hill. The neutron is made of three quarks. radioactive decay is a completely random process that is governed by the weak nuclear force. positive and negative. Gamma Decay ± Is the process by which an excited nucleus decays to a lower energy level. thus a gamma ray. When a nucleus is unstable it gets more stable or loses energy in many different ways. one up quark and two down quarks. 2 protons and 2 neutrons Beta Decay ± There are two types of beta decay. but neutrons themselves are not stable. If there are too many protons (more than 83) then the atom is not stable no matter how many neutrons are added (there is some thought that huge stable atoms may be able to be created. Neutrons hold the protons together.y The strong nuclear force is an attractive force. Negative beta decay is the process by which a proton decays into a neutron and a positron and emits a electron neutrino. This can be due to the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. Describe the ionizing properties of radiation and its use in the detection of radiation . an isolated neutron will decay in a short period of time. RADIOACTIVE DECAY Describe the phenomenon of natural radioactive decay. beta and gamma radiation and their properties Alpha Decay ± is the process in which the nucleus ejects an alpha particle which is a helium nucleus. the binding energy is lower in the original nucleus. that is it borrows energy to ³jump´ outside the nucleus then returns the energy and travels away from the nucleus with its initial energy. The mass of the neutron is greater than the mass of the proton. which exists between all nucleons to hold them together. If there are not enough neutrons then the protons will repel each other and result in an unstable nucleus. The electron does not have enough energy to escape the pull of the positively charged nucleus (protons). One of the down quarks is converted to an up quark by the emission of a W boson« thus the quark changes flavor. much in the same way that electrons can be excited and decay to lower orbitals and thus releasing energy in the form of light. The nucleus can also be excited. The emission of the electron is also accompanied by the emission of anti-electron-neutrino. One of the ways is natural radioactivity decay. Positive beta decay is the process by which a neutron decay into a proton and an electron. much in the same way that electrons in orbit around the nucleus get excited. y The weak nuclear force exists only in the nucleus and is responsible for the disintegration of a neutron into a proton and an electron in -decay. It is effective only over a very short range. but that¶s another story). so the electron must quantum mechanically tunnel out of the nucleus. Therefore negative beta decay does not happen without an input of energy. Beta decay is governed by the weak nuclear force. but in this case which large amounts of energy. if the nucleus gets large and there is a larger number of neutrons then neutrons become more and more isolated from protons and thus can decay. In the case of the nucleus decaying to a lower energy level energy is still released in the form of an electromagnetic wave. essentially this means that it has too much energy and wants to get rid of its energy. the nucleus of an atom can become unstable.

Only a qualitative understanding of the operation of the devices is required. etc«).The Geiger-Muller tube and the ionization chamber are examples of such detection devices. Explain why some nuclei are stable while others are unstable Essentially there are either not enough neutrons to ³glue´ the protons together. Inside the tube is a cathode and an anode. thus an avalanche of ions is created and a short pulse of current is generated. When the ionizing radiation enters the tube it has enough energy to strip electrons off the gas molecules (atoms) thus creating ions. a free neutron. the ions are accelerated by the electric field. There can be two many neutrons. the protons are trying to get away from each other. As the ions are accelerated they gain enough energy to create more ions by collision. .e. i. so that neutrons are effectively isolated from protons. a neutron outside of a nucleus. Neutrons are not stable by themselves. the predecessor to the Geiger Counter. thus the nucleus has an unstable balance of kinetic and potential energy. neon. A third way that a nucleus can be unstable is if it simply has too much energy. A Geiger-Muller tube. has a half life of about 15 minutes. The current is detected and counted. Is a tube filled with inert gas (helium. its like the hyperactive kid in the back of the room« State that radioactive decay is a random process and that the average rate of decay for a sample of radioactive isotope decreases exponentially with time. Radioactive decay is a random process and that the average rate of decay for a sample of radioactive isotope decreases exponentially with time. Define the term half-life The half life of a radioactive isotope is the length of time in which one-half of its unstable nuclei will decay. that create a strong electric field in the tube.

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