University of Punjab Gujranwala Campus Electronic commerce


What is Ecommerce? What is the benefit of Ecommerce?
If commerce activities are performed through websites by using the internet is known as Ecommerce. Commerce is the exchange of goods and services from point of production to point of consumption. Many business has learned that ecommerce is very important for the business because cannot increase the sale if ecommerce not use. Ecommerce introduces the paperless culture means now the goods are advertised on the website not on the papers. For the using the ecommerce we required the first website which have the functionality of ecommerce and web hosting companies which host the website so that everyone can access to the website. There are three types of Ecommerce Business to Consumer (B2C) - As the name suggests, it is the model involving businesses and consumers. This is the most common e-commerce segment. In this model, online businesses sell to individual consumers. When B2C started, it had a small share in the market but after 1995 its growth was exponential. The basic concept behind this type is that the online retailers and marketers can sell their products to the online consumer by using crystal clear data which is made available via various online marketing tools. E.g. Amazon is the best example of the B2c because it sells to the customers Business to Business (B2B) - It is the largest form of e-commerce involving business of trillions of dollars. In this form, the buyers and sellers are both business entities and do not involve an individual consumer. Usually it is known as supply chain Management. It is like the manufacturer supplying goods to the retailer or wholesaler. E.g. Dell sells computers and other related accessories online but it is does not manufacture all those products. So, in order to sell those products, it first purchases them from different businesses i.e. the manufacturers of those products. Consumer to Consumer (C2C) - It facilitates the online transaction of goods or services between two people. Though there is no visible intermediary involved but the parties cannot carry out the transactions without the platform which is provided by the online market maker such as eBay.

Benefits of using ecommerce
Being able to conduct business 24 x 7 x 365 Ecommerce systems can be operate all day. Because ecommerce systems are electronically. Every one can access the website at any time and sell or purchase by using ecommerce even the factory, shop is closed. So it helps to conduct the business 24 hours. Business can also be conducted if there is a Access the global market Internet is used in every place of the world. The sellers can access the global market by selling the products to foreign buyers by using the ecommerce website. And the same buyer can purchase the products from the other foreign markets 3rd (evening)


University of Punjab Gujranwala Campus Electronic commerce Speed


Electronic communication enables to send or receive the messages instantly and have not wait for the catalogue for some days. So buyers and sellers due to speedy communication can take quick decision whether to buy/sell or not. Cheaper products Due to ecommerce websites customer check the alternatives and prices of the commodities in the different markets. Where the cheaper products available customer will buy Reduce the cost for the sellers Ecommerce enables the sellers to cut the cost of maintaining of staff, physical store, distribute the mail order catalogue and middlemen cost. So the ecommerce enables the business to become cost effective. Time save Ecommerce convenient the customers to save the time. Because customers can buy the products just by opening the ecommerce website not physically going to market. Better utilization of resources The resources which are save can be used in other productive measures.

History of network
Network When two or more computers connect in a way that they can share the resources of each other. Mainframe era Mainframe era starts from the 1950. At that time there is an only mainframe computer which requires more energy, more space and cooling in order to work. The mainframe computers were used by only fewer companies because it is most expensive. Companies use the mainframe computers for large data processing such as census and enterprise resource planning. In the mainframe computers there is only one central point for the inputting of data. It was realized at that time that there should be more locations for the entering of the data so that every employee can record the data on the compute. So the dumb terminals were connected to the mainframe computer. These terminals are placed on the different places in the organization for the purposes of recording the data. In the mainframe frame era the concept of networking starts by connecting the dumb terminals to mainframe computer Note dumb terminals means device which consist on monitor and keyboard. In dumb terminals there is no processing but processing is done by central device. 3rd (evening)


University of Punjab Gujranwala Campus Electronic commerce Client server era


With the passage of time innovations comes in the computer. The average size reduces so that everyone can use the computer which has own processing speed. In the late 1970 and in early 1980 personal computer introduces which increase the possibilities of networking. In client server era the dumb terminals were replaced with personal computers which have their own processing capacity. Employees not only save the data on mainframe computer but also on personal computers which can be retrieved later. Due to personal computers the processing capacity shares of mainframe computer and personal computers which increase the usage of computers in the premises of the organization. Client The computer which request for the resource sharing in network is called client Server A computer which fulfills the request of the client is known as the server Internet era Till the 1990 the use of the network remains in the premises of the organization. In the 1990 due to advancement of the technology has enabled the different computers at different places to connect which each other. There are number of protocols make in the internet era so that not only the organizations but also people can use the internet/share the resources.

History of World Wide Web
World Wide Web Is the most popular service of the internet through which websites can be published and can access the already published websites. Static website A website which does not change its contents or deliver new information is known as static website. Static website show the same information for all the users in every time. Dynamic website A website which changes its contents and provide the new information and can be updated is known as dynamic website Interactive website A website which changes it colours and provides more interaction and make the work in the client machine without going to servers. Such as when we are writing the details in the form for making email address when we write the different password in the password column or write the future date in the 3rd (evening)


So it create the employment 3rd (evening) 4 . So it reduces the cost of education because cost of getting online education is less rather than to get in the relevant institution because institution has not to arrange the building and extra staff.University of Punjab Gujranwala Campus Electronic commerce By:ShahzadCh. With the it new information can be obtained instantly because all works are computerized. Its role is divided into four types Benefits for individuals Get online education Information technology has increased the opportunities of getting the education online from everywhere without going to the physical place. Time saving Information technology enables to save time. Moreover customers are also make direct purchases with seller which helps to get cheaper products because middlemen cost has eliminate. Without going to the market we can purchase the products and submit the utility bills by just connecting to the website. Cheaper products Information technology has enabled to buy the cheaper products. Due to it business processes are controlled and mostly manual work has been placed into computerized work where the one click is required to complete the task. Business opportunities Information technology creates the opportunities for the individuals to start their online business. In the transactional websites we can buy/sell the products. M. Role of Information technology in business Information technology refers to the management and use of information using the computer based tools. They can start the import and export business by just making the website. It plays very much important role in the development of the business.MC09129 date column the interactive website will indicate that date or password is wrong without going to servers Transactional website Website which has the ability to perform transaction. Customers can find the number of producers by using internet and buy where the cheaper products are available.

It not save the time of single person but save the time of every person which means the saving of society time. Saving of resources In society there are number of people. Every one purchasing and selling the products by using Information technology and submitting the bills. Utilization of resources The resources which are saved can be used in the other productive ways or can be used in the welfare of the society. M. But due to advancement of information technology all diseases are diagnosed and better treated than past. Achieve the objective Information technology helps the government t to achieve the ultimate objective of welfare of people by providing more speedy works process so that people can save their time and utilize in other productive 3rd (evening) 5 . Without it the person has to physical go to place to know how to use it which is time consuming and costly imagine if you bought it from foreign country than it will more costly to know how to use the product. For instance tax sheets were manually prepared which takes to much time but now a days tax sheets are prepared on the computer by just entering the data computer will make calculations itself. But now a days it has enabled us to communicate with the people of far flung areas and know about their cultures so that communication increased and cultural differences reduced.MC09129 Information technology only enables the customers to get the information about how to use the product if he lost the manual just by connecting to the relevant website. So it welfares the society. Health problems resolved In the past it is very difficult to diagnose the diseases because there is no technology which take the tests from the body. Benefits for the society Removing the cultural differences In the past it is very difficult to communicate with the people of far flung areas and know about their cultures. Benefits for the government Quick processes Information technology increase the speed of processes of government by removing the manual system to computerized system.University of Punjab Gujranwala Campus Electronic commerce Get the information how to use the product By:ShahzadCh.

MC09129 Information technology has reduced the cost for the government. Because in online process no person has chance to commit fraud because each and every thing is recorded.University of Punjab Gujranwala Campus Electronic commerce Reduce the cost 3rd (evening) 6 . More time to operate Information technology has enable the business to operate their businesses 24 hours every day even the factory has been closed. Benefits for the business Access the global market Information technology enables the business to make entry in global market by just making the ecommerce website. So business can sell the more products in the global market Cost effective Information technology enables the business to become cost effective. Because manual work has been placed with computerized and there is less staff required to operate the computer. It means that business can sell the products by using ecommerce website because ecommerce website hosted 24 hours each day and customers can purchase the product every time More time for innovation Information technology enables the business to sell the products in every where without going to the market. Online business can also be started in a small office. M. Better controlling measures Information technology enables the government to adopt the better controlling measure by recording the data of online processes and can also receive the complaint directly from the people by using internet. Because business processes are now computerized which requires less staff to run the business and also reduce the middlemen cost because business now directly trading with the customers by website. So people has more time to thing about the innovations Lower capital requirement Due to information technology mostly businesses are now selling and purchasing online so they less capital requirements means no huge building and more employees required but he just need a computer to trade the business. When the person give the order for the purchase by using ecommerce website it will automatically record on the sellers computer this save the time of seller because he has not to wait when the customers come in their shop.

The client can only send the request for serving the website if he has web browser. What is the working of internet? Internet Is a flood of information which is world wide of network all machines which are permanently connected on the internet are servers and all the servers on the internet have unique address by which they can be identified on the internet this unique address is called their Ip address and www is one of the major services of the internet Country server A Data Client Request Send To Local server D D E B c Domain name server Suppose that above diagram is internet where the all circles are servers. trial balance and financial statement. Than Server d sends the address to his country Server which is server e which first look the correspondent ip address in his list if not have he send it to the server c which is the domain name server of the country in which the domain name and ip address are automatically updated whenever new website launched.University of Punjab Gujranwala Campus Electronic commerce Computerized Accounting By:ShahzadCh. When the client makes the request to the server d he request it in the domain name and server d does not know the ip address of such 3rd (evening) 7 . In the computerized Accounting businessman has only to record the data it will make automatically ledgers. When the server c founds the ip address he request to the appropriate server on which it is published which is server A.MC09129 The most important benefit which is given by information technology to the business is computerized Accounting. Server A when receives the request he sends the data to server D because all other servers make the request on the M. In the world there are number of servers which does not remember the ip address of the every server. So it reduces the cost and time for the business. It provides the information on time on which businessman can take decisions. Suppose that person has published the website on the server A which tis the server of the foreign country and client wants to access such website client has only authorized to make the request to his nearest server suppose that nearest server is D.

com/folder/page. We can access the website data by going to the particular website homepage and also entering the complete address which is known as Url (uniform resource locator) A complete address of specific address. The important terminologies of internet www = world wide web defined into two phases through this service one can publish website on that server of internet on which web server is installed through this service websites can be accessed from all over the world through only the servers of the internet. often consisting of only the domain name.htm where the Http is protocol www is internet service Asim. In next time when the client again makes the request to the server d for this website server d will directly send the request to the server a because server d has updated his list. images. or the IP address. when the server d receive the data he transmits the data to the client.MC09129 behalf of server d.University of Punjab Gujranwala Campus Electronic commerce By:ShahzadCh. The area of text where the cursor changes its color is known as hot area. videos or other digital assets that are addressed relative to a common Uniform Resource Locator (URL). Such as http://www. Webpage A website (also spelled Web site) is a collection of related web pages. Or A website is a group of interlinked webpages stored on a server and accessible on a is domain name M.Asim. It performs the same functions as like Microsoft word performs but it has function which is hypertext Hypertext Link to other text. and the root path ('/') in an Internet Protocol .com 3rd (evening) 8 .

htm is path leading towards the specific address Domain name Unique address which is given to the website such as Ip addressing scheme By:ShahzadCh.MC09129 Is the logical addressing scheme of the machines on the internet to uniquely identify them. Maximum numbers which can be written is from 0 to 255 Such as 122.128 Domain name system That will convert the domain name into corresponding ip address so we easily access the websites. Such as converts the Domain name into IP www.137.University of Punjab Gujranwala Campus Electronic commerce /folder/page. Web browser A client software package which provides the interface to the user for accessing the World Wide Web Five names of the Web browsers Internet Explorer Mozilla fire fox Opera mini Google Chrome Netscape Navigator Functions of the Web Bowser Provide interface for writing requests The main function of the web browser is that it provides the interface to the user for writing the request means website which the user wants to 3rd (evening) 9 .004.147 What is web browser? Explain its functions. Because it does not facilitate to user s. It comprise of 4 bytes and it is represented by four groups of decimals numbers which are separated by periods.125. =128.060. Without this function web browser useless.Asim.Asim.

MC09129 Another function of the web browser is that it not only provides the interface for writing the request it also takes the request to the appropriate Server. When the website published on the web server than web server tells the domain name and ip address of the published website to the near by Domain name servers so that the Dns update their list so that users can access the 3rd (evening) 10 . So web browser converts the html into English language. Display After converting the data it shows the information on the screen. M. Web Server Software which runs on the server machine which takes the request from the web browser and provide the information to the web browser without web server no website can be published Requirement for publishing the Website First of all it is essential you must have the website. Icann is established for the purpose of ensuring that each website address is unique. Applying for the Domain name The first step in publishing website is that person who wants to publish the website must apply for domain name to International Corporation for assigned names and numbers. If not it allots. In this step person apply with the proposed domain name and Icann see whether this domain name is already published or not.University of Punjab Gujranwala Campus Electronic commerce Take the request to Server By:ShahzadCh. Because web pages are written in the Html which are not easily understood by the user. So that it receive the data against the request. Need a server The second step is to find a server on which web server installed so that website can be published. Receive Web browser receives the information/ data from the server in the source format means in which it is written Formatting Web browser converts the data into such format which can be understood easily by the users. Without website you cannot publish.

Two protocols used by this layer are Receiver Side Physical layer Data link layer Network layer Transport layer Session layer Presentation layer Application layer Http and Ftp Presentation layer It is also known as translator of OSI model. For this translation is done 3rd (evening) 11 .University of Punjab Gujranwala Campus Electronic commerce By:ShahzadCh. It performs three works Translation It converts the data into the common format. So that each and every hardware can translate it. Sentence is given below Please do not touch Shahid s pet alligator The sequence of layers changed in both sides means in receiver and sender side Sender Side Application layer Presentation layer Session layer Transport layer Network layer Data link layer Physical layer Application layer It provides the interface (allow to write) to the users and allows access to the network resources and requests related to file transfer. remote file access and data base queries are handled by this layer. Because it may be possible that operating sytems and hardware may be different of two communicating device. email.MC09129 Open system interconnection OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) is a standard description or "reference model" for how messages should be transmitted between any two points in a telecommunication network The data is transmitted from one computer to other computer by 7 Layers A common sentence should be remembered so that you can easily write the names of layers if you forgot.

Encryption On the sender side By:ShahzadCh.University of Punjab Gujranwala Campus Electronic commerce On the receiver side this common format translated into the receiver format. Transport layer records the packets names and total number of packets so that packets will reassemble in the source format. maintains and synchronizes the interaction between the communicating systems. Protocols used Mime (multipurpose internet mail extension protocol) Session layer It establishes. Protocol used one way communication like TV. Radio Two communication but one can communicate at one time (waki taki) Two communication simultaneously (Mobile phones) 3rd (evening) 12 . In this layer there are three modes of communication Simplex mode Half duplex mode Full duplex mode Protocol used Spdu (Session protocol data unit) Transport layer It converts the data into Packets.MC09129 This layer converts the plain text (read able text) into cipher text ( unread able text). On the receiver side Decryption is done means conversion of cipher text into the plain text. So that only receiver can understand it. It also tells about/ provides the instructions about the communication link between sending and receiving machines during a particular session. Compression On the sender side this layer reduces the number of bits/ size of data so that it easily transfer and faster. On the Receiver side decompression is done means this layer restore the data size when it reach to the destination.

So the server has to again sends the whole data if any one packet is missing. qued up and travel along the connectivity to the receiving side M. Protocol used Ip (internet protocol) This protocol provide the ip address to the data by using ip protocols so that data will reached to the destination. If the one packet lost than sender easily can send the packet because it is easily to find the missing packet. The protocol of the internet is Tcip Network layer This layer is responsible for source to destination delivery of packets across the multiple networks. This layer identifies the neighbor traffic routs address on which the data transmitted. For instance within the organization this layer will use Mac address if it is outside the organization it will use domain name.University of Punjab Gujranwala Campus Electronic commerce Tcp (Transmission control protocol) 3rd (evening) 13 .MC09129 This protocol is more reliable because in this protocol every packet reports to server when it reach to destination. The sub layer is Nic (network interface card) Nic is usually known as the Lan card and their address are known as Mac address (Media access control address) which is written on the each lan card. Rip (Routing information protocol) This protocol maintains the routing tables so that it will select the best best path for the traffic on which data will reach to the destination faster. Data link layer It places the data packets into data frames This layer finds the means/address of the destination so that data will be transfer. Physical layer In this layer no extra information attached with the data but it converts the data along with header into binary this result into the generation of electric signals as 1 s and 0 s. Because every packet reports to the server Udp (user datagram protocol) This protocol is unreliable because in this protocol no packet reports to the server.

it is a markup language A markup language is a set of markup tags HTML Tags HTML markup tags are usually called HTML tags y y y y HTML tags are keywords surrounded by angle brackets like <html> HTML tags normally come in pairs like <b> and </b> The first tag in a pair is the start tag. Html What is HTML? HTML is a language for describing web pages. HTML Attributes y y y y HTML elements can have attributes Attributes provide additional information about an element Attributes are always specified in the start tag Attributes come in name/value pairs like: name="value" Opening Tag <html> <head><title>abc</title></head> M. The browser does not display the HTML tags. y y y HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language HTML is not a programming language. but uses the tags to interpret the content of the page. the second tag is the end tag Start and end tags are also called opening tags and closing tags HTML Documents = Web Pages y y y HTML documents describe web pages HTML documents contain HTML tags and plain text HTML documents are also called web pages The purpose of a web browser (like Internet Explorer or Firefox) is to read HTML documents and display them as web 3rd (evening) 14 .University of Punjab Gujranwala Campus Electronic commerce Header By:ShahzadCh.MC09129 A piece of information which is added to data at every layer except physical layer.

MC09129 <body text=´green´ bgcolor=´red´ background=´Asim.University ofcolor Gujranwala Campus Text Punjab Background For inserting the Electronic commerce will color picture on whole change change Background By:ShahzadCh.jpg´> For text moving Opening tag For Speed slow or fast For two way movement For moving right/left and so on <marquee scroll amount=´5´ behavior=´alternate´ direction=´top/bottom/right/left´ For banner color For highlighting the Text of marquee Closing tag bgcolor=´blue´ height=´5´ width=´1150´></marquee> For drawing the line <hr size=´10´ width=´1150´ color=´red´></hr> Heading For centering the text <h1 to h6><center>Asim</center></h1 to h6> bold italic underline <b><i><u>Asim</u></i></b> For showing the data in same format in which you write <pre> «««««« «««««««««. ««««««. </pre> 3rd (evening) 15 .

com 3rd (evening) 16 .University of Punjab Gujranwala Campus Electronic commerce Paragraph By:ShahzadCh.Asim.jpg´> first save the image where you save the Html document For hyperlink to website <a href=´></a> For highlighting the text <span style=´background-color:blue´>Asim</span> For intra page link Create link to move up and down <a href=#Asim´>Asim></a> <a name=´Asim´>Asim</a> M.MC09129 <p> ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« ««« </p> Font size change Color change for this data Text design change For showing the data in next line <font size=´3´ color=´red´ face=´Ariel´>Asim<br>student of pugc</font> For inserting the picture in specific area <img src=´Asim.

University of Punjab Gujranwala Campus Electronic commerce Hyper link for the page on the user machine By:ShahzadCh.MC09129 <a href=´><img src=´ 3rd (evening) 17 .htm´>abc</a> When we click on the image than it goes to another website <a href=´http//:www.jpg></a> Ordered list <ol type=´1/a/A/i/I> <li>Lahore</li> 2/B/b/ii/II Gujranwala <li> Gujranwala</li> </ol> Unordered list <ul type=´disc/circle/square´> <li>Lahore</li> <li>Gujranwala</li> </ul> Definition list For showing the definitions in pet format means all headings are in one size and all definitions are in one size but less than the size of the headings <DL> <dt>Imf</dt> <dd> international monitary fund</dd> </dl> For showing the result in the website such as y y o o Lahore Gujranwala Lahore Gujranwala for showing the result in website such as 1/A/a/i/I Lahore M.

University of Punjab Gujranwala Campus Electronic commerce By:ShahzadCh.MC09129 Nested list <ol type="A"> <li>Punjab<ol type="1"><li>Lahore<ul type="circle"> <li>Gulberg</li><li>Defence</li><li>Model Town</li></ul</li><li>Gujranwala <ul type="circle"><li>Gujrat</li><li>Kanganiwala</li><li>Satelite Town</li></ul></li> <li>Sialkot</li></ol></li> </ol> A.jpg´></td></tr> M. Gujranwala o Gujrat o Kanganiwala o Satelite Town 3.jpg cellpedding=´4´ cellspacing=´4´> Row Column For showing the table in the website and data 1 4 2 5 3 6 <tr><td>1</td><td>2</td><td>3</td></tr> <tr><td>4</td><td>5</td><td>6</td></tr> </table> For inserting the image in the one row and column in the table <tr><td><img src=´ 3rd (evening) 18 . Lahore o Gulberg o Defence o Model Town 2. Sialkot Cell walls distance increase against the contents of cell Increase the space between the cells Table <table border=´4´ background=´Asim. Punjab 1.

order acceptance. mobiles ii. payment facility and order remove.Specialized Websites which only sell the one type of product or different products of one type such as computer. E-Shopping mall Means different persons together develop the one website and sell through this website is called E-shopping mall.Store front model Websites which sells the products and have the characteristics of shopping cart. E-Store Means the one owner of the website and single individual sell the products Types of E-Store i. Two types of Store front model a.University of Punjab Gujranwala Campus Electronic commerce By:ShahzadCh.Generalized Websites which sell almost each and every products´>Google</a></td></tr> E business Model A way in which a organization works to generate revenue over/through websites is called the E business model of that organization Different types of Model Benefits of E-shopping mall For owners Cost less Less hosting charges For customer one transaction save time 3rd (evening) 19 .MC09129 For inserting the hyperlink in the column and row of table <tr><td><a href=´http//:www.

At the end of auction this website informs to bidder (winner) and seller and payment and delivery and payment mechanism has been settled down.Specialized Less secrecy Websites which are E-shopping mall and sell only one type of products ii.Forward auction In forward auction first seller comes and announce we are going to sell this good.University of Punjab Gujranwala Campus Electronic commerce By:ShahzadCh. Types of auction model a.MC09129 One domain name More options easy to remember discount Less transaction cost More trust Types of E-shopping mall i.Dutch In this type you can decrease your bid price with the passage of time b. The buyers compete in the bid and pay higher and seller takes benefit Types of forward auction i. Auction sites charges the commission on their services.English In this type you can increase your bid price with the passage of time ii. These websites shows the reserve price (minimum price at which bid is acceptable).Reverse 3rd (evening) 20 .Auction model Websites which does not sell their own goods but provide the platform to people to sell or buy good by bid.Generalized Websites which are E-shopping mall and sell almost every thing 2. last date for submission of bid and results.

Pure play Websites which sell such products which can be delivered through internet and receives the payment through internet is pure play model M. 5.Vertical portals Provides information pertaining to a single area of interest eg community portal.Portal model Websites in which variety of services are gathered in one site or provide almost every thing in one place such as google. d. c.Click and morter Websites which sell the products and at least have one shop where one can buy Types of portal model a.University of Punjab Gujranwala Campus Electronic commerce 3rd (evening) 21 .Horizontal portals Provide about of a very broad range of topics such as search engines b.MC09129 In this auction model buyer first comes and announce we want this and this goods and does not show the price at which they buy. In this type sellers compete and buyer buy the products at lower price. 3.Second price A type of auction model in which bids are not release and winner (bidder) have to pay second highest price.Click and click Websites which only sell through the websites and have no any shop in the world is included in the click and click means 100% online selling 6. health 4.First price A type of auction model in which bids are not release and winner (bidder) have to pay the highest price.

Online banking Websites which provides the services of online fund transfer. 11. payment of utility bill and balance check and receives service charges.Online entertainment Websites which provides funny pictures and funny material and receives charges.Brochereware Websites which just deal in the advertisement and increase revenues by providing advertisement facility.E-learning Websites which give education and receives money for registration and give certificates. 9.Online news Websites which provides the news on internet and receives charges is online news 12. 10. 8.MC09129 3rd (evening) 22 . M.Partial play Websites which sell two types of products one is which can be delivered through internet and receives the payment through internet and second is which can be delivered through ship/or any other source other than internet and receives payment other than internet or by using internt.University of Punjab Gujranwala Campus Electronic commerce By:ShahzadCh. Domain name consist of two Parts User id + Top level domain ICANN offers (21 top level domain names) following top level domains . Legal word derives from the law. Issues Regarding Domain name Domain name Unique address which is given to the website such as www. At that time it was ethical issue. Development of websites Law Is a branch of philosophy which tells what right is right and what wrong is wrong along with a concept of Catalan commercial M. Ethics varies from person to . Due to this when businesses apply for the registration of the websites with their names they known that this domain name is already is taken by this 3rd (evening) 23 .cat . Domain name registration 2. When the business owners goes to the person that he waives his right form the domain name at that time person which registered the websites blackmail to owners and charge too much money because Business owners usually registered their websites with the name of business so that consumer can easily remember and access the website. Law is same for all people living in one territory.shahzaadch. This court cancels the domain name registration and fined heavy money to such persons who registered the domain name of others business which does not relate to them. In this organization/court people can sue against such persons who registered the websites with the names of others business for the purpose of blackmailing and taking huge money. (In the earlier days means before the establishment of World intellectual property right organization) People(which does not relate to business) with the melafide intentions registers the websites with the names of such businesses from the icann which does not registered their websites yet and they have to register the websites later.MC09129 Legal and ethical issues regarding air-transport industry Asia-Pacific region .University of Punjab Gujranwala Campus Electronic commerce By:ShahzadCh. But now it has become legal issue due to establishment of WIPO (world intellectual property right organization. Ethics Is the branch of philosophy which tells what right is right and what wrong is wrong.

military mobile devices . We cannot take the domain name of such business with its names which is registered and not registered the website because he has only the right to register the website with his business individuals. logo which distinguish the company s product in the number of products. We cannot take the domain name which is already registered 3. such as www.S.Pk with every top level domain name. . Also cannot take the registered domain name in different top level domain .com By spliitng Asim Yahoo yahoo yahoo is already registered .com.University of Punjab Gujranwala Campus Electronic commerce .mobi business educational governmental information international organizations companies U. PKNIC domain registration fee for one year is 1100 but PKNIC does not registered domain name for one year it registered for two years minimum so users has to pay 2200 as a fee and proposed domain name for .pro . cooperatives By:ShahzadCh. . Phonetic Deception It means that we should not take such domain name which words different form the trade mark of other business but provides same sound such as Original Phonetic deception KOKAKOLA. by name network organization professions Internet communication services travel and tourism industry related sites In Pakistan PKNIC registered the domain names along with the additional extension of .gov .name . . Regarding Trade mark Trade mark Any thing. There are two legal issues regarding the Trade mark i. Also cannot take such domain name/user id in which by splitting the user id the one part of user id similar to the already registered user id such as 3rd (evening) 24 .edu .MC09129 .museum museums .com .google.

google. 5. Such as NIKEE Microsoft Used the Sign as in our Domain name As used As Micros0st If there is any legal issue approved which is described above than owners of such websites along with the cancellation of their domain names they have to pay the heavy fine.Regarding the trade mark 1. When the user only write the user id of website and not write the top level domain name servers redirect the request to the original website due to registration in all top level domains. So domain name should be Unique. and easy to pronounce 2.University of Punjab Gujranwala Campus Electronic commerce and show the webpage of www.MC09129 It means that we should not take such domain name in which we use the trademark of other but with low change and provides similar look by seeing at once. 3. Cannot use the trade mark of other in any frame(divide the one window/page into multiple windows/pages If we use the trade mark of other business in our website than the copy right law will be apply M. ii. Visual deception youphone. 7. Cannot take the trade mark of other as domain name Cannot write the trade mark of other in the our tile tag such as <title> other s trade mark</title> Cannot use/writ the trade mark of other in the meta tag Cannot write the trade mark of other in the image tag Cannot write the trade mark of other in the heading tag Cannot write the trade mark of other in the paragraph of your website Cannot use the trade mark of other in any page of our website without the consent of other person 8. short. 6. 3rd (evening) 25 .com By:ShahzadCh.Legal issues regarding the development of the website 1. easy to remember. The main benefit of registering in all top level domain names is that user which does not know the exact extension of the business website and know only user id by writing the only user id in the address bar can access the relevant website. This process is known as redirecting. Good businesses registered their websites in all top level domain names so that no one can registered the same name in different top level domain in the address bar of web browser the server redirect the request to google. Such as write only the www.

If copy than owner sue against the person who copy and have to pay heavy fine. 2. procedure of purchasing. procedure of selling and so on. Patent rights only cover the ideas. 1.Regarding the Patent right Is a set of exclusive rights granted by a state (national government) to an inventor of idea or their assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for a public disclosure of an invention. Such as company is not responsible for any delay in order due to load shedding. Credit card number or modes of payment and allot user id and password so that user when comes to buy on the website than they can complete purchase by just writing the user name and password instead of writing all data again 3. painting and certain other intellectual works. procedure of refund. Example: the best example of the patent right is Amazon. way in which business conduct its activities.MC09129 3rd (evening) 26 . 3.Regarding the Legal Documents Every website should have three legal documents so that you can avoid the claims of others. It covers the tangible things as book. Term of services This document contains the policy. No one copy the things which are protected by copy right in the website. Privacy statements It tells what we will do about your information whether we store permanently or not store or publish or not publish M. If someone uses the idea of other which is protected by patent right than he has born the legitimate and pay heavy fine. Can use the trade mark of other in our website if we have taken the written permission from the owner of the trade mark 2. Disclaimer This document tells what we own and what we disown. It tells for what things company responsible and not responsible. it gives the idea that our website store the user data such as name. 3. terms and conditions.University of Punjab Gujranwala Campus Electronic commerce Certain exemptions regarding the use of trade mark of other in our website By:ShahzadCh.Regarding copy right Is the exclusive right granted by the government to the author or creator of the original work and this work should be innovative (first time introduce) for a particular period of time. Can use the trade mark of other for advertisement purposes and word sponsored link should be given 2.

3. 2. you can patent one How search engine works/ finds the websites Search engine search the text which we write in the text field bar in the following steps and shows the list of websites in which search hits 1.MC09129 We should not give the hyperlink of other websites in our website whether it is the link of the homepage or deep link. audio. photograph. Relational Data base management it organize the data base in the tabular form so that data can be recorded on tables M. Meta tag. 6. Data base: Is the central area where the data base management system saves the data in the organized and compact way and retrieve. Data: Any thing which we want to store permanently it may be word. objects. 5. Patent protects innovation. While you can't copyright an idea. picture. 3rd (evening) 27 . or motion picture. painting. Data base management System (DBMS): Is a software which properly designed the data base so that data can be stored in an organized and compact way and through this software one can retrieve the appropriate data easily and efficiently.are not shown in the webpage these are commands for the browser how to display the page and reload the page after how much time or display this page against this and this word. screenplay. literally marking items in trade. The idea behind trademark is to protect the consumer by giving them some confidence that items branded with a certain mark are authentic and come from where they purport to come from. First see the Domain name See the word written in title tag <title> see here</title> See in the contents of meta tag <meta contents=´ here it see´> See in the image tag <img alt=´see here´> See the heading See in the paragraph tag <p> here it see </p> Where the search hits it shows the domain name of such websites.Regarding the hyperlink By:ShahzadCh. piece of recorded music. such as a book. Trademark protects brand names. Deep linking means giving the hyperlink of the webpage of others website other than homepage in order to give the expression that this page is developed by us.University of Punjab Gujranwala Campus Electronic commerce 4. video and so on. computer program. Note-Copyright protects creative expression that has been reduced to a tangible form.

2. This property does not show the update for the other transactions until the first Transaction complete. Isolation There are may be multiple transactions execute at a time. Application failure: Dbms attempts not to complete the transaction which violates the rules defined by Company.University of Punjab Gujranwala Campus Electronic commerce Acid Properties of Data base Management System related to Transaction First we should see what is meant by Transaction By:ShahzadCh.MC09129 Basically Transaction is a agreement between buyer and seller to exchange an asset/thing against cash. 3. preventing some of the transaction's database changes from taking effect. 1. 3. the database runs out of room to hold additional data. 4. System failure: The user loses their connection to the application before providing all necessary information. For insuring that Dbms provides the results in consistent way Checks and constraints are applied In the consistency property. For example you have M. Hardware failure: A disk drive fails. Dbms shows the only A/c balance excluding the current deposit when the transaction incomplete. The Data base shows the exact amount in you¶re a/c which is the sum of previous amount + current deposit when the transaction 100% complete. The transaction may be fail due to several reasons 1.000 in the bank A/c. This property says that Transaction which are not 100% complete will isolate to other transaction.. Consistency There are certain rules defined by the company Such as we will not sell the products if our inventory is 25 units or not sell if the inventory is below the Sale order which have to insured by the Dbms. Atomicity This property follows the Rule ³all or nothing´ for the modification of the data base. OR Any event which changes the financial position of the business is transaction. Database failure: E. 2. If the transaction 100% complete than it is called commit and if the transaction is incomplete than it is called abort For example You have deposited the 3rd (evening) 28 . This property modify the database and keep data base up-to-date when the transaction 100% complete and if the transaction incomplete than this property roll back the effects of the transaction and stand on the pre transaction state even the 99% transaction complete and 1% incomplete.g. This property insures that rules are not violated and shows the results in the consistent form for example there are 10 units in our inventory and we have take the order of 12 units the Dbms does not show the Inventory as -2 but it should reject the order.

After some it is realized that this system is ineffective because there is no proper scale and people gives more of one unit and receives less. There is no need of the payment system because there are lots of natural resources are available. At that time Currency notes means papers are used to make currency which are considered the major advancement in the world and used for too many decades as the currency. Durability This propery keeps the record for ever for such transactions which are 100% complete until and unless you discard it and provides the appropriate data when you required. less complex and low transaction cost. So that¶s why it is used for the small/Micro payments. 4. So at that time precious stones and metals used as a currency later with the advancement people makes the coins on which pictures are stamped used as the currency. In barter system people exchange their goods against the other goods so that they can satisfy their needs. At that time there is need of such thing which can use as measure and acceptable. M. It is less 3rd (evening) 29 . E-payment: Is the transfer of the funds from one place to other place by using the websites through the internet. At the same time you are checking the your a a/c balance it shows that Amount has been deducted and also check the New A/c Balance Of b A/c but it does not show the New amount in the A/c B because the transaction is in process. At that time people dependent on each other and barter system used as the payment system. After this it was realized that coins have to much weight if someone wants to carry huge money with him he has to take the big bag on which coins can stored so that he can carry them. But with the passage of time advancement people becomes more educated they feel that there must be homes which are away from the forest and need the permanent cloth which protect from the cool and diversified food. So in the present world plastic money(credit card.MC09129 Given command to banker that the 100. Why payment system needs arises? In the earlier days people lives in the forests and use the leaves as their dress and use the caves for their shelter.000 Rs Transfer from my A/c A to A/c B. debit card and smart card) introduces so that people not only easily carry them but also secure their money and with the help of the plastic money people can make easily purchase things from the every corner of the world. A big issue with it that it was difficult to carry huge money. At that people makes homes and try to produce something and in the end they found that they cannot produce each and every thing and have to need other things so that they can satisfy their needs. Sometimes it is difficult to make small parts of some things to exchange against the goods just as no one can make the part of cow for taking the 1 kg rice.University of Punjab Gujranwala Campus Electronic commerce By:ShahzadCh. Different Modes of payment E-cash: Basically consumer deposits the money in the bank or in any other organization and bank allot a number to the consumer for making the payment from them which is E cash. At that people were independent and food means fruit which were grown naturally people not make efforts to grow the foods. So at that time the need of payment system arises.

MC09129 Such as A consumer deposits the money in the A/c of pace for purchasing the goods from the pace. Transactional Cycle of the E-cash: Merchant 1. 5. Buyer Paid the Money to His bank 8.Visa Company sends information to Buyer s bank Third Party Likes Visa. If bank verifies valid than merchant sells the goods to the Consumer 5 4 Bank Consumer Credit Card: In the credit card we use the funds of the bank for payment and later on we repay the money with interest to the 3 (evening) rd 30 .University of Punjab Gujranwala Campus Electronic commerce Example By:ShahzadCh. In the credit card the Name of the owner. It is more secure. If there are required funds bank validate the information and inform to the seller required funds have in this A/c against this number and seller sells the goods and if the required funds are not than bank also validate the information and tells to seller that required amounts have not in this A/c against this number and seller will not sell the goods. When the consumer gives the number to seller. Credit Card Transactional cycle 1. seller sends this code to bank and verifies either required funds have or not in this A/c against this number. its transactional cost is very high and it is more complex because there are more parties are involved.Seller s ship the goods to Buyer 3. 2.Verifies information and tells to Visa company 2.Seller sends the informati on to seller s bank 9.Buyer sends the credit card information to seller Buyer 10.Sends the informa tion to Seller s bank 4.Mastereo ie 5. 3.Buyer s Bank pay the money to Seller s Bank Seller s Bank 7. Bank deposit the money in seller A/c Buyer s bank 11. 4.Seller s bank notifies to seller M.Seller notifies to his bank transaction complete. Bank gives the number to the consumer so that he can give this number to seller as a payment. expiry date and 16 digit code which is used to identify which bank issue this credit card. So it is used for the large payments because it is more secure than E-cash. 3 2 1 6 Consumer deposits the money in bank Bank gives the E-cash number to consumer Consumer gives the E-cash number for payment Merchant sends the E-cash number to bank for verification whether required amount have or not or valid or fraud. Bank verifies it is Valid 6.Seller sends the information to the third party like Visa because credit card their property Seller 6.

Mastereo ie 6. The main difference between the debit card and debit card is that in credit card we use the funds of the bank for purchasing but in the debit card we use his own funds for purchasing the goods.Seller s bank notifies to seller M.Verifies information and tells to Visa company Seller s Bank Buyer s bank 10.University of Punjab Gujranwala Campus Electronic commerce Debit Card: By:ShahzadCh.Seller notifies to his bank transaction complete.Visa Company sends information to Buyer s bank Third Party Likes Visa.Seller sends the information to the third party like Visa because credit card their property 4. Bank deposit the money in seller A/c 5.Seller s ship the goods to Buyer 1.MC09129 In the Debit card person have its own funds and use these funds to purchase the goods and consumer cannot purchase the goods which amounts exceed to the amount in the Debit card.Seller sends the informati on to seller s bank 3.Buyer sends the credit card information to seller Buyer Seller 3rd (evening) 31 .Buyer s Bank pay the money to Seller s Bank 7.Sends the informa tion to Seller s bank 9. Transactional cycle of the Debit Card: 8.

Ghair shareef Banda Hack this information Asim Plain Credit Information Vendor Vendor sends the information to bank for verification and tacking the Guarantee Bank In the above diagram hacker hack the information and use the information for their benefit and user suffer the loss. This issues says that when the user sends the information of the credit card and purchasing material and whatever the user sends no one can read the user¶s information else the person to whom the information concerned. 1.MC09129 Key issues in Electronic Payment If these issues are not resolve than there is no issue of E-payment. So the data should be send in the encryption (unreadable text) form so that no one can read the information during the traffic and on the vendor computer and vendor pass this encryption text to the bank so that bank can verify the information. Without E-payment no one can purchase the goods easily and less expensive. Bank will make the decryption so that he can read the information. When the user sends the information to the vendor through internet there may be chance that one can hack the information and use the information for their benefit. Hacker can only Hack the information but cannot read Asim Credit information in Encryption form Vendor M. Privacy: This is the most important issue in the E-payment.University of Punjab Gujranwala Campus Electronic commerce By:ShahzadCh. So information should be send in the following way means encryption form. Now a days Most products a purchased with the help of 3rd (evening) 32 .

So there should be third party which insures the Non Repudiation. The first issue only relates to the privacy of the information. If someone deny than the entire above key issues are waste. Authentication: Authentication is also very important there must be third party which verifies the information and provides the guarantee to the vendor for their payment. M. Without Authentication there is no concept of the E-payment. information will not validate and E payment cannot be 3rd (evening) 33 . but privacy is not the complete solution. Non Repudiation: Non repudiation means that parties should not deny their actions. Because if no one gives the guarantee to the seller the seller will not sell the products which payments comes from the E-payment. It is happened because hackers change the bits of the information which the users send to the Vendor which gives the different meaning.MC09129 Sends the data which the vendor receives in encryption form directly pass on to the bank for validating Bank Integrity The information is transferred from one place to other place in bits through internet. The seller and buyer should fulfill their commitments and not deny their actions. Sometimes it is happened that users sends the correct information in the encryption form and not reach to vendor in the same form so the different information. So integrity means that hackers not only read the information but also cannot change the bits of the information so the E-payment can be done easily.University of Punjab Gujranwala Campus Electronic commerce By:ShahzadCh.

com 3rd (evening) 34 .MC09129 M.University of Punjab Gujranwala Campus Electronic commerce By:ShahzadCh.

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