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16.1 RigidBody Motion
The study of kinematics is a mathematical problem We assume homogenous bodies made of the same material. A body undergoes planer motion when all the particles of a rigid body move along paths which are equidistant from a fixed plane. There are types of rigid body motion: 1. Translation: If every line segment on the body remains parallel to its original direction during the motion. → 2 types  rectilinear translation  curved translation
2. Rotation about a fixed axis  When a rigid body rotates about a fixed axis, all particles of the body, except those which lie on the axis of rotation, move along circular paths.  The rotation axis may be located inside the body or outside of the body.  Pure rotation, if the fixed axis goes through the centroid of the body  General rotation, if the fixed axis does not go through the centroid of the body.
3. General plane motion  The body undergoes translation and rotation at the same time.  In fact, general rotation is general plane motion.  Each general plane motion may be momentarily considered as a general rotation about a fixed axis.  The general plane motion is completely specified if 1. The motions of two points in the body are known ( → relativemotion analysis), or 2. The rotational motion of a line fixed in the body and the translation of a point located on this line ( → absolutemotion analysis).
Example: Types of planar motion
16.2 Translation
Position:

The position vectors rB and rA are absolute, they are measured from the x, y axes. The position vector rB/A is relative and gives the position of B with respect to A. rB/A is measured from the translating x', y' axes. The magnitude of rB/A is constant since the body is rigid. The direction of rB/A is constant since x', y' coordinate system does not rotate.
Velocity:
The time derivative of rB/A is zero since rB/A is constant. We get then:
Acceleration:
Note: Equations (3) and (4) indicates that all points in a rigid body subjected to either rectilinear or curvilinear translation move with the same velocity and acceleration. → A translating rigid body may be considered as a particle.
Summary:
16.3 Rotation about a Fixed Axis
When a rigid body is rotating about a fixed axis, all particles of the body, except those which lie on the axis of rotation, travels along circular paths. only lines or bodies undergo angular motion.

Angular Position:

θ is measured between a fixed reference line and r. θ is positive counterclockwise. Since motion is a bout a fixed axis, the direction of θ is always along the axis. Is measured in degrees, radians, or revolutions. (π =180°,1rev = 2π)
Angular Displacement:
Angular Velocity:
The time rate of change in the angular position is called angular velocity ω and is measured in rad/s.
with the magnitude
Angular Acceleration:
With the magnitude

The direction of α is the same as that for ω. However, its sense of direction depends on whether ω is increasing or decreasing. If ω is increasing, then α is called angular acceleration. If ω is decreasing, then α is called angular deceleration.
By eliminating dt from Eq. (8) and (10), we get:
Example: Constant angular acceleration
Given:  α = αc = constant  initial conditions: ω(t = 0) = ω0, θ(t = 0) = θ0. Find: ω(t), θ(t). We get:
Motion of Point P (Circular Motion):
Point P travels along a circular path.
Position:
The position of P is defined by a position vector rP, which extends from an arbitrary point lie on the axis of rotation to P. Usually the vector r which is a special case of rP is used.

Velocity:
Since r = const, it follows
, so that we get
With
and
we get from (17)
By circular motion
, so that we get from (17)
→ The direction of v is tangent to the circular path. Note: , however, .  vθ is always perpendicular to r and .  The relation v = ωr can only be used when the following three conditions are satisfied: 1. r extends from a fixed point with zero velocity 2. ω and v have the same direction. 3. v is always perpendicular to r.
Acceleration:
Since r = const, it follows
, so that we get
With
We get:
In circular motion we have:
Note: All points in a rigid body rotate with the same ω and the same α. However, each point in a plane perpendicular to the rotation axis, has its own different velocity and acceleration since its position r, from the rotation axis, is different from the positions of the other points. ( ).
Summary:
Rotation about a fixed axis:
Constant angular acceleration (α = αc = constant):
Circular Motion of a Particle:
16.4 Absolute Motion Analysis
A body subjected to general plane motion undergoes a simultaneous translation and rotation. This motion can be completely specified by knowing both the angular motion of a line fixed in the body and the rectilinear motion of a point on this line. By direct application of the relations:
the motion of the point and the angular motion of the line can then be related. Procedure for analysis:  Locate point P using a position coordinate s.  Measure from a fixed reference line the angular position θ of a line lying in the body and passing through point P.  From the dimensions of the body, relate s to θ, s = f(θ), using geometry and/or trigonometry.  Take the first time derivative of s = f(θ) to get a relation between v and ω.  Take the second time derivative of s = f(θ) to get a relation between a and α.  Use the chain rule when taking the derivatives.
16.5 RelativeMotion Analysis: Velocity



The general plane motion of a rigid body can be described as a combination of translation and rotation. To view these “ components” motions separately we will use a relative motion analysis involving two sets of coordinate axes.  Fixed coordinate system x, y (absolute).  Translating coordinate system x', y' (relative).  The x', y' system is pinconnected to the body at the base point A.  The axes of the x', y' coordinate system translate with respect to the fixed system but not rotate with the body.  The base point A has generally a known motion. The position vectors rA and rB are absolute and measured from the fixed x, y axes. The relative position vector rB/A is measured from the translating x', y' system and gives the relative position of B with respect to A. Since the body is rigid, The relative motion analysis with translating axes can only be used to study the motion of points  on the same body  on bodies which are pinconnected, or  on bodies in contact without slipping between them. → For the other cases use translating and rotating axes.
Position:
Displacement:

During dt, points A and B undergo displacements drA and drB.  drA is pure translation  drB consists of translation and rotation.

The entire body first translates by an amount drA, and then rotates about A by an amount dθ. → point B undergoes a relative displacement with drB/A = rB/Adθ.

drB due to translation and rotation. drA due to translation of A. drB/A due to rotation about A.
Velocity:
With drB/A = rB/Adθ, we get

vB and vA are measured from the fixed x, y axes and represent the absolute velocityies of A and B, respectively. vB/A is the relative velocity of B with respect to A as measured by an observer fixed to the translating x', y' axes. Since the body is rigid, the magnitude rB/A remains constant. Therefore, the observer fixed to the translating x', y' axes sees point B move along a circular path with radius rB/A and angular velocity ω. → vB/A is perpendicular to rB/A.
→ The relative motion is circular, the magnitude is vB/A = ω rB/A and the direction is perpendicular to rB/A. From Equations (30) and (32) we get:

When two points have the same path of motion but located at two pinconnected bodies or in contact (without slipping) with each other, then these points have the same velocity and the same acceleration.
The choice of the base point A:
Summary:
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