Principles of sociology

R. Gosling (ed.) and S. Taylor with the Department of Sociology, LSE
2790021

2010 Undergraduate study in Economics, Management, Finance and the Social Sciences

This guide was prepared for the University of London External System by: R. Gosling (ed.), Director of External Study, LSE, with chapters written by the following members of the Department of Sociology, LSE: Dr Claire Alexander, Dr Suki Ali, Simon Dickason, Malcolm James, Dr David Palmer, Dr Angus Stewart, Dr Steve Taylor. This is one of a series of subject guides published by the University. We regret that due to pressure of work the author is unable to enter into any correspondence relating to, or arising from, the guide. If you have any comments on this subject guide, favourable or unfavourable, please use the form at the back of this guide. This subject guide is for the use of University of London External students registered for programmes in the fields of Economics, Management, Finance and the Social Sciences (as applicable). The programmes currently available in these subject areas are: Access route Diploma in Economics Diploma in Social Sciences Diplomas for Graduates BSc Accounting and Finance BSc Accounting with Law/Law with Accounting BSc Banking and Finance BSc Business BSc Development and Economics BSc Economics BSc Economics and Finance BSc Economics and Management BSc Geography and Environment BSc Information Systems and Management BSc International Relations BSc Management BSc Management with Law/Law with Management BSc Mathematics and Economics BSc Politics BSc Politics and International Relations BSc Sociology BSc Sociology with Law.

The External System Publications Office University of London Stewart House 32 Russell Square London WC1B 5DN United Kingdom Web site: www.londonexternal.ac.uk

Published by: University of London Press © University of London 2005; reprinted with amendments 2009; 2010 Printed by: Central Printing Service, University of London, England

Contents

Contents
Introduction ............................................................................................................ 1 What this unit is about .................................................................................................. 1 What is sociology? ........................................................................................................ 1 What skills you will learn from studying this unit ............................................................ 2 The structure of the unit ................................................................................................ 2 Reading advice and other resources ............................................................................... 4 Hours of study and use of this subject guide................................................................... 7 The examination and examination advice ....................................................................... 7 Section A: Social theory and research .................................................................... 9 Chapter 1: What is sociology? .............................................................................. 11 Aims of the chapter ..................................................................................................... 11 Learning objectives ...................................................................................................... 11 Essential reading ......................................................................................................... 11 Further reading............................................................................................................ 11 Video/DVD .................................................................................................................. 12 Works cited ................................................................................................................. 12 1.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 12 1.2 Approaching sociology ........................................................................................... 13 1.3 What is sociology? ................................................................................................. 14 1.4 Sociology and commonsense ................................................................................. 17 1.5 Thinking sociologically ........................................................................................... 20 1.6 The individual and society ...................................................................................... 24 1.7 Socialisation and identity ....................................................................................... 28 A reminder of your learning outcomes.......................................................................... 34 Chapter 2: Sociological research .......................................................................... 35 Aims of the chapter ..................................................................................................... 35 Learning objectives ...................................................................................................... 35 Essential reading ......................................................................................................... 35 Further reading............................................................................................................ 35 Works cited ................................................................................................................. 36 Video/DVD .................................................................................................................. 36 2.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................... 36 2.2 Some principles of sociological research ................................................................. 37 2.3 Research designs: planning and choice................................................................... 43 2.4 Major research designs in sociology ....................................................................... 48 2.5 Research methods ................................................................................................. 54 A reminder of your learning outcomes.......................................................................... 64 Chapter 3: Theory and research............................................................................ 65 Introduction ................................................................................................................ 65 Aims of the chapter ..................................................................................................... 65 Learning objectives ...................................................................................................... 65 Essential reading ......................................................................................................... 65 Further reading............................................................................................................ 65 Video/DVD .................................................................................................................. 66 3.1 Methodology revisited ........................................................................................... 66 3.2 Positivism .............................................................................................................. 69 3.3 Interpretivism ........................................................................................................ 72
i

............... 135 Introduction ................................................................................. 81 Further reading.......... 173 Introduction ...................... 133 Useful websites ................................................................ 182 Works cited ............................................ 133 Learning objectives ....................................... 173 Key debate: Has globalisation led to cultural homogenisation? ......... 137 Key debate: What are the drivers of globalisation? ................................................................................. 132 Section B: Globalisation ................................. 163 Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 182 Sample examination questions for Section B ............................................................................................................................... 182 A reminder of your learning outcomes.......................................................... 151 Introduction ......................... 82 4............................................... 171 Works cited ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 115 Summary .............................................................................................................................. 151 Further reading......................... politics and the state..... 134 Chapter 5: Introduction to globalisation..................................................................................................................... 156 Conclusion ....... 81 Introduction ............................................ 124 A reminder of your learning outcomes.............................................................. 152 Key debate: Has globalisation changed the nature of the firm? ....................................................................................................................................................2 Sociological theories .............................................................................................. 183 ii ................ 177 Conclusion ....................................................................................................................21 Principles of sociology 3............ 135 Definition ........... 163 Key debate: Has globalisation weakened the state? ... 142 What are the implications for sociology? ..............................................................................................................................3 Bringing the individual back in ................... 172 Chapter 8: Cultural globalisation ......................................................................................... 146 Works cited ....... 133 Reading advice for Section B..................... 160 Works cited ......................................................................................................................................................................... 81 Chapter structure ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 79 Chapter 4: Theories and developments ................................................. 149 Chapter 6: Economic globalisation................................................4 Realism ........................................................................................... 124 4..................................1 Origins of sociology ..................................................................................................................................... 76 A reminder of your learning outcomes....................................................................... 136 Key debate: Is globalisation new and real? ................ 81 Essential reading ............. 82 Videos/DVD ... 151 Key debate: To what extent have we seen the emergence of a global economy? ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 160 Chapter 7: Globalisation................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 133 Aims of this section ................................................... 163 Four ‘threats’ to nation states ... 166 Key debate: Has globalisation created new forms of politics? .......................... 168 Conclusion ............................................................... 82 4............... 81 Learning objectives ................................... 173 Key debate: Does globalisation lead to a clash of cultures? .......................................................4 Postmodernity and sociology................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 81 Aims of the chapter ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 87 4.....................................................................................

...................................... 229 Further reading..................................................1 Sex....1 Structural dimensions of inequality: contemporary class analysis ......................... 227 Chapter 11: Social inequality and social injustice ............................................. 212 10.... 251 Study materials......................... 226 Sample examination questions ....................................................................................................................... 210 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................................................................4 Contemporary approaches: old and new ethnicities ...........2........................ 250 Chapter 12: Religion and society .................... 229 Learning objectives ...............2 ‘Race’ and ethnicity: some basic definitions .........................................................................................................................................................2................. 209 Aims of the chapter .....................................................................1............................................................................... 243 11............................3 Families and work ............................................................................................3 Changing debates: some key theoretical approaches to ‘race’ and ethnicity ...................1 Changing sociological perspectives on social inequality and social injustice................................................................ 190 9....................................................... 229 Essential reading .................................................................................... 224 A reminder of your learning outcomes............................ 196 9................................................................ 229 Aims of the chapter ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ gender and sexualities .................................. 210 Reading advice ........... 209 Essential reading ..... 202 A reminder of your learning outcomes......................................................................................................................................... 251 Learning objectives . 234 11............................................................................... 236 11.................................................. 214 10.....................1................ 246 Summary: inequality and injustice ........... 249 Sample examination questions ..................................................................... 218 10............................................................. 187 Websites ................. 190 9........................................................................................................................................ 209 Learning objectives .... 209 Further reading................................................................ 232 11...............................................................1 Thinking about ‘race’ and ethnicity ............................................................................................................................................... 230 Introduction ................................................................................1. 187 Essential reading ....................................... 211 Learning activities..................... 240 11.......... 251 Aims of the chapter ....................................... 187 Aims of the chapter ..................................................................2................................................................... 187 Further reading...................... 206 Chapter 10: ‘Race’ and ethnicity ........................................................................................................................................ 212 10............................................................................... 188 Introduction ....... 251 iii ...........................................2 Analysing social injustice ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 230 11................ 185 Chapter 9: Gender ................................................................. 209 Works cited .............2 Equality and difference: feminist debates.......3 Classical perspectives on social inequality ..................................................................... 187 Learning objectives ........... 230 Reading advice ....... 187 Works cited .....................................................................................................................................................................................3 Social injustice and the pursuit of human rights.............. 188 How to use this chapter .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 249 A reminder of your learning outcomes...............................Contents Section C......................................................................2 Global perspectives on inequality and injustice ......................................... 206 Sample examination questions ..........................

..................................... 298 13..1 Marxism and the analysis of power ........ 273 12.... 303 Chapter structure ..................................................................................... modernity and globalisation ............. 251 Websites ...................... 301 Sample examination questions ....................................................... 278 Sample examination questions ..................................................................................... 290 13... 295 13.................................. 279 Chapter 13: Power in society................................................................................................................................................................................ 257 12....... 305 14...............................................................................................3 The power of elites ....... 282 Structure of this chapter .......................6 Secularisation ....................................................................................................... 337 Further reading......................1 Defining ‘religion’ .. 293 13.................................................. 282 Additional reading and other works cited .......... 331 Appendix 2: Sample examination paper ................................. 304 Further reading and works cited... 282 Further reading...................................... 337 Essential reading ............................................ 275 A reminder of your learning outcomes..........................................................................................1 Introduction .......................................1................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 329 Appendix 1: Approaching your examination ..... 253 12.................... 281 Essential reading ........................................ 281 Reading advice .................................... 281 Aims of the chapter ....................................................................7 Religion...............................2 Why do new types of organisation emerge? .................................................. 299 Summary ............................................................. 303 Essential reading ................... stratification and domination ...............3................2 Power to and power over............................................................................................................................................. 281 Learning objectives ........................... 283 Introduction: power...............................21 Principles of sociology Essential reading ................................................... 338 iv ..............1............2 Sociological research on religion ....... 315 14....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2.........3 Religion and social integration ............................ 309 Conclusion .................................................................. 329 Sample examination questions ........................................................................................... 303 Aims of the chapter ........................ 260 12........................2........................................................................................................................................... 251 Further reading – detailed recommendations ........................................................................................................ 303 Learning objectives ............................................................................................................................. 286 13......................................................................................1 Postmodernist perspectives on power............................................................................................................................................................................................................4 Organisational strategies and the environment..4 Religion and social conflict ............5 Religion and economic culture ...................................................................................................... 300 A reminder of your learning outcomes.............. 304 14........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................3 Power in organisations ...... 283 13................................................................................ 266 12............. 321 Conclusion .......................... modernity and sociology ................................... 329 A reminder of your learning outcomes....................................................................... 315 14............... 252 Introduction ................................2 Weber: power................................................... 268 12....1 The pluralist model of power ...............................................................................................................................1.............................................................................................. 335 Appendix 3: Full reading list .......... 301 Chapter 14: The sociology of organisations ............................................................. 271 12.................................................................................................

Sharrock and D. Section C Follow links to the BBC’s collection on second wave feminism. (London: Routledge. Francis Perspectives in sociology. 2000) [ISBN 9780415094535]. The full textbook is available to view online via the VLE. E. . Newby The problem of sociology. D. and H. Finance and the Social Sciences Erratum sheet May 2010: First erratum sheet to the 2009 edition of the subject guide Important VLE resources Please note that the following resources are now available on the VLE: • a recorded interview with LSE staff about studying for this unit • an opportunity to ask Rosie Gosling questions about this unit and discuss material with your peers through an online forum. Management. Section A: Social theory and research Two of the essential textbooks are available to view online via the VLE: Cuff. 2001) second edition [ISBN 9780415238540]. 2006) fifth edition [ISBN 9780415301114 (pbk)]. Lee. (London: Routledge. W. Chapter 4 Watch a video of Rosie Gosling and Dr Nigel Dodd discussing Durkheim and Weber’s work. Chapter 14 Note: This chapter – The sociology of organisations – has now been completely rewritten. M.W. one of the works cited in Chapter 2.2790021 Principles of sociology Economics. Note: Section B: Globalisation has been updated for 2010. the author of this section. The Essential reading is now: Waters. the author of The making of a Moonie. Chapter 2 Watch a video of Rosie Gosling interviewing Professor Eileen Barker. (London: Routledge. Globalization.W. Section B: Globalisation Watch a video set of Rosie Gosling interviewing Simon Dickason. Test your understanding with self-quizzes for each chapter. The essential textbook remains the same but the approach is slightly different..

21 Principles of sociology Notes .

(Chapter 1 in Section A will go into much more detail as to the nature of this subject. Students will then be required to apply this knowledge to substantive areas of sociology. You will be encouraged to see the development of sociology as it developed from and reacted to the Enlightenment. one of the most important things to remember is that sociology is more than commonsense! You will be introduced to the subject of sociology and will be encouraged to think how different it is from other social sciences that you may have studied. but you do need to have an enquiring mind and be prepared to read and think. This unit is one of the most popular options in the Diploma in Economics programme as it helps students to be critical of the information they receive and encourages them to think logically and consistently. Management and Information Systems will take this unit as a key ‘servicing unit’ that will provide you with knowledge of the social world and the key ways in which it can be researched. We have designed this unit to provide the necessary grounding in sociological theory and methods of social research.Introduction Introduction What this unit is about Welcome to this unit – Principles of sociology. some feel that it is ‘too theoretical’ or that it does not relate to the ‘real world’. Some people worry about sociology.) The most basic view of sociology is that it is about understanding relationships in human societies. However. You will be introduced to different sociological theories and to the ‘classical’ and more modern sociologists. In all cases we hope you enjoy studying this subject. Students in Business. No formal prerequisites are required to study this unit. We have introduced globalisation as a compulsory topic to illustrate how sociology can help in understanding and explaining this phenomenon. provides the essential grounding for further study in the subject and also provides the knowledge and critical skills which are necessary for the degrees in Management and Business. The relationship between these theories and assumptions of the social world will be investigated and you will see how the techniques of social research are applied in an academic manner. There is a health warning though – if you take this subject you will never see things in the same way again! Principles of sociology is a foundation unit and. You may be taking the BSc Sociology degree or a Diploma for Graduates in Sociology and this unit will be the basis upon which all the other units rest. others suggest that there is too much reading and that it requires great feats of memory. but sociologists do not agree about what societies are and how they should be studied and so no one definition will suffice. 1 . as such. In Section C you will be able to apply these theories and approaches to particular areas in sociology which are of interest to you. We hope to dispel these myths and introduce you to a subject which is interesting and which will provide a basis throughout your studies. What is sociology? First we should start by attempting to define sociology.

Finally. These disagreements have their basis in the fundamental assumptions about what the motors of social change are. LSE’s motto is rerum cognoscere causas which means ‘to know the causes of things’. and how do we ‘know’ if there has been such a change. Do the best that you can • to be co-operative and share ideas and materials. The key aspects in relation to individuals and society are examined through the concepts of role. This is not an easy subject and it requires you to think deeply about the materials and be able to deal with more than one way of thinking about the social world. Globalisation is an important topic. This is not only because of its length and depth but because the subjects covered are essential for the other sections of the syllabus. Section B: Globalisation and social change: compulsory Having obtained some background on the nature of sociology we want you to be able to apply what you know to one of the core sociological problems – social change. not just because we are interested in knowing whether we are living in a new age but because there is so much disagreement about the topic. You should spend at least half of your allocated study time on Section A. The chapters in Section A account for 50 per cent of the marks and are examined by a compulsory question. Section A: Social theory and research: compulsory This has been written by Dr Steve Taylor with Rosemary Gosling. Before you start to study this section you should be aware of the major changes that have occurred in the last two centuries and how the growth of sociology is connected with an attempt to explain these changes. of course. You should not be content with simplistic explanations – you should always look beneath the explanations for a deeper understanding of the social world. It is a good idea to study with other students and friends.) This is an important skill for the world of work where you are often required to work in teams. Thereafter you are free to choose one option only from a variety of topics. 2 . the methods which sociologists use. methodology and the major sociological perspectives. socialisation and identity. which is subdivided into questions requiring short answers and one longer question relating to a particular sociologist or perspective.21 Principles of sociology What skills you will learn from studying this unit By the end of the unit you will have gained knowledge and learnt some important skills: • to be critical of any data and theories that you read or hear about and. It makes up half the syllabus and concentrates on questions relating to the nature of sociology. (If this is not possible. to be critical of your own work • be creative and able to link ideas from this unit and the other disciplines you are studying to create new ways of thinking about social phenomena • to be challenged. and to try to express your ideas with them. The structure of the unit Sections A and B are compulsory for everyone and make up 75 per cent of the syllabus. try thinking aloud.

The reading is directed and draws on the work on epistemology and ontology covered in Section A. but if you don’t. You will be rewarded if you can demonstrate to the Examiners that you have read widely and can apply what you have read and understood to the theories and explanations provided in these chapters. You will be required to reflect on what you know in relation to your own society and you will be rewarded in the examination if you do. read the text allocated. This section has been written by Simon Dickason. The approach taken by the authors in writing these chapters requires you to have a good grounding in sociology before you begin to study one of the chapters. which Section C topic you want to study. The key texts give an in-depth approach to this subject and will require a careful reading. Dr Alexander’s major research is on ‘identity’ and this topic is examined in 3 .Introduction These are not difficult chapters. Section C: Specialist topics: choose one How do I choose which topic to take? To help you choose which one topic from Section C to study in detail we outline here the content of each chapter. for most of these chapters. The authors address theoretical issues directly and give a fresh approach to the study of this subject. It is an opportunity to use the knowledge of sociology that you will have gained from Section A. Gender This has been written by Dr Suki Ali of the Department of Sociology at LSE. It is important that you understand that. You will be exposed to different definitions of ‘race’ and ‘ethnicity’ and the different approaches to the issues raised. Knowledge of the key debates that have been discussed in Section A is important. there is a considerable amount of material which relates to a discussion of the ‘essentially contested’ nature of the core concepts used by the authors. You should be aware of how the sociologists mentioned in the chapters have gathered their data and what theory has guided their research. but you must read around the topic and. especially ontology and epistemology. as in all cases you will be expected to use the key debates to inform your reading of your chosen subject area. You may know already. You will be rewarded for your ability to keep abreast of the debates which you will be introduced to in this unit. You will be expected to demonstrate knowledge of the relevant sociological theories when writing your examination answers. of course. ‘Race’ and ethnicity This has been written by Dr Claire Alexander of the Department of Sociology at LSE and was updated in 2009 by Malcolm James. then this information will help you to think about your interests and how to choose a unit which fits well with your future unit choices. The areas which you should keep abreast of are: • the reactions to the social or global changes that are occurring – the behaviour of the anti-globalists for example and the financial crises that started in 2008 • whether globalisation has increased inequality between and within nations • whether the nation state is becoming less or more important. because of your own personal interests.

Religion and society This chapter. Essential and Further reading. has written this chapter. gender. to read some of the other topics for Section C.21 Principles of sociology this chapter. It is worth noting that reading lists are updated annually and provided online even when the subject guide is not fully revised that year. Reading advice and other resources Reading for this unit is always split into two types. You will find a full and detailed reading list for the whole unit at the end of this subject guide on p. modernisation and globalisation. The material is straightforward but the examination questions will not ask you to describe a particular theory without some criticism. social conflict. power. There is a concentration on the key ontological and epistemological concerns as to the nature of power and the possibility of ‘knowing’ who has power. Although you must choose only one topic to study. This chapter leads on from Section B (Chapters 5–8) on Globalisation and social change very well and you should not attempt this chapter without a clear understanding of globalisation. For full details of the editions and ISBNs please check the reading list at the end of this subject guide. who has taught political sociology at LSE for a number of years. 4 . inequality and organisation. and it is of particular relevance to those of you who are studying for the politics and international relations degree. When taking a sociological approach. you should use relevant material on organisations from this chapter in that unit and vice versa.319. 79 Elements of social and applied psychology and/or other management subjects. it is important not to look at religion in isolation. Power in society Dr Angus Stewart. puts a strong emphasis on research methods. If you are studying unit 107 Introduction to business and management at the same time. You must locate your understanding of organisations clearly within the sociological perspective and be aware of the many different explanations involved. if you choose this chapter it would also be helpful. Social inequality and social injustice This has been written by Dr Angus Stewart. therefore. The sociology of organisations This has been written by Simon Dickason and is of particular interest to you when you take 127 Organisation theory: an interdisciplinary approach. You will need to use your textbooks in a slightly different way for Sections A and B than for section C. if you choose to study this one in depth it would help you if you were to read the Power chapter as well. and to think about how religion intersects with ethnicity. which has been written by Dr David Palmer from the Department of Sociology at LSE. economic culture. although not required of you. There may be some overlap with the Politics foundation unit (114 Democratic politics and the state) but the approach will be different. and considers religion in relation to social integration.

J. A. and K. and J.Introduction Reading for Section A We have provided you with a choice of three major textbooks as introductory reading for Section A. or Giddens. Choose one from: Fulcher. it will support them well. D. However. we have indicated two texts of which you should buy one. J. (Oxford: Oxford University Press. We strongly advise you to buy the fourth edition of Macionis and Plummer. As indicated by its title. you will only need to buy one of them. This is an excellent. some of the chapters have been organised in an unusual way and so it is very important to make use of the directions to specific reading provided in the subject guide. Newby The problem of sociology. clearly written text for the theoretical aspects of the unit such as Section A. This text is easy to read and is well illustrated with many examples. (London: Routledge. Scott Sociology. and methods of social research. This covers all the theories indicated in the reading for Section A. and. We then move on to the textbooks which specifically cover the theoretical aspects. Choose one from: Cuff. However. Sharrock and D. J.. however on its own it does not have enough material for the theoretical aspects of Section A. (Harlow: Prentice Hall. Plummer Sociology: a global introduction. 2008) fourth edition [ISBN 9780132051583 (pbk)]. (Harlow: Prentice Hall. We suggest that you decide which text to buy in relation to your choice of subject in Section C. (London: Routledge. 2008) fifth edition [ISBN 9780745633794 (pbk)]. (Cambridge: Polity Press. however we have also provided references to the third edition: Macionis. The chapters on globalisation and identity are very useful. although it is not essential reading for the Section C chapters on race and gender. 2006) fifth edition [ISBN 9780415301114 (pbk)]. and H. as some of the textbooks are also used as key reading for Section C. Students are very happy using this text. This book is supported by a website and there are lecturers’ notes online. charts and pictures. 2007) third edition [ISBN 9780199285006 (pbk)]. Francis Perspectives in sociology. or Macionis. the relationships between theories and methods. 2005) third edition [ISBN 9780131287464 (pbk)]. E. It does not have as much material on globalisation as Macionis and Plummer or Giddens. It is written in a clear and simple style. W. or Lee. Sociology. it takes a global approach to the subject and so is an ideal text for students studying this subject on the External System. it does not cover many of the theoretical aspects of the unit and will not offer much support for your Section C topic. Plummer Sociology: a global introduction. 5 .W. although the style is clear. and K. 2000) [ISBN 9780415094535].W.

21 Principles of sociology This contains much more material than is required for this unit. At the end of this subject guide we have provided a full list of all reading referred to in this subject guide for ease of reference. You are given reading advice at the start of each chapter. M. However. Reading for Section B There is one major text for this Section which you will need to buy or have access to. We advise you to log in to the VLE regularly and to make use of the forums for this unit to share your ideas and discuss topics with your fellow students. are being made available to you online via the University of London External System Virtual Learning Environment (VLE). We have indicated some in the subject guide. we have no control over this. 2001) second edition [ISBN 9780415238540]. it approaches the subject historically and therefore it helps students to locate the sociologists clearly within the society and time they were writing. However. as with all texts it should be read in relation to the topic studied. beware of the ‘sample essays’ and ‘examination tips’ websites – these may not necessarily help you to write and think in the style and manner that will help you for this unit on the External Programme. Reading for Section C These chapters are written in an academic sociological style and require students to read the key texts in parallel with the material in this subject guide. Websites Websites are increasingly sophisticated sources of information and there is a great deal of material available. It is clearly written and you should have little problem in reading it. such as recordings of interviews with academics and self-testing quizzes. Some web page addresses may change during the life of this subject guide. (London: Routledge. If a page is no longer available please try an Internet search to find its new location. You will need to use the same username and password to access this resource as the ones you are sent to use for the Student Portal. However. Waters. They have not been designed to be read as a novel! You need to do the reading as you tackle each section to ensure that you have fully understood it before you proceed to the next section. The authors have provided you with some thinking points. Again we have indicated the relevant chapters in the textbook in reading advice given in this subject guide. The Online Library can be accessed via the Student Portal at https://my.londonexternal.uk/ 6 . our strong advice is that you should work through your Section C topic slowly and carefully ensuring that you fully understand each section before proceeding to the next. Video/DVD For some chapters we are able to recommend a video/DVD to you. This will help your understanding and provide you with the necessary critical skills required for these chapters. The websites relating to the classical sociologists are usually very good indeed. which may help you by giving you a chance to ‘see’ sociologists in action. Online resources An increasing number of resources.ac. You will also need to refer to the relevant chapters in the compulsory textbooks which you have bought for Section A. Globalization.

we do not need to know all you know! 7 . discussing the issues raised with other students or colleagues. You are required to know all the material that has been indicated in the subject guide. For Section A. You can demonstrate understanding by answering the question that you have been asked directly. We have suggested a study schedule here to help you plan your time. You do not need to mention everything that you have learnt and should answer the question economically. but more importantly you should indicate that you can understand this.Introduction Hours of study and use of this subject guide You should aim to study this unit over eight months and you should spend at least seven hours on this unit each week. You should also carefully check the rubric/ instructions on the paper you actually sit and follow those instructions. At the end of Sections B and C. You will be rewarded if your essays are well structured and if you select and use only material that is relevant to the question. The examination and examination advice Important: the information and advice given in the following section are based on the examination structure used at the time this guide was written. We have provided you with a detailed examination advice section and a full sample examination paper at the end of this subject guide (p. using references and examples which indicate that you are aware of the relative importance of each. Because of this we strongly advise you to always check both the current Regulations for relevant information about the examination.331). You need to make sure that you have clearly understood Sections A and B before moving on to Section C. this is based on completing your unit in one year. especially the concepts involved and the perspectives of the relevant sociologists. There is also advice about how the marks are allocated to each style of question in Section A. The examination structure has been designed in such a way that you will be rewarded for your knowledge of the subject and your ability to demonstrate an understanding of the key issues. we suggest that you might also like to look at the past years’ examination papers. You will need to read widely and think deeply. Please note that subject guides may be used for several years. You will need to adjust this for your own study year. You should practise answering the short questions in Section A and gradually build up to answering the essays for Sections B and C. Remember: the examination tests your knowledge and understanding of the subject. and the current Examiners’ commentaries where you should be advised of any forthcoming changes. sample examination questions have been included for you to practise on. starting in October.

21 Principles of sociology Notes 8 .

we shall be addressing four key questions: • What is sociology about? (Chapter 1) • How do sociologists do research? (Chapter 2) • What is the relationship between theory and method in sociology? (Chapter 3) • How have sociologists tried to explain how societies work and change? (Chapter 4) 9 .Section A: Social theory and research Section A: Social theory and research In Section A.

21 Principles of sociology Notes 10 .

please refer to the full reading lists in the Appendix to this subject guide. It is worth noting that reading lists are updated annually and provided online even when the subject guide is not fully revised that year. J. what is meant by active learning. Plummer Sociology. 2007) Chapters 1 and 4. (A reminder: for full details of the editions and ISBNs please check the reading list at the end of this subject guide. Essential reading For full edition details. 2008) Chapters 1 and 2. (Harlow: Prentice Hall.Chapter 1: What is sociology? Chapter 1: What is sociology? Written by Dr Steve Taylor. social change and the relationship between the individual and society • how our identities arise from social relationships • what sociologists mean by socialisation and identity. Scott Sociology. and having completed the essential reading and activities. and how Parsons and Mead put forward different explanations of these processes. but note that these books can be a little more difficult to understand than the textbooks. and K. and what examiners will be looking for • what sociologists study • some of the key ways that sociology gives us insights that go beyond commonsense understanding • what is meant by thinking sociologically and sociologists’ interest in social order. you should have a clearer idea of: • how to study sociology. or Giddens. Further reading It is worth dipping into any of the following classic introductions to help give you a ‘feel’ of sociology and sociological thinking. Learning objectives By the end of this chapter. Sociology. J.) 11 . 2005 and 2008 editions) Chapters 1 and 7. or Macionis. (Cambridge: Polity Press. Aims of the chapter The aims of this chapter are to give you a clearer idea of the following: • how to approach studying sociology • what sociology is • the differences between sociology and commonsense • what is meant by sociological thinking • the relationship between the individual and society • socialisation and identity formation. A. (Oxford: Oxford University Press. and J. A global introduction. Choose one of: Fulcher.

A short video/DVD giving some insights into ‘sociological thinking’ by explaining what sociology is about and showing how a sociologist might bring a very different perspective to everyday things like the mobile (or hand) phone and the security camera. 1990). (London: Routledge. (Harmondsworth: Penguin. but it is also about trying to understand ourselves. self and society. S. and how societies make us who we are. Thinking sociologically. 8 www. 1934). mental disorder. The social system. 1951). P Learning to labour.com]. you should find it quite easy to follow. Gintis Schooling in capitalist America. So how did the world become this way? Why are people’s lives today so different from those of their parents and grandparents? What are the possibilities for our lives in the future? These are the questions that sociology asks and attempts to answer. (Harmondsworth: Penguin. Parsons. G. Willis. As prosperity grows and cultural taboos break down. Mills. Sociology is about trying to understand the social world. Goffman. geared towards the British school syllabuses but it has a lot of good introductory material and useful links to specialist sociology websites.uk This is a British sociology website. 1993) [ISBN .org. Once you start thinking sociologically you will find the later chapters on research and theory and the topic areas covered later in this chapter and in Sections B and C easier to understand. drug addiction and self harm continue to rise. Mead. it seems that the drive for ever greater prosperity and new-found freedoms and lifestyle choices come at a price. . 1963). 9781857421705]. P Invitation to sociology. 2004) [8 www.1 Introduction We are living in a world of dramatic and unprecedented social change: new technologies and cultural upheavals are transforming our lives. Websites 8 www.com This website gives links to a range of other sociology resources. C. (University of Chicago. It is about understanding what it means to ‘think sociologically’. Wright The sociological imagination. (Oxford: Blackwell. we hope. T. (New York: Free Press. (Aldershot: Ashgate. Works cited Bowles. The presentation of the self in everyday life.sociolog. Video/DVD Introducing Sociology (halo vine.halovine.sociology. This chapter is designed to help you start thinking like a sociologist. millions of people in modern industrialised societies are confronted by more choices than ever about how to live their lives. It is not about learning theories or facts and figures. It is simple and. Mind. However. take time out regularly to stop and 12 . E. 1970). (Harmondsworth: Penguin. Z. and H. 1976) [ISBN 9780465097180 (pbk)]. 1. Berger. as rates of crime. To make the most of this chapter.21 Principles of sociology Bauman. 1971) [ISBN 9780140213508 (pbk)].

by exploring how personal lives may be influenced by wider social changes. You also have to question things. Activity 1. Look at your list. Lists of ‘learned’ points will not impress examiners. This involves actively thinking rather than passively trying to absorb information as a sponge absorbs liquids. sometimes. How would you explain them? Are they just individual differences. that has been set. Obviously. you have to criticise what you read. then choose another relative or acquaintance 20–30 years older than you. you must be able to: • describe key sociological ideas. Active learning Some people may tell you that examinations are all about memory. but rather ask yourself all the time. Maybe your aspirations are different from your mother or father? Maybe your values are different? Maybe you have (or hope to have) very different work from your mother or father? Now try to account for those differences. Before reading any further attempt the Activity below.Chapter 1: What is sociology? reflect on the points being made and attempt to answer the questions that have been set in the Activities. and examiners will be looking for evidence of this understanding. All these skills involve active learning and thinking. you are already starting to think like a sociologist. You have to apply your knowledge to the problem.1 A changing world Write down five ways that your life is different from that of your mother (if you are female) and your father (if you are male) when they were your age.2 Approaching sociology Critical thinking So how should you approach studying sociology? It’s important to make it clear from the start that sociology is not a subject you can simply learn. Do not rush the chapter. 1. So if you find yourself simply trying to remember lists of facts you need to learn in a different way in order to do well in sociology. or question. Obviously there are all sorts of possibilities. It doesn’t matter what you have written down. compare different ideas and. theories and studies • discuss and compare sociological concepts. or can you relate them to wider changes in your society? For example. theories and studies to different aspects of social life. to do well in sociology. have educational opportunities. theories and studies • apply sociological ideas. The idea of actively thinking about a problem can be illustrated with an 13 . This is wrong. you have to recall information in all subjects. ‘What does this tell me about how a sociologist thinks about the world?’ Let’s start with an example. More specifically. but the main emphasis in sociology is on testing your thinking abilities rather than your memory. patterns of work or certain social values changed since your parents were young? Do you think these might have influenced some of the differences you have identified between yourself and your mother or father? By asking yourself these kinds of questions. If you cannot compare yourself with a parent for some reason. Sociology is primarily about understanding ideas.

to ‘Identify three ways sociologists can study the past’. It is a useful activity to try to think about a topic first before reading something about it. focus on the problem you are confronted with. Now try to develop your definition by attempting two further questions: • What do you think sociologists study? • How do you think a sociologist’s understanding of some aspect of social life would be different from a ‘commonsense’ understanding? The study of social relationships The word sociology comes from a combination of the Latin socius (meaning ‘companion’) and the Greek logos (meaning ‘the study of’).2 What is sociology? Before reading any further write down in one sentence what you think sociology is. looking for links between different parts of the subject. Imagine you have returned to your house and found you have forgotten your key and there is no one in. friends and people we know at work or college 14 . for example. ‘Describe three ways to get into your house. Is there some other way you can get into the house without a key? How many other people have keys and which one of these people would it be the best to contact? Is there somewhere else you could go and wait? Should you smash a window to get in? Here. Sociologists are primarily interested in all that happens to people in terms of their relationships with others. such as asking yourself questions. Let’s begin by introducing some of the key ideas of sociology and the questions it asks. How can this story help us to tackle questions in sociology? You certainly won’t be given a question asking you to. 1.’ Answering such questions well involves going through the same process described above in relation to being locked out of your house. Stop and think about this for a moment. questioning the things you read about. This involves active processes throughout your period of study. or social relations. or ‘Compare the costs and benefits of using structured and unstructured interviews. you are also actively thinking about the problem and working out possible solutions.3 What is sociology? Activity 1. so the word literally means the study of companionship. The first step on the road to understanding sociology is to ask ourselves what the subject is about. You have to ask yourself some questions and work out the best solution. noting down what you do not understand and looking for the answers from your books or this subject guide. such as family members. compare and contrast their relative merits and. These may be: • personal relationships with people we know well. above all. You have to work out the possibilities. Try this even if you have never studied the subject before. who else has a key?) but you are doing much more than that.21 Principles of sociology example from everyday life. you are certainly drawing on your existing knowledge (for example. Any subject is easier to understand once you have some grasp of its field of inquiry and what it is trying to do.’ But you might be asked.

a decision by corporate executives in the United States to shut down an overseas plant can affect the working and domestic lives of thousands of people who live nowhere near the USA. educational. From this starting point. between different parts of a society and between individuals and societies. where behaviour tends to be regular or patterned. Thus it is very difficult to give a precise definition of sociology because it operates at different levels. Therefore. The fact that sociology is about social relationships that can take many different forms means that its scope is very wide. and government institutions. Types of family life. educational institutions are dependent on the government for their funding. For example. for example. Normally they are organised in various ways. directly or indirectly. Sociologists call this institutional interdependence. To give a simple example: productive institutions are dependent on educational institutions for a skilled workforce. many sociologists adopt a structural. What we loosely refer to as a ‘society’ is actually a complex of many social institutions.1: Institutional interdependence As a result of this institutional interdependence. such as those we have with people who serve us in shops. Economy Workforce Education Funding Taxes Government Figure 1. In contemporary industrial societies we find. take away our rubbish or drive the taxi we are in • indirect relations with people we neither know nor see. such as schools or families. economic. political. family. It can range from things that affect large parts of the world over long periods of time. the key idea in all sociological research is that people’s lives and behaviour cannot be understood apart from the social contexts in which they participate. how they are produced and how they shape people’s lives. rely on productive institutions to create the wealth to finance government spending. Although these institutions seem to be separate and distinct they are also related to each other in various ways. sociologists want to know more about these social contexts. legal and religious institutions. Social institutions Social relationships are rarely random. Sociologists refer to these patterns of behaviour as social institutions.Chapter 1: What is sociology? • impersonal relationships. education and religious practice are examples of social institutions. or macro. relationships between different societies. Sociologists are interested in the study of individuals’ personalities and behaviour but they are also interested in how they relate to other people. but whose actions influence our lives. perspective that means looking at societies as 15 . such as industrialisation or globalisation. the word relationship is very important in sociology. to the study of specific social organisations. right down to two people having a brief conversation in an elevator. in turn. However. All sociology is about relationships of one sort or another: for example.

the relationships between them and how individuals experience them. they are also interested in the relationship between individuals and institutions. their values. but it is important to note that there is an important difference between sociology and natural sciences. as Bowles and Gintis suggested. This means that social institutions are produced by the conscious activities of human beings. The only point in going to school was to ‘have a laugh’ and make fun of those who did work. the boys he studied deliberately failed themselves. They argued that schools prepared large numbers of young people.21 Principles of sociology systems. even their darkest secrets. It also explores the ‘inside story’ of people’s lives. An interesting postscript to this study is that Paul Willis’ services are now very much in demand from the governments of some newly industrialising countries puzzled by the fact so many young students are turning their back on the educational services provided for them. adopted a structural approach to explore this problem. Sociology as a science? Another question that is often asked about sociology is whether or not it is a science. Now read 16 . then. and trying to work out how different institutions ‘function’ to produce particular outcomes. or small-scale. Sociology. The result of this is that sociologists are also interested in the subjective aspects of life. Bowles and Gintis (1976). this ‘structural approach’ tells only part of the story. Exploring this question usually involves adopting a micro. For example. Sociologists are not only interested in exploring relationships between social institutions. They had already decided that education was irrelevant to their futures. Think about this for a moment. children from lower-class or working-class backgrounds have more problems at school and leave with fewer qualifications. that is how people interpret and make sense of the situations in which they find themselves. which are natural processes. how they make sense of social situations. Paul Willis (1977. beliefs. such as physics or chemistry. usually from the more deprived backgrounds. This illustrates how sociological research can help in the formation and analysis of government policy. as we shall see. He found that rather than simply being failed by the school and the society. subordinate jobs. Can you think of some reasons for this? Two US sociologists. Summary Sociology may be generally defined as the study of the social relationships. is not just about just about the wider ‘outside’ picture of patterns of social organisation and behaviour. However. on average. reprinted 1993) made a detailed study of 12 British working-class boys. by refusing to work at school. the weather and chemical processes within the body. We shall be looking at this issue in much more detail in Chapter 3. The subject of sociological research – social institutions – is cultural rather than natural. in a famous sociological study called Learning to Labour. for low-paid. which they saw as being in manual labour. if the research calls for it. in contrast to things like gravity. prejudices and. Sociologists in the UK and the USA studying the relationships between the institutions of family and school have found that. Sociologists explore different forms of social institutions. approach and looking at small segments of institutions in much greater detail.

what is different about specialist sociologists? There are many answers to this question but here we are going to look at three of the most important ones. We don’t just learn about social life from our own experiences. look back to the answer you gave to this question in Activity 1. So. look at Chapter 1 of Mills (1970). because answering it is a good way to find out more about what sociologists do and how they think about the world. we are also bombarded with information about our own and other societies from newspapers. Sociology is different from commonsense because it involves: • asking distinct sociological questions • doing research. If you want to read a little more deeply. So. although I shall suggest some further reading throughout. It’s a perfectly fair assumption. Therefore.2 on p.4 Sociology and commonsense In the next three sections your main reading will be this subject guide rather than your textbooks. molecules or cells simply from our everyday experiences. what’s causing these problems and what could. Are we all sociologists? It’s interesting how many people think that sociology is just commonsense. chemistry and biology. After all. using any one of the textbooks we have recommended by Fulcher and Scott (2007). Much of it is directly accessible to us and we begin learning about it from the moment we are born. We can only know about them from expert knowledge. we cannot understand the workings of things like atoms. It is important that you attempt the activities that have been designed to illustrate key points and help give you a ‘feel’ of the subject. it is easy to justify the need for specialist subjects like physics. But first. by the time we are grown up.Chapter 1: What is sociology? This is a good place to start reading to develop your understanding of some of the issues raised here. most of us have developed a number of social skills and an extensive knowledge of the social world around us. In a way. be done to make things better. we are all sociologists of a kind because.14 concerning how you think sociology is different from commonsense. and should. 17 . Giddens (2008) or Macionis and Plummer (2005 or 2008). People also have theories and opinions about their society. 1. But we can’t say the same about the social world. Berger’s Invitation to sociology takes a different approach and is very entertaining. is the sociologist’s understanding of societies any different from everyday. knowledge of society. They are not directly accessible to us. and • applying or testing sociological theories. We call this ‘lay’. radio and television and the Internet. what’s wrong with it. and I shall use the example of crime to illustrate them. commonsense understanding? Can a sociologist tell you anything about social life that you couldn’t have worked out for yourself? It is worth pursuing this question. but note that this is more complex. or commonsense.

Sociologists are interested in how these definitions are constructed in everyday life. interesting about this ‘new’ culture? What do you like or dislike about it? Finally. 18 . The conversations you hear are usually about how bad crime is. For example. the laws relating to the prohibiting of homosexual relationships have been changed and it is not illegal to be homosexual. including the UK. If you have travelled to another country for work or a holiday. they are also interested in how crime contributes to social order. and spend a little time pretending you are a visitor from another country and have never been here before. Recall how much you took in.3 Making the familiar strange Try this yourself. Making the familiar strange means learning to look at your familiar environment in the same way. However. for example. which social groups have the power to define some acts (but not others) as crimes and some individuals (but not others) as criminals? What is considered as a crime. Thus. is there anything you might now question or do differently as a result of ‘your visit’? But be careful here. whereas other acts that may be equally harmful are seen as quite acceptable? Why do societies change their minds about what is and what isn’t a crime and what should be done about crime? For example. above all. it was quite legal for a man to rape his wife but illegal to be a practising homosexual. or a tourist in a foreign land. the people. Now it is illegal for a man to rape his wife. or whatever. why are some actions defined as ‘crimes’ in the first place. For example. They may feel that you are playing tricks on them and may take exception to your behaviour. observed that it is only by identifying certain acts as crimes. college or home. how different the houses were. the streets. What this shows is that what is defined as a crime is socially defined. Write down what you notice. by the legal system. certainly in countries like the United States and the UK that have high reported crime rates. What questions spring to mind? What do you find odd. why it happens and. that people are made aware of the boundaries between acceptable and unacceptable behaviour. but in many countries. Select a setting that is very familiar to you. some people may not understand that you are ‘doing’ sociology. From this perspective. in the UK 40 years ago. sociologists question some of the things that most people just take for granted about crime. such as your place of work. is what the law states is a crime. Another difference between sociological and commonsense thinking – as we shall see in the next chapter – is that sociologists are interested in how everyday social order is maintained. Sociologists are also interested in these questions and a number of sociologists work in crime prevention. The famous French sociologist. returning to your ‘real life’. and labelling certain people as criminals and punishing them. Activity 1. paradoxically. by looking at it with the eyes of a stranger.21 Principles of sociology Asking sociological questions: making the familiar strange Most people feel they have some understanding of crime and. or some of the customs. what can be done to stop or at least reduce it. people spend quite a lot of time talking about it. think back to the first day or two when it was new to you. However laws are changed by people and laws change over time. amusing. This means trying to see the taken-forgranted world around you afresh. The famous US sociologist Peter Berger – whose book Invitation to sociology we have recommended as further reading for this chapter – says that part of the sociologist’s art is making the familiar become strange. Emile Durkheim (1858–1917). thinking as a sociologist also raises other questions. From this point of view sociologists are not just interested in how crime disrupts social order.

Doing research People in modern societies probably feel they know something about crime – such as whether it’s going up or down or which social groups are committing most of it – because they are bombarded with information about crime from newspapers. The process of doing sociological research. section 3. However. the first answer to the question of how sociology is different from commonsense is that sociologists see the world differently and ask different questions about it. Maybe the bus has broken down. Maybe it’s because of the traffic. However. Further reading See Berger (1963) Chapter 2. sociologists studying crime would use many other sources of information. it is not just that sociologists have access to more sources of information. I am standing at the bus stop but my bus hasn’t arrived. such as carry on waiting or get a taxi. like the process speaking a foreign language or playing chess. Maybe it came early. sociologists studying crime have access to much wider sources of information than most people who. Sociologists are also interested in how the media report crime. they also collect and organise this information in very specific and systematic ways. are dependent on what the media tell them. So. So. Why is it not here? I might then begin to theorise about the problem by drawing on my commonsense understanding of why a bus might be late. How do you think sociologists might study crime? Sociologists: • examine the official crime rates to see how crime is related to aspects of society. such as geographical region or people’s age or social background • explore how the statistics are produced and how reliable they are • interview people who have committed crimes • talk to victims of crime • observe the police at work • study the workings of the courts and the legal system • join criminal gangs • visit prisons and have even have had themselves locked up to observe prison life from the inside! In short. involves applying particular skills. You will be reading more about this in Chapter 3. unless they have been a victim of crime or are criminals themselves. For example.Chapter 1: What is sociology? crime actually plays a part in maintaining social order.2. magazines and television. Applying sociological theories In everyday life we all draw on our commonsense understanding to theorise about things that puzzle us. My theorising may then influence what I do next. In sociology these are called research methods and we shall be looking at these in the next chapter. we can see that a second major difference between the layperson and the sociologist is that sociology involves the systematic study of societies from a wide range of sources. 19 .

A person can be said to be anomic. status and power. or goals. have had a bad upbringing and so on – Merton’s explanation locates the causes of crime in terms of the organisation of wider society. As the subject has evolved. Merton’s theory predicted – quite rightly as it turned out – that as long as Western societies encourage people to want more and more material goods while effectively preventing a large proportion of the population from ever obtaining them legitimately. they are in a state of anomie and more likely to try to obtain their goals by illegitimate means through crime. For example. conflicts between different groups in society. Summary Most people have some commonsense understanding of societies simply by living in them. a key concept in sociology is anomie. sociologists have developed very general frameworks of ideas called sociological theories that help explain how societies work and change. or when we hear about social issues in the press or on TV it is usually about things that people feel . Robert Merton (1910–2003). have no legitimate means of achieving these aspirations. are going ‘wrong’ with society. Sociological problems When most people think about society. In this section we shall look at this sociological thinking in a little more detail. increasing crime. although commonsense theories tend to explain crime in terms of the characteristics of individuals – they are bad. However. sociological understanding is different from commonsense in at least three important respects: sociologists tend to ask different questions. or deregulated. So. who do not have access to good educational institutions or useful social contacts. used the concept of anomie to develop a sociological theory of rising crime in US society. most people from disadvantaged backgrounds. when they have aspirations. A US sociologist. Therefore. 20 .5 Thinking sociologically In the previous section I suggested that one way that sociology is distinguished from commonsense is that sociologists think about social life rather differently. Although criminals are clearly deviating from society’s norms by committing crimes. 1. You will be reading more about Merton in the section on structural functionalism in Chapter 4. crime will continue to rise. He argued that although the culture of US society encourages everyone to pursue the ‘American dream’ of achieving wealth. they are also conforming to US society’s norms by wanting greater material rewards. The fact that sociologists have access to this specialised knowledge means that they can provide explanations of human behaviour that are different from commonsense. do systematic research and apply sociological theories.21 Principles of sociology Sociologists also draw on their commonsense understanding when theorising about human behaviour. growing ‘disrespectful behaviour’ of young people. However. without any obvious means of obtaining them. what makes sociological theorising different from commonsense theorising is that sociologists have another source of knowledge to draw upon. This does not mean that Merton’s theory was necessarily right – indeed it has been modified and criticised – rather I have used it here simply to illustrate how explanations drawn from sociological theory are significantly different from commonsense explanations.

(p. • Unemployment. You’ll see evidence of the social order that is all around you. such as a busy street. sociologists are interested in why people break the ‘rules’ of a society – such as committing crimes or behaving in odd. Why is there is this order and regularity to social life? How and why do societies hold together? Why do most people seem to follow the rules of a society or social group most of the time? Where does this order come from? Are these rules generally agreed? Or do some groups impose their rules on others? 21 . how this order changes and its relationship to the behaviour of individuals. sociology is about much more than this and its focus is much wider.4 Social and sociological problems Which of the following do you think are better described as ‘social problems’. However. not racial discrimination but racially defined segregation. ‘ordinary’ and so on. Thinking sociologically means being curious about the order of everyday social life. Imagine you are seeing it all for the first time. not divorce but marriage. • The role of educational institutions in modern societies. Most people take this order for granted and the only time they notice it is when someone breaks a rule. a shopping mall or crowded subway. Let’s look at each of these in turn. The puzzle of social order Next time you find yourself in a crowded place. Sociologists are interested in social problems and some work for organisations that address some of these problems. Although sociologists are interested in things that people feel are ‘bad’ or ‘wrong’ in societies. This is partly right. Pause and write down some examples of social order. these rules are the starting point. just take a few minutes to stop and look. We begin by asking why the world is this way. ‘acceptable’. ‘right’. and which do you think are better described as ‘sociological problems’? • Rising divorce rates in your society. Sociological problems. For example. You might have mentioned: • people queuing at bus stops • people waiting for others to get off the train before they get on • cars stopping at a red light • people paying for the goods they take from the shops. they are just as interested in things that are seen to be ‘good’. then. anti-social ways – but they are more interested in the rules themselves and how they work. However. • The organisation of economic production in your society. by driving through a red light or going straight to the front of a queue rather than the back. ‘normal’. • How societies change.Chapter 1: What is sociology? Most people – including most people starting sociology – say that sociology is about studying social problems and perhaps helping to find ‘solutions’ to them. or parts of societies. for sociologists. As Berger puts it in Invitation to sociology: The fundamental sociological problem is not crime but law.50) Activity 1. are about how societies. work in the way they do. not revolution but government. • Illegal drug use.

above all. but we can introduce two of the most influential figures here. by a new form of free market economy that he called industrial capitalism. The injustices they produced. See the section on Karl Marx in Chapter 4 for further reading. have worse health and die at younger ages. were losing much of their influence. to end up with lower educational qualifications. 22 . output. The late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were times of reform and revolution and new sources of power. These early sociologists tried to make sense of this new industrial age by identifying what they believed were its essential characteristics and comparing them with what had gone before. We shall be looking at these theories in more detail in Chapter 4. The fact that societies could be transformed so dramatically in such a comparatively short space of time led scholars to start exploring the sources of social order and change. For example: • economic data show that the patterns of employment. capitalist societies were constantly changing. those from economically poorer social backgrounds – sometimes referred to in sociology as socially deprived or lower social class – are more likely. the modern age was characterised. whereas journalists. and people’s increasing awareness of them. arrests. we would find more evidence of the regularities of social life. imports and exports of a country are very similar from one year to the next • demographic data – that is. on average. are more interested in the unusual and troublesome. get married and get divorced • rule breaking – reported crimes. information about the distribution of populations – show that in any given country roughly the same number of people are born each year. the everyday. would lead to revolutionary change and the creation of what Marx believed would be fairer communist societies where resources would be distributed to people according to their needs. and Marx was optimistic that they were sowing the seeds of their own destruction. the mass media and to some extent the general public. Sociology is about documenting and explaining these kinds of regularities and patterns. He argued that most of the wealth it created remained in the hands of the small owning class who made their profits by exploiting the labour power of the workers. such as the Church and landed aristocracy. the ‘taken-forgranted’.21 Principles of sociology If we were to dig a little deeper and do some research. rates of mental illness and even suicide rates are much the same year in and year out • social differences – there are significant and consistent variations between different social groups in a society: for example. Traditional institutions of power and control. work in lowpaid jobs. Marx was very critical of capitalism. European societies were industrialising and there was a mass movement of people from the rural to the urban areas. whose ideas were later to transform the world. Origins of sociology The formal study of sociology began in the nineteenth century as an attempt to make sense of massive changes that were sweeping over Western Europe at that time. and the subject we now know as sociology was born. such as the property-owning capitalist class and organised labour movements were beginning to emerge. So. sociologists are more interested the usual. However. For Karl Marx (1818–1883).

Weber believed that Marx could be right about capitalism being replaced by communism. which is also a form of alienation.5 Marx and Weber today: alienation and creativity You will be reading much more about Marx and Weber later in your studies. Thus. However. In fact he thought it would almost certainly lead to an even more bureaucratic state having more control over people’s lives. For example. modern life is characterised by increasing bureaucratic control and regulation of people’s lives. if you really want to be a musician but feel you have to study banking to get a good job. few people have the opportunity to realise their creativity. This is the effect of rationalisation. For Weber there was no way out of the ‘iron cage’. you might be said to be alienated from your true vocation. Other examples of the rationalisation of life included the replacement of religion by science as the major source of intellectual authority. Activity 1. the principle that studying societies (or parts of them) involves seeing them as changing social processes is still an essential element of thinking sociologically. However. Marx argued that people are naturally creative. For Weber. the displacement of elites based on birth by ones based on qualifications. The term alienation means being separated.2. of these ideas apply to your society or to your personal experiences? Can you think of some examples that: a) illustrate b) contradict Marx and Weber’s views? You will be dealing with this topic in more detail in Chapter 4. creativity and imagination. or both. They simply have to ‘follow the rules’ and lose the ability to think for themselves.Chapter 1: What is sociology? Max Weber (1864–1920). and the increasing bureaucratic administration of life. Now if we just look at our contemporary world. He argued that the modern age was characterised by a process of increasing rationalisation. but in terms of what they own and what they consume. He called this the ‘iron cage’ of rationality. Weber did not think this would be any liberation. For example. unlike Marx. By rationalisation he meant the change from doing things because they had always been done that way (traditional action) to identifying outcomes and calculating the most efficient means of achieving them (rational action). or estranged from our true selves. It may seem strange to be asked to read about theorists who were writing about societies in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Most sociologists today are not as ambitious as Marx or Weber. most people learn to evaluate their lives not so much in terms of what they do. Weber was concerned that the remorseless spread of rational bureaucracy was stifling individual initiative. it may be worth stopping for a moment and thinking about one of their key ideas and seeing if it has any relevance today. They tend to focus on particular aspects of societies rather than trying to construct such large-scale and general theories of social change. This is ‘caused’ by the way production is organised. However. the terms ‘health’ and ‘illness’ seem clear enough. Therefore. another key founder of sociology. I am a medical sociologist and that means I study health and illness. Do you think either. However. looking back shows just how 23 . section 4. The bureaucratic efficiency of the organisation can take away the creativity of the people working in those organisations. For Marx. because the profit motive predominates above all else in capitalist societies. took a different and altogether more pessimistic view. they are alienated from their natural selves.

21 Principles of sociology much our ideas of what constitutes ‘health and ‘illness’ have changed over time. This raises many questions for the sociologist.6 below. or parts of them. rather than a one-way. as some claim. rejecting the study of the ‘individual’ in favour of the ‘group’. sociologists are interested in how this changing social order shapes our lives as individuals. then. medicine and psychology. as continually changing social processes. Sociologists are interested in studying individuals. Many social scientists and scientists would agree with this. 1. thinking sociologically involves seeing the relationship between the individual and society as a two-way. for example – that provides the key to understanding human behaviour. Maybe there is more of society ‘in you’ than you realise? You and society: identity and role What we would like you to do for this section is to think about yourself and your relationship to the society in which you live. Start by completing Activity 1. societies also create us. street. Above all. in important respects. such as: why this is happening. As individuals we obviously create societies but sociologists argue that. We will come back to this activity again so it is important you take a little time to fill it in now. Sociologists are particularly interested in documenting and explaining social order and the processes by which this order changes over time. present and developing ideas that help explain societies. You will be looking at this topic in more detail in Section B on globalisation. arguing that as societies are clearly created by individuals. Summary Whereas social problems are about things people feel are ‘wrong’ with societies. Further reading Berger (1963) Chapter 8. Sociologists use the term medicalisation to describe the process whereby more and more aspects of life are being labelled as illnesses. Rather. sociological problems take a much wider focus and ask how societies work and change in the ways they do. 24 . long-term unhappiness and disruptive behaviour by children in school – are now seen as medical conditions requiring treatments. how it is happening and whether or not we are gaining or losing out by being persuaded to see more and more aspects of our life as illnesses over which we have no control? Sociological thinking. involves moving to and fro between past. How does this happen? We shall start exploring this process here by asking you to look at your relationship to society.6 The individual and society Commonsense thinking holds that societies are all about individuals. it is the study of the individual – through biology. In questioning this view sociologists are not. and a lot of sociological research involves talking to and observing individuals. In modern societies many things that were simply seen as part of life a century ago – such as pregnancy.

British 2. wife 7. These are familiar.6 Self and society Imagine you have 10 words to describe the person you are to someone who has never met you. Julie’s list I am: 1. hairdresser 5. that is. Afro-Caribbean 3. Afro-Caribbean and female. Social identity Julie’s first three answers are British. female 4. characteristics she shares with millions of other people. Don’t worry if you put in things that are very different from her. each of them has a social component. mother 8. Ask yourself why you think these words say something about you as a person? What do they tell other people about you? Now look at the list below compiled by one of my students.Chapter 1: What is sociology? Activity 1. student 6. everyday words but. that is a label that places people in particular social categories. There is no ‘right answer’ to the question: describe yourself. I am: 1………………………………… 2………………………………… 3………………………………… 4………………………………… 5………………………………… 6………………………………… 7………………………………… 8………………………………… 9………………………………… 10………………………………… Check over your list and spend a few moments asking yourself why you have chosen these words. popular. add a few additional comments to your original list. Julie. Let’s look at Julie’s answers in a little more detail. attractive 10. If you can. Write down the 10 words you would use. if you think about it. Sociologists usually refer to these things as part of our social identity. People have different ways of doing it. 25 . they refer to relationships with others. intelligent 9.

Social and ethnic groups tend to place different expectations on males and females and this then shapes the subsequent behaviour of boys and girls and men and women. These are also common everyday words. access to public places). availability of employment opportunities. show a better standard of behaviour and help around the house more. It is also social.7 Gender differences Stop and think about this last example for a minute and write down five ways that you think your life would be different if you had been born male rather than female. For example.21 Principles of sociology Let’s take nationality first. Most nation states. We don’t just become men or women. By an ethnic group. they also have their own traditions. In answers 4–7 she has told us about her occupation. for many people. how we view the behaviour of others and how we ‘see’ the world. Nationality and ethnicity confer identities on people that influence their relationships. government and laws. Describing herself as British and Afro-Caribbean suggests that. or countries. Although gender may appear to be purely biological. Activity 1. gender is not just a biological category. or with a combination of the two. For example. although nationality is a very clear and unambiguous source of identity for some people. Indian. as we are simply born either male or female. To say I am Malaysian. not only have their own language. customs and generally accepted ways of behaving. in most cultures. Which of these differences do you think are primarily due to biological causes (for example. In important respects we learn to be men or women through social interaction. whether a person identifies primarily with a nation or with an ethnic group. the same sociological ideas apply. Sociologists refer to these as norms. it’s not the same for others. boys are expected to be ‘tough’ and ‘masculine’.) Like Julie. or more. sociologists mean a social group that has certain common characteristics. for Julie. sociologists have shown that gender has important social dimensions. They affect how we behave. Many countries are increasingly comprised of different ethnic groups. both her nationality and ethnicity are important sources of identity. women bear children) and which of them do you think are due to the way in which your society is organised (for example its cultural values. for sociologists. However. Many of these norms vary over time within a particular country and also vary between countries. You too may have put down your nationality. (See Chapter 10 on ‘Race’ and ethnicity for a further discussion on this point. whereas girls are usually expected to be more mature. Thus. and boisterous and aggressive behaviour is usually tolerated more in boys than in girls. Singaporean or British is to say much more than I live in a particular region of the world. as they are for many people. important source of identity than their national identity. or female rather than male. For many people their ethnicity may be an equally. but they have also have specific social expectations attached to 26 . Social roles Like Julie. you probably put down your gender as one of the most important ways of describing yourself. This is because. language. customs and institutions. that she is a student and that she is a wife and a mother. history. However. values and behaviour. such as a shared culture. you may also have put down some of the things you do. their nationality is still an important statement of their social identity. These cultural norms have an important influence on us. smoking in public places or consuming alcohol are legal in some countries but illegal in others. men are physically stronger.

you are a mother. Let’s take the ‘script’ of being a student. cinema and on television. They expect students to conduct themselves in certain ways. or you may neglect your children as a mother. However. Of course. you are given a ‘mothering script’. You may behave like a child at college. 27 . because it is as if societies are giving people scripts they are expected to follow rather like actors in a play. But how does a person know whether or not they are intelligent? If you are a student. are doing more than teaching students academic subjects. when you think about it. or beautiful. work without the close supervision they had at school and hand in work that is properly presented and referenced. shout at the teachers and do no work. Other people then confirm and reinforce this identity by looking at the person with approval or admiration. At first sight these characteristics appear to be purely ‘personal’ rather than social but.Chapter 1: What is sociology? them. Sociologists sometimes refer to these as social roles. for example. a person may see themselves as attractive. then. Similarly. when you think about it. listen to their lecturers. easy-going or stressed. if like Julie. For example. such as being thrown out of college or having your children taken away from you. you may also have put some personal characteristics on your list. But. They are also presenting them with an identity: ‘this is the sort of person you are expected to be while you are here’. you are expected to love your child and (in most cases) take the main responsibility for its upbringing and its day-to-day welfare. What do you think that involves? Colleges obviously expect their students to do academic work. there are certain social criteria by which you can judge this. Julie has said she thinks she’s intelligent. they also have social aspects to them. Sociologists refer to these characteristics as aspects of our personal identity. For example. attend classes. One mother may choose to stay at home. if your teachers praise your contributions in class. make a few brief notes about some of the expectations you think are placed on them. Colleges. You could even tear up your ‘social script’ and do something entirely different. people can interpret their scripts in different ways. Similarly. they usually expect rather more than this.8 Roles Have you put any of these social roles on your list? If so. you may have said that you are hardworking or lazy. Personal identity Like Julie (answers 8–10). give you good marks and write favourable comments on your coursework – or even tell you that with your natural ability you should be doing much better! – then you are more likely to begin to develop an idea of yourself as capable or intelligent. like actors. while a third works full-time and arranges childcare. things that say something about you as a specific individual. Activity 1. because their face and body shape fit the cultural norms of attractiveness as defined in magazines. outgoing or shy. social consequences will normally follow. rather than as a social role you share with millions of others. This may then be confirmed by getting good marks in the exams. asking them for dates and telling them how lovely they are. another may work part-time. Whether we conform to social expectations or not (and most of us do most of the time) we have to take into account the expectations others have about how we should behave.

9 Personal identity Look at your list. For example. attractive or unattractive. 28 . we compare ourselves with these social norms. or sub-culture of a social group and. as we saw in the previous section. these cultural practices and values place expectations on how people should behave. • What do you think have been some of the most important influences on the way you see yourself? • Are there any particular incidents that stand out as being particularly important? • Also ask yourself how much the social expectations and the reactions of other people influence your behaviour. Activity 1. When we think about what we are. occupation and personal qualities are influenced by the society in which you live. Sociologists use the term institutionalisation to describe the processes whereby these social practices become accepted ways of doing things in a society or social group. outgoing or shy – arise from social relationships and socially accepted norms and standards. Did you put in any of these more personal characteristics? • If so. Socialisation We observed in the last section that a key sociological problem is the relation between the individual and society. make up the culture of a society. individuals and societies are inseparable. Further reading Berger (1963) Chapter 5. For sociologists. your ethnicity. even the ideas we have about ourselves as individual people – such as whether we think we are intelligent or stupid. or not trying to make friends. Or we may go the other way and accept that we can never be any of these things and adjust our behaviour accordingly. Summary Here we have asked you to describe yourself as a person and illustrated just how much of ‘yourself’. and theories that help describe and explain this process further. These social practices. ask yourself why you think you have developed this view of yourself. fat or thin.7 Socialisation and identity The previous section illustrated just how much your life as an individual is bound up with the social contexts in which you live. such as speaking a particular language or organising ourselves into small groups called families. we may try to make ourselves more clever. we are all born into societies where there are already established patterns of organised behaviour that we referred to earlier as social institutions. or more sociable and outgoing. How do we match up? We also monitor other people’s reactions to us in daily life. perhaps by not working in class.21 Principles of sociology In short. But how does this arise? In very general terms. 1. gender. In this section we shall introduce some sociological concepts. You cannot understand one without the other. How do others see us? This in turn may influence our behaviour in all sorts of ways. and the values and beliefs surrounding them. more assertive.

We explored some examples of this in the previous section when you were asked how you would describe yourself.Chapter 1: What is sociology? Sociologists use the term socialisation to describe the various processes through which people learn about. • Social identity refers to the ‘public self’. or mobility. bad work penalised. The distinction between social and personal identities is one of the ways that sociologists have documented social change. they are negotiated in everyday life through social interaction. or peasant. • Primary socialisation involves the socialisation of the young child by the family. punctuality. discipline and that good work will be rewarded. People do not just get old. For example. However. sociologists usually distinguish between social identity and personal identity. Although social identities are still important sources of identity in modern societies. So identities – especially personal identities – are not fixed but are rather fluid and changing. 29 . such as ethnicity. • Tertiary. people are socialised into ethnic. It is from school that we learn. for example. Self and identity It is through socialisation that a person develops a sense of identity: that is an image of who they are as a person. People have a view of themselves but that view has to be sustained in social interaction by people confirming to us in various ways that we really are who we think we are. as sociologists have shown. schools are trying to socialise us for adulthood. socialisation doesn’t end when we leave school. and is constructed around characteristics that are attributed to a person by others and mark them out as a member of a particular group. This is sometimes known as the ‘hidden curriculum’. gender and occupational roles. As we saw. Schools obviously teach us academic skills but. or adult. In premodern or traditional societies. the increasing opportunities many people now have to change their status and their lives means that personal identities have become much more important statements of ‘who we are’ than they were in the past. team games. largely defined who they were throughout their lives. people’s social identities. Therefore. So socialisation is a continuous process: it begins when we are born and only ends when we die. Another example is socialisation into old age. socialisation continues through our lives. Socialisation processes can be divided into three stages. • Personal identity refers to those qualities that mark a person out as unique and set apart from others. and generally conform to. co-operation. So. the norms and values of the social groups in which they live. they are teaching us a lot more. as we saw in the previous section. of people between different parts of society. there was relatively little movement. in number of ways. In some societies growing old gracefully means retreating into the background. They also learn what is expected of them when they are becoming old. gender and work identities. • Secondary socialisation is socialisation by the school. such as nobleman. Medical sociologists have even shown that terminally ill people are socialised by medical and nursing staff into dying in the ‘right way’. In sociological terms.

see Chapter 4.21 Principles of sociology The role of others Go back to the previous section and look at the list compiled by Julie. twist to the question of changing social identities. for example – husband. If these responses were to stop and people started avoiding her.11 A new you? Have you tried to change yourself in some way recently. So although people may still be playing roles backstage at home. and we selfconsciously monitor our ‘performances’. how they live. Activity 1. daughter. bankrupt. such as the enthusiastic teacher. like actors. Sociologists who research the area of identity are particularly interested in exploring situations where people are suddenly and dramatically redefined by others. People in these situations are confronted with what the US sociologist. such as when they are labelled as a criminal. there is less deliberate ‘presentation of self’ and more congruence between how we are seen and how we really are. Think about why and how it happened and try to recall if it affected your view of yourself. the caring nurse or lazy student. we are rather like actors ‘playing’ the roles on stage. However. Goffman recognised that. Erving Goffman (1922–1982). we can influence the way others see us by buying new clothes. The role of the individual Although the reactions of others are clearly important. – they are doing so less self-consciously. or backstage. section 4. has called ‘managing a spoiled identity’.) Activity 1. then her idea of herself as ‘popular’ would be threatened and may even break down. or present. did you notice other people reacting to you differently? Did this affect the way you thought about yourself? On stage and off stage Erving Goffman (1969) brought a new. becoming more sociable or driving ourselves on to success in our careers. how they look and what they believe in. wife. to sustain ‘being popular’ as part of her identity requires people reacting to her in certain ways. (For more on the process of identity formation and labelling. such as wanting and enjoying her company. behaviour or lifestyle? Did it work? If so. we are not simply dealt our identities as if they were cards in a game. Under personal identity she felt she was ‘popular’. it is now much easier for people to change where they live. people have time off stage. such as changing your appearance. So. who they live with. Socialisation also gives us skills to exert some control over who we are and how others see us. mentally ill or disabled. For example. not all social life is like this. However. Some sociologists argue that one of the defining characteristics of contemporary affluent societies is that increasing numbers of people have unprecedented scope to transform their identities. He argued that identities were not so much a part of us – permanently or temporarily – as resources we ‘pick up and put down’ to negotiate everyday life.3. unemployed. Identities are things we consciously manipulate. For example.10 Spoiled identity? Stop for a moment and ask yourself if there have been times in your life when you have found a person or people suddenly reacting very differently to you. and some would say cynical. etc. when they are less obviously presenting an identity. 30 . for Goffman. in given situations.

But why do most people conform to these social obligations most of the time? Parsons. look after their children. The sick role functions as a form of social control. They arise and persist over time because they help societies to function smoothly. a good job). Parsons argued that in modern societies there is a distinct ‘sick role’ consisting of privileges and obligations. But how can we begin to explain them sociologically? Here we are going to look at two of the most influential theories of socialisation developed by two of the leading figures of twentieth century sociology.12 Presentation of self Do you think Goffman is right? Do you find yourself self-consciously presenting an image of yourself to your managers at work.H. Social institutions define roles for people and socialisation is about learning these roles and the expectations surrounding them. which appears to be purely biological. hand in their essays and so on. these social roles have a purpose. Mead (1863–1931). It enables organisations to distinguish between those who have a legitimate reason for not fulfilling their obligations and those who do not. The sick person must want to get better. However. following the great French sociologist Emile Durkheim. We don’t just become ill. for example. argued that this happens because societies constrain us to act in certain ways. that is. is also a social state surrounded by expectations about how people should behave when they are ill. whereas acting another way (for 31 .Chapter 1: What is sociology? Activity 1. people simply learn that acting one way (for example. It also ensures that people do the ‘right things’ when they are ill to enable them to recover as soon as possible. In one of the most innovative and creative applications of the idea of role. Consider illness. we are also socialised into sickness. it helps to maintain social order. For Parsons. Parsons’ insight here was to show that even sickness. or to your professors if you are at college? Are you conscious sometimes of thinking to yourself ‘Here is the identity I am presenting. So ‘society’ is influencing us even when we’re sick. A person not fulfilling the obligations of the sick role may lose the privileges. such as going to work. we have been describing and illustrating the processes of socialisation and identity formation that are crucial to helping us understand the relation between the individual and society. going to college and handing in essays. This constraint is both external and internal. but I am really a very different person’? Can you think of recent developments in technology that now give people more scope to present different identities? Two theories of socialisation and identity So far. The privileges are that the sick person is not held responsible for their condition and they are allowed exemption from their usual obligations. follow medical advice and accept treatment when necessary. With external constraint. Illness is dysfunctional because when people are sick they do not go to work. Parsons Parsons (1951) saw societies as complex systems of parts working together to promote social stability. working hard at college and getting a good degree) will probably bring rewards (for example. Talcott Parsons (1902–1979) and G. there are also obligations to the sick role.

no degree and not being able to get a good job).21 Principles of sociology example. Mead’s was more about means (how it happens). not working hard) will more likely bring failure (for example. Here we look at it though a day in the life of Daniel. Daniel quickly changes his answer. For some insight into this question. For example. one of its limitations is that it tells us very little about the social and psychological mechanisms by which socialisation and identity formation actually take place. Internalisation of values can even override survival instincts when. so he decides to finish it early. for example. a person may work hard at their job and not consider stealing from others not because they want promotion and are afraid of getting put in prison. Mead’s focus was on the social significance of (verbal and non-verbal) language in both socialisation and identity formation. In a very important phrase. As he is telling his friend about the interview that he thinks did not go well. the mass media and so on. for societies to function effectively. Parsons argued. For Mead. Morning: Daniel is giving a lecture. The crucial insight provided by Mead was to show that we do not just use language to make sense of the world around us. a young college lecturer. socialisation was not just a process of learning and internalising the institutional expectations transmitted by families. Activity 1. Anyway. It was rather about learning skills that then enable people actively to interpret the expectations of other people and social institutions and act accordingly. some actually seem to be asleep. Daniel thinks that perhaps the interview did not go that badly after all and maybe he will get the job. However. because social norms become internalised through socialisation. We begin to develop these skills in early childhood when we start pretending to be other people. People have to want to behave in socially acceptable ways. He looks round the classroom. it is mid-morning but he sees several of the students yawning. In simple terms. Afternoon: Daniel is in his interview and a well-known professor has just asked him a question. They become part of a person’s identity and source of morality. Daniel notices the professor is starting to frown. he has an important interview for a new job this afternoon and he wants to think about that. As their eyes meet. Mead Although Parsons’ theory has been very influential in sociology. people willingly die for their country or their religion. there needs to be more than external constraint. others are looking out of the window. Evening: Daniel is in a restaurant with a friend. schools.13 Taking the role of the other – Daniel’s day Taking the role of the other might sound complicated. Mead called this taking the role of the other. This happens. we also use it reflexively to monitor our own behaviour. he suddenly notices the professor who had interviewed him earlier in the day sitting at a nearby table. we can turn to the work of Mead (1934). Daniel realises the lecture is not going well. The only students who seem awake are the ones texting on their mobile phones. while Parsons’ theory was more about ends (the desirability of socialisation). As he is answering. but it is really quite a simple idea and one which we can easily relate to our own experiences. 32 . and over time we learn to see ourselves as we believe others see us. We can then consciously monitor our behaviour in social interaction. but because they believe that is the right thing to do. the professor smiles and gives Daniel an encouraging nod.

Self I Has ideas. I must change it quickly • the professor is smiling. then you might just walk out. instincts. People are obviously shaped by societies but they are not simply the puppets of societies. you have conformed to normative expectations not just because you have internalised the value. initiates action Me Takes role of the other. although 33 . When we take the role of the other we receive information from others about ourselves that. that communication doesn’t have to be verbal. a colleague of Mead. ‘I want to get up. taking the role of the other. so others’ reactions to us reflect back an image of our social self. From a Meadian point of view. for Mead. Each time in the story Daniel was responding to non-verbal communications. on another day if things got really bad. with its capacity to take the role of the other. What we call consciousness is a form of a ‘conversation’ between the ‘I’ and the ‘Me’. for Mead. they are also driven by sudden impulses. this ‘social self’. used the term looking-glass self to describe how the image we have of ourselves is based on how we believe others see us. while the ‘Me’ is the social self that takes into account the reactions of others. However. However. reflects on intended actions Behaviour Figure 1. Social institutions confront people with sets of rules and expectations and most people simply conform to them most of the time.2: Mead’s concept of the self The ‘I’ is the individual. ‘Wait a minute. enables us to build up the concept of self that we looked at earlier. was only part of the self. for example. ‘He’s sure to notice and he will be marking your examination paper! It’s better to wait. which he divided into the ‘I’ and the ‘Me’. leave now and go for a cup of coffee. maybe the interview went OK after all? Notice. the relationship between individual and society was rather more volatile and problematic. I might as well cut it short • the professor doesn’t like this answer. Imagine. instincts and inspirations. you were one of Daniel’s students sitting in his lecture being very bored. spontaneous. ‘It’s rude to walk out of classes’. the kind of person we are. Just as the mirror (looking-glass) reflects back to us an image of our physical self. Charles Cooley (1864– 1929). Mead’s view of the relationship between the individual and society was rather different from that of Parsons. but because you have actively made a decision to stay. also. For Mead.Chapter 1: What is sociology? Can you identify the times in this story when Daniel was taking the role of the other and seeing himself as he thought others were seeing him? How do you think he consciously monitored this and altered his behaviour? • the students are not enjoying this lecture.’ says the ‘Me’. society was dominant over the individual.’ So you sit quietly in the class. For Parsons. Mead expressed this ‘double centre of gravity’ in his concept of the self. creative and instinctive part of the self that has ideas and imagination. However.’ says the ‘I’. over time.

Mead suggested it arose primarily from people’s ability to take the role of the other. sections 4. and what examiners will be looking for • what sociologists study • some of the key ways that sociology gives us insights that go beyond commonsense understanding • what is meant by thinking sociologically and sociologists’ interest in social order. Whereas Parsons saw socialisation arising from internalisation of social norms. Try to answer the questions again. We shall be returning to the theories of Parsons and Mead in Chapter 4.15 Look back at Activity 1. Compare your answers now with the ones you wrote at the start of the chapter. A reminder of your learning outcomes Having completed this chapter. pp. The relevant sections from introductory texts are: Fulcher and Scott (2007) Chapter 4.14. society is the source of both our conformity and our individuality. Summary Socialisation describes the processes by which people learn social behaviour. Activity 1. Giddens (2008) pp. 34 . Activity 1. we are never completely ‘taken over’ by society in the manner suggested by Parsons. Reading Here it is important that you supplement what you have read on socialisation and identity with some textbook reading.238 Macionis and Plummer (2005 and 2008 editions) Chapter 7. It is a good way to help you clarify your understanding and revise the ideas we have looked at here. you should have a clearer idea of: • how to study sociology. what is meant by active learning.163–69 and p. This will provide you with some essential building blocks for you to develop your sociological awareness and to give you the necessary support for reading the more difficult work in Chapter 4 and for your chosen topic in Section C.2 and 4. It is through socialisation that people develop a sense of social and personal identity. It is a good way of monitoring your progress. and how Parsons and Mead put forward different explanations of these processes. and the essential reading and activities. we implicitly touched on some of the ideas of Parsons and Mead.2 on p. See if you can identify any of them.3. and these identities can change through social interaction.22–24.21 Principles of sociology we are social beings. social change and the relationship between the individual and society • how our identities arise from social relationships • what sociologists mean by socialisation and identity.14 Parsons and Mead In this section on socialisation and identity.

(Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2007) Chapter 3. comparative and ethnographic research designs • the key research methods: interviews. and J. (Cambridge: Polity Press. particularly on research design and research methods. and identify some of the key research designs and strategies in sociology • to introduce you to the main methods of sociological research. Marsh. 4. Learning objectives By the end of this chapter. and K. (Harlow: Prentice Hall. McNeil. I. Plummer Sociology. (Harlow: Prentice Hall. Further reading Denscombe. observations.Chapter 2: Sociological research Chapter 2: Sociological research Written by Dr Steve Taylor. 2007) Chapters 1. M. A. . Essential reading One of: Fulcher. experimental. 2008) Chapter 3. Sociology. the analysis of official statistics and documents • how to approach questions on sociological research. (London: Routledge. 2005 and 2008 editions) Chapter 3. J. 2002) Chapters 1 and 2. P Research Methods. and having completed the essential reading and activities. Note: It is very important that you supplement what you read here with the recommended reading. or Giddens. 35 . J. 3. Scott Sociology. et al. Theory and practice in sociology. 2005). A global introduction. or Macionis. Aims of the chapter The aims of this chapter are: • to explain what social research is and how you will be expected to approach it • to identify the main criteria by which research is evaluated • to explain what is meant by a research design. 9–12. The good research guide. you should have a clearer idea of: • the nature of sociological research and why it is important to know how research is done • the key criteria by which research is evaluated • what is meant by a research design and how the nature of the research design influences the data that is collected • the characteristics of survey. (Buckingham: Open University Press.

philosophy and science. change and influence how people think and act. Video/DVD It is often helpful to supplement what you read in the subject guide and your Sociology textbooks by watching a video. E. Charlton. Gunter and D. or parts of them. 1979) . (London: Hutchinson. Some of the famous sociological studies mentioned here have been made into videos or DVDs where the authors talk about the aims of their research.5–13. Inside the British police.halovine. 36 . M. Asylums. 1989) [ISBN 9780521356688]. (Harmondsworth: Penguin. (London: Routledge. In Chapter 2 we shall be looking at how sociologists find out about societies. This is why understanding social research is such a central part of understanding sociology. 1952). Stanworth. and L. T. S. [ISBN 9780140221398]. ‘Researching child abuse’ in Burgess. Jacobson Pygmalion in the classroom: teacher expectation and pupils’ intellectual development. shame and reintegration. Taylor. (Basingstoke: Macmillan. Goffman. Rosenthal. Suicide: a study in sociology. 1983) [ISBN 9780091511616]. (London: Routledge. how well it stands up to critical scrutiny and what assumptions it makes about the nature of the social world. 1993) [ISBN 9780415096706]. To evaluate this claim. we need to know how this ‘expert knowledge’ is generated.) Investigating society. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Braithwaite. Holdaway. 1989) [ISBN 9780582355958]. (ed. Coles ‘Broadcast television as a cause of aggression: recent findings from a naturalistic study’. E. 1983) [ISBN 9780631131120]. P Poverty in the United Kingdom. (New York: Holt.21 Principles of sociology Works cited Barker. 1987) [ISBN 9780140552195]. 1982) [ISBN 9780333286463 (pbk)]. J.. 1984) [ISBN 9781851681617]. The discipline of sociology is based on the claim that sociologists offer some kind of expert understanding of social life. 1968). S. E.1 Introduction In Chapter 1 we saw that sociology is about understanding how societies. Videos available in halovine’s Classic Collection series are: Eileen Barker Michelle Stanworth Peter Townsend Paul Willis The making of a Moonie Gender and schooling Poverty in the UK Learning to labour All available from halovine 8 www. R. Rinehart and Winston. work. Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties (3) 1998. Durkheim. R. how it was done and what they found. (Harmondsworth: Penguin. History. (London: Longman. pp. Durkheim and the study of suicide. (Oxford: Blackwell. Townsend. The making of a Moonie: choice or brainwashing? (Oxford: Blackwell. B. Gordon. S. Gender and schooling: a study of sexual divisions in the classroom. S. Taylor. Crime.com 2.

this tells only part of the story. someone thinking of studying for a degree may do some research before applying for a course. talking to some current students and so on. at various times in our everyday lives. usually involves a problem or question. and thinking about how it is to be interpreted. analysed and related to the question that is being investigated. Data collection: the research has to be organised and data collected through various research strategies and methods. Everyday research.1. See Figure 2. but also looking inwards and continually reflecting on the processes by which the research is being undertaken. The process of undertaking sociological research is broadly similar. In planning and carrying out research. The analysis of these choices and their consequences is what we mean by methodology. This information may help them make a more informed choice. sociologists are confronted by a number of choices and each choice brings advantages and limitations. Figure 2. Data interpretation: the information that is collected has to be presented. deciding how data is to be collected and organised. This might involve looking at websites. visiting different departments. Doing sociological research. the collection of information and the application of this information to the problem. 1. So we start by introducing you to a few of those terms: • research is simply a process of investigating something systematically and sociological research is investigating social life using sociological theories and methods • data refers to the information researchers collect • research design is the way research is planned and organised • methods are the tools sociologists use to collect data • methodology is the study of sociological research methods. Formulation and design: research begins with questions that then need to be translated into a researchable form. It is also helpful to remember that although research seems to be something only undertaken by specialists. then. 37 . then. most of us do it. It involves the researcher not only looking out at the part of the social world being studied. It is clear that sociological research also involves a number of particular decisions. such as working out how research questions can be translated into a researchable project. For example. There are usually three key stages.Chapter 2: Sociological research 2.1. Look again at Figure 2. is a reflexive process.1: Key stages in the research process Choice and reflection in research Sociological research is about getting out ‘into society’ and exploring it in a number of practical ways.2 Some principles of sociological research Some key terms When you start reading about social research you may find that some of the technical language will make things seem more complicated than they really are. 2. 3. However.

and these theoretical preferences influence their choice of research methods.1 Researching students taking sociology Your local university has asked us to do some research on students studying sociology as part of their degree course. rather than simply taking a set of statistics at face value and trying to explain it. Sociology teaches us that nothing should be taken for granted. it is helpful to begin thinking about an area before you start reading about it. as economists tend to do. This critical thinking means that sociology students learn to look for ‘the story behind’ the data. It is important to look carefully at this example because we are going to be using it in different ways throughout this chapter. it can also be applied to most of the other subjects you will study. So try Activity 2. Think which ones you might choose and why. nothing is quite as it seems. understanding sociological research. Sociologists have different theoretical ideas about the nature of human societies and the best ways of generating knowledge about them. Rather there are a number of different ways. When confronted by some data. access to sources of data and the requirements of those funding the research. check or question existing work in the field. each with their benefits and costs and their advocates and critics.1 below. Can you see any possible problems with the approach you have chosen? Some of the most important influences on researchers’ choices of design and method are: • The nature of the problem being investigated. and giving good answers to ‘theory and methods’ questions. • Theoretical considerations. researching the distribution of income in a whole society will require a different research design and different methods from a project exploring how a particular organisation works. involves being able to compare and contrast different approaches. This involves the active learning talked about in Chapter 1. Much research is undertaken to extend. For example. They want some answers to four questions: • What do students think about taking sociology? • Why are there such wide variations in the grades of sociology students? • Is there a relationship between students’ social backgrounds and their sociology grades? • How do students from different social backgrounds relate to each other in sociology classes? Write down how you could study these problems. Activity 2. The researcher must work out what is possible in terms of such things as the amount of time and money available. Identify the options that are open to you. The consequence of these choices and constraints is that there is no single ‘correct way’ of doing sociological research. Some research techniques are more appropriate than others to particular research problems. Therefore. This critical evaluation of data is not only valuable in sociology. • Practical considerations. For example.21 Principles of sociology Stop and think for a moment Can you think of some factors that might influence a researcher’s choice? As I said in Chapter 1. the 38 . sociologists ask questions about how it was collected and how much confidence we should have in it. • Existing research.

or benchmarks. However. The aim of social research is to move from a subjective understanding to a more objective understanding of how societies work. However. objectivity remains a goal of sociology and research has to provide an understanding of societies that goes beyond mere subjectivity. there are also criteria against which sociological research can be evaluated and we are going to look at some of the most important ones here. Objective knowledge is knowledge that is more than personal perceptions. but whatever you have written down are criteria. opinions and preferences. Subjective knowledge is literally knowledge belonging to the subject. There is nothing ‘wrong’ with subjective knowledge and understanding. All that she says 39 . Everyone – including the sociologist – draws on their subjective understanding to make sense of the world around them. Can I trust this data? How was it collected? What definitions were used? How reliable was the collection? This is a valuable skill that will not only help you on the rest of this programme. There is debate in sociology about whether or not it can provide objective knowledge of societies and we shall be looking at this in Chapter 3. sociologists should aim to do the same. much less for rolling around in the manure pile [dirt]. However. including their values. As Gordon (1992) observed: That objectivity cannot be attained is not a reason for disregarding it. This is where objectivity comes in. it is knowledge that is free from bias. maybe kindness. From subjectivity to objectivity The general aim of sociological research (and indeed all research) is to try to move from a subjective understanding to a more objective understanding of what we are studying. It refers to individual’s perceptions. She tells you that you’re not working hard enough at college and you’re rude to your father. to justify itself as an academic subject. even if sociology cannot be truly objective. maybe it is just that they look rich! It could be all sorts of things. Scientists are emotionally detached from the objects of their research. sociologists have to provide knowledge of societies that is something more than their own opinions and prejudices. Subjectivity and objectivity are very important terms in sociology. maybe good looks. Similarly. Standardisation Your mother is complaining about your behaviour again and she brings in evidence to support her complaints. maybe sense of humour. What qualities make someone attractive to you as a friend? Stop and think for a moment. this raises the question of how researchers try to be more objective. The scientific laboratory experiment is typically seen as the ideal form of generating objective knowledge. as most sociologists believe. opinion and prejudice. Aims and criteria in research I have drawn attention above to the importance of evaluating both specific data and sociological research methods. it will also help you for the rest of your life. by which you are likely to judge people. Maybe it is intelligence. Perfect cleanliness is also impossible but it does not serve as warrant for not washing. But how are we to do this? Let me start by asking you a question.Chapter 2: Sociological research person with sociological training should automatically be asking questions. so I shall spend a little time explaining them.

So. However. but her use of evidence is highly selective. We tend to look mainly for things that confirm what we believe. The researcher will have to make compromises when doing research. we observe sociology classes and talk informally to students. even though my subjective view is that sociology is a fascinating subject and they should all love it. for example. although this observational approach does not do so well in terms of the criterion of standardisation. There are many reasons for doing this. there is more risk of our subjective view influencing the data. or a researcher may want to find out if the same results still apply after a time lag.21 Principles of sociology may be true. the data collection is standardised: that is. This criterion is important because people have more confidence in research that can be repeated and the results checked out. that would not be obtained by a standardised questionnaire-based study. She only refers to things that support the point she is making. just as a person choosing friends may have to sacrifice one desired criterion. in order to obtain others. instead of giving out questionnaires. So if. Therefore. the data collection will be less standardised than the questionnaire data. such as a sense of humour and lots of money. It may well bring benefits. If we use a questionnaire and give it to all students taking sociology. This means that rather than having their views consistently confirmed by the evidence. is when one researcher chooses to repeat the research of another. This is typical of the way we behave in everyday life. it does not necessarily make it the ‘wrong’ choice. 40 . it is done in a consistent fashion. The reliability of a test employed in research is the extent to which repeated measurements using this test (under the same conditions) produce the same results. such as kindness. which is very close to reliability. such as knowledge of how students actually behave in class. even to the point of having their favoured theories challenged or overturned. One way of trying to avoid such subjectivity is to standardise the collection and organisation of data by making research as systematic and consistent as possible. Sociological research cannot – or certainly should not – be carried out in this way. This means there is less opportunity for the researchers simply to take data that suits their own point of view. If sociologists simply grab at evidence that supports their favourite point of view then their accounts of social life would be highly subjective. even if we record our observations as systematically as we can. this suggests that researchers have been able to detach themselves from the object of their research – indicating objectivity. sociologists may be surprised by what they discover. Reliability Reliability is concerned with the question of whether research is repeatable and is most commonly used in relation to quantitative research (see below). However. sociologists may also have to compromise on key research criteria. We can illustrate this point from our earlier example of studying sociology students. a majority of students tell me that they dislike sociology and find it ‘very boring’ I am stuck with the results. If the research is repeatable and produces the same results each time. We won’t be able to remember everything and we can’t even write down everything we do remember. Replication. Here. supposing we choose an alternative method and. The findings of the original research may be unusual.

some people have questioned the construct validity of IQ tests. (By the way. and these ideas are open to question. In sociology it has a slightly more specific meaning. it is constructed through the ideas being used by the researcher.2 Reliability and replication In our research example of what students think about studying sociology. (For example. sociological thinking shows it is not quite that simple. Construct validity is concerned with whether data represents what it is supposed to represent. aren’t they? As we shall see in more detail in the next chapter. this isn’t really the case!) Supposing. arguing that they do not really measure natural intelligence as they 41 . It is now common practice for many researchers to leave the various records of their work in research archives for other researchers to examine and possibly replicate. Can you think of three reasons why another researcher might want to replicate our study in five years’ time? Transparency Transparency means that a researcher has shown exactly how the research was done. We can illustrate this problem with a further example from our study of students taking sociology. indicated the numbers of people who replied and so on.data-archive. a lot of original research from British sociological studies is stored at the University of Essex in England and can be accessed at8 www. the transcriptions or tape recordings should also be available. If possible. we wanted to measure the students’ intelligence to see if there was a relationship between natural intelligence and exam results. For example. facts are facts. in exploring this question. We could use standardised IQ (intelligence quotient) tests that are designed to measure people’s natural intelligence.uk.Chapter 2: Sociological research Activity 2. don’t worry. In other words.) For research to be reliable and replicable the research methods must be transparent. Research example: construct validity The second question we were asked to look at by the university was the wide variation in grading in sociology exams. Rather. we are trying to choose between three different methods: • spending time with the students and observing their activities • using a standardised questionnaire given to all the students • conducting informal interviews with students at break times. with the most reliable method given 1 and the least reliable given 3. How can data not be what it is? After all. if interview methods were used. The data that sociologists (and other researchers) collect is not simply ‘discovered’. Grade these methods in terms of their reliability.ac. Validity The textbooks and your Statistics unit will list many forms of validity but in everyday language something is valid if it is believed to be reasonable or well founded. The issue of validity is concerned with the correspondence between a piece of data and the conclusions that are drawn from it. internal validity and ecological validity. the research methods are transparent if the researcher has provided the questions. explained how they were asked. At first reading. this may seem a strange criterion. how justified are we in drawing these conclusions from this data? From this basis we can distinguish between construct validity. However.

However. They have less money for books. Internal validity is concerned with whether the conclusion that is drawn about the relationship between two or more different things is justified. because being able to answer it shows understanding. Again. a researcher may claim that (a) causes (b). Research example: internal validity We were also asked to see if there was any relationship between students’ social background and their exam performance. might show that students in the ‘underachieving’ ethnic group B are also. Again we can illustrate this with a problem from our study of sociology students. ‘Have I understood this?’ This is why attempting the third question is particularly important. We shall be looking at reliability and validity again. Suppose we find that students from ethnic group A get higher marks on average than students in ethnic group B. we can illustrate ecological validity with an example and an activity from our study of sociology students. Activity 2. Further research. Therefore. Although they are not there to ‘spoon-feed’ you with the answers. Don’t worry if you are finding some of this puzzling. less space at home to study and the have to work longer hours outside college to afford the fees. much poorer. 42 . on average.21 Principles of sociology favour middle-class children over working-class children and favour abstract thinking skills as opposed to practical skills. You will also have encountered these ideas when you studied 04A Statistics 1. We might then conclude that there is a relationship – or correlation – between ethnicity and educational achievement. they will help you with things you don’t understand. they may not be a valid measures of intelligence. Ecological validity The criterion of ecological validity is concerned with whether the results of social scientific research are actually applicable to the reality of people’s everyday lives.3 Reliability and construct and internal validity Without looking back: • Try to explain the difference between reliability and validity. So although IQ data may well be reliable. with researchers using the same methods getting the same results. we might conclude that differences we observed are the results of relative poverty rather than ethnicity and the original conclusion lacks internal validity. such a conclusion might not be justified. Some of you will have sociology teachers. the relationship between (a) and (b) may be the result of something else. This is a criterion that is much more specific to sociology than to the other social sciences. ‘Have I learned this?’ but rather. However. For example. • What is the difference between construct validity and internal validity? • Can you think of another imaginary example of how a study might lack either construct or internal validity? Check your answers with this subject guide and your sociology textbooks. The question you should be asking yourself is not.

Similarly a sociologist can’t just suddenly start doing research. Some methods work better than others for some problems. Therefore. as we have noted. Some of the key criteria by which research studies and research methods can be evaluated are objectivity. standardisation. Research journeys also need to be planned and organised in advance. 2. They lack authenticity. However. Summary Research is the systematic investigation of a problem. Activity 2. Some think validity is the most important criterion in social research while others argue that standardisation and reliability are more important. there are similarities between going on holiday and doing research. going back to the criteria outlined in the previous section. Another way to explore this question is to go into the classes and observe them.Chapter 2: Sociological research Research example: authenticity/ecological validity We saw earlier that if we give the same questionnaire to all the students taking sociology.4 Ecological validity The final question the university wanted addressing was how students from different backgrounds relate to each in other in sociology classes. Even if students answer our questions honestly and frankly. it’s just down to the researcher’s preferences. However. but can you think of a problem with using interview methods here? Students may give us socially acceptable answers. or they may exaggerate the amount of work they do. reliability. the data collection is both standardised and reliable. For example. Sometimes. students may give me the answers they think I want to hear and say nice things about sociology in spite of what they really think. it is always helpful to start thinking about things in advance. Planning and undertaking research involves making strategic decisions and these decisions are influenced by a number of factors. there is not necessarily always a ‘right’ option.3 Research designs: planning and choice What is a research design? It’s very rare just to drop everything and dash off on holiday. Although doing sociological research never felt much like a holiday to me. can you think of some limitations with this method? We shall be looking at observational methods in more detail later in the section but. We could interview students about this issue. Both of them usually involve going on a ‘journey’ to somewhere 43 . but first we have to look at how research is planned and carried out. Holidays are usually planned in advance. You will be expected to show both knowledge and critical understanding of some of the main research techniques in sociology and be able to see how sociologists apply these techniques in their research. some sociologists would claim that this research has limited authenticity. transparency and validity. We shall be looking further at these differences in Chapter 3. the data we obtain may not reflect how things really are. But. This may well give us more ecologically valid data. Sociological research often involves making choices between the different options. the interview method doesn’t really tell us how they really behave in day-to-day classroom situations.

even when you were writing about the same incident. and research begins with the desire to find something out. This is because there are many things you would simply not know about. in sociology. and the selection process is shaped by people’s subjective views of what they consider to be important and interesting. a sociologist who is interested in how a society has changed in the last 25 years cannot possibly study every change. Holidays begin with a desire to take time out and go somewhere. like everyone else. Therefore. For example. It is much the same for researchers. One of the ways they try to do this is by using theoretical categories called concepts. However. researchers have to move beyond their own subjective views and provide more objective accounts of social life. work and leisure activities. you would probably interpret it differently. Sociologists ask all sorts of questions about social life. people’s accounts of things tend to be different because they are selective reconstructions of a set of real events. depending on what you felt was important and. This means they have to find ways of making the selection process more systematic and standardised. What we call a research design is the process of translating a researcher’s original ideas and interests into a researchable ‘journey’. Concepts are the most important tools of social research. We can illustrate this by looking at researching social and economic inequality through the concept of social class. It is the researcher’s questions that give research its sense of purpose and direction. They are the building blocks around which theory and research are organised. your account would actually be a simplified version of what ‘really’ went on. such as why societies are different from each other. However. In this section. the sociologist’s general questions need to be narrowed down into something that can actually be researched. they are influenced by their subjective views. such as family life. Different social class groupings can be identified in a society 44 . Research always begins with questions. It involves making a number of strategic decisions and provides an overall framework for the research. in the same way as travel itineraries provide frameworks for holidays. Concepts and conceptual thinking If you were asked to write an account of a particular day at your college. why social groups within the same society have different life chances. Your account would also be very different from those of other students.21 Principles of sociology different. You might choose to write about different things. as we have already observed. Concepts are the theoretical tools sociologists use to describe and explain the social world. They will have to narrow this down into something manageable by focusing on specific changes in particular institutions. But how can we study this systematically? Social class is one of the concepts used in sociology to simplify the infinite complexities of social inequalities. or approaches. we start by examining some of the key choices facing researchers and then we look at some of the most commonly used research designs. They also have to select evidence in their accounts of social life and. You will know from your own experience that some groups in your society have more wealth and opportunity than other groups. They are clearly defined categories given to aspects of the social world that have significant common features. or why societies change in the way they do. Social classes are groups of people who share a similar economic position in a society.

Semi-professional 3. reliable and potentially replicable. As occupation is the major source of income for most people. it is important to note that concepts are contested categories. whereas attendance. For example. Professional 2. They define what the sociologist studies and provide the basis for organising and presenting data. people who share a similar economic market position Indicator Occupational ranking For example: 1. That is. Concept 1 Social class Concept 2 Educational achievement 1 Theoretical framework 2 Operationalisation 3 Theoretical analysis of results Indicator Parents’ occupational ranking Indicator School grades. the sociologist is able to examine the relationship between ‘class’ and ‘educational performance’ in a way that is standardised. Semi-skilled 5.Chapter 2: Sociological research and this can provide a basis for exploring patterns of inequality. or operationalising. In this context. Unskilled Example Operationalising Doctors. they shape it and this is one of the main ways that theory is linked to research.2: Concepts and indicators: measuring social class By looking at rates of educational performance in each occupational group. However. qualifications Statistical correlations Figure 2.2). technicians. the concept. electricians Bus drivers. postal workers Cleaners. would have to find indicators of these concepts. senior managers Teachers. See Figure 2.3: Conceptual analysis example: social class and educational achievements Concepts are the most important aspect of research design. most sociologists have typically used various forms of ‘occupational ranking’ as indicators of class (see Figure 2. educational achievements and life expectancy. sociologists do not all agree about how things like ‘class’ should be defined or measured.3. labourers Figure 2. sociologists have explored relationships between people’s social class and their values. administrators Clerical workers. theoretical term and sociologists wanting to do quantitative research have to find ways of measuring. social class is an abstract. political beliefs. 45 . Skilled/intermediate 4. For example. The important thing to understand here is that concepts do not just reflect data. These operationalising devices are called indicators. a sociologist wanting to explore the relationship between the concepts of ‘class’ and ‘educational achievement’. reports and academic qualifications gained at school can be used as indicators of educational success. in much the same way that the mercury in the thermometer measures the concept of temperature. Concept Social class That is.

or hypothesis. In very simple terms.4: Deductive and inductive research Quantitative and qualitative research designs Another important distinction is between quantitative and qualitative research designs. this means that a researcher is testing a theory. For example. but the term has much wider implications (see below). However. against the data. often on the basis of earlier exploratory studies. Although there are sociological studies that are either purely deductive or inductive. the decision to use quantitative or qualitative data does not just depend on the nature of the problem being investigated. Quantitative research designs have a number of important advantages. this means that a researcher may draw out possible explanations from their observations. For example. Deductive: Inductive: Theory Observations Theory Observations Theory Observations Observations Theory Figure 2. Quantitative designs usually mean researchers are relatively detached from the people they are studying and it is less likely that their values will influence the research process. For example. Explanatory research studies are more likely to be deductive. See if you can think of some before reading further. work and leisure have changed over the last 25 years. whereas exploring the inner world of a religious cult or a criminal gang will almost certainly require a qualitative design. a descriptive study of social change might ask how family life.21 Principles of sociology Descriptive and explanatory research designs Research designs have many different purposes but an important distinction is whether the research is descriptive or explanatory. it can also reflect different theoretical approaches to sociological research (as we shall see later in Chapter 3). Descriptive research is about trying to construct a much clearer and more comprehensive picture of how something works. a descriptive study might suggest explanations that are then ‘tested’ by further explanatory research (see Figure 2. quantitative data can be measured whereas qualitative data cannot. an explanatory research study of social change might ask why family life. work and leisure have changed in the last 25 years. Explanatory research asks why something happens and identifies possible ‘causal mechanisms’. Quantitative data is closer to the scientific ideal of research. Descriptive research studies are more likely to be inductive. Sometimes a researcher’s decision to use quantitative or qualitative designs is shaped by the nature of the problem being researched.4). many move between the two. studying poverty levels in a society will almost certainly require a quantitative research design. For example. 46 .

section 4. Qualitative research also allows us to examine the processes by which individuals and groups come to understand their roles and identities. The expected and the unexpected in social research We conclude this section where we started it by comparing the holiday and the research project. However. A quantitative research design using concepts and indicators in the way described above can provide valuable data about relationships between class background and education. For example. and often do. Can you think of some of the strengths of qualitative research designs? Qualitative data: • is more ecologically valid • provides knowledge of how people behave in their natural contexts • enables researchers to explore people’s experiences and the meanings they give to their actions and how they develop over time. the holiday experience is a product of the unexpected and the expected. most holidaymakers narrow the possibilities of what might happen. Much the same is true of research.3. The simple answer to this question is that there are many important sociological questions that simply cannot be answered with quantitative methods. Stop and think for a moment: if quantitative research designs have all these advantages why isn’t all sociological research quantitative? After all. sociologists usually have some idea of what they are going to find from their research. We can illustrate this point by returning to our earlier example of the relationship between social class and educational achievement. You may be going to an unfamiliar place and unexpected things can. by planning a holiday and deciding to stay in a particular place at a given time of year. especially with government departments and the media. what is it actually like to be brought up in relative poverty or in relative affluence? How do pupils and teachers interact with each other in the classroom? These kinds of questions can really only be examined by qualitative research designs and strategies – such as making detailed observations of school life or interviewing people at great length – that bring researchers into much closer contact with those they are studying. It can also be used to criticise the use of statistics in social research to see how they are socially constructed – see Chapter 4. are based almost exclusively on quantitative methods. So just as the holidaymaker expects certain things from their holiday. happen. But when it comes to trying to explain this relationship there are some questions that cannot be answered very well by quantitative research designs. Sociologists’ research designs provide the framework for the things they find out about social life. Much the same is true of research. There is usually a sense of adventure about going on holiday. reliability and transparency • give data more authority. Therefore. 47 .Chapter 2: Sociological research Quantitative research designs: • enable relationships between variables to be documented systematically • are more likely to fulfil the key criteria of standardisation. such as economics and psychology. measurement is synonymous with science and some social sciences. The plans made in advance provide a framework for what actually happens. You are often surprised by some of the things you discover. such as sandy beaches or snowy mountains.

By understanding how research was done. Surveys In everyday language to survey something is to take a general view. Sampling Survey research is usually undertaken in relation to large populations.) Researcher’s theory and design Data in the world Research data Figure 2. Therefore they use a sample: this is a part of a population being studied. Surveys are usually – but not necessarily – quantitative. Simple random sampling means that everyone in the population has an equal (non-zero) chance of being selected. Similarly. Surveys offer breadth of view at a specific point in time. surveys try to map out aspects of the social world. Our brief trip through research designs has shown that what emerges as data in a research project is a product of the relationship between the researcher’s design and the intrinsic nature of what is being researched. usually administered by questionnaires or face-to-face interviews. surveys map out a landscape or a town. and researchers cannot collect data from everyone in the population.5.21 Principles of sociology The really important lesson to learn from this comparison is that researchers are not just giving us information about what is happening in the social world. However. we are in a position to evaluate it.4 Major research designs in sociology Here we are going to develop the ideas of the previous section by introducing you to four of the major research designs. They are shaping and organising it for us. Probability sampling means that the sample has been selected randomly. (See Figure 2. They are used for simply collecting information.5: How research data is constructed This is why it is so important to know about research designs and research methods. in sociology. In geography. 2. rather like a photograph of a landscape or townscape from a distance. Survey data are most commonly collected by asking people questions. for example. Sociological thinking teaches us always to look behind the data to find out how it was produced. testing peoples’ opinions or attitudes and mapping out relationships between things in a quantifiable form. or approaches. They are doing much more than this. in social sciences. and survey data can be collected through other methods such as using documents or making observations. You will have studied this in unit 04A Statistics 1. 48 . the survey is a research design or strategy and not a research method.

for example. They divide the population into parts on the basis of the population.Chapter 2: Sociological research Stratified random sampling is a special case of sampling. gains their confidence and uses that to make further contacts and enlarge the sample. The subject guide for unit 04A Statistics 1 has more material on sampling. (Figure 2. in studies of drug use. The main reason for non-probability sampling is that the researcher doesn’t have enough information about the population being studied to construct a sampling frame as. class. for example choosing any 110 girls and 88 boys.6. Non-probability sampling means that the sample has not been selected using a random selection method and cannot be taken to represent the population as a whole. Therefore if we were researching a school and we knew the population of the school contained 55 per cent of girls and 44 per cent of boys we would select a sample in proportion to these percentages. then the more confident the researcher will feel in generalising from the results. In non-probability sampling researchers will simply contact whom they can and this is known as convenience sampling. if females outnumber males by four to one in a population then stratified random sampling will ensure that 80 per cent of those sampled are female. The more the sample surveyed represents the population being studied. ethnicity. where a researcher makes contact with a small group. gender and professional status.) A quota sample represents a group of people that a sociologist wants to make statements about. which means that every member of a population being studied has an equal chance of being selected in relation to their representation within the general population.6: Types of sampling Cannot generalise statistically 49 . Snowball sampling is a form of convenience sampling that is often used in research into very sensitive areas such as health problems or criminal activities. especially in terms of key variables such as age. Population Sample Probability Non -probability Stratified random / random Convenience Snowball Quota Can generalise statistically Figure 2. validity and reliability. crime and self-harm. For example.

Townsend and his researchers then made a stratified random survey of over 6. which was much higher than the government’s official figure of six per cent.000 adults living in 2.21 Principles of sociology Activity 2. here the sample is the sample frame. lack of fresh meat on a regular basis and an absence of household amenities such as a refrigerator or a bath. health and educational research. A national census is a survey of the total population but it is not a sample because everyone is asked to provide information.5 Sampling Look at the four research topics listed below. To study poverty a researcher has to have a concept of poverty. while Townsend was using a relative definition – that is. We conclude this section with a real example of sociological survey research to illustrate some of the points that have been raised.052 households. They calculated that almost 20 per cent of the population were living in poverty. • Victims of domestic violence. Research example: Townsend (1979) on measuring poverty By the middle of the twentieth century it was widely believed that poverty had been virtually eliminated in Britain. 50 . Which ones do you think a researcher would be able to study through probability sampling? • The future career ambitions of management students at the local university. being poor is having an income less than a certain level. it is because Townsend and the government statisticians were using different concepts of poverty. The government statisticians were using an absolute definition – that is. It is not really a design in itself but is rather an addition to an existing design and is most frequently used in survey research when the samples being investigated are interviewed at different times. The level of poverty in the UK was highly embarrassing to the government of the time and the book was credited with forcing the issue of poverty back onto the political agenda. illustrating how sociological research can influence public opinion and public policy. Longitudinal approaches A longitudinal research design involves collecting data from the same source at intervals over time. This concept was measured by a number of indicators. This was not because the government statisticians made a ‘mistake’ and miscalculated their figures. Peter Townsend and his associates set out to find out if this was really the case. Taking a longitudinal approach is one of the ways sociologists document changes in individuals and organisations over time and is most frequently used in areas like child development. including the lack of a holiday in the last year. being unable to afford things that most people in a society consider normal. So. • Homeless people in your town or city. Is a national census a sample? • No. Townsend defined poverty in relative terms as the inability of people to participate in a substantial number of the activities and customs followed by the majority of the population. • The lifestyle choices of footballers registered at your local football club.

) • One criticism of field or quasi-experimental methods is that the data collection is often difficult to standardise. as a result of increased teacher expectations. Experimental research designs give researchers much greater control of the research situation.Chapter 2: Sociological research Experimental and evaluative research The laboratory experiment is the key method in scientific research. Research example: Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968) on teacher expectations In this famous study the researchers were interested in whether teachers’ expectations influenced students’ performance. the intelligence scores of the experimental group really increased in the short run. Here is an example. Here is an example. called an independent variable. 51 . The aim of evaluative research is to examine different social programmes. Teachers were told that 20 per cent of students (the experimental group) had been identified as highly intelligent through intelligence tests whereas the rest (the control group) had ordinary abilities. This involves establishing two broadly similar populations and introducing an independent variable to one group (the experimental group) but not to the other (the control group). • Another criticism is that experiments may lack full ecological validity because although they usually take place in ‘real settings’ – such as the classroom in Rosenthal and Jacobson’s research – researchers actually change those settings so that they are not completely authentic. In the experiment a possible causal influence. In fact no such test had been done. (Looking back like this helps both understanding and revision. research designs that attempt to explore relationships between independent and dependent variables in more natural settings are becoming increasingly common in sociology. there are some criteria that they do not usually fulfil so well. The aim is to see if there are differences in the behaviour of the experimental group and the control group. called a dependent variable. They also fulfil the criteria of reliability and transparency. such as crime prevention strategies or health promotion policies. turn back to the criteria outlined in section 2. However. Can you think of any? If necessary. The study showed how much teacher expectations influenced students’ educational performance. However. to see if they ‘work’ or to find out if one works better than another. but it has the advantage of high ecological validity as the events are occurring naturally. is manipulated under controlled conditions to see if it produces a change in another factor. One way round this problem is to use a ‘natural experimental design’ where a researcher makes use of some naturally occurring event that creates a quasi-experimental situation. and students had just been randomly assigned to the ‘highly intelligent’ group. particularly in evaluative research. Field. The most common type of experimental research design uses a control group. or ‘quasiexperimental’. Smoking Independent variable Cancer Dependent variable Laboratory experiments are rare in sociology. Nonetheless the classic experimental design is seen by some researchers as an important yardstick against which other methods can be assessed. A natural experimental design has the disadvantage that the researcher has much less control over events.2.

research design. or macro. or micro. The introduction of television to the island of St Helena in the south Atlantic in the 1990s provided natural experimental conditions to explore the effects of television on the island’s child population. but can you think of any reasons why some might argue it should not have been done? • The teachers were being deceived about the true nature of the experiment.6 Experiments and ethics Laboratory experiments are rare in sociology. if necessary. for producing antisocial and violent behaviour in children.2. but are most commonly raised in connection to experimental designs that often set out to manipulate people’s behaviour in various ways. This means that many of the large-scale. (1998) on the coming of television Many people blame television. To examine these larger cultural and historical questions. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Look again at the famous school study by Rosenthal and Jacobson outlined on the previous page. they should be fully informed about the purpose of the research. Ethical guidelines state that the subjects of research should not be harmed or have their lives disrupted in any way and. Would the violence they would see on television cause them to behave more violently? Charlton and his associates monitored the viewing habits and subsequent behaviour of a large sample of children. or why rates of health and illness. The concerns expressed above are examples of ethical issues in social research. Ethics refer to responsibilities researchers have to the researched. Ethical considerations apply to all research.) 1. look back at the criteria discussed in section 2. To date there is no evidence from the study that the introduction of television has caused more antisocial behaviour in children. Comparative research Another limitation of experimental research designs is that they are invariably small-scale. researchers are more likely to use what is called a comparative. and particularly violence on television. Most people would consider Rosenthal and Jacobson’s research ethical because of its contribution to educational research and because the deception was unavoidable. Activity 2. or suicide vary between societies – cannot be studied by experimental designs. or cross-cultural. give two reasons why you think this is so. (Again. • The children’s educational environment was changed just to accommodate the experiment. questions that interest many sociologists – such as why societies change. Research ethics have to be balanced against the importance of the research findings and the possibility of doing the research in another way that doesn’t involve compromising ethical guidelines. It was obviously a very valuable study. or even groups of 52 . crime. unless it is unavoidable.21 Principles of sociology Research example: Charlton et al. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 2. because the units of analysis are often whole societies. and ethical considerations have to be taken into account in planning research designs. However. why societies are different from each other. ethical guidelines mean that researchers cannot do anything they want in the name of research. Comparative research is much wider in scope than other research designs.

Chapter 2: Sociological research

societies, such as Western society or Latin America. Comparative research does not just mean comparing different societies or the same society over time. It involves searching systematically for similarities and differences between the cases under consideration. For example, in his comparative study of crime, the Australian sociologist John Braithwaite (1989) looked for similarities between countries with particularly high rates of crime, such as the USA and UK, and at how they were different from societies with low rates of crime, such as Japan. Braithwaite found that crime was lower in societies that tend to place collective interests over individual interests. Although comparative research usually uses secondary sources, such as historical documents or official statistics, research designs can still be organised in ways that resemble the logic of experimental comparisons between dependent and independent variables. This can be illustrated by looking at one of the most famous sociological studies of all time, Emile Durkheim’s comparative study of suicide Research example: Durkheim (1952) on suicide rates In his study of suicide, Durkheim used official suicide rates – that is the number of people per 100,000 committing suicide – as an indicator of different forms of social solidarity. Different countries and different social groups consistently produced different levels of suicide. But the data still had to be organised and analysed systematically. For example, the statistics showed that European countries that were predominantly Catholic, such as Italy, had much lower suicide rates than countries that were predominantly Protestant, such as Germany. But was this due to religion or national culture? In order to find out, Durkheim then looked at the suicide rates of Catholic and Protestant regions within the same countries. The fact that the Catholic rates were still much lower, even with nationality ‘controlled’, led him to conclude that the relationship between religion and suicide was real rather being an artefact (i.e. the result of some other cause).

Ethnography
The key idea behind ethnography is that as human behaviour is intentional, research should be orientated towards understanding the reasoning behind people’s actions. This is sometimes referred to as ‘verstehen’, a German word meaning empathetic understanding. Ethnography is usually based on detailed case studies of particular groups, organisations or individuals, and uses methods such as observations, long conversational interviews and personal documents, that bring researchers into close contact with the everyday lives of those they are studying. Research reports are in the form of a narrative, with key evidence, such as detailed descriptions of particular episodes being reproduced to illustrate the point the researcher is making. Research example: Taylor (1982) on suicidal behaviour Taylor’s ethnographic study of suicide can be compared with Durkheim’s statistical and comparative approach. For Taylor, the flaw in Durkheim’s brilliant study was his assumption that suicide could be explained sociologically without reference to the intentions of suicidal individuals. Using a combination of interviews with people who survived suicide attempts and documentary sources, Taylor attempted to piece together a picture of the context of suicidal actions from the victim’s point of view. So, whereas the units of analysis in Durkheim’s comparative study were populations, such as nations or religious groups, the units of analysis in Taylor’s ethnographic study were individual case studies.
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21 Principles of sociology

This research suggested that we should change the way we think about suicide. Most suicidal acts were not attempts to die so much as desperate gambles with death where suicidal individuals were uncertain as to whether they wanted to live or die. Therefore, the question was not just why do people kill themselves, but why do so many more risk their lives in these ‘games’ of chance. Observations about how people actually think and behave in real situations can only come from ethnographic research.

Summary
Here we have looked at four of the main research designs, or approaches, in sociology. Survey research is the systematic gathering of information about individuals and groups at a given time. Experimental designs attempt to manipulate one variable to examine its effect on another. Comparative research focuses on similarities and differences between different societies or social groups. Ethnography focuses on how people think and act in their everyday social lives. There are, of course, other research designs and sociologists often combine different aspects of the different approaches. However, the main point here has been to show you that not all sociologists take the same approach in their research.

2.5 Research methods
What are research methods?
Research methods are techniques used for collecting data. There are many different types of data in sociological research, but an important distinction is between primary and secondary data. Primary data is information that researchers collect for themselves by, for example, interviewing people or observing them. Secondary data is information that is already in existence before the research starts. For example, a researcher may make use of government statistics or monitor the content of newspapers, magazines or TV programmes. Although some sociology textbooks use the umbrella term ‘Methods’ to describe the entire research process, it is important to distinguish between research design and research methods. Sociologists have a range of research methods to choose from, each with their advantages and limitations, and they have to work out which methods best fulfil the aims of their research design. Methods are about the practical part of research, and sociologists don’t just have to work out what method they are going to use. They also have to work out how best to implement it. For example, suppose I have decided to use an interview method. I still have to decide if I’m going to do it by telephone or face-to-face. If it’s face-to-face, I still have to work out how to record the data. If I’m constantly scribbling notes or using a tape recorder it may intimidate interviewees and prevent them from saying what they really think. But if I conduct the interview more like a natural conversation, it may be difficult to recall enough of what the interviewees say. However – and this is important and less obvious – sociologists’ decisions are not just influenced by practical or technical concerns. They are also influenced by theory. This is because methods are not simply neutral research tools, as if they were methodological hammers or screwdrivers. As we shall see, each of them involves making theoretical assumptions about the nature of the social world and how we understand it. We shall be examining this in more detail in Chapter 3. Therefore, sociologists not only have to work out which methods will work best for which research problems, they also have to decide which methods
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Chapter 2: Sociological research

best fit their theoretical views of what societies are and how we should be finding out about them. When you write about methods you will be expected to know: • the key sociological methods and their relationship to research design • their strengths and limitations taking into account both practical and theoretical considerations • how they are linked to different theoretical viewpoints in sociology. In this section we shall be more concerned with explaining and evaluating research methods.

Primary research methods
Asking people questions in social research One of the ways sociologists try to find out about the social world is to ask people questions. This can be done by: • asking people to fill in questionnaires • telephone or Internet1 • formal face-to-face interviews • asking questions informally in the context of field work. There are many different types of interview methods in sociology but the most important distinction is between structured and unstructured interviews. Although sociologists sometimes use a combination of interview methods in their research, we shall look at them separately to clarify the distinctions between them. Structured interviews and questionnaires The structured question format is the most popular method of asking questions in sociological research and is the most commonly used method in survey research. In the structured interview, or questionnaire, interviewees are asked a set of identical questions in exactly the same way. They are usually asked to select their answers from a limited range of options, and these are known as ‘closed’ questions (see Figure 2.7). Q. How would you rate your sociology lecturer? Tick the answer closest to your view:
You will find that an increasing amount of research is conducted online, including research by the University of London.
1

‰ Excellent ‰ Quite good ‰ Don’t know/neutral ‰ Quite poor ‰ Useless.
Figure 2.7: Structured interview for a class studying sociology

Structured interviews have a number of advantages over other methods of asking questions. Information from a large number of people can be obtained relatively quickly and cheaply, the data can be quantified and the researcher is more detached from the process of data collection. Activity 2.7 Structured interviews Data from the structured interview fulfils some of the key criteria outlined in the first part of this section. Look back to section 2.2 and see if you can identify which ones they are.
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Unstructured interviews are more like ordinary conversations. The data collection is not standardised and is thus hard to generalise from and. this means that it is low in ecological validity. You will see in Chapter 4. qualitative interviews often depends on the rapport and trust that is built up between researcher and respondent. giving the researcher. in spite of its benefits.21 Principles of sociology However. an insight into how they experienced particular events. As researchers are detached from the people they are studying. using language. it is difficult for them to explore what their subjects actually mean and it is impossible for them to know how they actually behave in real situations.3 that unstructured interviews can allow the researcher to understand the processes by which people came to understand social situations. The effectiveness of unstructured. For example. some sociologists are very critical of the widespread use of structured interviews in sociology. Unstructured interviews are sometimes used in survey designs. Try to think of some different meanings the word ‘excellent’ could have in this context. and a major problem with the structured interview method is that the same word can mean different things to different people. Therefore. The aim of such interviews is to allow respondents to reconstruct their experiences in as much detail as possible. section 4. However. Unstructured interviews are also less reliable than structured interviews as the results cannot be quantified and re-tested. The main reason for questioning the structured interview is found in what I’m doing now. as there is usually far too much data to reproduce in full. Stop and look again at the question reproduced above (Figure 2. Unstructured interviews One way round some of the limitations of the structured interview is to use an unstructured interview. readers are dependent on the researcher’s selection of data. In sociological terms. 56 . my lecturer: is inspiring and makes the subject interesting is easy-going and doesn’t mind if you don’t hand in any essays is a nice person looks good. Another limitation of the structured interview method is that it lacks depth.7). but they are most frequently used in ethnographic research. there is no set interview structure and interviewees answer in their own words. Unstructured interviews have more depth and flexibility than structured interviews. It does not represent what it is supposed to represent – that is – a consistent and similar set of responses. Why do you think this is? • The meaning problem. The problem here is that people who might mean very different things by ‘excellent’ would still be included in the same percentage figure. They are also normally more valid as they give greater insight into the meanings of a subject’s experiences. they also have important limitations. and ultimately the reader. the data will lack construct validity. Some of the students may have said that their teacher is ‘excellent’. To write an interview question I have to use words. • The problem of depth and ecological validity.

unstructured or semi-structured) researchers are dependent on what people tell them. as children who had been brought into care because 57 . it uses a combination of both. using structured questions to obtain factual information. and unstructured questions to probe deeper into people’s experiences. such as age or income. Like interviews. despite their many benefits. or semi-structured. • There is something known as the interview effect. Researchers using observational methods do not have to rely on what people say they do. They can see for themselves. It requires both an attachment to and a detachment from those you are studying. they may use semi-structured interviews where the questions are closed. Once established. Structured observations are most commonly associated with experimental or evaluative research designs. However. If researchers want to find out how people really behave in their daily lives. Structured observation can also take place in naturalistic settings. This is easier said than done. Like anthropologists. persistence and the cultivation of helpful contacts. For example. as part of her research on gender and schooling. • With all interviews (structured. Alternatively. there are certain limitations with all interview methods. subjects may be given certain tests or tasks to do as part of an experiment and the researcher systematically records the results. As a student of child abuse. For example. However. • People may simply have problems in recalling information accurately. the research work involves detailing observations. observation can be structured or unstructured. and most of them use a method called participant observation where the researcher participates directly in the life of the people being studied. A great deal of psychological research has shown just how unreliable memory can be. Observational methods Watching people is another important way that sociologists find out about social life. Michelle Stanworth (1983) systematically recorded the amount of direct contact time teachers give to male and to female students. but interviewees are given space (in questionnaires) or time (in face-to-face interviews) to elaborate on their answers. that is. I watched. sociologists have to find ways of getting into the groups or organisations they wish to study and this may take a lot of friendly persuasion. the vast majority of observational research studies in sociology are unstructured. 1989). listening to what is being said and asking questions. learning their language and customs in order to document ways of life that were disappearing with colonisation and the relentless advance of industrialisation. I described this process in relation to research I did on social workers’ management of cases of child abuse (Taylor. or they answer a question in the way they think the interviewer wants. I regularly encountered forms of cruelty to children I hardly thought were possible. amazed.Chapter 2: Sociological research Limits of all interview methods Some sociologists use a combination of structured and unstructured interviews in their research on a ‘horses for courses’ principle. This technique was first used by Western anthropologists who joined tribal societies. This means that interviewees may give the more ‘socially acceptable’ answer. then they have to go and take a look.

criminal gangs and religious cults. but rather be surprised and intrigued by what is observed. the more you let your own values and feelings take over.58–59 Participant observation is the method most commonly used in ethnographic research designs and you will find that some textbooks treat ethnography and participant observation as if they were the same. For example. Do you think participant observation always ‘tells it like it is’ or do you think there may be some problems with this view? Can you think of times in your life when you have found yourself participating in social situations without really knowing what is going on? If so. prisons and mental hospitals. However. such as unstructured interviews or documents. this is not strictly accurate. which encouraged observational work and despatched its sociologists into every corner of the city. they’ve made observations in clinics. the more you will write about your own values and reactions. This authentic knowledge and the depth and detail it provides mean that data from participant observation usually fulfils the key criterion of validity far better than data obtained from other methods. 2 2 Taylor (1989) pp. clubs. In participant observation sociologists are able to see for themselves how people behave in their natural contexts. be done by other methods. section 4. used to claim that participant observation ‘tells it like it is’. schools. The famous ‘Chicago School’ of sociology. In essence. and sometimes has to.3. all in the name of research. try to identify some of the reasons. I have seen social workers and police having to drag screaming children away from their parents. The idea that participant observation ‘tells it like it is’ is challenged by something known as the observer effect. If this happens. Activity 2. while it is impossible to keep your values out of research. the professional social workers remained detached and unemotional. offices. this means that those being observed may change their behaviour simply because they are being studied. call centres. Some of the most vivid and interesting studies in sociology have used participant observation.8 ‘Telling it as it is’ Stop and think for a moment about the claim that being somewhere allows you see things as they are. There is a richness of detail in participant observation research that tends to be lacking in other methods and I have to confess it has always been my favourite research method. On the other hand. and the less you will see of what is going on around you. While a ‘lay’ person witnessing such things would probably react emotionally. the researcher should take nothing for granted. Participant observation can be used in experimental designs and ethnographic research can. and they’ve joined political parties. Maybe you were missing the cues or maybe people were deceiving you? Take a moment and write down your answers to these questions before moving on. sociologists have worked in factories.21 Principles of sociology they had been abused. On the one hand. ran with open arms to hug the ‘abusing’ parents who had been allowed to visit them. Neither of these reactions is suitable for the sociological observer. It also offers flexibility and can provide the basis for inductively generating new theoretical explanations. and the researcher is not seeing the subjects 58 . on street corners and in public toilets. We will be discussing the Chicago School in Chapter 4. It was as if nothing that happened to children could surprise them any more.

Official statistics are a major source of information for sociologists and are widely used. because it is often based on a single case study or a small and non-representative sample. they can provide a picture of a society at a given time. However. other organisations such as hospitals. Two of the most important sources of secondary data are official statistics and documents. For example. Participant observation methods also tend to be unreliable. For example. They are social constructions that reflect the conceptual categories and bureaucratic procedures through which they are collected. income and expenditure. sociologists have to approach the analysis of official statistics cautiously. State sources also regularly produce economic statistics on patterns of employment and unemployment. then the ecological validity of the research is compromised.Chapter 2: Sociological research of the research as they really are but as they want to be seen. some governments often change the way in which unemployment is classified. especially in large-scale comparative research designs. and a comparative study of unemployment based on official statistics that have been compiled in different ways will be neither standardised nor valid. usually every 10 years. ethnicity and the structure of families. that is. They are plentiful. sexuality. For example. Goffman (1987) worked as a games teacher in the institution. data not generated by the researcher. Furthermore. suicide and childhood experiences – that cannot usually be studied in this way. 59 . It is also time consuming and. and it has the limitation that the researcher is unable to ‘stop the action’ and ask questions freely and openly. in his classic study of a state mental hospital in the United States. economic organisations and voluntary agencies provide important sources of statistical information. there are many areas of social life – domestic violence. as those being studied have not given their consent to the research. This may include data from previous research but it is mainly material that is not specifically produced for research and this has important implications for the sociologist. divorces. cheap and available. This ‘undercover’ research raises ethical issues. a national census is held in developed countries. it is hard to generalise from the results. marriages. selection of data is very much dependent on the researcher’s subjective views of what should (and should not) be included. In addition to state-generated data. This provides information about the composition of the population in terms of factors such as births. data collection is not standardised and. while Holdaway (1983) made a study of the police force he was serving in at the time. They are not self-evident ‘facts’ simply waiting for researchers to use. enable comparisons to be made and help document important changes in societies and social groups over time. The analysis of official statistics The term official statistics refers to the mass of data collected by the state and its various agencies. as well as publishing rates of crime. suicides and the like. Secondary sources A great deal of sociological research involves the analysis of secondary data. A problem for sociologists wanting to use official statistics is that classification and collection procedures can vary both between different societies and within the same society over time. illness. like the unstructured interview. Sometimes researchers try to get round this problem by using covert observational methods and concealing their true identity from the group being studied.

some of which can offset the limitations of the others. For example. For example. letters. It is much better to say they ‘may lack validity’ and then go to explain why this could be the case. Therefore. magazines. that they ‘lack validity’. but it would be wrong to see them merely as a substitute for primary data. newspapers. use official statistics. These statistics give a much more accurate estimate of the level of crime than the official crime rates. in many societies. (Look back to the example of Townsend’s research on p. Official reports. for example. It is generally accepted that official statistics – such as those recording people’s incomes. and even graffiti scrawled on a wall. The analysis of documents is the major method used in comparative and historical research designs. because they are not valid. when writing about the limitations of official statistics. crime. where a random sample of the population are asked if they have been the victims of crime. films. Activity 2. • Townsend’s research on poverty showed that the official statistics were wrong. • Not all official statistics have the problems of classification and underreporting outlined above. law courts. illness and suicide – are far lower than the real levels. diaries. an increase in the official crime rates. TV programmes. art works 60 . photographs. • Researchers have access to different data sets. company accounts • cultural documents: for example. birth rates. what you write in your diary or in letters to friends might be a more valid representation of how you think and act than what you tell me in an interview. For example. films. government reports. These observations do not mean that sociologists cannot. Therefore. personal assets. many governments undertake annual victim surveys. newspapers. hospitals. do not simply state. or should not. • Sociologists should never use official statistics. • If a researcher who is comparing different sets of official statistics is sure that they have been compiled in much the same way. for example. but documents are also widely used in ethnographic research.21 Principles of sociology Another problem with official statistics may be under-reporting. death rates and murder rates are taken to be accurate representations of the true numbers.50) The analysis of documents In its widest sense a document simply means anything that contains text. Documents can be classified in many ways but a useful classification is: • official documents: for example. could mean either that crime has risen or it could simply mean that more crime has been reported and recorded. Documents are used when subjects cannot be observed or interviewed.9 Official statistics Critically evaluate the following statements: • Government statistics have shown that there has been a sharp rise in crime this year. emails. rates of immigration. reports from journals. records from schools. are examples of documents. companies’ profits. legal reports. then the data will still be valid. magazines.

and any other material you think is relevant here. They are now demanding a bigger house when their new baby arrives in October. each other. or simply false. Look back at the 61 . sexuality or stereotyping in programmes. local b. or sub-text? The story is not just about Mike and Kathleen. Activity 2. said he would not take the job in case his state benefits were cut. In structured. Even with relatively recent documents this is not always clear. The diaries were being sold round the world when it was revealed that they had not been written by Hitler.150 a month in state benefits and live rent free. researchers might monitor the output of TV stations at regular intervals to calculate the proportion of violence. looking at the proportions of time given to: a. who has never done a day’s work. write down what you think are the advantages and limitations of this approach. to interpret the contexts that give them meaning. To illustrate this latter approach. But what else do you think the story is saying? Can you see a hidden meaning. 23. in 1983 the German magazine Stern paid seven million marks (£2 million) for 60 volumes of Hitler’s diaries after they had been ‘authenticated’ by several eminent historians. or corroborate. Unstructured. diaries. national c.. A document may be both authentic and first hand but.10 Content analysis Imagine you are doing a content analysis study of the news programmes on your local TV stations. documentary methods use qualitative techniques to explore the meanings of texts. look at the following news item from a British newspaper. It is possible here to interpret an underlying sub-text of statements and questions that help to give the story a framework and a much wider meaning. researchers usually examine a number of documentary sources looking for accounts that confirm. Another important question in the context of authenticity is whether or not a document is a forgery. or textual. A key question in documentary research is the authenticity of the document. the content may be distorted. Researchers generally prefer first-hand accounts. or it could mean looking beneath the actual words or images. Therefore. Mike B. For example. documentary methods can be structured or unstructured. emails. 19. international news stories. but by a former waiter and window cleaner called Konrad Kujau! Another question researchers have to consider is the validity of the document’s content.Chapter 2: Sociological research • personal documents: for example. This may involve examining the literal meaning of the document. or content analysis sociologists systematically analyse documents in terms of certain pre-determined criteria. Dad of 5 Turns Down First Job A jobless teenager about to become a dad for the fifth time was offered a job yesterday – and turned it down. On the surface this is simply an account of a young man with four children who turned down a job. for various reasons. receive £1. letters. Mike and his wife Kathleen.2. Using the criteria outlined in Section 2. written by people who witnessed something personally. For example. rather than documents derived from earlier sources. Like interviews and observational methods. exaggerated.

8: Research design and research methods (or the research design– method relationship) Although I have looked at the major methods separately in order to explain them. Many studies in sociology.21 Principles of sociology story again. Vast amounts of information are held in documents. are based almost exclusively on documents. the autobiographical accounts by adults who have tried to harm themselves. researchers will usually use more than one method to fulfil different aims of the research design. societies. Audience: • People who work for a living and pay taxes. many of which are easily accessible and in a form that can be examined and checked out by other researchers. personal documents Figure 2. groups of societies Case studies Typical methods Structured interview questionnaire Structured observation Official statistics. Research design Survey Experimental/ evaluative Comparative/cross cultural Ethnographic Typical subjects Samples of large populations Small groups of subjects Institutions. unstructured interview. Selection of methods In practice sociologists will select the methods that best fulfil the aims of the research design and there are usually clear relationships between research designs and research methods. Often methods will be combined in a 62 .11 Textual analysis Take a story from your local newspaper and see if you can interpret its underlying subtext. • People who ‘really’ need state benefits because they cannot work. documents Participant observation. Documents can also be used when observational or interview methods are not possible because people cannot be contacted or observed. particularly historical studies. Who do you think it is aimed at? What else do you think it is ‘saying’ other than what is in the text? What questions do you think it is raising? Here are some suggestions below. For example. Underlying text: • Look how much money people on state benefits are paid! • If you have more children the state will find you a bigger house when other people have to earn more money to move to a bigger house Questions raised: • Do you think this is fair on people who work hard for a living? • Do you think the benefits system is encouraging some people not to work? Activity 2. been anorexic or been abused in their childhood provide an invaluable source of information for sociologists researching these areas.

As I observed above. for example. the reverend Moon. The founder. which is the subtitle of her book. such as interviewing people who worked for the organisation or were members of the social group under consideration. 2. She explored these questions using three different methods. tells followers. a term borrowed from navigation where the position of a ship is plotted from two fixed points. is ‘… choice or brainwashing?’. whether they are different from ‘ordinary people’ and if they are ‘brainwashed’ by the organisation as many people believed. when you join you do everything in utter obedience to me’. choice of research methods is influenced primarily by the aims of the research design.The sociological question she asked. there are external factors that also have to be taken into consideration in planning and undertaking research. Barker found that were no significant personality differences between Moonies and non-Moonies and also little evidence of ‘brainwashing’. 1. She explored possible differences between Moonies and non-Moonies by giving structured questionnaires to a large sample of Moonies and to a control group of non-Moonies. She carried out participant observation research in a number of Unification Church centres over a period of six years to see for herself the ways in which Moonies were controlled within the organisation. Write down what you understand by these terms and then check your answers by looking back at the subject guide and using your textbooks. 63 . She found that the Moonies chose to be members of the group. Eileen Barker’s study The Making of a Moonie (1984) is a classic example of the use of multiple methods in research. they are not always simply decided by what the researcher would like to do. so they have to find alternative methods. 3. ‘I am your brain. Eileen Barker wanted to find out what sort of people join the Moonies. ethical considerations might constrain research. She carried out detailed interviews with a random sample of Moonies to explore their motivations for joining. or Unification Church.Chapter 2: Sociological research way where the strengths of one method can be used to offset some of the limitations of another. • Time and money: lack of time or funding means that researchers sometimes have to select the cheaper option. This is known as triangulation. In spite of so much criticism of the Moonies in the press. Some of the most important ones are: • Access: sometimes sociologists cannot get access to the documents they want from an organisation or to the social group they want to observe. However. using questionnaires instead of detailed unstructured interviews. Research example: Barker (1984) on the Moonies The Moonies. Sometimes. have followers and business interests all over the world. she found that the Moonies had actively chosen to be Moonies.12 Revision check In the above example there are four terms in bold type: • random sample • structured questionnaire • control group • participant observation. Activity 2. • Ethics: as we have already observed.

you should have a clearer idea of: • the nature of sociological research and why it is important to know how research is done • the key criteria by which research is evaluated • what is meant by a research design and how the nature of the research design influences the data that is collected • the characteristics of survey. This is what we shall be examining in the next chapter. you can turn to Chapter 4 now. Most of the time. and the essential reading and activities. Although it is important to mention the influence of external influences on research. observation.21 Principles of sociology • Funding body: sometimes the organisation funding the research will expect the research to be done in a certain way. for example. However. some organisations have a preference for quantitative rather than qualitative research. the analysis of official statistics and documents • how to approach questions on sociological research. A reminder of your learning outcomes Having completed this chapter. Summary Research methods refer to how data is collected. experimental. and that is that all research involves making theoretical assumptions about the nature of the social world. observations. official statistics and documents. Here we have looked at four of the major research methods: interviews.8. there is one thing about which they have no choice. most researchers have choice and discretion about most aspects of a research project. theoretical preferences and by external constraints. Researchers’ selection of methods is influenced by the nature of the problem. The various factors influencing selection of methods are summarised in Figure 2. they should not be exaggerated. 64 . It is important to appreciate the strengths and limitations of each method. If you would like to understand more about the history of sociology before you begin working on the subject in more detail. comparative and ethnographic research designs • the key research methods: interviews.

(Cambridge: Polity Press. The philosophy of social research. 2005) pp. Plummer Sociology: a global introduction. (Harlow: Prentice Hall. (Oxford: Oxford University Press. Scott Sociology.44–69 and (2008) pp. and J. J. J. J. Sociology.50–57. In this chapter we’re going to dig deeper and look at some of the different theoretical ideas underpinning sociological thinking and social research. The key pages in the textbooks we have recommended are: Fulcher. but you must also supplement it with reading from your textbook. Aims of the chapter The aims of this chapter are to: • develop the idea of methodology introduced in Chapter 2 • introduce you to ontological and epistemological issues in sociology • outline the key aspects of positivism • outline the key aspects of interpretivism • outline the key aspects of realism. (London.15–17 and 24–27. theoretical – assumptions about the nature of social reality and how we obtain knowledge of it. and K.77–78 Macionis. Essential reading The essential reading for this chapter of the unit is the subject guide.Chapter 3: Theory and research Chapter 3: Theory and research Written by Dr Steve Taylor. we’ve looked at the questions sociologists ask about human societies (Chapter 1) and how they do research (Chapter 2). New York: Longman. 2007) pp. and having completed the essential reading and activities. 1997). 65 . Further reading It would also be helpful if you referred to: Hughes. A. 2008) pp. Learning objectives By the end of this chapter. as the very act of doing research involves making contested – that is. you should have a clearer idea of: • how research is underpinned by theoretical ideas • what is meant by an ontology/epistemology problem in sociology • the key aspects of positivist theory • the interpretivist critique of positivism and the key aspects of interpretivist approaches in sociology • what is meant by realism in sociology and how realism is different from both positivism and interpretivism. Introduction So far. The key idea here is that there is no such thing as ‘theory-free’ research. Giddens.

(Harlow: Prentice Hall. Methodology = Ontology + Epistemology + Methods Figure 3. This video/DVD may be helpful to you as it explains and illustrates the three major theories considered here: positivism. Marsh. the assertion that sociology provides some authoritative understanding of the working of the social world is based on usage of some special tools of inquiry. p. Video/DVD ‘Theory and methods’ [from 8 www. ‘The Enlightenment and the birth of social science’ in Hall. The thinking skills – that we shall be more concerned with in this section – involve things like excavating the underlying theoretical assumptions on which research is based. I. Gieben (eds) Formations of modernity. can be divided into two further categories called ontology and epistemology (Figure 3. T. (Buckingham: Open University. and B. Methodology. Methodology = Principles + Methods Figure 3. (Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan. Social theory: a basic tool kit. what units make them up and how these units relate to each other.com]. It is concerned with what societies are. Ontology The term ontology originated in philosophy and is concerned with the essential nature of what is being studied. (Oxford: Oxford University. 2002) Chapter 1.1). 66 . A. ‘Principles’. The ‘special tools of inquiry’ involve a combination of thinking skills and practical skills. methods and process. The practical skills – which we looked at the previous chapter – involve things like gaining access to research sites and selecting the right methods for the research problem.) Theory and practice in sociology. As Pawson (1999. 3.2 Ontology and epistemology are very important concepts in sociology (and in any other discipline) because they involve exploring the ‘core’ ideas and assumptions of the subject. 2003) Chapter 11.1 The middle term. (Cambridge: Polity. May. Here we are going to ‘unpick’ the idea of methodology and look at it in a little more detail. 2001) Part 1. 1992).21 Principles of sociology Other relevant textbooks are: Bryman. interpretivism and realism. an ontological question in sociology addresses the essential nature of human societies. Parker J.20) has observed. subjecting them to critical scrutiny and considering alternatives. (ed. is about developing the principles and practice of social research (see Figure 3.2). Therefore. Hamilton. 2008) Part 1. then. Social research methods. Social research: issues. Methodology is the analysis of these skills. S.1 Methodology revisited In Chapter 2 we introduced methodology as the study of the methods used by sociologists to find out about societies.halovine.

one key difference (that we shall be looking at in more detail in Chapter 4) is between sociologists who see societies as social structures and those who focus on social action. social processes. or macro. loosely described as social action theories.2). both viewed people’s behaviour as the product of the structural organisation of societies. despite the differences between Durkheim’s idealist theory focused on cultural values and beliefs and Marx’s materialist theory based on economic production. sociologists should begin by studying individual social action and the meanings people give to these actions. From this point of view. A cluster of approaches in sociology. Both are ‘external realities’ that constrain people’s actions in various ways. He saw the morals and values of a society. (We will be going into more detail into the theories when we look at Weber in Chapter 4. From this point of view differences in suicide rates were a consequence of different social structures rather than of the characteristics of individuals. as history books led people to believe. section 4. For example.2. For Marx. Durkheim’s famous study of suicide – looked at briefly in Chapters 2 and 4 – was an attempt to demonstrate that social groups with more integrating social structures (that is. However. Marx claimed that social change was caused primarily by changes and resulting tensions in the underlying economic structures of societies rather than by the outcomes of battles or the decisions of a few powerful people. sociology is about the relationships between individuals and societies. there are similarities between the natural world and the social world. Many of those whose work helped to ‘found’ sociology in the nineteenth century viewed societies as social structures. transmitted from one generation to the next. However.Chapter 3: Theory and research As we observed in Chapter 1. (You will be reading about these sociological theories in more detail in Chapter 4. For example. the societies in which we live influence and constrain how we think and act. For example. sociologists have different ways of conceptualising these relationships. Sociologists who favour structural approaches conceptualise societies primarily as networks of social institutions and patterns of social relationships that are comparatively long lasting. Thus the focus tends to be on large-scale. the key to understanding societies lay in their economic structures. view the relationships between the individuals and societies rather differently. as social forces that regulate people’s behaviour and bind them to each other through shared membership of social institutions. section 4. Weber disagreed with Marx that the rise of industrial capitalist 67 . where people are bound more closely together) have lower suicide rates. Sociologists adopting this approach try to show the ways that different social structures shape the behaviour of the individuals living within them. Action theorists argue that as societies are produced by the intentional activities of people. Sociological approaches that see values and beliefs as the ‘core’ elements of societies are called idealist. Marx and Durkheim conceptualised societies this way. This is known as a materialist view of societies. Durkheim took a different view of social structures.) For example. Action theorists sometimes suggest that structural theories reduce people to the mere puppets of societies. the wealth of a society. Just as gravity limits our power of movement. its productive processes and its customs and values shape people’s life experiences irrespective of their conscious wishes.

version of this epistemological position holds that you actually have to be a member of the social group being studied. others argue exactly the opposite. as far as possible. one where researchers transcend their subjectivity by interpreting the subjectivity of the people they are studying. that valid knowledge of social groups comes from researchers immersing themselves as closely as possible in the lives of those they are studying. or at 68 . Whereas some sociologists argue that researchers should remain as detached as possible from the subjects of inquiry. Sociologists study people and. On the one hand. Another. On the other hand. Again. By focusing more on the actions of individuals. Therefore. He argued that this theory did not explain the motivation behind a new. In between these extremes there are a variety of positions that accept the principles of scientific inquiry to a limited degree in relation to specific research questions. sociology requires a very different approach from that of the natural sciences. In more simple terms. is to follow the logic and procedures of the natural sciences. Epistemology Epistemology is another term from philosophy. Therefore. more extreme. people are reflective and try to make sense of the situations in which they find themselves. So we can see that there are differences in the way that sociologists view the social world. An epistemology is a theory that presents a view of what can be regarded as knowledge rather than belief. rather than spend. sociologists have different views on this. there are those – sometimes referred to as antinaturalists – who argue that because nature and society are completely different from each other. This will affect the way that they believe that they can understand and know about the world. there are those – sometimes referred to as naturalists – who argue that the best way for sociology to transcend subjectivity and produce more objective knowledge of social life. more disciplined work ethic and the tendency of so many of the early industrial capitalists to work long hours and reinvest. Weber used economic statistics and other documentary sources to suggest that an important factor in the success of many early capitalists was a religious conviction. which we looked at briefly in Chapter 1. Another related epistemological question concerns what is called the subject/object dilemma. their profits.21 Principles of sociology society in Western Europe could be explained merely by changes in economic structures. unlike the matter studied by most natural scientists. Weber was able to highlight something absent in Marx’s theory – the relationship between religion and the rise of modern capitalism. it follows that epistemological questions in sociology are investigations into how sociologists justify the knowledge they are providing of social life. the principles and methods of the natural sciences have little or no application to the study of social life. arising from the Protestant doctrine of predestination where economic (or worldly) success came to be interpreted as a sign of God’s favour. A major epistemological debate in sociology concerns the similarity of sociological knowledge and scientific knowledge. sociology can develop methods of investigation based on the logic of experimentation and measurement found in the natural sciences. This point of view holds that. it explores the basis for knowledge – how we know what we know.

• Secondly. Scientific inquiry is based on the systematic accumulation of ‘facts’ rather than on belief. We will be examining these approaches in more detail in Chapter 4.Chapter 3: Theory and research least have shared the same kind of experiences personally. These are terms used primarily by methodologists and social theorists to try to describe and evaluate the theoretical assumptions underlying different approaches to research. interpretivist or realist. a great deal of research in sociology (and other social sciences) is underpinned by positivist assumptions. in summary. such as Auguste Comte (1798–1857) and Herbert Spencer (1820–1903) believed that by applying the principles and practices that had worked so well in natural sciences (especially physics. interpretivism and realism. Many of the early sociologists writing in the nineteenth century.11–12.54–55 or Giddens (2008) pp. others (following Schutz) argue that sociology cannot move beyond people’s subjective meanings. the form of all scientific enterprise is essentially the same. many studies in sociology use a combination of positivist. (This epistemological position would. tradition or divine revelation.46–47 or Macionis and Plummer (2008) pp. opinion. interpretivist and. 69 . more recently. positivism. For example.2 Positivism Now read Fulcher and Scott (2007) pp. Positivism originated as a philosophy of science. there are many different views in sociology about what societies are and the best ways of obtaining knowledge of them. section 4. sociology could discover the ‘laws’ that explained how societies worked and changed.24–27 or Macionis and Plummer (2005) pp. few sociologists would describe themselves as a positivist. • Thirdly. In the following sections we shall try to simplify matters to some extent by identifying three of the most influential theories of knowledge in sociology: positivism. However. However. Its key idea is unity of scientific method. Most modern sociologists do not have such grand ambitions and tend to write about ‘trends’ or ‘probabilities’ in particular societies rather than ‘scientific laws’ of social development of all societies. create problems for me. so it is important to identify some of the most important ones.3. incidentally. before looking at these theories. as it would be quite wrong to see sociology as divided into three distinct and entirely separate approaches. • First. 3. it is important to put them into perspective. to provide valid knowledge of their behaviour. as its logic suggests I can only ‘really’ understand suicide by committing suicide myself!) So. some interpretivists (following Weber) believe that understanding the meanings that people give to their actions is the first step towards explaining their behaviour. realist ideas. interpretivism and realism are very general descriptive terms and there are many different theoretical approaches within the general framework of each one. just as they use different research methods. This means that although the content of the various sciences is obviously very different. However. chemistry and biology). In simple terms you cannot really understand people without having ‘been there’ yourself.

For example. they see the task of sociology as explaining why people behave in the way they do. or choice. be used to engineer social change. and this may then be a cause of increasing rates of crime (Figure 3. to some extent at least. science – and good social science – involves describing and trying to explain these causal relationships. in principle. For positivists. some of your behaviour has been determined by things outside your direct control? If so. to predict (what would happen in the future) and to control (what they discovered was wrong in the world). such as literature or poetry. In more simple language. in the case of crime given in Figure 3. For example. a [economic recession] b [increased unemployment and economic deprivation] c [increased crime] Figure 3. irrespective of their free will. Do you feel that you behave in the way that you do because you make a free choice? Or do you think that. what things (or factors) do you think have influenced your life? 70 . For example. an economic recession in a society may cause higher unemployment and poverty in some sections of a society. How people really feel about things cannot be explained scientifically and is the proper subject for ‘arts’ subjects. Comte argued that it was possible to know (about the world).3). However. positivism does not necessarily lead to a fatalistic acceptance of the way things are. he went as far as suggesting that. In spite of its determinist views.3 increasing unemployment and poverty and not free choice ‘causes’ the increase in crime. by finding the cause of a certain disease and developing an effective treatment – so sociological research into the causes of people’s behaviour can. Researchers adopting a positivist point of view may still be interested in finding out about people’s subjective views. In fact. For example. they explore things such as attitudes and opinions through survey research. As you will have seen in your reading. this means that something (a cause) makes something else (an effect) happen and an effect of one thing can then be the cause of something else.3: How an effect may become a cause Determinism Another positivistic assumption underlying much sociological research is a deterministic view of the relationship between the individual and society. Just as scientists can intervene in nature – for example.1 Determinism and free will Write down some characteristics of your own behaviour. future societies would be run on the advice and guidance of sociologists! Activity 3.21 Principles of sociology Causality Positivism sees the social world – like the natural world – as comprising phenomena (which is just a complicated technical way of saying ‘things’) that are causally related to each other. as sociological expertise developed. understanding the causes of crime can lead to the development of policies that might reduce crime rates. This means that the organisation of the societies in which people live causes them to think and act in the way they do.

Positivist research designs tend to be those that are closest to the logic of natural science research: surveys or experimental designs. This view can be summarised in the phrase ‘the facts speak for themselves’. We do not have to take the researcher’s word for it. such as structured interviews. This is known as an empiricist concept of knowledge. ask yourself what research designs and methods you think would be most common in positivist research. structured observation and analysis of official statistics (Figure 3. Favoured methods are those that are more likely to produce testable and quantifiable data.4). In scientific terms. The positivist view is that science (and ‘good’ social science) involves constructing theories that express relations between observable phenomena (or things). you know the chair exists because you can see it and feel it. Theories may then be proven. the goal of sociology is to produce an objective understanding of societies by following the principles of the natural sciences. Theories are then tested out in research designs to see if the phenomena behave in the way predicted by the theory. Theory Positivism Research design (most common) Social surveys Experimental Comparative Figure 3. an empiricist epistemology means that research has to be grounded in concrete evidence that can be checked out. systematic collection of evidence. science and (good) social science. or epistemology. What proves a scientific ‘truth’ is the empirical evidence. as far as possible. For example. If you cannot begin to answer this. not the researcher’s subjective values or arguments. provides objective knowledge that is. partly proven. Empiricist epistemology holds that the only valid source of knowledge is that based on experience. According to this view. reliability and transparency. as you are reading this. The important consequence of this sociologically is that positivist research is confined to relationships between observable social phenomena. Therefore positive research is guided primarily by the ‘scientific criteria’ of the measuring instruments of quantification. value free. design and method 71 Research methods (most common) Structural interviews Structural observations Official statistics . you are sitting on a chair. Methods There are clear links between positivist theory and the research designs and methods that we looked at in Chapter 2. Before reading on. or even falsified. For positivists.4: Theory.Chapter 3: Theory and research Empiricism Another characteristic of positivist approaches is the distinction researchers make between ‘theories’ (ideas) and ‘observations’ (empirical knowledge). or factual. The theory can be tested and it is the evidence that shows whether or not it works. if. The links between positivist theory and research can be worked out logically from what we already know. go back and reread about sociological research designs and methods in Chapter 2. Empirical. knowledge is that which can be directly perceived.

The interpretivist tradition in sociology developed largely as a criticism of the dominant theory of positivism. Which of the following research projects is more likely to be underpinned by positivist theory? • An in-depth analysis using unstructured interviews to find out how the victims of crime really felt about their experiences. ‘natural science’ and ‘social science’ are two very different enterprises requiring a different logic and different methods. For him. Can you think of any other criticisms of positivist theory? (For a clue.21–25.3 Interpretivism Further reading Marsh (2002) pp. and almost all research in psychology and in economics. We shall look at the alternative sociological theories of knowledge arising out of these critiques below. as we have seen. Although very few sociologists today would describe themselves as positivists. go back and look at the relation of theory to research on p. argue that scientific methods have little or no application in sociology.2 Positivism Can you write down three characteristics of positivist theory? Look at your list. sociology involves the search for causal relationships between observable phenomena and theories are tested against observations. Some of those favouring an interpretivist view of sociology have long argued that in their quest for a scientific explanation of social life. 3. Activity 3. However. Interpretivist sociologists do not necessarily reject the positivist account of scientific knowledge. The humanist question At the heart of interpretivist critique of positivism is a humanist viewpoint. positivist sociologists have sometimes forgotten that they are studying people. Max Weber (1864–1920) was one of the main influences on the interpretivist tradition in sociology. but what they do question is the idea that the logic and methods of natural science can be imported into the study of societies. Others suggest that the positivist interpretation of science is flawed. In the positivist view. positivist assumptions are important because they still underpin a great deal of empirical research. and to study people you need to get out and explore how they really think and act in everyday situations. they have been subject to a great deal of criticism.81.21 Principles of sociology Positivist ideas are very important because they still underpin a great deal of research in sociology. Now make of few notes to explain how these points are linked to each other. 72 . particularly the second point on theory and data collection.) Summary Positivist theory argues that the methods of the natural sciences are applicable to the study of societies (naturalism). Some sociologists. • A statistical study of crime rates amongst a city’s different ethnic populations.

has a specific meaning and relevance structure for beings living. is starting to ask itself some similar questions. human societies are essentially subjective realities. The social world is meaningful. however. they actively interpret the situations in which they find themselves and act on the basis of these interpretations. but I know he has problems at home and this is why he has lost his temper. The key idea of interpretivist ontology is that there is a fundamental difference between the natural world and social world. Economics. You argue back and threaten to report him for bullying.e. As Schutz (1899–1959). intentional activities and attach meanings to their actions. For example. What you would do next depends on how you interpret his action. 1954) As people engage in conscious. there is not necessarily a consistent cause–effect relationship). • Whatever your response. traditionally the most complacent and self-consciously scientific of the social sciences. there is now a flourishing humanist movement in psychology. A group of economists is now arguing that one of the weaknesses of economics has been its failure to get out into the world and see how people really behave in economic situations. namely the social reality. For example: Interpretation He is quite right. Rather. for example. for it is this meaning that explains your response. acting and thinking therein. argued: The world of nature. Action You apologise and promise to do better in future. but does not apply in the social world. A problem at work Imagine you are working in a bank and your manager comes in and starts shouting at you about how bad your work is. some of which you may be studying at some time on your programme. It is so unlike him to get angry like this. He is out of order and has no right to talk to me like that – the mistakes were mainly his fault anyway. a researcher cannot really make sense of your behaviour without interpreting the meaning that you attributed to your manager’s actions.Chapter 3: Theory and research The same question is now being raised in other social sciences. Interpretivists argue that the positivist idea of a chain of causation is quite logical in the natural world where a particular stimulus consistently produces a given effect. You stay quiet and accept the criticism. 73 . as explored by the natural scientist. Consumers. as we illustrate below. does not ‘mean’ anything to molecules. (Schutz. often make very ‘irrational’ choices. one of the most important influences on interpretive sociology. atoms and electrons therein. There are two points here that illustrate the interpretivist position: • The same stimulus – the angry manager – can produce different responses depending on how his anger is interpreted (i. Social institutions – the subject matter of sociology – cannot be divorced from the subjective understanding that people (including sociologists) have of them. People do not merely react to stimuli. The observational field of the social scientist. I have been making mistakes and causing him problems.

that sociologists have to agree with those points of view but rather that they have to interpret them in order to understand crime. Phenomenology is another important concept in interpretivist epistemology. focusing on people’s states of consciousness and ‘bracketing off’ judgments about what may be causing their behaviour.21 Principles of sociology Activity 3. section 4. section 4.3 Your week Write down three experiences you have had in the past week.2) is verstehen.3. sociology has to show how people come to construct these meanings for their actions. Phenomenology argues that it’s not enough simply to interpret the meanings people give to their actions. associated particularly with the work of Alfred Schutz. Sociologists adopting an interpretivist approach to study crime.4 The social meanings of actions Car theft is a growing crime. A phenomenological approach means studying everyday life. Interpretivist sociologists argue that these different meanings require different explanations. as far as possible. This does not mean. • How do you think these different meanings might influence students’ motivation for the degree programme? 74 . How to do you think a sociologist researching you could interpret and ‘make sense’ of these experiences? What do you think the limitations of such a study would be? Verstehen A key concept here (also described in Chapter 2 and Chapter 4. for example. a German word meaning ‘understanding’. For example: • financial gain: the car can be changed and sold • revenge: people who have expensive cars deserve to have them taken and wrecked • convenience: ‘borrowing’ someone’s car to get somewhere else • danger: the motivation is the risk of getting caught and being chased by the police.4 below. would not begin by asking what causes criminal behaviour. place themselves imaginatively in the position of those they are studying and ask how they see the world and what ends they believe are served by their actions. particularly in Western societies. We will be looking at phenomenology in more detail in Chapter 4. of course. The idea of verstehen is that researchers. An important issue raised by Max Weber is that behaviour that seems the same ‘from the outside’ can have very different meanings when examined from the ‘inside’. They would start by trying to interpret criminal behaviour from the criminals’ point of view (see Activity below). Activity 3. This is elaborated in Activity 3. • Ask yourself what meaning the degree programme you are now taking has for you. • Can you think of some different meanings that other students taking your degree programme may have? If you have time. But the act of breaking into someone’s car and driving it away can have different meanings for different people. you could do a little research and ask some of them.

interpretivists’ accounts are criticised by some sociologists for not providing testable hypotheses that can be evaluated. Sociological methods are primarily about investigating and understanding the meanings that people give to their actions. is seen as just as good as any other. Therefore. such as unstructured observation. • Now write down some arguments against this view.Chapter 3: Theory and research Methods The aim of interpretivist approaches in sociology is to understand the subjective experiences of those being studied. It has also influenced a whole field of research illuminating people’s everyday life experiences. This can lead to relativism where one theory. • Which view do you find more convincing and why? Summary Interpretivists argue that there are fundamental differences between the natural world and the social world and that the logic and methods of the natural sciences are not applicable to the study of societies. Theory Positivism Research design (most common) Social surveys Experimental Comparative Interpretivism Ethnography Research methods (most common) Structural interviews Structural observations Official statistics Participant observation Unstructured interviews Personal documents Figure 3. Activity 3. unstructured interviews and personal documents (Figure 3.6 Sociology and science • Write down some arguments in favour of sociology as a science of society. or study. the key criterion in interpretivist epistemology is validity. 75 . The favoured research design is ethnography and the main methods are ones that help researchers understand social life from the point of view of those being studied. how they think and feel and how they act in their natural contexts. • Can you think of any criticisms of interpretivist theory other than the two mentioned above? Activity 3. However. • Identify three research methods that are more likely to be favoured by interpretivist sociologists. design and methods Interpretivism has provided a powerful critique of many of the taken-forgranted ideas of positivism that are widely used in sociology and in other social sciences.5 Interpretivism • Identify three key characteristics of interpretivist theory.5: Theory. although interpretivists still try to be objective and systematic in their research. • Make some notes explaining how these characteristics are linked to each other.5).

21 Principles of sociology

3.4 Realism
Further reading Parker (2003) Chapter 11 is also relevant to this section but it is not essential reading. Realist theory, like positivism, holds that sociology can, and should, follow the logic and methods of the natural sciences. Where realism differs from positivism is in its interpretation of science. Realists question positivism’s empiricist interpretation of the basis of scientific knowledge. (If you cannot remember what empiricism means go back and remind yourself, using section 3.2.) They argue that no form of science relies exclusively on observable empirical evidence. There are always aspects of any form of reality that remain hidden beneath the surface of what can be observed. According to realists, the aim of scientific work – rather than looking at relationships between observable phenomena as positivists argue – is to uncover the underlying causal mechanisms that bring about observable regularities. The idea of medical viruses was originally constructed to explain infections that could not be explained as a result of bacteria or germs. Thus, while the causal mechanisms were unobservable or ‘hidden’ they were nonetheless real and observable in the effect of the viruses. This is where the term realism comes from (Figure 3.6). Observable regularities underlying
Figure 3.6: Hidden causes

generative

mechanisms

Realism has become quite fashionable in sociology. However, like positivism and interpretivism, it has a long history. For example, there were strong realist elements in the work of Karl Marx. Marx was particularly interested in the analysis of capital accumulation and the process of change. However, he argued that the observable features of capitalist society, such as economic fluctuation, capital growth and massive inequalities, could only be explained in terms of something called the mode of production; that is the relationship between how goods are produced and how production is organised. (However, the mode of production was a theoretical construct that could not be observed directly. Thus, for Marx, to understand how capitalism worked, you had to look beneath the surface.) In Chapter 4, section 4.2, we will be examining Marx’s theories in more detail and you will need to know why he has been described as a realist to be able to understand the idea of a mode of production which can only be seen by its effects. The development of a clear, realist epistemology is comparatively recent in sociology and owes much to ‘new realist’ writers like Bhaskar (1986) and Pawson (1989). The key to realist epistemology is that it is theory-driven and non-empiricist.
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Chapter 3: Theory and research

Realists do not make the clear separation between theory (‘ideas’) and observation (‘facts’) found in positivism. In positivist research theories are tested against observations and found to be ‘true’ or ‘false’ or somewhere in between. In simple terms, the ‘facts’ are the judge of the theory. Realists do not make this clear-cut separation because they do not believe that ‘observations’ can be separated from ‘theories’. For realists, all data is theory-dependent. Before reading on, try Activity 3.7 below. Activity 3.7 The ‘facts’? Do you agree with the realist argument that there are no such ‘things’ as facts without theories? Can you find some examples of data that you think are theory free? As theory comes before data collection, theoretical concepts impose a frame of reference on the data rather like the way in which the rules of a game set parameters for the players. Theory thus orders data. However, if theory and observation cannot be separated, this raises the question of how theories can be evaluated. Realists address this question by looking at what happens in the natural sciences. They argue – in contrast to the positivist view – that data collection in science is also theory-dependent and that explanation does not involve testing theories against observations, but rather generating data to test theories against each other. Realists argue that this is what should happen in social sciences. As data never speak for themselves but can only be interpreted through theory, research should be about developing, refining and comparing theories in the following way: • a research problem is formulated • the most plausible theories are identified • research designs are constructed to compare the explanatory power of rival theories in given circumstances. As Pawson (1999, p.47) observes:
Data analysis whether quantitative or qualitative is about utilising evidence to choose between theories. The principle skill of data analysis is the refinement of theory.

Although realists see the structure and logic of scientific inquiry as being applicable in the social sciences, they recognise two important differences between the study of the social world and the natural world: • The social world is an ‘open system’ and the social contexts enabling (or preventing) the operation of causal mechanisms are subject to rapid and sometimes unpredictable change. This severely limits the scope for prediction and generalisation in social science compared to most natural sciences that can operate under experimental, or ‘closed’, systems. • The causal mechanisms in social life only operate through people’s intentions and thus, in contrast to positivists, realists argue that sociology involves the attempt to understand subjects’ interpretations of situations.

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21 Principles of sociology

Methods
Realists, like positivists, see research being guided primarily by ‘scientific’ criteria, such as the systematic collection of evidence, reliability and transparency. However, because they recognise the importance of the subjective dimension of human action, they also include methods that document the validity of people’s experiences. Research designs are more likely to be experimental or comparative in realist research, but there is no particular commitment to either quantitative or qualitative methods. The focus of realist methodology, however, is on theory. Realists argue that as there is no such thing as theory-free data: sociological methods should be specifically focused on the evaluation and comparison of theoretical concepts, explanations and policies (Figure 3.7). Theory Positivism Research design (most common) Social surveys Experimental Comparative Ethnography Research methods (most common) Structural interviews Structural observations Official statistics Participant observation Unstructural interviews Personal documents Non-specific, but methods are theory-focused

Interpretivism

Realism

Experimental Comparative

Figure 3.7: Theory, design and methods

‘New realism’ has provided a different – and what most commentators believe to be a valid – interpretation of science and its relationship to social sciences. It has also provided a (developing) alternative to the dominant theories of positivism and interpretivism and laid the foundations for a non-empiricist epistemology in social science. However, realism is also criticised for exaggerating the dependence of science and social science on theory, and realist epistemology offers, at best, very limited truths about the social world.

Summary
Realism holds that sociology involves trying to uncover the underlying mechanisms that generate observable events. It suggests that rather than testing theories against the ‘facts’, data is generated to evaluate theories against each other.

Conclusion
All sociological research designs and methods make certain assumptions about the nature of the social world and how knowledge is generated. One of the ways that research can be evaluated and improved is to make these assumptions more explicit. For example, one of the questions we have addressed here is about the nature of scientific knowledge and whether or not it is applicable to societies. As we have seen, positivism, interpretivism and realism give different answers to this question. However, while these theories have been separated out here in order to explain them more clearly, it is important to repeat a point made earlier in this section: that a great deal of sociological research contains elements of all three.

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Chapter 3: Theory and research A reminder of your learning outcomes Having completed this chapter. and the essential reading and activities. 79 . you should have a clearer idea of: • how research is underpinned by theoretical ideas • what is meant by an ontology/epistemology problem in sociology • the key aspects of positivist theory • the interpretivist critique of positivism and the key aspects of interpretivist approaches in sociology • what is meant by realism in sociology and how realism is different from both positivism and interpretivism.

21 Principles of Sociology Notes 80 .

It can be studied or read immediately after Chapter 2 if you would prefer to understand the history of sociology before you start understanding the subject in more detail. Durkheim and Weber.Chapter 4: Theories and developments Chapter 4: Theories and developments Written by Dr Steve Taylor and Rosemary Gosling.1 Origins of sociology 4. Chapter structure 4. your main reading here. Learning objectives By the end of this chapter. that have been specifically developed to describe and explain how societies work and change. This chapter is particularly important for Section B.3 Bringing the individual back in 4. will be your textbooks. Introduction In the previous chapter we looked at theories of knowledge that have general implications for social sciences. In this chapter we are going to look at some sociological theories. you should: • understand the historical development of sociology and its roots in the Enlightenment • be aware of the influence of the major sociologists of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and their contribution to social theory and substantive sociology • be able to compare and contrast the approaches of the major theorists • understand how sociology has developed since the 1980s into a more fragmented disciplinary. or perspectives. particularly on the theories themselves. and having completed the essential reading and activities. Aims of the chapter The aims of this chapter are to: • outline the origins of sociology and sociological thinking • introduce you to the classical sociological theory of Marx. and to structural functionalism • introduce you to micro sociology and the phenomenological approach • identify some of the key theoretical dilemmas and developments in social theory • outline the postmodern critique of sociology.4 Postmodernity and sociology Essential reading Whereas in Chapter 3 your main reading was this subject guide. 81 .2 Sociological theories 4.

J. Postmodernity. I. Bhaskar. (Basingstoke: Palgrave. and J. 2007) Chapter 2. (Oxford: Blackwell. What was sociology trying to explain? Why did it develop when it did? What ideas influenced its development? 82 . Social theory: a basic tool kit. Francis (London: Routledge.W. and H. D.1 Origins of sociology This section is about some of the key sociological theories that sociologists have developed to help describe and explain the modern world. or Lee. Measure for measures: a manifesto for an empirical sociology. D. it should be Swingewood. it is necessary first to look back to the origins of sociology. T. Scott Sociology. Further reading We suggest that if you want to look for these in an order of preference. pp. 2008 edition) Chapters 2 and 7. (Buckingham: Open University 2008) Chapters 1. 2002) Chapters 4. to begin to understand these theories. and K. (ed. 2 and 10. 1986). A. Schutz. and K. Marsh. ‘Methodology’ in Taylor.W. 2006) Chapters 1–6. May. J.) Sociology: issues and debates. W. Plummer Sociology: a global introduction. Kumar.. K. Pawson. (London: Routledge. E. 6 and 7. Sociology. 8–9 and 12–13. S. A short history of sociological thought. (Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2008) Chapters 1 and 4. R. 1999). 2004). (Harlow: Prentice Hall. Macionis. Newby The problem of sociology.21 Principles of sociology Fulcher. 2005) third edition. (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press 1999). Parker. Kumar and Lyon first. Lyon. (Basingstoke: Macmillan. or Giddens. Plummer Sociology: a global introduction. ‘Concept and theory formation’. Sharrock and D. Videos/DVD There are three videos/DVDs that may be helpful to you for the material being covered in this chapter: Understanding sociological theory From modernity to postmodernity Anthony Giddens on Capitalism and modern social theory All produced by halovine – see 8 www. 1989). Situating social theory. (Harlow: Prentice Hall. The Journal of Philosophy 51(9) 1954. From post-industrial to post-modern society: new theories of the contemporary world. A. 2000) Parts 1 and 4–8. (Basingstoke: Palgrave.halovine. 2003) Chapters 6–7.com 4. (London: Routledge. R.257–73. or Macionis. Pawson. (London: Verso. 2005 edition) Chapters 2 and 7. (Cambridge: Polity Press. J. Parker. and Cuff. Scientific realism and human emancipation. J. Swingewood. However. Theory and practice in sociology. A. (Harlow: Prentice Hall. R.

mechanical) sources of power. A modern society is sociological shorthand to describe societies which are characterised by mass production.1. • Market: in its most general sense a market is an arena where goods and services are freely exchanged for money. urban. As Francis has observed: The idea of a ‘great transition’ by which modern. first. The distinction between ‘pre-modern’ and ‘modern’ is outlined below. 83 . Societies don’t suddenly just change from one form to another. All historical periods are the legacy of what came before and the past doesn’t just disappear.Chapter 4: Theories and developments From pre-modernity to modernity First.1 1 Francis (1987) p. • Industrialisation: this describes a process of rapid economic growth arising from the increasingly sophisticated application of inanimate (i. It has a rather different meaning in sociology. urban living. For example. Aspects of ‘modern’ societies (such as the growth of science) were developing in pre-modern societies and some characteristics of premodern societies (such as the continuation of monarchies in some societies) survive in the modern world. • Urbanisation: a process where the proportion of people living in urban areas increases. These changes were later described as ‘the great transition’ from ‘pre-modern’ to ‘modern’ societies. Most modern societies have been characterised by the spread of market economics and this is reflected in sociological thinking. • Modernity: this describes the attributes of modern societies outlined above. primarily as an attempt to understand the massive social and economic changes that had been sweeping across Western Europe in the seventeenth. • Capitalism: this is a form of economic organisation where the means of generating economic wealth are largely in private hands and are organised predominantly for profit. However it is important.e. had a major impact on the process of industrialisation. In one form or another it has influenced every area of sociology and provided some of its most abiding theoretical and empirical questions. Premodernity and modernity are very general terms used by sociologists to describe the key characteristics of societies and long processes of social change. to get these terms into perspective. eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. rural society is arguably the central motif of the history of sociology. Sociology developed in Europe in the nineteenth century. The invention and development of the steam engine. for example. • Modernisation: this means the processes of societies becoming modern. Weber’s concept of social class was built on classifying people’s market situation. industrial society emerged from pre-modern society. some key terms that you will encounter in your reading about the rise of modern societies are: • Modern: in everyday life ‘modern’ refers to something new and up to date. consumer goods. nation states and predominantly secular values.

21 Principles of sociology Pre-modernity Pre-modern societies were predominantly rural and agricultural. ‘all that is solid melts into air’. such as clerics. the two major strata in Europe were the lords. There was a sense of permanence about social life: things were done in certain ways because they had always been done that way. Modern economies are money-based market economies with mass production of goods organised in factories. Although there were various occupational strata. giving the greater part of what they produced to the lords. and science replaces religion as the major source of intellectual authority. at least in theory.1: Pre-modern and modern societies 84 . the majority of the population lived and worked on the land. and the peasants. merchants and craftsmen. It was largely a non-market economy and production was based on small units. organised around the family. Modern societies are characterised politically by centralised nation states that begin to play an increasingly large part in people’s lives by. The division of labour becomes increasingly complex and allocation to occupational roles is based. Social life is organised around formal rules and bureaucratic procedures rather than custom and tradition. more on qualifications and achievement than on birth and privilege. goal-orientated activity Science major source of knowledge Dominant class: capitalist class Majority class: industrial workers Democratic government Figure 4. health care and welfare to most citizens. providing employment for many and services. This economic order was known as feudalism. or arbitrary. The lords owned the land and the peasants worked the land. there was a very limited division of labour with very little mobility (that is movement) between different strata. pre-modern societies were largely decentralised with localised leadership and government was despotic. Religion was the major source of intellectual authority. Politically. Justice and punishment depended largely on the personal views of those dispensing it. and custom and tradition governed people’s everyday behaviour. for example. such as education. soldiers. or serfs. Modernity Modern societies are predominantly urban and industrial and the majority of them are capitalist. that is. or aristocracy. In modern societies the pace of life increases: industrial societies are societies in a permanent state of change. As Karl Marx famously put it. Pre-modern Agricultural production Small-scale units of production Village communities/small towns Traditional values and behaviour Religion major source of knowledge Dominant class: aristocracy Majority class: peasantry Despotic government Modern Industrial production Large-scale units of mass production Urban conurbations Rational.

It championed the power of human reason. Further reading Swingewood (2005) provides an excellent explanation of the Enlightenment.11–15 or Macionis and Plummer (2008) pp. Scientific knowledge would give people more power and control over nature.23–27 or Giddens (2008) p. above all. and one of the most significant of these was an intellectual movement known as the Enlightenment.10.12–17 or Fulcher and Scott (2007) pp. The Enlightenment was a name given to a philosophical and social movement in Europe roughly spanning the last quarter of the seventeenth century until the last quarter of the eighteenth century. and this power would be used to improve the human condition.Chapter 4: Theories and developments Pre-modern societies were relatively static compared to modern societies and the world that people left was little changed from the one they were born into. 85 . It was called the Enlightenment because scholars believed they were throwing light into the gloom of a world that for too long had been dominated by tradition. For example. they had confidence that human beings would use this knowledge to transform the world for the better.) What do you think are some of the benefits and some of the drawbacks of living in modern society? The Enlightenment Now read Macionis and Plummer (2005) pp. Second. religious dogma. the scientist Isaac Newton (1643–1727). scientific developments would create more productive agriculture. superstition. when do you think it became modern? (You would probably be describing a period of around 50 years or so here. the rights of the individual and a commitment to social progress. and they began asking questions about the sources of social order and social change and the effect of these changes on people’s lives. However. Science was the epitome of reason and rationality because it produced objective knowledge of the world that was not conditioned by religious superstition. just as modern societies developed out of pre-modern societies. Would you describe your society as a ‘modern’ society? If so. Activity 4. so the ‘new’ subject of sociology drew on earlier influences. Major figures of the Enlightenment included philosophers Descartes (1596–1650) and Kant (1724–1804). and scientific medicine would reduce disease. they believed in the power of the rationality of the human mind to understand the world.1 Are you living in modernity? Different societies have ‘modernised’ at different times. However. irrationality and. These are questions that we identified in Chapter 1 as fundamental sociological questions. and writer Voltaire (1694–1778). more consumer goods. Enlightenment philosophers shared two principles. First. the fact that societies were changing so dramatically in such a short space of time led some scholars to become curious about societies. Although it was a diverse movement spanning different subject areas in different countries in Europe.

been a number of individual scholars who had challenged the Church’s view of the world long before the Enlightenment. This modern way of thinking was not only applied to the study of the natural world. the Enlightenment ideal of providing rational understanding of societies in order to improve them. (Hamilton. to predict is to control’. used the concept of society to describe the new institutions. and should. particularly in transport and printing.21 Principles of sociology The radical nature of these ideas should not be underestimated.2 Comte’s famous statement was ‘To know is to predict. Technological developments. saw societies merely as collections of individuals. their operation would become clear and thus open to change. meant that the ideas of Enlightenment scholars were reaching a greater proportion of an increasingly literate population and the Church’s monopolistic position over knowledge and information was being challenged on a wider scale. Hamilton (1992) suggests that the essence of this embryonic sociology is captured by Kant’s motto. for most early sociologists. This view represented a break with the Enlightenment. How did Comte believe we could ‘know’? How did he believe sociology could predict? 86 . not only inspired the genesis of sociology but continues to underpin the subject today. However. Sociology was – and continues to be – profoundly influenced by the Enlightenment’s key values of rationality. social groupings and productive processes arising out of the wreckage of the pre-modern European world. Although created by individuals. ‘dare to know’. people could ‘dare to know’ about the social arrangements under which they lived rather than have them presented to them through the haze of a religious ideology. The Enlightenment thus brought about a cultural change in what constitutes knowledge and a distinctly ‘modern’ conception of knowledge was born. of course. Summary In nineteenth century Europe. it was also increasingly applied to the social world. they also shaped the ways that people thought and acted. They constituted a direct challenge to the view of the world put forward by the Church that the order of the world was the result of God’s will and couldn’t be changed. However. they lacked a concept of ‘society’. While the Enlightenment philosophers. Embryonic sociological perspectives could be detected in the Enlightenment. as an attempt to make sense of the massive changes taking place in newly modernising societies. For the first time.55–56). Activity 4. separate from philosophy and economics. The idea that societies were subjects of study in their own right did not come until the nineteenth century when early sociologists. There had. scientific understanding and the application of knowledge to improving the human condition. By knowing about these social arrangements. what was distinctive about the Enlightenment was that it was a social movement whose influence spread beyond the scholars themselves. such as Henri St Simon (1760–1825) and Auguste Comte (1798–1857). However. although Enlightenment philosophers were interested in ‘the social’ and how it could. 1992. societies were much more than this. as scholars became more interested in how social life was organised. committed to the idea of individuals as essentially rational and self-sufficient. pp. sociology developed as an autonomous subject. be organised.

1992) second edition [ISBN 9780312086749]. K. (London: Heinemann. Max On the methodology of the social sciences. For extra reading. but do not go into enough depth for this unit. (London: Harvester Wheatsheaf. P Modern social theory. [ISBN 9780710033116]. 1949) [ISBN 9780029343609]. Modern social theory. Weber.1 very well to this section. 1989) [ISBN 9780415254069]. 1969) [ISBN 9780029242407]. The German ideology. and G. Weber and Durkheim the structural functionalists. Craib. (1996). Parsons. www. Durkheim. Translated by Talcott Parsons. ‘Preface to a contribution to the critique of political economy’ in Karl Marx: early writings. (Glencoe: Free Press. [ISBN 9780435821814]. Works cited Cohen. Giddens (2008).H.Chapter 4: Theories and developments 4.marxists. I. Weber. 1968) . Le suicide. K. Wright Mills (eds) From Max Weber. H. 87 . Elwell.htm Marx. Marx. and Macionis and Plummer (2005 or 2008) provide good introductory material. section 4. (Basingstoke: Macmillan. • The second part will address theories which are broadly interpretivist. with an introduction by Anthony Giddens (London: Unwyn Hyman.htm Gerth. 1975) [ISBN 9780140216684]. • In the first part of this section you will read about: the development of social theory in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries three of the major ‘classical’ sociologists – Marx. K. E.2 Sociological theories Reading The best textbook for this section is Fulcher and Scott (2007) Chapter 2. See: 8 www.A.rsu. and C. The division of labour. Simpson. (London: Routledge. (Harmondsworth: Penguin. Swingewood (2005) provides an excellent historical approach and links Chapter 3 and Chapter 4. Frank The sociology of Max Weber. J. Talcott The structure of social action. E. If you have bought this text you will need to depend on one of the two texts below for most of the background reading on the sociologists discussed here. (Free Press. Marx. Max The Protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism. 2002] Translated by Spaulding. We have indicated two supporting texts: Cuff. Introduction We begin this section by reading about how social theory developed from – and in reaction to – the Enlightenment. Sharrock and Francis (2006) or Lee and Newby (2000). Das Kapital. Durkheim. 1991) [ISBN 9780415060561 (pbk)].faculty. This will provide you with most of the reading required for this section.org/archive/marx/ works/1845/german-ideology/ch01a.1984) second edition [ISBN 9780333339817].edu/ ~felwell/Theorists/Weber/Whome. [Most recent edition: London: Routledge.

You may also be asked to describe any one perspective. please remember the following: • This is not a unit in social theory and you will not be expected to know and understand each theorist in detail. We are providing you with building blocks so that you can understand the contribution that each theorist has made to the subject of sociology and for your understanding of Section B on Globalisation and social change. While you are reading about these sociologists. compare them. • You are not learning about social theory for its own sake. think about and make notes on the following: • the assumptions each has about the nature of society • the assumptions they have about human nature and the role of the individual • their view of history and their explanation of social change • their explanation and understanding of social order • the role of ideas and ideology • their view of science and their prescriptions as to how to find out about society. After you have worked on Section C return to this section of Chapter 4. You will then be able to see clearly the relevance of each theory and be able to illustrate your answers with material from your chosen topic. • In order to study your chosen topic in Section C you will need to have a good understanding of the different approaches of the major sociologists. • Social theorists themselves were profoundly influenced by other social theorists and the times in which they wrote. While you are reading.21 Principles of sociology • The third part of this section will link the two and introduce you to some new developments. The writers of Section C chapters have assumed that you will have knowledge of the sociological theory introduced here. so it is important that you have some knowledge of the history and the society in which they were writing. This section of the subject guide is vital for the work that you will do on your Section C topic. symbolic interactionism. In short. structural functionalism. The questions could ask you to describe and explain the major aspects of their perspective. assess their contribution to sociology. You will have come across many of these theories in your initial reading but here we concentrate on their major contributions to social theory. 88 . Examination advice In the examination you will be expected to write about any one or more sociologists. • In your reading do try to understand the major aspects of their approach to sociology rather than simply trying to categorise them into predetermined boxes. We suggest therefore that you ensure that you have understood the major assumptions of each theory before you start on your chosen topic for Section C. criticise their assumptions. etc. for example: Marxism. think about how they address the key sociological problems which you encountered in Chapter 1.

org Note: Cuff. are often called ‘The founding fathers’ of sociology. or suggest ways of explaining. Use it to help you locate them in time. You should be aware of the major influences on his thought. • The Utopian Socialists. the Enlightenment. You read about the economic changes (industrialisation and urbanisation) and.1 we described the great changes that occurred in Europe. A major aspect of his work concerned the nature of social relationships. We have created a flowchart (on p. 2 Cohen (1968). indeed many revolutions in the twentieth century were. Sharrock and Francis (2006) or Lee and Newby (2000) provide a good deal of material on Marx. or on the website 8 www. Keep these aims in mind as you read about these sociologists and the other sociological perspectives you are introduced to. and particularly class relationships. why social phenomena have the characteristics they have • provide ideas for an analysis of complex social processes and events • aid in the construction of models of how social structures and social systems operate. most importantly for this section.Chapter 4: Theories and developments Background In the first part of section 4.90) for you to track the sociologists that we will be discussing. Karl Marx (1818–1883) Reading Before you read this section on Marx. • German Idealism – Hegel. Weber and Durkheim along with Comte. Marx was one of the greatest social critics of the nineteenth century. especially historical materialism. This diagram has been left intentionally incomplete – feel free to add your own notes and links as you read. Marx’s ideas have had a profound influence not only on sociology but on many social and political movements. look up and read the section on Marx in your chosen textbook or in any reference book. Marx. influenced by them. Professor Percy Cohen suggested that all sociological theory should: • explain. in part.2 Cohen believed that Marx. 89 . so it quite properly fits into sociology. We have provided you with some guidance for your reading and some description of his concepts. so you should know about these social theorists and the influence they had on the development of sociology. His genius lay in his ability to ‘create’ new ideas from those existing in philosophy and economics and from the writings and observations of social activists. The major influences on his thought were: • The Scottish Enlightenment (Adam Smith and David Ricardo from whom he took ideas such as the division of labour and the idea of economic rent – extraction of surplus value).marxists. and we will not give you a complete description of his work or the work of the later Marxists here. He wrote extensively on economics and philosophy and all these ideas have been incorporated in much twentieth century sociological theory. Weber and Durkheim were committed to these aims and that it should be possible to evaluate their theories in the light of these three aims.

2 Marxism Symbolic Interactionism Ethnomethodology 90 .1857) Spencer (1820 .1804) Hegel (1770 .21 Principles of sociology The Enlightenment philosophers (1770-1831) Kant (1724 .1931) Structural Functionalism Figure 4.1920) Meade (1863 .1903) Marx (1818 .1831) Comte (1798 .1880) Durkheim (1858 .1917) Weber (1864 .

which he called the ‘opium of the people’. section 3. Over time. He called this phenomenon religious alienation. ‘What distinguishes humanity from other living things is its ability to conceptualise. (progress and human history) Idealists. who developed his ideas and suggested the following: Gods did not create humanity but humanity created gods. thus he thought individuals would be increasingly able to understand the social and natural worlds and the processes and principles which lie behind their development. as we have seen in Chapter 3. How did he come to this conclusion? He asked the following question: ‘Why do people need religion?’ In particular. These two major aspects of Hegelian logic are central to Marx’s analysis. He further suggested that the ability to control the natural world would result in a creation of a ‘superior moral and social life’.Chapter 4: Theories and developments Marx’s influences: Georg Hegel Georg Hegel (1770–1831) is important for an understanding of Marx’s historical materialism.1 attempt to explain the nature of society in terms of human consciousness.3 3 Lee and Newby (2000). Marx’s influences: Ludwig Feuerbach Ludwig Feuerbach (1804–1872) was a pupil of Hegel. these ‘social constructions’ became institutionalised into formidable belief systems which control their adherents. to construct categories of thought. Activity 4. he asked why did the poor and the oppressed need religion. Idealism.3 In your own words answer the following questions: • How did Feuerbach account for religious behaviour? • How do you think that Feuerbach would suggest that religious alienation could be overcome? Marx asked a key question of Hegel and the idealist philosophers: where do ideas come from? Marx rejected the notion that ideas determine the nature of social life. These ‘gods’ were idealised creations of human thought. Feuerbach suggested that people who had not yet developed the social and technical knowledge to understand the natural and social world attributed particular powers to these ‘social constructions’. He accepted Feuerbach’s assertion that religion was a social creation. Early religions were based on attempts by their believers to make sense of the world especially in times of disruption. but he suggested that people create religion to deal with the real misery which confronts them. From the contradiction between the thesis and the antithesis there emerges a transformation which becomes the new thesis. The dialectic The Hegelian notion of the dialectic holds that all matter (or the thesis) always and inevitably creates its own opposite (or antithesis). Change is seen as ‘progress’ but society changes dialectically through struggle and contradiction. 91 .’ Hegel believed in the ‘progression’ of humanity.

Now read Cuff. The first historical act is thus the production of the means to satisfy these needs.4 you read about realism. Religious beliefs and values were not. He therefore suggested that it was necessary to examine the nature of the material conditions that faced the working class. You will see here that the capitalist mode of production is an example of a theoretical construct which cannot be observed directly. we should study society empirically and scientifically rather than by means of speculation or metaphysics. there is a real material world and in order to gain knowledge of this material world we must participate in it. Sharrock and Francis (2006) pp. If they were unhappy then they turned to religion. a habitation (shelter/home). The German Ideology – see www. Marx and realism In Chapter 3. Marx asks where does this spirit come from? Where do ideas come from? Marx believed that ideas are a product of society so we should not only study ideas.htm 4 92 . Materialism is not an easy concept. You have to ‘look beneath the surface’ to find out how capitalism works. etc. to uncover the real relationships between capital and labour.21 Principles of sociology As long as people were poor.4 From Marx. He believed that the reason that people believed in supernatural forces was a result of their objective situation. religious ways of thought. It is not enough to theorise about it. section 3. it is the assumption that he developed from Henri de St Simon that the most important aspect of human existence is the necessity to produce the means of subsistence.113–15.78–79). (is that humans) must be in a position to live in order to be able to ‘make history’. Marx rejected Feuerbach’s view of religious alienation. Ensure that you understand the influences of Hegel and the Idealists on Marx’s thought. clothing and many other things. eating and drinking. Now read At this point.marxists. however illusory. of all history. would constantly reproduce themselves. The first premise of all human existence and. which acted as an opiate and which would dull their pain. therefore. reread the section on Epistemology in Chapter 3 (pp.10–20 or Lee and Newby (2000) pp. ideology. ignorant and needful of help. org/archive/marx/works/1845/ german-ideology/ch01a. But life involves before anything else. the production of material life itself. the structure of society. From these ideas follow Marx’s ontological assumptions about the nature of society. At its most basic in Marxist analysis. Marx and materialism In your reading you will have seen that Hegel’s idealism saw society as guided by and limited by the human ‘spirit’ or ‘Geist’. as the idealists suggested. Therefore Marx rejected the notion that ideas determine social life. independent of the material conditions that existed in a particular era. Everything else follows from this: social relationships.

The superstructure is. for example.’ (Marx and Engels) Can you explain this statement? Why do you think the form of production makes a difference to how people think and behave? Marx suggested that in primitive communism. He explains change dialectically.4 ‘Men distinguish themselves from animals as soon as they produce their means of subsistence. Sharrock and Francis (2006) pp. ‘determined’ by the infrastructure and is composed of the prevailing cultural ideas. The mode of production is made up of: • the forces of production – the way that goods are made in any epoch • relations of production – the productive relationships.Chapter 4: Theories and developments Activity 4. nature controlled man. As with many social theorists of the nineteenth century. the nature of the relationships between the major classes.115–20. 93 . ownership and non-ownership of the productive forces. These changes give rise to tensions and contradictions between the productive relations and the productive forces (infrastructure). These tensions in turn give rise to changes in the superstructure. Marx: base and superstructure In your reading you will see that each type of society is characterised by a particular mode of production which determines the nature of class relationships and all other social institutions. Do you think that this is the case in the twenty-first century? Can people control nature? Think about the recent catastrophes such as SARS. or the steam engine in the industrial revolution. in agriculture during the agricultural revolution. and other social institutions. The forces and relations of production make up the economic base (infrastructure). the idea of progress and development was central to Marx’s writings. Marx: conflict and contradictions Dialectical materialism At the centre of Marxist analysis is the concept of the dialectic (see Hegel). in the last instance. including law.21–22 or Lee and Newby (2000) pp. the level of technology and the existing social organisation (social relations) which prevent new forms of technology emerging c. Now read Cuff. Dialectic strains exist between: a. the economic roles that are allowed by the state. Conflict for Marx is the motor of history. society and nature – between any given level of technology (the productive forces) and the conditions in which these productive forces appear b. the newly developed productive relationships of production (classes) and the traditional system of political ideological institutions (superstructure). the tsunami and other earthquakes. and human development involved man’s increasing ability to control nature. Changes occur in the way that goods are produced as a result of changes in technology.

22–32 or Giddens (2008) pp. and to provide protection from the elements.82–88 or Macionis and Plummer (2008) pp.3 Source: Diagram adapted from: Sztompka. There was general optimism about people’s ability to develop natural resources to produce even more sophisticated goods. whereby the products of human labour become expropriated from and appear as opposed – ‘alien’ – to those who produce them. religion) Socioeconomic formation Relations of production 3 Mode of production Productive forces 1 2 Nature (extra-social environment + human hereditary endowment) 1. literature. 3 – Main dialectic strains Figure 4.787–90 or Macionis and Plummer (2005) pp. Workers. P. indeed not only become alienated from the products of their labour. 1993) [ISBN 0631182063 (pbk)] p.172. 2. Sharrock and Francis (2006) pp. Some suggest that the real Marx did not believe that the mode of production determined everything in the superstructure (the Humanists). Humanistic Marxism Marx believed that the history of mankind had a ‘double aspect’. (Remember that Marx was writing in the nineteenth century. (Oxford: Blackwell. Now read Fulcher and Scott (2007) pp. In your reading you will discover that there are at least two different readings of Marx: humanistic Marxism and scientific or structural Marxism. from each other and ultimately from themselves. The working class in capitalism became dehumanised.21 Principles of sociology Political and legal (ideological) superstructure Forms of social consciousness (art. endemic to capitalism.14–17. Others suggest that the economic base is the determining factor in explaining the prevailing legal and political arrangements in society (the Structuralists). There have been many ‘readings’ of Marx’s works. Alienation refers to the process. industrialisation was occurring throughout Europe). The Sociology of Change. However Marx believed that the processes of production in capitalism increasingly alienated people.117 94 . Developments in technology gradually allowed ‘man’ to control nature.5 5 Lee and Newby (2000) p. but from the labour process itself.101–06 or Cuff.

the point.6 6 Marx (1975). Capitalism is a system of commodity production. So Humanist Marxists concentrate on both superstructural and infrastructural elements. He believed that without leadership. Marx suggested that the world would not be changed by simply ‘thinking about it’. What do you think he meant by this? We see science fiction films about aliens and find them fascinating because they are different from us. Althusser suggested that there had been an epistemological break in Marx’s writings. Marx believed that being in a state of alienation prevents us from knowing the real nature of the world and from ‘being’ our true selves. A person’s class position depends on his relationship to the means of production – whether they are ‘owners’ or ‘nonowners’. We cannot understand them. This could be achieved by what Marx called praxis – putting theory into action. It was not inevitable that the members of the working class would develop revolutionary consciousness and become fully aware of the nature of their condition.Chapter 4: Theories and developments Activity 4. The labour theory of value states that the value of any commodity is the value of the amount of labour required to produce it. Remember that he had rejected Hegel’s idealism: The philosophers have only interpreted the world in various ways. 95 . however is to change it. Think about this for a few minutes. Note: Lenin took the concept of praxis further. Structural Marxism Marxists such as Louis Althusser (1918–1990) believed that the Humanist Marxists laid too much emphasis on the superstructural aspects. It is possible to measure the value of a commodity and the extent to which the capitalist has extracted surplus value. he considered. Therefore people were unaware of what they could achieve.5 It is a strange idea to think that people could be alienated from themselves (what Marx described as being alienated from ‘their species being’). They believe these have an independent role to play in the class struggle. The products that the workers made are sold in the market and the capitalists receive profit from these transactions. were more philosophical and concerned with alienation and the possibility of emancipation. Marx’s early writings. The profit they receive is the part of the value of the work that is put into creating the profit. They have to be encouraged and persuaded by political actors (like Marx). This exploitation could be understood and measured objectively. the working class will become economistic (they will simply struggle for money not political power). whereas in Das Kapital he was concerned with exploitation. everything is produced for sale in the ‘market’. Marx suggested that Capitalism prevented the people of the working class from understanding their true nature and from understanding their real interests. Humanist Marxists believe that the base/superstructure distinction is too deterministic and they believe that the working class can be liberated from this alienated state and realise its full potential. Marx: the labour theory of value In your reading you will see that class positions/roles in Marxist analysis are seen to be determined by their position in relation to production. The value of a product is the effort put into creating the product. Labour itself is a commodity.

The capitalist class extracts ‘surplus value’ from the working class. Activity 4. the Sociology of organisations and Religion and society. The section in Fulcher and Scott (2007) on Marx gives a good indication of the level required.22–34 or Lee and Newby (2000) pp. Does a Marxist analysis of class have relevance today? 4.124–32. Sharrock and Francis (2006) covers all the materials necessary. Why is Marx described as a conflict theorist? 8. 96 . Social inequality and social injustice. Emile Durkheim (1858–1917) Reading First we suggest that you look up and read about Durkheim in your chosen textbook. Further reading Lee and Newby (2000) Chapter 9 Think about how a Marxist would explain the changes in the family structure and relationships that have occurred in most societies in the last 50 years. The capitalist class exploits the workers. Macionis and Plummer (2005 or 2008) have written a short piece in Part 2 which provides a good account of the concept of function. What is meant by alienation and how does it occur? 3. and in the forms of inequality particularly in power. and when read with this section Cuff. What is meant by structural Marxism? You will need to have a good understanding of Marxism and the later Marxists for Section B Globalisation and social change. What is meant by the terms ‘dialectical materialism’ and ‘historical determinism’? 7. Was Marx a humanist? 9. How did Marx view society? 2. You will not be required to know and understand all the material in Lee and Newby (2000). Fulcher and Scott (2007) provide a good introduction in Chapter 2. in religious belief and practices in the last 30 years. However. Explain the concept ‘mode of production’. who are the ones that create value.21 Principles of sociology In capitalism. by not giving them the full value of their labour. Now read Cuff. it will take time for you to understand some of this theory and you will need to reread this section in conjunction with your texts more than once. Sharrock and Francis (2006) pp. gender and ethnic relationships. and also for the Section C chapters on Power in society. The interests of the capitalist class are opposed to the working class (zero-sum game). How does society change from one epoch to another? 6. the working class is a class of ‘non-ownership’.6 See if you can answer these questions: 1. What is the role of the individual in Marxism? 5. which is unaware of the true nature of the relationship. Chapter 1 of Giddens (2008) also provides some useful background.

pp.27–28 or Lee and Newby (2000) pp. 2007. He believed that scientific sociology would enable the sociologist to distinguish between the sickness (pathology) and the health of a society. Now read Cuff. Sociology would enable a diagnosis of the causes of pathology to be undertaken and. pp. societies become increasingly complex and specialised as they evolve. You will have read in your texts that Durkheim wrote Suicide to demonstrate that the most individual of all acts – suicide – was in fact either caused or prevented by society. and working together to ensure that society ‘survives’. Durkheim believed that man is only a moral being because he lives in society (since morality consists in solidarity of the group. This moral force is also creative as it provides the cultural resources necessary for individuals to lead their lives in a group. Comte. they became more specialised. ‘Sociology as a Science’ and ‘Methodology’. once these causes were understood. each institution playing a part to sustain society.61–63 or Chapter 14 in Lee and Newby (2000) ‘Moral obligation and individual life’. Following on from Comte. and Spencer in England. 97 . It views society as a system of interrelated parts. Sharrock and Francis (2006) Chapter 4. both developed the idea of comparing society to an organism.Chapter 4: Theories and developments Durkheim’s mission was to develop sociology as an academic discipline. He was influenced by August Comte (1798–1857) and Herbert Spencer (1820–1903). The example Durkheim used was the religious beliefs and practices of the aboriginal peoples of Australia. Durkheim’s key ideas Below we outline Durkheim’s key ideas – they will help guide your reading on the chapters indicated here. • The scientific nature of sociology. Society is a moral force which acts on individuals. Society exists sui generis. They should seek to find out law-like relations between phenomena. Durkheim believed that society is more than the aggregate of individuals. The social should be separated from the psychological. just as organisms grow and mature. This has become known as the biological analogy. these induce individuals to conform to the society. Spencer (see Fulcher and Scott. Durkheim saw the practical role of the sociologist as being similar to that of a physician. working in France. • Holism. Norms and values are created by individuals acting in groups. The individual cannot exist without society and society has a constraining influence on individual and group behaviour. He attempted to demonstrate that the causes of suicide were to be found in society and could not be reduced to the state of mind of the person who had committed suicide. All the texts have a description of Suicide which is important for you as you study ‘Research Methods’. Durkheim believed that the methods that sociologists should use should be modelled on the methods used in the natural sciences (Naturalism). One of the greatest problems he identified was the growing individualism in nineteenth-century society and the withdrawal of individuals from public life. Society exists and is observable in its effects (see Realism in Chapter 3). and varies according to that society).73–82) believed that as societies evolved. remedies could be suggested.

for example. not its causes. etc). they are therefore likely to hold similar value systems. may express an intense collective sentiment of disapproval. Durkheim did not explain the cause of social facts by their functions (unlike many later functionalists). Society and social change Durkheim described two forms of society. individuals did not depend on each other for their existence.7 Functional analysis is concerned with the effects of a social fact. psychological. Durkheim set out two criteria: social facts must be external and also have constraining effects which set limits to our actions. These societies were small. Sharrock and Francis (2006) as your main textbook. which he differentiated by their different forms of solidarity (cohesiveness): mechanical and organic solidarity. Fashion would be another example. Sharrock and Francis (2006) give the example of the law. Hence Durkheim suggests that religion helps to meet a society’s need for social cohesion.8 Can you think how religion can help meets a society’s need for social cohesion? Think about times of natural disaster. • Functionalist method of explanation. Cuff. Durkheim suggested that we must treat ‘social facts as things’.21 Principles of sociology Now read Look up and read about Durkheim’s work Suicide in your textbooks. 98 . try the same activity with ‘fashion’ that they use with law to see if you understand the concept of a social fact. Activity 4. there was little specialisation and thus a low division of labour.7 If you are using Cuff. • Social facts/society. It explains the part that a social fact plays in relation to the needs of society. Activity 4. The solidarity in the society is a result of the likeness of the members. but what it does for the whole. There is a moral consensus which unites members of the society. so that is why religion exists in society. Mechanical solidarity This is a form of solidarity which Durkheim believed existed in very simple societies. Social phenomena and institutions can be explained in terms of their role in the maintenance of society as a whole (see above). He described this as the collective consciousness (the values and beliefs shared within a community) thus: society forms a determinate system which has its own life. Where most of the experiences of the individuals are similar. The collective sentiment in society is the cause of the disapproval’. 7 Fulcher and Scott (2003) p. but not by other facts (biological.35. self-sufficient groups. However. Social facts can only be explained by other social facts. geographical. ‘The punishment attached to a crime. In determining the nature/existence of social structures. Here the explanation of the social fact/phenomenon is explained not in terms of what it is. or war or internal struggles. The cause of a social fact must be accounted for in relation to other social facts. Law is external to our perception of it and it certainly constrains our actions.

In Suicide (1897) he describes it as ‘morally deregulated behaviour’.) For Durkheim. Far from preceding collective life they derive from it. which would serve to constrain behaviour and so prevent anomie. The decline of mechanical societies was a result of increasing population growth. the division of labour consists of moral as well as economic ties. individuals rely on each other for their existence. and therefore derives from society rather than being outside or opposed to society. organic societies were characterised by greater differences between the members as a result of specialisation and a complex division of labour. 99 . 1984). The division of labour Durkheim’s concept of the division of labour is different from Marx. under the pressure of social sentiments and needs. unclear or not present’. They are functionally interdependent on each other. They can only occur within a society. He believed that industrialisation and other political and social changes dissolve the restraints on behaviour. However. Religion in these societies was a constraining force whereas in organic societies religion is less important in constraining people’s behaviour. He believed these to be Nationalism and even the belief in the power of science.Chapter 4: Theories and developments The function of religion in these societies was to reinforce this consensus. Anomie The word anomie comes from the Greek word Anomos. for Durkheim. Work is not shared out by independent individuals who are already differentiated from one another. which means ‘without laws’. The collective consciousness is strong in these societies and the law is repressive. who meet and associate together in order to pool their different abilities. Durkheim used the concept of anomie in The division of labour in society (1893) and defined it as a ‘state where norms and expectations on behaviours are confused. The law in these societies is restitutive. which created pressures that could only be accommodated by greater specialisation. causing people to feel morally adrift and lacking moral direction. Durkheim believed that other sets of beliefs and values would develop. it is through the division of labour in organic societies that society becomes cohesive and solidaristic. (Remember Marx believed that the division of labour through production was one of the factors that contributed to the alienation of the working class. It would be a miracle if these differences. could be so accurately harmonised as to form a coherent whole.8 From Durkheim (1893. arising from chance circumstances. Durkheim was worried about the effects of the rapid social changes that were occurring in the nineteenth century and believed that such changes could lead to a state of anomie. Organic solidarity occurs as a result of difference. 8 Therefore. Organic solidarity Whereas in simple societies there was a low division of labour.

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Activity 4.9 How does Durkheim’s concept of anomie differ from Marx’s concept of alienation? If, at this point, you are finding that you are not sure how to start answering this question, or are finding it difficult, reread your notes, your textbooks and the previous section on alienation. You should think about the following: Many people have said that the concepts are broadly similar, because both describe people being detached from society. Marx used the concept of alienation to describe the situation of the workers in capitalism who had become increasingly estranged from each other, from the objects that they produced and finally from their real nature (their species being). As a materialist Marx therefore attributed the cause of alienation as the capitalist mode of production. The result was that workers became dehumanised. Alienation would disappear when the mode of production changed in a society, when private property was eliminated and there was minimal division of labour. For Durkheim the cause of anomie was a lack of moral guidelines brought about when society changes too rapidly. The cure for anomie would be a new moral force. In organic societies Durkheim believed that the individual was connected to society through the division of labour in work, and work was regulated through norms. An individual’s identification with a profession and its ethical values was a source of social solidarity and so professions and guilds functioned to prevent anomie and curb egoistical tendencies.

Social solidarity/cohesion
At this point, refer to your textbooks again for an account of Spencer and the biological analogy. Like Spencer, Durkheim had an organic view of society. To say that a society exists implies that it must have boundaries: these boundaries are created by a membership, and membership of a society implies that there are other people who are not members. Nonmembers are outside society; by differentiating between members and non-members the moral boundaries are maintained. Those people who do not conform to the norms, values and laws of a society are ‘outside’ society. Much of Durkheim’s work concentrated on the nature of social solidarity.

Summary: Durkheim’s legacy
Durkheim’s work influenced the Structural Functionalist anthropologists and Parsons. His concept of structure was important to structuralists, including Claude Levi Strauss, Louis Althusser and Ferdinand de Saussure. The concept of structure implies that there are underlying principles by which a system works and that it is the task of the social scientist to work out what these principles are. Durkheim’s work is an important antidote to some of the evolutionary theorists (such as Spencer) who were dominant in the nineteenth century. His stress on seeking the underlying causes of social phenomena have been further developed by realist sociologists (see Chapter 3, section 3.4). Activity 4.10 Write short answers to these questions: 1. Why did Durkheim write Suicide? 2. Why did Durkheim believe the division of labour was functional? 3. What did Durkheim mean by society being ‘a moral force’? 4. Why has Durkheim been described as a realist?
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Chapter 4: Theories and developments

5. What is the difference between anomie and egoism? 6. What is the role of the individual in Durkheim’s sociology? 7. How did Durkheim differentiate between causal analysis and functional analysis? 8. How did Durkheim account for social change?

Max Weber (1864–1920)
Weber’s sociology is important for many aspects of Section A, particularly for ‘Methodology’ and for illustrating some methods of social research. In Section C, all the chapters will require you to know, and apply, Weber’s theories and his ideas about the nature of the social world and how it should be studied. Now read Your chosen text will give you some general background about Weber’s life and approach, and we suggest that you read up on his biography now. Macionis and Plummer (2005) pp.88–91 or Macionis and Plummer (2005) pp.109–11 or Giddens (2008) pp.17–19 or Fulcher and Scott (2003) pp.39–42. You will see that Weber was not just a sociologist; he was a historian, a politician, a lawyer and an economist. As you read the chapters and pages indicated below you should recognise how he has linked economic ideas into his sociology. His work on the State and bureaucracy is based to a very great extent on his knowledge of the Law and the State, especially German law at a time when the German state was becoming particularly strong. His legacy is immense; he created a conceptual framework for the development of the social sciences that is still relevant for today’s sociologists. One of his major influences was Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) and you should look this up in your texts now. Now read The Introduction to Chapter 3 in Cuff, Sharrock and Francis (2006) or Lee and Newby (2000) also have a clear introduction to the German Idealists in Chapter 11. Kant’s viewpoint was that there could be no knowledge of things as they exist independently of our thinking about them. In trying to understand the world the observer attempts to give meaning to the physical and social objects which s/he sees. Whereas Durkheim believed we should treat ‘social facts as things’, Kant believed that it was necessary to interpret these facts. In interpreting the world individuals select what is meaningful to them. You have already read about concepts earlier in Section A, and seen how many of these are ‘essentially contested’. Weber, following Kant, suggested that the concepts we use to understand the world derive from cultural values. These values tell us what is ‘significant’ and what is ‘insignificant’. Concepts are therefore value relevant. Thus in Weber’s view there can be no universally valid scientific concepts. This has profound implications for how we ‘do’ sociology. For example: it would be impossible to do research on children’s learning without having some understanding of the concept of education (note that this concept can be used in very different ways). Therefore the world is interpreted in the way that is significant for the observer. That is why Weber is often described as an interpretivist sociologist. The German idealistic tradition viewed people as active, purposive, free agents. Weber believed that the social sciences should not proceed in the
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same way as the natural sciences. The reason was that if individuals are free to act, if they have agency, then they will act in unpredictable ways. It is impossible to control for this and therefore he rejected the ideal of creating nomothetic theories for the social sciences. Nomos comes from the Greek meaning ‘law’. These approaches create generalisations and produce laws. Examples of such theories include Marx’s explanation of social change and Comte’s law of the three stages. Weber suggested that social science should adopt an idiographic analysis which would particularise historical events. He rejected the possibility of developing laws, especially those relating to evolutionary processes. His work The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism9 (see below) is an illustration of this. In this text, Weber described and explained the rise of capitalism in the West. He did not believe that this explanation was generalisable to other epochs Whereas Durkheim concentrated on social structures; Weber suggested that sociology should concentrate on social action and the interpretation of social action. Social sciences should be distinguished from the natural sciences because sociology involves the interpretation of subjective meanings given to action. An action such as falling off a chair when asleep is not social action! (Here the sleeper ‘relinquishes’ agency when s/he is asleep.) However, if someone deliberately fell off the chair then it would be social, as the individual ‘would attach meaning to his action’. Weber therefore had a very different approach to sociology to either Marx or Durkheim. Most of his work involved interpreting social action. He wrote extensively on how sociologists should go about their work and the tools they should use. In this section we will examine: • Weber’s concern with modernity and rationalisation • Idealism • Weber’s methodology. Weber’s main goal was to understand modernity; the major theme in his work is the growing disenchantment of the world. Unlike the Enlightenment philosophers who championed the ‘debunking’ of religious beliefs and superstitions, he was pessimistic about the effects of the increasing ‘use of reason in all things’. His view of the future is illustrated by the quote below:
Not summer’s bloom lies ahead of us, but rather a polar night of icy darkness and hardness.10
10

The Protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism is one of Weber’s key texts. Most libraries have copies of this and we do advise you to read some of it to see Weber’s writing at first-hand.
9

Weber (1946/1958) p.120.

Weber and rationalisation
Rationalisation for Weber was a process in which social interaction and social institutions were being increasingly governed by methodical procedures and calculable rules. He believed that in modernity, traditional values and emotions gave way to formal and impersonal practices. These practices may encourage greater efficiency to achieve designated ends but they lead to a situation where one ‘can master all things by calculation’. Modernity allows people to ‘have mastery of the natural and social environment’, but the division of labour, bureaucratisation and mechanisation lead to individuals becoming ‘little cogs’ in a big machine. Rationality, which Weber described as the application of reason to achieve a desired end, leads to greater predictability, calculability, co-ordination and control in all spheres of social life. However this leads to individuals feeling trapped in an ‘iron cage’ with no room for creativity.
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not how we can promote and hasten it. He described how McDonald’s organises every aspect of the work process into smaller parts which can be controlled and standardised.11 Now look up rationalisation in your textbooks. the way that things are produced will determine the way that society is organised. little men clinging to little jobs and striving toward bigger ones – a state of affairs which is to be seen once more. human motivation and ideas were the major forces behind social change. and especially of its offspring.. Weber focused on social action and saw social structures not as external to and independent of individuals. according to Weber. It is as if in politics … we were to deliberately to become men who need ‘order’ and nothing but order. Social structures..11 11 Elwell (1996). and the great question is. become nervous and cowardly if for one moment this order wavers. were external to and coercive of social actors. The following quote illustrates Weber’s pessimism well: It is horrible to think that the world could one day be filled with nothing but those little cogs. being composed of a large number of continuing social relationships. for example by adopting rational principles. playing an ever increasing part in the spirit of our present administrative systems. change occurs first in the way that goods are produced. ‘matter matters’. For Weber. Then take any large-scale organisation that you know and see if it mirrors the situation described by Weber in the quote above. This passion for bureaucracy . the students. Weber and idealism You may have read that much of Weber’s sociology has been described as a ‘debate with the “Ghost of Marx”’. Weber rejected all determinist models of social explanation but he accepted that material considerations were extremely important. is enough to drive one to despair.Chapter 4: Theories and developments Whereas science can provide the knowledge about how to do things. George Ritzer suggested that rationalisation and bureaucratisation is a feature of many organisations in society. For example. Weber also disagreed with Marx who believed that most structures. but what can we oppose to this machinery in order to keep a portion of mankind free from this parcelling-out of the soul. therefore. In your own words attempt to write a definition of it. He accepted that bureaucracy was the most technically efficient of all forms of organisation but he was concerned about the effect this would have on the people who were increasingly acting rationally. Weber on the other hand suggests it is the change from traditional to rational thinking that makes the difference. from this supreme mastery of the bureaucratic way of life. in his work The McDonaldisation of society. as in the Egyptian records. that indicates how rational a society is. are formed by a complex interplay of social actions. It is the willingness to use and adapt to new technologies. and helpless if they are torn away from their total incorporation in it. Activity 4. Remember that for Marx. For materialists. scientific techniques are ‘empty of meaning’. the basis of society is the way that material production is organised. That the world should know no men but these: it is in such an evolution that we are already caught up. An example of this is his concern about the growing bureaucratisation of the modern world. 103 . He was particularly concerned about the growing bureaucracy in modern society.

For Weber the central organising principle of the modern system was rational capitalism. A priori assumptions imply that knowledge exists prior to experience. Weber was determined to argue against the economic determinism of the some of the later Marxists. Weber categorised societies by the differences in how they viewed the world. Sharrock and Francis (2006) or Lee and Newby (2000) on Weber’s The Protestant Ethic and Spirit of Capitalism. We outline some of the most important methodological aspects of Weber’s sociology below. Individuals give authority to those in power on the basis of their traditional right to rule. whereas in industrial/capitalist society individuals’ actions are goal-oriented. Now read Chapter 3 on Weber in Cuff. traditional action was dominant and people’s actions were guided by the past. Lee and Newby are very careful to state that it was not Weber’s intention to refute Marx’s theory of the development of capitalism. which state that Protestantism caused the development of capitalism. formulating theories on the basis of this research.12 Now look up the four types of social action in your textbooks and make sure that you are able to link these to the particular forms of domination. Weber described the first two forms of action as being non-rational. Now read Cuff. The Protestant Ethic thesis demonstrates Weber’s ideas of rationality and rational action. The importance of this work lies in Weber’s methodology and the comparison with Marx’s analysis of the development of capitalism. not on a priori assumptions. Sharrock and Francis (2006) or Chapters 11 and 12 in Lee and Newby (2000). In pre-industrial society. Weber’s methodology Sociology should focus primarily on empirical research. We ‘know’ that 2 + 2 = 4 without 104 . (A priori literally means ‘from the former’. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism was Weber’s attempt to explain how the process occurred. Lee and Newby also give a good corrective to those texts. Try to see how these points compare with the notes that you will have made on Marx and Durkheim.21 Principles of sociology Activity 4. We will use the example of The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism to illustrate these key ideas. Thus: Traditional action Affective action Instrumentally rational action Value rational action Traditional domination Charismatic domination } Legal rational domination In traditional societies the dominant type of social action is tradition. Weber demonstrated that human motivation and ideas were the forces behind social change – ‘ideas values and beliefs had the power to bring about social transformation’.

However objectivity in the social sciences should not be confused or treated as synonymous with political neutrality or ‘sitting on the fence’.13 Attempt to construct an ideal type – of a farm perhaps – or even an ideal type of a sociology student. saved and spent their money. Weber suggested that social scientists should. 105 . The changing belief systems caused changes in the way that the Protestants worked. be separated from the rest of the countryside by fences. Activity 4. Now read Look up descriptions of the ideal type and its use in the social sciences in your textbooks. have a tractor or a horse. This change in aggregate behaviour was one of the reasons behind the development of rational capitalism. Weber saw society as an aggregate of individuals rather than an ‘entity’. An ideal typical farm for example would have: A farm house. believing that the explanations of sociologists must always be rooted in an interpretive understanding of the subjective meaning that individuals give to their actions. seek to be value free – that is.) Therefore sociologists should carry out research and not simply theorise about the world without any evidence or doing sociological research! Methodological individualism Weber has been described as a methodological individualist – unlike Durkheim who saw society as existing sui generis. he suggested that rational capitalism arose in part because of the behaviour of the Protestants. You should create a set of features. social action. caste. You should note that these ideal types were created by Weber. as they suggest that society is itself a ‘social construction’.Chapter 4: Theories and developments any further research. as far as possible. should be in the country. may have a distinctive smell of animals. In The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism his creation of an ideal type of rational capitalism allowed Weber to argue that northern Europe had all the features indicated in his ideal type. Weber rejected all determinist theories. However. Therefore we should use methods which can examine aggregate behaviour. In this sense he is close to the social constructionists but he did not go as far as they do. Examples of these include: bureaucracy. rational capitalism. The comparative method The social sciences proceed through the construction of ‘ideal types’ which have been called ‘interpretive benchmarks’. These ideal types are important in comparative sociology as they allow social phenomena to be compared with the ideal type. to place to one side judgments about what ought to be the case (normative statements). The social scientist is concerned with the evaluation of means rather than ends or goals. Value freedom/value neutrality The social sciences should be principally concerned with addressing practical problems. In The Protestant Ethic. As they saved and spent their resources wisely they were able to accumulate capital which could then be invested in rational projects. Although ancient China and India had some of the essential features for rational capitalism to develop they lacked some key aspects and therefore could not be considered as capitalist societies. some barns/animal sheds. which had changed.

Activity 4. the social sciences can be distinguished from the natural sciences. Social sciences are concerned with the interpretation of social action and sociology should be concerned with the interpretation of subjective meaning. In The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. How does Weber explain conflict in society? 4. using rationalised technology • rational organisation of free labour • unrestricted markets. his analysis on power and the bureaucratic states has been a useful corrective to much Marxist theorising and has gone a long way to explaining the character of late capitalism. the empathetic ‘understanding’ of which is naturally a task of a specifically different type from those which the schemes of the exact natural sciences can seek to solve. It could be argued that he was a precursor of postmodernist theorising (see section 4. Spencer. Marx and Durkheim. and so doing caught ‘the essence of the capitalist spirit’. Why was Weber worried about rationalisation in the modern world? 106 . What is meant by ‘elective affinity’? 5. According to Weber. He was responsible. In the social sciences we are concerned with mental phenomena. In sociology a hermeneutic study involves sociologists interpreting documents and attempting to understand what the authors meant by their writings.4 of this chapter) as his work can be seen as an attack on the grand narrative theories of Comte. 2.21 Principles of sociology The ideal type of rational capitalism for Weber had the following features: • the pursuit of profit – capital is organised entrepreneurially • rational enterprise. What is an ideal type? Why is it useful in comparative sociology? 7. how did rational capitalism develop in Northern Europe? 6. both in substantive sociology and in methodology. Weber’s legacy Weber’s influence on the twentieth century has been immense.14 Attempt to write short answers to the following questions: 1. Weber interpreted the works of Benjamin Franklin. Verstehen (empathetic understanding) You will have seen that for Weber. Weber was an advocate of hermeneutics. for bringing ‘the individual back in’ to social analysis and for demonstrating the importance of understanding the meaning behind action. His main influences were on Parsons and the symbolic interactionists whom we will be discussing in the next section. the branch of philosophy which involves ‘the human understanding and interpretation of texts’. Outline Weber’s explanation of social action.12 12 Weber (1949). with others. What is meant by methodological individualism? 3. His importance in political sociology has been immeasurable. What is meant by verstehen? 8.

Sharrock and Francis (2006) Chapter 5 or Lee and Newby (2000) Part 7. Its main concern was to answer the sociological problem. unlike Weber or Durkheim. Merton.6 on the individual in society. Parsons did not create methodology for the study of society. Introduction Structural functionalism in sociology rose to prominence in the United States after the Second World War. The anthropologist A. You should be able to describe and evaluate these theories. Sharrock and Francis (2006) and Lee and Newby (2000) – go into too much detail.R. much of his work lay in a rejection 107 . Pareto and Freud. which explains why structural functionalism is so difficult. the set texts provide very little material on structural functionalism. is Ian Craib’s Modern Social Theory. In this section we will concentrate on Parsons but in your reading you should be aware of the work of other structural functionalists. With the exception of Fulcher and Scott (2003). ‘Social inequality and social injustice’. with little empirical content. He was interested in finding out what holds society together and prevents it from ‘falling apart’. especially the work of Parsons. The main task of a sociologist is to identify the parts or structures in society that function to maintain equilibrium. Weber. as you will read later in Cuff.Chapter 4: Theories and developments Structural functionalism and Parsons Now read Either Fulcher and Scott (2007) Chapter 2 or Cuff. If you choose to study one of the following in Section C – ‘Power in society’. Smelser and Davis and Moore. and indicate the areas which it would be helpful for you to know and understand now and what can be left for general reading later. Instead he developed a grand model of how he believed society to be organised. Radcliffe Brown (1881–1955) developed Durkheim’s functionalist framework. section 1. A particularly good text from your Works cited. ‘How is social order maintained in society?’ Most structural functionalists use a biological analogy. You need to understand Parsons’ theory in relation to socialisation and role. Sharrock and Francis (2006) or/and in Lee and Newby (2000). see Chapter 1. Structural functionalism has its roots in Comte and Spencer’s organic analogy and of course in Durkheim’s sociology. His theories owe a lot to the classical sociologists but. he looked at how different parts of the society (social institutions) functioned to maintain the whole. Talcott Parsons (1902–1979) Parsons’ theory Parsons’ sociology was primarily theoretical. ‘Religion and society’ or the ‘Sociology of organisations’ – you will need to have a good understanding of the major assumptions of Parsons and the structural functionalist approaches. In this section we will outline the key features of Parsonian functionalism. seeing society as an organism. He suggested that social institutions are the key to maintaining order and that it was possible to make generalisations about the functions of social structures across societies. and. Instead of looking at how societies evolve over time. and the key texts – Cuff. The major influences on Parsons’ thought were Durkheim. Its leading exponents were Parsons.

Like Durkheim. Parsons believed that the task of sociology was to analyse society as a system of interrelated variables. form or structure of a social institution by its ‘function’. 2007. The structural functionalist perspective Students often have difficulty with the structural functionalist perspective. Structuralist theories suggest that social institutions are ‘structured’/determined by society.21 Principles of sociology of Thomas Hobbes’ individualistic conception of the human being. structural functionalists believed that individuals and groups are constrained by structures.) The anthropologists advocated a synchronic approach to the study of societies.) Parsons created a synthesis of ideas from these social scientists and created a theory that was to dominate US sociology for three decades. (They believed that it was impossible to know what previous societies were like and that it was impossible to predict how they would develop. (As you have seen in section 4. for example Louis Althusser’s Structuralist Marxism which we have discussed in the section on Marx. like Weber. It also owes much to the work of Comte and Spencer’s ideas of organicism and equilibrium. 1995. Parsons’ influences Parsons’ theories owe much to Durkheim’s concept of structure and Durkheim’s functional analysis by which he describes social facts by their contribution to the working of society as a whole. like Durkheim. in Fulcher and Scott. There are also many explanations in sociology that explain the shape. he saw these observations telling us something about what the world is really like’ (Scott. There are some theories that are structuralist. He sought to explain the nature of society and the role of individuals within it – a grand plan indeed! Parsons’ theory is analytical ‘in that. Parsons’ ideas on the social system and social structure Parsons’ major aim was to analyse the social system as a whole and hence he can be described as a macro sociologist. a social institution is described by the role it plays in maintaining the stability of the wider society. therefore he sought to show how each social institution functioned to maintain the whole society. they aimed to demonstrate how changes in one part of the social system could be explained in relation to changes in other parts. But it was also realist in that. p. structural functionalist is a name given to a particular group of sociologists who are both structuralist and functionalist and most of whom described themselves as such. Structures 108 .45). He was also influenced by the work of some social anthropologists (Radcliffe Brown and Malinowski) who were concerned about the epistemological problems arising out of the evolutionary theories of the nineteenth century. In the structural functionalist approach. However. leaving the individual with little autonomy. In their fieldwork. Rather than explaining why and how societies changed over time.1. sociology in the nineteenth century reacted against the individualisation of the Enlightenment. Now read Look up the biological analogy and details of Parsons’ biography in your textbooks. he recognized that all observations were dependent on concepts. they explained how each institution changed in response to changes in other institutions at that particular point in time.

These norms will in turn be influenced by the prevailing values in society. by environmentalist ideas that it is not good to waste petrol driving fast cars and by the fact that you have a job and a family to support. The components of the unit act are: Actors: the people who make choices (in choosing the ends/goals and the means to achieve the ends/goals).Chapter 4: Theories and developments include economic. Unlike Weber he was not an Interpretivist aiming to understand meaning behind the action. which contain mutually dependent parts. legal. If these needs are to be met. he describes action as ‘the unit act’. Activity 4. educational and political structures. which we describe below. These means are not always available. Parsons believed that understanding the way that people make these choices is the most important task of any social scientist. Means: the resources available to achieve these ends/goals. This gives rise to a set of expectations relating to similar exchanges. the cultural system playing the most important part. these parts work together to form a social structure. Parsons’ voluntaristic theory of social action In Parsons’ early work. you will see that action is governed by the prevailing norms and values in a society. it is a simple exchange: if the actor receives satisfaction in an exchange then this action will be repeated. so he would need to find out why people act in the way that they do. 109 . especially The structure of social action written in 1937. legal and cultural factors (environmental factors) which limit the opportunities available to the actors. This normative framework or cultural system (very like Durkheim’s concept of moral regulation) is important in defining the expectations that are attached to each role in a social institution. he believed that a sociologist must attempt to understand social phenomena as they appear to the actors. In the model of social action. Parsons’ major assumption in explaining social action is that the ‘actor’ aims to maximise his/her gratification. Like Weber. The unit act Individuals make choices – they choose between different goals and they choose between different ways of achieving these goals. First. Parsons believed that the sociologist should analyse social action rather than physical events and biological behaviour. societies are seen as a mixture of personality systems. so these choices are constrained by physical. These expectations build up into sets of rules and norms. social. Structural functionalists believe that social systems have certain needs. by your lack of finances. it is the social structures that meets these needs. social systems and cultural systems. Parsons viewed the structure of society as a normative framework. Like Weber.15 Can you think of something that you would like to do and cannot do? What are the constraints which prevent you from doing this? Example 1 You may want to drive a Ferrari across Africa but you may be constrained by your inability to drive a car. In structural functionalism.

13 Craib (1992) p. Social institutions Now reread Chapter 1. each governed by established norms and values. This is a difficult concept in Parsons’ work. ‘Society can be considered as a network of social roles. contract. We expect an institution to be like a school or a bank.6 – The individual and society – which compares Parsons’ and Mead’s ideas of socialisation and role. These norms are normally well-established and settled and help tie the various social roles in society together.13 Now reread Chapter 1. Question: If people pursue their individual self-interest.’ Parsons believed that people tend to co-operate on the basis of these values. section 1. Status roles For Parsons. your companion hates smoking. In structural functionalism an institution is described as the ‘generalised norms and practices’ which are shared by many members of a society. However. For example. the choices available to them are limited by the prevailing norms and values in a society (as well as financial and legal constraints). individuals are not autonomous actors. The key institutions in society which help to define the social roles within these institutions are: the market. and you believe that you should not smoke. Here the constraints are very strong and smoking may incur punishment.42. These values and norms are the basis for order in society. how can there be social order? Social action is not simply a reaction to external stimuli. the values regarding the environment and your duty to support your family.3 which explains how sociologists define a social institution. your financial situation. You will behave differently in each case. a role is a ‘cluster of normative expectations’ which exist prior to an individual taking up a role. property. Actors are constrained by the values and norms of the people around them. each actor develops a system of expectations in choosing how to act and what goals to aim for. ‘I act towards you in respect of how I expect you to act. Hence roles are taken in a structural functionalist model. You may be asked to leave the restaurant and your friend will probably be very offended. as a student you will play your role in relation to others playing their role.21 Principles of sociology Here the constraints relate to your skills. Actors take account of the expectations of others. 110 . Example 2 You may want to smoke in a restaurant after having a very good meal. marriage and kinship. as we have seen. You will know how to play different roles through a socialising process which ensures that you understand the expectations attached to each role. These norms and values structure individual choices. In front of your friends you will act informally but in a large lecture theatre you will be much more formal and will not be expected to interact with the lecturer unless asked to do so. However you are constrained because the restaurant has a no smoking policy. section 1.

Goal Attainment and Adaptation (LIGA). • The personality system: the personality system was concerned with human motivation. Note: Parsons believed that women tended to play ‘expressive’ roles whereas men would play ‘instrumental roles’ in the social division of labour. Integration. Without some degree of conformity to the ‘conventions’ in the society. communication would be impossible. the political sub-system sets the goals in a society. and in joint families parents and brothers and sisters-in-law. • The social system: patterns of activity resulting from the sum of social interactions in the society. In order for society to survive each of the sub-systems – and the sub-systems of sub-systems – it must satisfy four functional prerequisites: Latency/ Pattern Maintenance. Culture is a symbolic system but people in different situations will read symbols differently. • The biological system: this provides the biological link between the physical world and the meanings that make up the ‘world of action’. the roles relate to husband and wife. Human beings are seen as essentially passive and reactive in the Parsonion model. The general system of action Social institutions tend to be arranged in groups which make up subsystems. On the next page the chart indicates how these prerequisites are met. According to Parsons the sub-systems of the social system are: • the economic system • the political system • the societal community • the socialisation system. In a marriage. A person’s personality is affected by all the conditioning and learning that occurs in a ‘hers’ or ‘his’ life. The personality system was made up of a mixture of biological drives and culture but cannot be reduced to biology. This ensures that the culture of a society is internalised by members of a society. the stratification system serves to integrate people into the society. Each of these systems relates to each other and adapts in response to changes in the other systems. For social interaction to occur over time there must be some stability in the symbolic system. Hence one of the major functions of the family and education is ‘pattern maintenance’ (see below). individuals seek approval in social relationships. 111 . • The cultural system: Parsons can be described as a consensus theorist.Chapter 4: Theories and developments In a market there are buyers and sellers – each role carrying a role set of expectations and behaviours. There are also subsystems of each of the above systems! You will have read that structural functionalists use a biological analogy. For example. People conform because there is a consensus (agreement) over the prevailing set of norms and values in a society.

Symbols are exchanged and each system remains in equilibrium with the other systems. Each of the sub-systems has an equivalent ‘symbol’ which is indicated in CAPITAL LETTERS in the above boxes.) Met by: the Polity – political structures of decision-making and control. 112 .4 Source: Generated from Fulcher and Scott (2007) p.) Met by: The societal community – this includes localised structures such as kinship and neighbourhood.) Met by: the family and education – people are socialised into the generalised values and norms in a society. which ensures both the stability of the system and the perpetuation of its culture. MONEY Internal needs Relating to the integrity and cohesion of the social system. Latency and Pattern Maintenance: (The need to build up a store of commitment in a society and to ensure stability of the system as a whole.21 Principles of sociology Structures related to External needs These relate to the facilities and resources that must be generated from the environment. Social stratification is an important mechanism INFLUENCE COMMITMENT Figure 4.49.) Goal attainment (The need to mobilise existing resources to achieve individual and collective goals. Integration: (The need to integrate individuals into the society. Thus a hierarchy emerges: • the cultural system is high on information • the social system is high on information • the personality system is high on energy • the biological organism is high on energy. The cybernetic hierarchy The systems illustrated above are related through the exchange of symbolic information. but also larger bonds of ethnic and national community. Using the idea of cybernetics (the science of systems and their ability to be self-regulating) Parsons attempted to demonstrate how each system is controlled by another system. POWER Met by: the Economy – structures of production distribution and exchange. Means of action Ends of action Adaptation (The need to accumulate and control resources from the natural environment.

However. Specialisation Social systems change as they become more differentiated and as structures become more specialised. They account for conflict as an indication that the system is not working effectively. Parsons attempted to demonstrate how a change or ‘disturbance’ in one system induces a reaction in another which maintains equilibrium. the working class is generally unaware of these opposing interests). with one part of the system adapting to changes in another. Those with highest energy (the personality and biological organisms) push energy up through the system and those with high information push information down through the system. the functions of the family are reduced to two important functions – the socialisation of the young and the stabilisation of ‘adult personalities’. As societies develop. classes have oppositional interests (even though. However.or constant-sum view. the functions that an institution is left with are more effective than when that institution was carrying out multiple functions. the family remains in Parsons’ model the ‘cornerstone of society’. Parsons’ theory of the family illustrates this well. in capitalism. Remember the cultural system has to ensure that there is a general consensus and agreement in society. The other functions have been taken over by the education system and the state. 113 . The normative system ensures that individuals are socialised into the rules of the society and so society is normally in a state of solidarity of equilibrium. As societies become more complex and differentiated.Chapter 4: Theories and developments Those systems which are highest on information control those who have high energy. Change in one system will affect changes in another system which will react and restore the original situation. conflict is endemic. In adapting to the conflict situation the society will change in some way. Parsons assumed a variable-sum view of society: there are enough power resources. Change is generally ordered and evolutionary. They had a zero. they were scarce and there would be competition over them. society adapts to deal with the tension (tension management) and moves back to a state of moving equilibrium. This triggers changes in the sub-systems to rectify the situation and conflict also contributes to social change. Moving equilibrium The sub-systems above are constantly adapting to changes within the social system (endogenous changes) and from outside the system (exogenous changes). in Marx and Weber’s analyses. The more these resources are utilised. As social systems become more specialised. These interests cannot be reconciled and so society is normally in a state of conflict. In contrast. therefore the cultural system controls the personality and biological systems. for Marx. were material resources. Resources. the cultural system has to adapt to these changes and becomes more abstract and more generalised. Parsons described this process as ‘moving equilibrium’. The task of the education system is to socialise the young into this generalised culture. the number of the functions that an institution can achieve decreases. even thought this conflict may not be overt. In Marx’s analysis of social class. When there is overt conflict. Parsons’ concept of moving equilibrium can serve to indicate how the various sub-systems react to these changes. and societal resources in a society if the society is organised to properly utilise them. the more is available to pursue collective goals.

Activity 4. Sharrock and Francis (2006) and Lee and Newby (2000). He took Durkheim’s concept of anomie as a starting point but developed this to include a typology of the different responses to anomic situations. However. Do you think that the structuralist functionalists can account for this situation? Summary Structural functionalism dominated US sociology until the late 1960s (although there were other paradigms which were dominant in some univerisites: phenomenology and other interpretivist traditions in Chicago. Sharrock and Francis (2006) Chapter 5 or Lee and Newby (2000) Chapter 16. Neofunctionalism Reading If you are using Fulcher and Scott (2007) we suggest that you read their background material (pp. We should ask questions of both Merton’s and Luhmann’s positions. for instance).50–51) on this topic. Merton’s theory will be very helpful to you. if this conflict persists. Use the above notes to guide you in your reading. and also in Cuff. Other paradigms became more popular and there was little work done using the structural functionalist perspective. then what? In the organic model. Here you will see that Nikolas Luhmann developed Parsons’ ideas but suggested that social systems were very often unstable and that they often failed to adapt. society will die or the equilibrium will be destroyed and society would be reborn. If you have chosen the study of organisations or religion in Section C. How do structural functionalists explain the existence of conflict in so many societies? They can explain it using the concept of ‘function’ but. created a situation where social institutions became so specialised that they developed different value systems. 114 . This brings us quite close to the postmodernist theory which suggests that culture is ‘fractured’ and there is no one point of reference for social behaviour.21 Principles of sociology Robert Merton (1910–2003) Now read The descriptions of Merton you will find in your main textbook. His work as been used to describe deviant behaviour and even revolutionary change. far from ensuring social cohesion.102 on anomie). Specialisation. Merton’s development of Parsons’ work on social action has been used extensively in the study of organisations and crime (see p. Now read Cuff.16 Think of a society in which there has been continuous open conflict for over 10 years. since the 1980s there has been a re-emergence of this tradition with the development of neofunctionalism around people such as Nicholas Luhmann.

(New York: Alfred A. as Parsons and Durkheim did. Harold Studies in Ethnomethodology. Thomas The child in America: behavior problems and programs. (New York: Wiley Interscience. For Weber. However. Interactionists did not try to create a theory of society. 1974) [IBSN 9780471085706]. (London and New York: Methuen. W. Jane and Robert C.Chapter 4: Theories and developments Much of the material in Sections B and C depends on a thorough understanding of structural functionalism as a perspective and its concern with explaining social phenomena.22–24 or Macionis and Plummer (2005) pp. 1984) [ISBN 9780415018753]. Blumer.3 Bringing the individual back in Works cited Atkinson. Sociologists such as Comte and Durkheim were committed to the idea that there was such a thing as ‘society’.28–30 or Macionis and Plummer (2008) pp. Craib. there are differences between these approaches that you should be aware of. 1918) [ISBN 9780252010903]. 1969) [ISBN 0138799245]. NJ: Prentice Hall.7. Thomas. this group believed that we need to understand the processes by which individuals come to understand the behaviour of others and how individuals identified themselves through interaction.I. 4. Modern social theory. NJ: Prentice Hall. and D. (London: Harvester Wheatsheaf.33–36 and reread Chapter 1. Badger. Maxwell Our masters’ voices: the language and body language of politics. Social interactionism Now read Fulcher and Scott (2007) pp. we had to ‘put ourselves in the shoes of the other’ (verstehen). E. This is not only in terms of causes but in terms of the ends that social institutions and practices have for the maintenance of society. (Anchor. (Boston: Richard G. In order to understand the meaning that the actor was giving to her or his behaviour. Goffman. I.51–54 or Giddens (2008) pp. W. In your reading you will have seen that Weber moved away from this structural approach. 1959) [ISBN 9780385094023]. 1928) [ISBN 9780384601789]. Thomas. (Englewood Cliffs. Symbolic interactionism. symbolic interactionism and ethnomethodology This group of sociological perspectives can be described as ‘micro sociology’ because they stress the importance of looking at the individual in society. Knopf. Introduction Most sociology in the nineteenth century could be described as macro sociology.I. 115 . (Englewood Cliffs. Garfinkel. J. 1967) [ISBN 9780745600611]. The presentation of self in everyday life. For the next group of social scientists this did not go far enough. Bogdan Autobiography of Jane Fry. Social interactionism. Fry. 1992) second edition [ISBN 9780312086749]. and Florian Zaniecki The Polish peasant in Europe and America. section 1. for behaviour to be social ‘meaning had to be attached to it’. H. and society structured individual behaviour and consciousness.S.

but the problem has been that he actually wrote very little and most of his work has been gathered together by his students. what was new in the Chicago School was the development of a department which was interested in finding out how people define and interpret the social environment. like other sociologists.I. In his book review. He therefore attacks them and in some cases kills them.I. Self and Society by Jacob Robert Kantor: 8 http://spartan. Now the idea of interpreting behaviour was not new. Mead. They examined his interpretation of his situation and how this changed over time. Thomas (1928) p.14 Pragmatism is a theory of meaning. Whereas Weber and Parsons stressed social action.’15 Fulcher and Scott (2003) pp. explains how Mead suggests that we should study ‘the inner experience of activity which arises in the social process of interaction’. 14 15 Here Thomas and Thomas take the example of a prisoner who interprets the behaviour of people talking to themselves (aloud) in negative terms.ac. they are real in their consequences. attempted to find out the nature of the relationship between society and the individual. If you have access to Fulcher and Scott (2007). particularly the review of Mind. They did this through a content analysis of one migrant’s (a Polish peasant) letters home to Poland. To 116 . Thomas. Things are what they mean to people. ‘If men define situations as real. These perspectives were developed in the University of Chicago where George Herbert Mead and W. W.572.ca/~lward/Kantor/Kantor_1935. You will have seen that Mead is usually described as a social psychologist. please read this now.S. Thomas and Florian Zaniecki examined the way that these migrants perceived their situation and how they adapted to the different social environment of the large city.I. So he acts on his perception of the situation. Thomas were working. and particularly people’s ability to manipulate symbols. having migrated from small rural communities. Mead believed that the field methods of anthropology should be used to understand the process of interaction between the self/mind (the ‘I’ and the ‘Me’) and society. Kantor (see above).7. They wrote this up in a book The Polish peasant in Europe and America (1918). especially in relation to Mead’s view of the ‘I’ and the ‘Me’. The prisoner believes that these people are making disparaging remarks about him. An example of this is the Thomas Theorem. It had its roots in the work of William James (1842–1910) and Charles Peirce (1839–1914) and the theory of Pragmatism.21 Principles of sociology Social interactionism is a loose term. which suggests that there are no abstract definitions of things as they really are. W. They were particularly interested in the way that different social groups struggled over resources in the rapidly developing city in the time of mass migration. and D.52–53. section 1.html Now read You need to reread the material on Mead in Chapter 1.brocku. George Herbert Mead (1863–1931) Mead has been very influential in both sociology and social psychology. but is generally applied to theorists who stress the importance of looking beyond action and structure to the way in which people create their identities and define the situations/ reality in which they find themselves in. You may like to look up some of these notes on the web.

Gestures include all verbal and non-verbal communication. In order to understand gestures. for Mead. He concentrated on small-scale. For Mead. so that they can understand the processes by which individuals develop a sense of self through the processes of communication and interaction. particularly participant observation.Chapter 4: Theories and developments understand Mead it is important to be aware of the concept of gesture. Mead said that ‘the mind should be studied scientifically (because) its workings are displayed in human contact not concealed behind it’ and that ‘the content of the mind is only a development and product of social interaction’. Interaction is by definition a dynamic process. 117 . is characterised by the processes of meaning. known and reflected upon.126–33.116–29 or Macionis and Plummer (2005 or 2008) Chapter 7 or Giddens (2008) pp. Interactionists therefore use ethnographic methods.7). particularly The presentation of self in everyday life. The social self takes on the role of others (see Chapter 1. The social environment. The social self emerges only through social experience and the self will not emerge unless individuals are able to interact with others and ‘see themselves as others see them’. Mead believed that individuals can control their behaviour and act according to their interpretation of the meanings of the gestures and events that they are exposed to. and are central to Meade’s analysis of social interaction. The self The ‘self’ arises in the process of gesture conversation in social interaction – the self is reflexive. therefore. You should be aware of Goffman’s empirical work and try to read some of it. There cannot be a mind in the absence of society. Whereas behaviouralists believed that humans react directly to external stimuli and events. significance and reflection. What differentiates men from animals is man’s ability to reflect on past activities and anticipate and prepare for future situations. Gestures have meaning to social actors. shapes human thinking. Therefore interactionists do not simply seek to understand a single action through verstehen. knowing. section 1. Erving Goffman (1922–1982) Goffman was a Canadian sociologist who studied in Chicago. The mind. Now read Fulcher and Scott (2007) pp. All these processes assume that there is an external environment (society) which can be understood. He used a phenomenological approach – see below – to understand how individuals perceive the interactions they observe and take part in. and the processes by which individuals come to understand ‘their’ social reality. The most important category of symbols is language. An individual’s gesture indicates subsequent behaviour to another. you need see how they are interpreted – and to see how the process of interaction occurs. They observe the processes by which people are socialised. the individual cannot be detached from the environment. The mind arises through communication which is result of the interplay of gestures in the form of significant symbols. face-to-face interaction. Her/his identity is given by her/his reactions to others. when an individual responds to a gesture it is regarded as a significant gesture.

16 16 Fulcher and Scott (2003) p. Reading note Fulcher and Scott (2007) have a good section of Goffman in Chapter 4. They can manipulate symbols to create a particular response to their behaviour. Front The process of establishing a social identity is linked to the concept of ‘front’ which is ‘that part of the individual’s performance which functions in a general and fixed fashion to define the situation for those who observe the performance’. In The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. young girls ‘acted dumb’ (i.128–29. and this performance is shaped by the external environment and the audience of the action. to illustrate his idea of impression management. Goffman undertook a participant observation study in the Shetland Islands (in the far north of Scotland). Individuals aim to create an impression on others. Actors act towards an audience to make an impression. A definition of the situation is the joint construction of the participants in interaction. stupid) to impress their boyfriends. However as we have seen in the example of the ‘dumb girls’. Power Much of the work of the symbolic interactionists concentrates on the individual. so they acted accordingly. So the actor has to fulfil the duties of a social role and be able to communicate the characteristics of the role to others. Consensus exists only when this definition has been established and agreed by all involved. they are learnt through a process of interaction. Goffman suggests that interaction is a performance. In the Shetland Islands. the poor crofters deliberately let their houses get run down because they wanted to create an ‘impression’ that they were so poor that the landlord would believe that they could not afford to pay any extra rent. Interaction is a reciprocal and continuous negotiation over how situations are defined. and this impression is called the self. Roles are not given. The image the actors present will vary according to the impression that the actors believe is expected by the audience. The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life (1959) was a largely descriptive study of the way that individuals engage in presentation management. 118 . The girls believed that their boyfriends liked dumb girls. The social process The social process is an interplay of action and reaction. pp. they are the sets of expectations which others have of our behaviour. and they have been accused of neglecting the constraints under which actors perform. it is an analogy taken from the theatre. ‘appearance’ and ‘manner’ for the social role. an audience can influence the actors to act in a way that is expected of them. Therefore individuals learn about the ‘front’ through socialisation and act to standardise their behaviour so that others can understand it. an interplay in which each actor interprets and responds to all others. A ‘front’ is a collective representation which provides the ‘proper setting’.e.54. Yet their work has addressed power especially through labelling theory.21 Principles of sociology Goffman described his work as a dramaturgical approach. Individuals learn their role and the context in which the role is played.

For example. Howard S. conducts its studies in it. Its empirical world is the natural world of such group life and conduct.Chapter 4: Theories and developments Now read Fulcher and Scott (2007) pp. Labelling theory has also been used in understanding educational success and failure. who was a student of Mead. Sharrock and Francis (2006) pp.53–54 or Giddens (2008) pp.19 Labelling theory Unlike Goffman’s work which concentrates more on the impression management of the actor. Society is a fluid and flexible network of interactions within which we act. They posed as psychologists and gave the children a dummy test. (We have described this in relation to the Thomas Theorem above. Rosenthal and Jacobson and their team organised an experiment with Mexican children to test the reasons certain groups of children failed at school. 18 Adapted from Craib (1992) p. 19 119 . and derives its interpretations from such naturalistic studies.17 Can you explain how the term symbolic interactionism was derived? Blumer outlines the following assumptions of symbolic interactionism. Becker (who was a member of the Chicago School) described deviant behaviour as that behaviour which people label as deviant. most of which he developed from Mead’s ideas. in the chapters of the textbook relating to labelling theory you will see that the locus of research is on the people with the power to label. • Thought: These meanings are modified and handled through an interpretive process that is used by each individual in dealing with the signs each encounters. It lodges its problems in this natural world.87. Reificiation means treating a phenomenon (a thing) as an occurrence that has no concrete existence.17 17 Blumer (1969) ‘Societies for Blumer were not fixed objective structures.799–803 or Macionis and Plummer (2005) pp. Blumer developed many of Mead’s ideas and formalised them.54. Here the authors explain how symbolic interactions have explained deviant behaviour through the process of labelling. Blumer believed that Durkheim and the structural functionalists had ‘reified’ society. • Human beings act towards things on the basis of the meanings that the things have for them.447–50 or Macionis and Plummer (2008) pp.565–67 or Cuff. • These meanings are a product of social interaction and negotiation in human society (see Chapter 1.136–41. section 1.) Note also the descriptions of gesture. Symbolic interactionism Herbert Blumer (1900–1987) Symbolic interactionism is a term created by Hebert Blumer. The researchers then reported to the teachers that Fulcher and Scott (2003) p.7) on socialisation.’18 Look back at the section on Parsons – for Parsons these networks made up ‘society’ and society constrained an individual’s actions. Activity 4. Blumer described symbolic interactionism as: ……a down-to-earth approach to the scientific study of human group life and human conduct. This test was given to all the children in the class.

Husserl was concerned with studying the structures and workings of human consciousness. Society. Rosenthal and Jacobson left the school for six months and when they returned they re-tested all the pupils. Schutz (1899–1959) further developed Husserl’s ideas. They describe this both as a systematic treatise in the sociology of knowledge. the task of the social scientist is to understand the processes by which we come to know social reality. This indicated to Rosenthal and Jacobson that the teachers had acted towards the pupils as if they were late developers rather than slow learners.’ Husserl criticised the positivists of the nineteenth century because they believed that the social world existed sui generis.21 Principles of sociology some children who had been labelled ‘slow learners’ were in fact late developers. Husserl pointed out that Weber’s theory of action was one-sided as Weber did not attempt to explain how the individual came to understand the meanings of social action. Phenomenology is the study of structures of consciousness. Now read If you have a copy of Fulcher and Scott (2007) read pp. The labels did make a difference. the effect was not lasting and there was no subsequent improvement in the pupils’ performance.33. They found that those children who had been relabelled as late developers had done significantly better than was originally expected of them and much better than their peers who had not been labelled ‘late developers’. Edmund Husserl (1859–1938) is considered to be the founder of phenomenology. is nonetheless socially constructed. the task of the phenomenological sociologist is see how people make sense of their lives. although meaningful to social actors.’ • ‘The outside world only has meaning through our consciousness of it. Activity 4. Now read Chapter 3 for a discussion on interpretivist ontology and epistemology for a description of Schutz’s phenomenology. Therefore. Were there instances where teachers labelled pupils? Do you think this made a difference to their performance? Phenomenology You have been introduced to phenomenology in Chapter 3. However. . The social construction of reality In 1966 Peter Berger (who worked with Schutz) and Thomas Luckmann wrote this important text.20 120 20 Berger (1963) p. Everyday life presents itself as a reality interpreted by men and subjectively meaningful to them as a coherent world.54–55. Two major aspects of his work are: • ‘The world we live in is created by our consciousness. Its major aim was to demonstrate that the social world does not exist sui generis as Durkheim suggested.18 Think back to the time when you were at school. They termed this process a self-fulfilling prophecy. He aimed to create a radical philosophy whose task was to restore ‘the connection between knowledge and everyday experience’.

Fry and Bogdan (1974) . Ethnie = people methodology = the science of methods. Ethnomethodology takes the philosophical standpoint of the phenomenologists. Atkinson observed coroners in England and Denmark and he found that British and Danish coroners gave different typifications of typical suicidal behaviour when presented with similar biographies. that society is socially constructed and that the task of the social scientist is to find out how people construct their world. They used in-depth interviews and other ethnographic methods to uncover the taken-for-granted assumptions that people have. 121 . They would therefore label the death as a suicide of people who ‘fitted’ into these types. One famous study which used this approach was The autobiography of Jane Fry. studying how people judge social situations. in a particular situation would be a suicidal type. This can be achieved by setting aside what we know (bracketing) and see how we come to know it. Maxwell Atkinson and Jack Douglas have cricitised Durkheim’s use of statistics and demonstrate how statistical data is socially created. that is. This process is known as typification. In Cuff. Knowledge can therefore be achieved by trying to find out how individuals come to perceive social reality. Over time they came to understand that a particular type of person. how we evaluate the methods that sociologists use. they give an example of how people judge between fact and fiction.Chapter 4: Theories and developments The task of the sociologist is to take this reality as the object of analysis and see how this reality is constructed. Hence the study of perception is at the forefront of their analysis. between the possible and the impossible. Atkinson in his text Discovering Suicide demonstrated that those who had power to label a suicide as a suicide – the coroners – came to their conclusions on the basis of ‘biographies’. which they describe as social constructions. Sharrock and Francis (2006). Harold Garfinkel and Aaron Cicourel who were writing in the 1950s and 1960s were its main exponents. Ethnomethodologists attempt to find out the methods that individuals use to decide whether something is real or not. Berger and Luckmann believe commonsense is simply ‘senses held in common’. Here the process of becoming was the main focus. Sharrock and Francis (2006) on ethnomethodology is useful but contains more than is required for this unit. Phenomenologists. Hence sociologists should engage in trying to understand how people have developed their understanding of reality. In Chapter 2 you were introduced to the concept of Ethnography. are distrustful of statistics. Reading note The only textbook to have some description of this approach is Fulcher and Scott (2007). The chapter in Cuff. as you will have seen in Chapter 3. Sociologists such as J. between what really happened and what was a dream. 21 Ethnomethodology Students are often worried about this term because it sounds rather daunting. There you will have read that ethnography involved studying people in their own environments.21 Jane Fry was a transsexual and this text is a day-to-day record of his/her perceptions as she ‘became’ a woman.

21 Principles of sociology Garfinkel criticised the structural functionalists who. e: Would you explain what is wrong with you that you are sick. They included acts such as interrupting lectures. my finances. The social world is made up of rules and regularities and the task of the sociologist is to understand how these come about and how they operate.? s: (Red in the face and suddenly out of control) Look I was just trying to be polite. When you say ‘hello’ to someone or ‘how are you?’ you do not expect to have a long description of their illnesses.. and then ask for explanations of the explanations! Garfinkel asked his students to talk to their friends and deviate from the normal conventions of conversation – we give two examples here. and suggesting to students that they should act ‘as if they were lodgers’ in their own homes. as you now know. Case 7 My friend and I were talking about a man whose overbearing attitude annoyed us. In a conversation each person ‘takes a turn’ in the conversation. My friend expressed his feeling: s: I’m sick of him. Their methods were sometimes experimental. my peace of mind. He believed that we cannot simply look at action. s: (He listened to me with a puzzled look) What came over you? We never talk this way. The ethnomethodologists examined transcripts of conversations and analysed how this turn taking was managed. The breaching experiments involved his students ‘bringing conversations to a halt and refusing to take for granted that they knew what the other person was saying’ (Garfinkel 1967). believed that individuals had little or no autonomy and were like ‘puppets’. However. You should be able to relate to this case. People in conversation can create an illusion of social order even though they may not understand each other fully. s: Are you kidding me? You know what I mean. or interpret action. Case 6 The ‘victim’ waved his hand cheerily: s: How are you? e: How am I in regard to what? My health. We need to go beyond this and understand not just the meanings of social actions and how the social world is constructed. my. 122 . my school work. This allowed them to ask for explanations. we need to understand the methods that actors use to organise their interactions and how they judge what is real or not. e: Please explain your ailment.. Ethnomethodologists believe that the way to discover these rules and regularities is to break them and to lay bare the taken-forgranted assumptions that people use to make sense of the situations in which they interact with others. Frankly I don’t give a damn how you are. Garfinkel called these experiments ‘breaching experiments’. In Chapter 1. most of his work was an analysis of conversations. you learnt about the nature of sociology and that sociologists’ main focus is on studying the nature of relationships in society.

Therefore he concluded that the audiences fill in gaps in speeches as dictated by their structure. However. read Chapter 7. structural functionalism and at the other ethnomethodology. 123 . The question he asked was ‘How does an audience know when to clap?’ He found that if a speech contained three points the audience would clap more enthusiastically than two points. According to Parsons. In using the monetary system. e. There is a dynamic process involved. Partners in a conversation interpret what they think the other person means. is not acting according to the rules of normal conversation and s. In speech there are gaps in information and in conversation people fill these in and assume that this is what the other meant! The idea that there is a shared agreement between partners in a conversation is a myth. J. Most of the textbooks try to compare these theories in terms of structure and action (agency).Chapter 4: Theories and developments Here you can see the breaching experiment. other speech structures were not so successful. Both cases from Garfinkel (1967). they could decide not to use money. but ‘they do that’ – then the audience would also clap. individuals contribute to its continued existence and development. s. 22 23 Atkinson (1984). the individual is constrained by the culture of the society and is socialised into a role having little autonomy. Individuals would find it very difficult if they did not use the monetary system (a structure) – unless they opt out of society completely or are completely dependent on others who do! Yet individuals can make choices. s. knows what ‘I’m sick of him’ means. The first part on phenomenology is the most important. Maxwell Atkinson has developed a similar approach to conversational analysis in his studies of how politicians can ensure participation in public meetings. does not know how to answer this second question and starts getting angry. there are many matters that the partners don’t understand but act as if they understand what the other is talking about. It did not seem to matter what the content of the speech was. According to ethnomethodology.22 In conversations there are many gaps. Garfinkel’s task lay in attempting to understand the conditions under which people can make sense of one another’s activities and act accordingly. is getting confused. and they also make choices as to how to use it. the individual is actively involved in making sense of the situation she or he finds her or himself in. By analysing the speeches he was able to demonstrate that the content of the speech matters less than the structure of the speech. it was the structure that mattered. In his textbook he uses the case of the monetary system. is not going to take this for granted and asks for further information. However e. according to Garfinkel. Structure or action? Structuration We have now introduced you to two very different approaches: at one extreme. Sharrock and Francis (2006). In your reading you should now try to compare them in relation to whether they believe that individuals are constrained by the society or actively create their own understanding of ‘reality’.23 Now read If you have Cuff. Giddens has developed a way out of this ‘dualism’ and suggests that ‘we should bridge the gap between structure and action’. If a speech contained a comparison – ‘we do this’. believes that e.

How did Garfinkel conduct his experiments? 7. Why is phenomenology sometimes called ‘a sociology of knowledge’? 4. What is meant by labelling in sociology? Illustrate your answer with some examples. 2008) pp. Language can only exist if people use the language and abide by its rules.115–16. (Harlow: Prentice Hall. A. Societies only have structure if people behave in regular ways. However individuals are only able to act in predictable ways if they are aware and have a great deal of ‘socially’ structured knowledge. What is meant by bracketing? 6.4 Postmodernity and sociology Essential reading Fulcher. Individuals learn language. J. It provides some important social theory for your work on methodology and will be very important if you have chosen either ‘Race’ and ethnicity or Gender as your Section C topic. and J.38–39 and 848–50. as he states. In his textbook Giddens uses the idea of language. Vocabulary changes through interaction. (Oxford: Oxford University Press. (2008 edition) pp. 124 . people do not receive language passively. Language vocabulary and structure pre-exist the individual. However. J. 9.33–34 and 686–88. What is meant by ‘gesture’ in symbolic interactionism? 3. or Macionis.19 In your society. Scott Sociology. How does structuration theory attempt to link structure and agency? 4. and K. Explain the phrase ‘the world we live in is created by our consciousness’. Plummer Sociology: a global introduction.64–66 and 386–87. languages are constantly changing. 8. What is meant by the phrase ‘the presentation of self in everyday life’? 12. 2005 edition) pp. Why do phenomenologists believe it is important to analyse conversation? 11. What is pragmatism in philosophy? 10. has the everyday language of communication changed? If so. and although many people are concerned about proper grammatical forms the structure of our language changes over time. Activity 4.21 Principles of sociology Structuration refers to the process whereby individuals make and remake social structure during the course of their daily lives. Why do phenomenologists criticise statistical methods? 2. Sociology. in what way has it changed? Summary In this section we have described how the interactionists brought the individual back into sociological analysis. (Cambridge: Polity Press. What methods would phenomenologists use and why? 5.20 Attempt the following questions: 1. or Giddens. 2007) pp. Activity 4.

. once validated and acted upon. Postmodernism or the cultural logic of late capitalism.21: Modernity and the Enlightenment revisited Try to answer the following questions before going back to look at the subject guide or your textbooks. D. Harvey. fill in any gaps. (Oxford: Blackwell. Sharrock and D. (ed. (London: Routledge. ‘The question of cultural identity’ in Hall. (Harlow: Prentice Hall. postmodernism and the sociology of gender’ in Owen.Chapter 4: Theories and developments Further reading Cuff. opinion and prejudice. if necessary. criticising or developing earlier theoretical ideas. Marsh. informing social policies. Hall. W. Theory and Practice in Sociology. D. McGrew Modernity and its futures. Lyotard. E. I. Postmodern theory: a challenge to sociology? As you will know by now. (London: Sage. J.21 below: Activity 4. ‘Feminism. try Activity 4. Therefore. can lead to improvements in society by. (Manchester: Manchester University Press. 1992) [ISBN 9780745609669]. • This order can be illuminated by rational understanding which provides a knowledge of societies that is superior to commonsense. before reading on. • Sociological knowledge. 2002) [ISBN 0130265535] Chapter 7. • There is an order to social life and social change.) Sociology after postmodernism.286–99. F. sociological theory (like theory in any subject) is a dialogue.. are all characterised by the ideals of the Enlightenment and all of them are based on three fundamental ‘modernist’ assumptions that were outlined earlier. S. S. 1991) [ISBN 9780860915379]. the best way to begin to understand postmodern social theory is first to be clear about the theoretical ideas and assumptions it is questioning. 125 . Held and T. 2006) pp. Jameson. religion. Works cited Ashenden. 1989) [ISBN 9780631162940]. S. So. for example. Francis Perspectives in Sociology. 1984) [ISBN 9780816611737]. The condition of postmodernity. with theorists questioning. • What do sociologists mean by modernity? • What is meant by a ‘modern’ way of thinking? • Can you identify the key ideas of the Enlightenment? • How did the Enlightenment influence the development of sociology? • What did the Enlightenment philosophers mean by reason? • What did Weber mean by rationality? Now go back to Chapter 1 of this subject guide and your textbooks to check out your answers and. The theoretical approaches we have looked at so far. D. (London: Verso Press. (Cambridge: Polity. The postmodern condition: a report on knowledge. 1997) [ISBN 9780803975149]. although different from each other.W. revealing inequalities or disarming prejudices.

argue that the most ‘developed’ societies have become postmodern and this represents a clear break with the past era of modernity. the most advanced societies have tended to de-industrialise. 126 . For example. However. Postmodernism: This refers to cultural and social beliefs and ways of behaving that result from living in postmodernity. Therefore. the world has become increasingly globalised (see Section B). it is not just another new theory.21 Principles of sociology Postmodern theory rejects all these assumptions. In reading about postmodern theory it is also important to distinguish between some terms that sound similar but are actually different from each other. Postmodernity: This describes a social formation coming after modernity. The first is that we are living through another period of intense social change in which modern societies are being transformed into something different called postmodern societies. satellite and cable TV websites. The key to postmodern theory is in its interpretation of the effects of living in a media saturated society. It raises important questions about: • the nature of contemporary societies • the status of sociological knowledge • the purpose of sociological research. Contemporary societies are dominated by new information technologies that bring the world into people’s homes and consciousness. Terrestrial. and can refer to divergent areas such as music and architecture as well as the way social life is ordered. it also very important that you supplement what you read in this subject guide with the textbook reading indicated above. most sociologists see these developments as changes in the nature of modern societies and some. A postmodern world? It is important to make clear that it is not just postmodernists who realise that the latter part of the twentieth century was a period of dramatic change. emails. in contrast. We shall introduce you to the postmodern critique below. Postmodernists. refer to the contemporary world as ‘late modernity’. class boundaries have become much less clear and nation states have disposed of many of their assets and actively encourage more self-reliance. It is also a challenge to existing sociological theory and research. like Anthony Giddens. rooms and digital radio stations bombard people with sounds and images from around the globe that cut across and blur boundaries of time and space. However. Postmodern theory in sociology is based on two key arguments. The second argument is that many of sociology’s most influential theories and concepts are now out of date. and a new form of sociological thinking is required to understand this new world. Postmodern theorist Harvey (1989) refers to this as ‘space-time compression’. competitiveness and private enterprise. chat . All sociologists realise that many modern societies had been transformed. Postmodern theory: This refers to a new way of theorising that some sociologists argue has to be used to understand the postmodern world.

or specialist. gender. as many ‘modernist’ sociologists feared. beliefs. and much more from the images and choices presented to them via the media. Postmodernists argue that these changes have important implications for the ontological basis of sociology: the relationship between the individual and society. ethnicity or gender. where people shop not only for consumer goods. the cornerstone of sociology is that there is an institutional order to societies which. In a postmodern world. This loss of a stable sense of self is described by postmodernists as a decentring of the subject. education. but has in fact led to a massive increase in diversity and choice. 127 . Sociological knowledge and progress A second – epistemological – part of the postmodern critique concerns sociology’s claims to produce some expert.277) puts it: The postmodern subject is conceptualised as having no fixed or permanent identity. fleeting multiplicity of possible identities. the football teams they support and so on. class. As we have seen. They are past their sell-by date and. Postmodernists argue that this no longer holds: what sociologists call societies. knowledge of societies. in a book that had a profound influence on the development of ‘postmodern sociology’. Thus the ‘postmodern condition’ has been described as one unending choice for increasing numbers of people.Chapter 4: Theories and developments Postmodernists argue that the ‘information explosion’ of the last two or three decades has not led to increasing conformity and acceptance of ‘dominant values’. In the postmodern world people’s sense of identity now comes less from ‘social’ things like where they live. people define themselves much more in terms of the lifestyle choices they make about their clothes. any one of which we could identify with – at least temporarily. no longer work. have become so diversified and fragmented and are now much less important in shaping how people think about themselves and the world. Identity becomes a ‘movable feast’: formed and transformed continuously in relation to the ways in which we are represented or addressed in the cultural systems which surround us…We are confronted by a bewildering. The effect of this has been to transform contemporary societies into something resembling endless shopping malls. although created by people also shapes how they think about themselves and the world. Postmodernists further argue that. or family. as the social order that once characterised modern societies has fragmented. their family. Lyotard (1984). the generalisations sociologists typically make about the relationship between institutions (such as family or education) and individual behaviour and the comparisons they make between different social groups have become increasingly difficult to sustain. like social class. Identity is therefore much more precarious. As Hall (1992. images and identities. fragmented and uncertain. compared the status of knowledge in ‘modern’ and ‘postmodern’ societies. or social structures. in the technical language of postmodernism. cars. Thus ‘modernist’ sociological concepts. they have to be deconstructed. but also for new lifestyles. People’s identities are thus formed in the interaction between self and society. p.

Postmodernist sociologists have developed Lyotard’s ideas into a critique of sociology’s meta-narrative of producing expert knowledge of societies in order to improve them. people are no longer convinced it is necessarily transforming it for the better. For example. according to Lyotard. understanding of societies. Marxists only find evidence of class inequality and some feminists only find evidence of patriarchal domination. no form of knowledge – not even ‘expert knowledge’ – has privileged status. Not only have most people in contemporary societies lost interest in religious and political meta-narratives. They argue that sociological theories can only be about providing specific interpretations of particular aspects of the social world. medical sciences would give people healthier and longer lives.21 Principles of sociology In modern societies. Therefore. They argue that these are simply further metanarratives and the only purpose of so-called research is to convince people of the truth of the basic ‘story’. engineering sciences would transform environments for the better. it is simply arrogance on their part to presume to tell people how societies ought to be improved. ‘capitalism’. Marxism and some feminisms. tradition and irrational beliefs and progressively laying the foundations for a more rational and improved world. to uncover the truth about the world and change it. it is no longer possible to develop general explanatory theories of the type we have looked at in this chapter. However. For example. such as ‘social institution’. 128 . a set of ideas and assumptions woven into a story that provides a justification for the beliefs. Postmodernists are particularly critical of structural theories such as structural functionalism. They argue that. In the contemporary world. In the postmodern world. For Lyotard. it had to be supported by what he calls a meta-narrative. Like any other commodity. the value of which is determined by whether or not people want it. Knowledge is simply a commodity. Like any other major ‘belief system’. sociological research cannot be evaluated in terms of key criteria such as objectivity. they have also now become more sceptical of scientific meta-narratives. scientific truths are increasingly called into question and. The most the sociologist can do is to offer ideas about the social world which people can take or leave as they see fit. as we have seen. Postmodernists argue that in an increasingly fluid and fragmented social world. although science is certainly transforming the world. sociological knowledge can only be assessed in terms of how useful people find it. They argue that in an increasingly fragmented and sceptical world there are no longer any clear criteria for determining whether one theory or piece of research is better than another. as sociologists cannot obtain special. or ‘true’. reliability and authenticity. the postmodern condition can be defined as a scepticism towards meta-narratives. ‘patriarchy’ and ‘gender’ are far too general to do justice to the complexity and diversity of contemporary societies. Postmodernists argue that sociological concepts. this faith in science and various scientific enterprises did not just happen automatically. through science in particular. Postmodernists challenge sociology’s claim to be about improving societies in the name of social progress. that is. Thus the meta-narrative of the Enlightenment was that scholars and scientists were liberating people from the darkness of superstition. and the social sciences would produce better organised and fairer societies. a faith in the truth of the word of God was replaced by a new faith in the power of the human mind.

For example. but argue that theories can still be found to be more or less valid. • Many of the things that postmodernists see as characteristics of a new ‘postmodern condition’ – such as greater choice and the ability to construct and consume identities – tend to apply only (or at least mainly) to the better off groups in the most affluent societies. As a revision activity. or research study. Phenomenologists can explain the changes in the way people identify themselves. People might have more choice in contemporary societies. go back and check them out. but see if you can think of. most sociologists are very critical of postmodern theory and have raised a number of valid points in response to its claims. Postmodernists are critical of the generalisations made in sociological theory.22 Postmodernity • What do sociologists mean by postmodernity? • Why is postmodern social theory a challenge to sociology? • What are some of the differences between conventional sociology’s view of identity and postmodernists’ view of identity formation? • Would you describe your society as ‘modern’ or ‘postmodern’? Alternatively. I used some important technical conceptual terms that we have encountered before in this and earlier chapters. people’s socioeconomic backgrounds still have a major and measurable influence on their life chances. Activity 4. or find others in your textbooks. this anti-empiricist view is shared by many sociologists. and nation states still remain strong and continue to play an important part in regulating people’s lives. ask yourself if you know what they mean and. is as good as any other. if not.23 Revision In the evaluation of postmodern theory above.Chapter 4: Theories and developments Evaluation of postmodern theory Before reading on. try the following activity to check your understanding. realists also recognise the impossibility of obtaining absolute knowledge of the social world. the economic organisations that produce goods and services are still characterised by rational planning and systematic organisation. For example. this does not mean that sociology has to descend into relativism. Four of the more important ones are outlined below. However. do you feel there are some aspects of your society that are (or are becoming) postmodern? • Can you think of some criticisms of postmodern theory? As you might imagine. yet they make a major generalisation themselves by claiming that the whole of Western society has been transformed from modernity to postmodernity! In fact postmodern theory could itself be described as another metanarrative! • Postmodernists are very selective in their use of evidence and tend to ignore the many aspects of modernity that remain relatively unchanged. • There is a contradiction in the postmodern position. • The postmodern critique of the possibility of discovering ‘true’ and ‘universal’ knowledge of societies is hardly original. where one theory. Weber was deeply critical of nomothetic approaches to sociology. but it seems that some have more choice than others. As we saw in Chapter 3. 129 . Activity 4.

postmodernist feminists reject this view as oversimplified (Ashenden 1997). in contemporary societies at least. but are the products themselves. while rejecting the totality of postmodern theory. Two examples of this are Marxist and feminist theories of postmodernity.) • It has also provided a new way of looking at the mass media and the effects of living in ‘mass mediated society’ and. Modern feminist theories of gender tend to be based on the assumption of clear differences between the experiences of men and women. in particular. 130 . For example. You will find there is a ‘postmodern approach’ to the topics examined in the Section C chapters in this subject guide. especially its relativism. They argue that. images and style are no longer promotional accessories to economic products. Chapter 9). many agree that it has made a number of valuable contributions towards understanding contemporary societies. in particular. that have led many sociologists to reconsider their relevance to understanding contemporary societies. how the media images we consume can become more ‘real’ than the things they are supposed to represent. something postmodernists call hyper-reality. Marxist theories of postmodernity explore links between economic factors and postmodernism. They argue that in the postmodern world there are no such things as ‘masculine’ and ‘feminine’ identities. (See Section C chapters on Gender and ‘Race’ and ethnicity. identities are becoming more fluid. fragile and precarious. gender. They accept that many societies have been transformed into something different from modernity (i. However. Many ‘postmodern ideas’ have been incorporated into ‘modernist’ sociological theories. such as organisation. it is suggested that ‘organisations are still characterised by rational planning’. ethnicity and power. have developed a sociology of postmodernity. social class. postmodernity) but they argue that this means transforming rather than abandoning existing sociological theories. Some sociologists. although not postmodernists themselves. Rather there are many different feminine and masculine identities that people construct for themselves in different situations and at different times in their lives (see Section C. Jameson (1991) argued that postmodernism is the expression of a new form of ‘late capitalism’ where the production of culture has been integrated into commodity production. What does this mean? Weber referred to the modern world as being characterised by the progressive rationalisation of life.e. • It has raised important critical questions about some of sociology’s most established concepts. Giddens (1991) and Hall (1992) use postmodernist ideas in their discussions of cultural identities. For example. gender divisions and gender identities are much less clear-cut. What did he mean by this? What is empiricism (and anti-empiricism)? Can you explain the key features of realist epistemology? Sociology of postmodernity? In spite of the reservations that most sociologists have about aspects of postmodern theory. • It has provided a new way of looking at culture and identity in contemporary societies and.21 Principles of sociology What is a meta-narrative? Can you remember who first used this term? And why might postmodern theory be described as a meta-narrative? In the second point of the evaluation above.

or ask your tutor (if you are studying in a college). the point is that you understand why these questions are important. ‘Sociologists are influenced by other sociologists’.24 By the end of Chapter 4. However. Is there a difference between Durkheim’s idea of the collective consciousness and Berger and Luckmann’s social construction of reality? 6. Take one sociologist and explain how other social scientists or philosophers influenced their work. What is the difference between a consensus and an ideology? 13. What did Durkheim mean by the phrase: we should treat ‘social facts as things’? Why do the phenomenologists believe that this is impossible? 19. 1. Activity 4. 131 . Compare Marx. How did one of the following sociologists explain change in society: Marx.Chapter 4: Theories and developments Summary Postmodern theory argues that many modern societies are becoming transformed into postmodern societies and this requires a different form of sociological theory reflecting the fragmentation and diversity of the contemporary world. 14. What are meant by the terms. What was the Enlightenment? 2. What is meant by the term ‘structuration’? 16. Why did some sociologists turn away from developing grand explanations of social change? 3. Compare a structural functionalist view of socialisation with an interactionist account. If you cannot answer any of them return to your reading. ‘Conflict is normal. What is meant by rational action? Compare any two theories of rational behaviour. 11. postmodern theory has opened up new questions on issues such as culture. What is meant by a meta-narrative? Give some examples of such explanations? 4. How do Marxists explain postmodernity? 21. Weber or Durkheim? 8. Explain the concept the social construction of reality.’ Discuss this statement. What is meant by a meta-narrative? This list is not exhaustive. What is meant by phenomenology? 15. 10. How do feminists explain postmodernity? 22. and having done all the reading indicated. What is meant by postmodernity? 20. What is meant by the terms bracketing and typification? 17. These questions could usefully be used as tutorial or discussion questions. but should be used as a check to see whether you can explain in your own words what you have read. Durkheim and Parsons explain social order? 9. agency and structure? (Use the work of any two sociologists to illustrate your answer. 5. Weber and Durkheim’s views on the nature of society. identity and media and has had a significant effect on contemporary sociological theory. you should be able to answer the following questions. Most sociologists reject this idea. 18. How did Marx. You are not expected to write long answers.) 7. 12.

132 . you should be able to: • understand the historical development of sociology and its roots in the Enlightenment • be aware of the influence of the major sociologists of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and their contribution to social theory and substantive sociology • be able to compare and contrast the approaches of the major theorists • understand how sociology has developed since the 1980s into a more fragmented disciplinary. and the essential reading and activities.21 Principles of sociology A reminder of your learning outcomes Having completed this chapter.