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R. Gosling (ed.) and S. Taylor with the Department of Sociology, LSE
2010 Undergraduate study in Economics, Management, Finance and the Social Sciences
This guide was prepared for the University of London External System by: R. Gosling (ed.), Director of External Study, LSE, with chapters written by the following members of the Department of Sociology, LSE: Dr Claire Alexander, Dr Suki Ali, Simon Dickason, Malcolm James, Dr David Palmer, Dr Angus Stewart, Dr Steve Taylor. This is one of a series of subject guides published by the University. We regret that due to pressure of work the author is unable to enter into any correspondence relating to, or arising from, the guide. If you have any comments on this subject guide, favourable or unfavourable, please use the form at the back of this guide. This subject guide is for the use of University of London External students registered for programmes in the fields of Economics, Management, Finance and the Social Sciences (as applicable). The programmes currently available in these subject areas are: Access route Diploma in Economics Diploma in Social Sciences Diplomas for Graduates BSc Accounting and Finance BSc Accounting with Law/Law with Accounting BSc Banking and Finance BSc Business BSc Development and Economics BSc Economics BSc Economics and Finance BSc Economics and Management BSc Geography and Environment BSc Information Systems and Management BSc International Relations BSc Management BSc Management with Law/Law with Management BSc Mathematics and Economics BSc Politics BSc Politics and International Relations BSc Sociology BSc Sociology with Law.
The External System Publications Office University of London Stewart House 32 Russell Square London WC1B 5DN United Kingdom Web site: www.londonexternal.ac.uk
Published by: University of London Press © University of London 2005; reprinted with amendments 2009; 2010 Printed by: Central Printing Service, University of London, England
Introduction ............................................................................................................ 1 What this unit is about .................................................................................................. 1 What is sociology? ........................................................................................................ 1 What skills you will learn from studying this unit ............................................................ 2 The structure of the unit ................................................................................................ 2 Reading advice and other resources ............................................................................... 4 Hours of study and use of this subject guide................................................................... 7 The examination and examination advice ....................................................................... 7 Section A: Social theory and research .................................................................... 9 Chapter 1: What is sociology? .............................................................................. 11 Aims of the chapter ..................................................................................................... 11 Learning objectives ...................................................................................................... 11 Essential reading ......................................................................................................... 11 Further reading............................................................................................................ 11 Video/DVD .................................................................................................................. 12 Works cited ................................................................................................................. 12 1.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 12 1.2 Approaching sociology ........................................................................................... 13 1.3 What is sociology? ................................................................................................. 14 1.4 Sociology and commonsense ................................................................................. 17 1.5 Thinking sociologically ........................................................................................... 20 1.6 The individual and society ...................................................................................... 24 1.7 Socialisation and identity ....................................................................................... 28 A reminder of your learning outcomes.......................................................................... 34 Chapter 2: Sociological research .......................................................................... 35 Aims of the chapter ..................................................................................................... 35 Learning objectives ...................................................................................................... 35 Essential reading ......................................................................................................... 35 Further reading............................................................................................................ 35 Works cited ................................................................................................................. 36 Video/DVD .................................................................................................................. 36 2.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................... 36 2.2 Some principles of sociological research ................................................................. 37 2.3 Research designs: planning and choice................................................................... 43 2.4 Major research designs in sociology ....................................................................... 48 2.5 Research methods ................................................................................................. 54 A reminder of your learning outcomes.......................................................................... 64 Chapter 3: Theory and research............................................................................ 65 Introduction ................................................................................................................ 65 Aims of the chapter ..................................................................................................... 65 Learning objectives ...................................................................................................... 65 Essential reading ......................................................................................................... 65 Further reading............................................................................................................ 65 Video/DVD .................................................................................................................. 66 3.1 Methodology revisited ........................................................................................... 66 3.2 Positivism .............................................................................................................. 69 3.3 Interpretivism ........................................................................................................ 72
................................................................................. 124 4.......... 142 What are the implications for sociology? ....... 183 ii ................................. 156 Conclusion .......................................................... 166 Key debate: Has globalisation created new forms of politics? .............................................................. 177 Conclusion ...................................................... 81 Learning objectives ................................ 76 A reminder of your learning outcomes........... 182 Works cited ............................................................................................................................................................ 124 A reminder of your learning outcomes..................................................................................... 115 Summary ..................................... 182 A reminder of your learning outcomes...... 133 Reading advice for Section B......................................................................................................3 Bringing the individual back in .............................................................2 Sociological theories ..................................................................................1 Origins of sociology ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 171 Works cited ................................................................................................................................ 82 4....................................... 135 Definition ........................................................... politics and the state......................... 79 Chapter 4: Theories and developments ..................................................... 173 Key debate: Has globalisation led to cultural homogenisation? ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 160 Chapter 7: Globalisation........................................................................................... 163 Introduction .............................................. 136 Key debate: Is globalisation new and real? ......................... 149 Chapter 6: Economic globalisation............................................................................................................................... 163 Four ‘threats’ to nation states .........................................4 Realism ................ 151 Introduction .............. 160 Works cited .. 135 Introduction ..................................... 81 Introduction .............................................. 151 Key debate: To what extent have we seen the emergence of a global economy? .............. 82 Videos/DVD ........................................................................................................................................ 173 Introduction ........................................... 133 Useful websites ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 172 Chapter 8: Cultural globalisation ............................................................................................................................... 133 Learning objectives .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 163 Key debate: Has globalisation weakened the state? ........ 152 Key debate: Has globalisation changed the nature of the firm? .......... 137 Key debate: What are the drivers of globalisation? ......................................... 173 Key debate: Does globalisation lead to a clash of cultures? ................. 81 Chapter structure ....... 81 Aims of the chapter ..........4 Postmodernity and sociology................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 81 Further reading..................... 182 Sample examination questions for Section B ........................ 81 Essential reading . 82 4......................................................................... 133 Aims of this section ............ 134 Chapter 5: Introduction to globalisation................................................ 151 Further reading......................................................................................................................................................................................... 168 Conclusion .............................................. 87 4................................................................. 132 Section B: Globalisation ...............................................21 Principles of sociology 3................................................................................ 146 Works cited ......
.........1.............................................. 240 11............................ 218 10................................................. 214 10........................................................................................................................ 246 Summary: inequality and injustice ........................................................................ gender and sexualities ....................................................................................................................................................2 Equality and difference: feminist debates............................................................................................................ 206 Sample examination questions .........................................................................2............................................................................................................................ 206 Chapter 10: ‘Race’ and ethnicity ...................................................................4 Contemporary approaches: old and new ethnicities ........................................ 190 9............................................................................................................. 209 Works cited .....................................................................................................................................................1................................ 187 Essential reading ..... 212 10.......................................................................................................................... 211 Learning activities........ 185 Chapter 9: Gender ..............................1...................................................................................... 229 Essential reading ......................................................................................................... 210 Introduction ................................................................................1 Thinking about ‘race’ and ethnicity ............. 251 iii .................................................................................................................................................. 236 11...................................................................................................................................... 188 Introduction .......................................................................................... 243 11..........................................................................................2....................................................................... 209 Further reading...................................................................................................................................2 ‘Race’ and ethnicity: some basic definitions ............................................................................................. 251 Learning objectives ...................... 187 Further reading............................................................................. 251 Aims of the chapter ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 251 Study materials................................... 224 A reminder of your learning outcomes........................1 Sex.................................. 227 Chapter 11: Social inequality and social injustice ......................... 226 Sample examination questions .......2 Analysing social injustice ............................2................................................. 230 11.................................................. 188 How to use this chapter ..............................................1 Structural dimensions of inequality: contemporary class analysis ........................... 209 Aims of the chapter .......Contents Section C........3 Changing debates: some key theoretical approaches to ‘race’ and ethnicity ..... 209 Essential reading ............................... 187 Learning objectives .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 187 Works cited ................................................................3 Families and work ................... 202 A reminder of your learning outcomes.................................2 Global perspectives on inequality and injustice .... 229 Further reading.....1 Changing sociological perspectives on social inequality and social injustice........... 229 Aims of the chapter ........ 196 9.................................. 230 Introduction ...................................................................... 249 A reminder of your learning outcomes..... 232 11. 249 Sample examination questions ....................3 Social injustice and the pursuit of human rights.................................................................................................................... 229 Learning objectives ......... 212 10................... 250 Chapter 12: Religion and society ................................................................................... 210 Reading advice ......................................................................................... 234 11.................................3 Classical perspectives on social inequality ............ 187 Websites .......................... 190 9......................... 230 Reading advice .............................................. 209 Learning objectives ........................ 187 Aims of the chapter ................
. 275 A reminder of your learning outcomes...............................................................21 Principles of sociology Essential reading .................................................... modernity and sociology .................................................................................. 329 A reminder of your learning outcomes.......2 Why do new types of organisation emerge? ..................................................................................................................................................................... 303 Aims of the chapter ............................................................. 301 Sample examination questions .......................................................................................................................................................................................2 Power to and power over....................................................................................................3 The power of elites .. 257 12........ 303 Chapter structure ................................................... 283 Introduction: power................................................. 315 14....................................6 Secularisation ........................... 268 12.................................................... modernity and globalisation ............................................................ 295 13.............. 329 Appendix 1: Approaching your examination ...................... 251 Further reading – detailed recommendations ............................................................................................................................................................................ 282 Structure of this chapter .....2 Sociological research on religion . 338 iv ........................................................................................................................................................................ 337 Essential reading .....................3 Power in organisations . 303 Learning objectives ........................................... 301 Chapter 14: The sociology of organisations ................................................. 305 14.................................................................................... 281 Aims of the chapter .......................................................................................................................... 304 14.....................2................ 335 Appendix 3: Full reading list .......... 278 Sample examination questions .......................................................................................... 279 Chapter 13: Power in society.......................................................7 Religion........................... 253 12..........................................................................................4 Religion and social conflict ....................................1.............................................................................................................................................................................1 Introduction ........ 337 Further reading..................................................................................... 260 12................................... 282 Further reading.............................. 315 14............................................1 Marxism and the analysis of power ............. 286 13....................................................................2.........................................................................3....... 303 Essential reading .......................................................... 299 Summary ..................................................................... 273 12............................................ 293 13.........................................5 Religion and economic culture ................................................................................................................................................................. 321 Conclusion ... 331 Appendix 2: Sample examination paper ........................................................... 252 Introduction ...................................................................................1.............................................................................................................................. 281 Essential reading ............. 251 Websites .......................................................................1....................... 281 Learning objectives ......1 Defining ‘religion’ .................1 The pluralist model of power .............. 298 13................................................................................ 304 Further reading and works cited............................. 309 Conclusion .................... 283 13.........................................................................2 Weber: power..............................4 Organisational strategies and the environment...3 Religion and social integration ..................................................................................1 Postmodernist perspectives on power.................................... 329 Sample examination questions ..................................................................... 271 12..... 300 A reminder of your learning outcomes... 266 12...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... stratification and domination ............................ 290 13.................................................................................................................... 282 Additional reading and other works cited .................... 281 Reading advice ........................................................................
The essential textbook remains the same but the approach is slightly different. Section A: Social theory and research Two of the essential textbooks are available to view online via the VLE: Cuff. Sharrock and D. and H. one of the works cited in Chapter 2. 2000) [ISBN 9780415094535]. (London: Routledge. 2006) fifth edition [ISBN 9780415301114 (pbk)]. M. Globalization. (London: Routledge.W. The full textbook is available to view online via the VLE.2790021 Principles of sociology Economics.. (London: Routledge. Chapter 4 Watch a video of Rosie Gosling and Dr Nigel Dodd discussing Durkheim and Weber’s work. Management. Test your understanding with self-quizzes for each chapter. 2001) second edition [ISBN 9780415238540]. Newby The problem of sociology. W. the author of this section. Note: Section B: Globalisation has been updated for 2010. Section C Follow links to the BBC’s collection on second wave feminism. Chapter 14 Note: This chapter – The sociology of organisations – has now been completely rewritten. Section B: Globalisation Watch a video set of Rosie Gosling interviewing Simon Dickason. Lee. Francis Perspectives in sociology.W. Chapter 2 Watch a video of Rosie Gosling interviewing Professor Eileen Barker. the author of The making of a Moonie. . The Essential reading is now: Waters. D. E. Finance and the Social Sciences Erratum sheet May 2010: First erratum sheet to the 2009 edition of the subject guide Important VLE resources Please note that the following resources are now available on the VLE: • a recorded interview with LSE staff about studying for this unit • an opportunity to ask Rosie Gosling questions about this unit and discuss material with your peers through an online forum.
21 Principles of sociology Notes .
We have introduced globalisation as a compulsory topic to illustrate how sociology can help in understanding and explaining this phenomenon. Management and Information Systems will take this unit as a key ‘servicing unit’ that will provide you with knowledge of the social world and the key ways in which it can be researched. Students will then be required to apply this knowledge to substantive areas of sociology. You will be introduced to different sociological theories and to the ‘classical’ and more modern sociologists. but you do need to have an enquiring mind and be prepared to read and think. provides the essential grounding for further study in the subject and also provides the knowledge and critical skills which are necessary for the degrees in Management and Business. However. one of the most important things to remember is that sociology is more than commonsense! You will be introduced to the subject of sociology and will be encouraged to think how different it is from other social sciences that you may have studied.Introduction Introduction What this unit is about Welcome to this unit – Principles of sociology. as such. In all cases we hope you enjoy studying this subject. No formal prerequisites are required to study this unit. In Section C you will be able to apply these theories and approaches to particular areas in sociology which are of interest to you. 1 . but sociologists do not agree about what societies are and how they should be studied and so no one definition will suffice. We have designed this unit to provide the necessary grounding in sociological theory and methods of social research. You may be taking the BSc Sociology degree or a Diploma for Graduates in Sociology and this unit will be the basis upon which all the other units rest. This unit is one of the most popular options in the Diploma in Economics programme as it helps students to be critical of the information they receive and encourages them to think logically and consistently. The relationship between these theories and assumptions of the social world will be investigated and you will see how the techniques of social research are applied in an academic manner. There is a health warning though – if you take this subject you will never see things in the same way again! Principles of sociology is a foundation unit and. Some people worry about sociology. We hope to dispel these myths and introduce you to a subject which is interesting and which will provide a basis throughout your studies. What is sociology? First we should start by attempting to define sociology. others suggest that there is too much reading and that it requires great feats of memory. some feel that it is ‘too theoretical’ or that it does not relate to the ‘real world’. You will be encouraged to see the development of sociology as it developed from and reacted to the Enlightenment. (Chapter 1 in Section A will go into much more detail as to the nature of this subject.) The most basic view of sociology is that it is about understanding relationships in human societies. Students in Business.
It is a good idea to study with other students and friends. Finally. Globalisation is an important topic. You should not be content with simplistic explanations – you should always look beneath the explanations for a deeper understanding of the social world. Section B: Globalisation and social change: compulsory Having obtained some background on the nature of sociology we want you to be able to apply what you know to one of the core sociological problems – social change. You should spend at least half of your allocated study time on Section A. This is not an easy subject and it requires you to think deeply about the materials and be able to deal with more than one way of thinking about the social world. methodology and the major sociological perspectives. which is subdivided into questions requiring short answers and one longer question relating to a particular sociologist or perspective. Before you start to study this section you should be aware of the major changes that have occurred in the last two centuries and how the growth of sociology is connected with an attempt to explain these changes. It makes up half the syllabus and concentrates on questions relating to the nature of sociology. try thinking aloud. Thereafter you are free to choose one option only from a variety of topics. These disagreements have their basis in the fundamental assumptions about what the motors of social change are. (If this is not possible. socialisation and identity. of course. LSE’s motto is rerum cognoscere causas which means ‘to know the causes of things’. 2 . and to try to express your ideas with them. The key aspects in relation to individuals and society are examined through the concepts of role.21 Principles of sociology What skills you will learn from studying this unit By the end of the unit you will have gained knowledge and learnt some important skills: • to be critical of any data and theories that you read or hear about and.) This is an important skill for the world of work where you are often required to work in teams. Section A: Social theory and research: compulsory This has been written by Dr Steve Taylor with Rosemary Gosling. The chapters in Section A account for 50 per cent of the marks and are examined by a compulsory question. not just because we are interested in knowing whether we are living in a new age but because there is so much disagreement about the topic. Do the best that you can • to be co-operative and share ideas and materials. and how do we ‘know’ if there has been such a change. to be critical of your own work • be creative and able to link ideas from this unit and the other disciplines you are studying to create new ways of thinking about social phenomena • to be challenged. This is not only because of its length and depth but because the subjects covered are essential for the other sections of the syllabus. The structure of the unit Sections A and B are compulsory for everyone and make up 75 per cent of the syllabus. the methods which sociologists use.
for most of these chapters. You will be required to reflect on what you know in relation to your own society and you will be rewarded in the examination if you do. of course. You will be rewarded if you can demonstrate to the Examiners that you have read widely and can apply what you have read and understood to the theories and explanations provided in these chapters. Dr Alexander’s major research is on ‘identity’ and this topic is examined in 3 . ‘Race’ and ethnicity This has been written by Dr Claire Alexander of the Department of Sociology at LSE and was updated in 2009 by Malcolm James. there is a considerable amount of material which relates to a discussion of the ‘essentially contested’ nature of the core concepts used by the authors. The areas which you should keep abreast of are: • the reactions to the social or global changes that are occurring – the behaviour of the anti-globalists for example and the financial crises that started in 2008 • whether globalisation has increased inequality between and within nations • whether the nation state is becoming less or more important. It is important that you understand that. The reading is directed and draws on the work on epistemology and ontology covered in Section A. You will be rewarded for your ability to keep abreast of the debates which you will be introduced to in this unit. as in all cases you will be expected to use the key debates to inform your reading of your chosen subject area. The authors address theoretical issues directly and give a fresh approach to the study of this subject. because of your own personal interests. The approach taken by the authors in writing these chapters requires you to have a good grounding in sociology before you begin to study one of the chapters. but you must read around the topic and. It is an opportunity to use the knowledge of sociology that you will have gained from Section A. but if you don’t.Introduction These are not difficult chapters. read the text allocated. You should be aware of how the sociologists mentioned in the chapters have gathered their data and what theory has guided their research. Knowledge of the key debates that have been discussed in Section A is important. You may know already. Section C: Specialist topics: choose one How do I choose which topic to take? To help you choose which one topic from Section C to study in detail we outline here the content of each chapter. The key texts give an in-depth approach to this subject and will require a careful reading. Gender This has been written by Dr Suki Ali of the Department of Sociology at LSE. You will be expected to demonstrate knowledge of the relevant sociological theories when writing your examination answers. then this information will help you to think about your interests and how to choose a unit which fits well with your future unit choices. You will be exposed to different definitions of ‘race’ and ‘ethnicity’ and the different approaches to the issues raised. This section has been written by Simon Dickason. especially ontology and epistemology. which Section C topic you want to study.
For full details of the editions and ISBNs please check the reading list at the end of this subject guide. There may be some overlap with the Politics foundation unit (114 Democratic politics and the state) but the approach will be different. The material is straightforward but the examination questions will not ask you to describe a particular theory without some criticism. inequality and organisation. economic culture. Power in society Dr Angus Stewart. social conflict. modernisation and globalisation. When taking a sociological approach. you should use relevant material on organisations from this chapter in that unit and vice versa. This chapter leads on from Section B (Chapters 5–8) on Globalisation and social change very well and you should not attempt this chapter without a clear understanding of globalisation. which has been written by Dr David Palmer from the Department of Sociology at LSE. and to think about how religion intersects with ethnicity. puts a strong emphasis on research methods. Essential and Further reading. if you choose to study this one in depth it would help you if you were to read the Power chapter as well. If you are studying unit 107 Introduction to business and management at the same time. gender. Social inequality and social injustice This has been written by Dr Angus Stewart.319. You must locate your understanding of organisations clearly within the sociological perspective and be aware of the many different explanations involved. Although you must choose only one topic to study. Reading advice and other resources Reading for this unit is always split into two types. You will find a full and detailed reading list for the whole unit at the end of this subject guide on p. 4 . if you choose this chapter it would also be helpful. Religion and society This chapter. it is important not to look at religion in isolation. 79 Elements of social and applied psychology and/or other management subjects. to read some of the other topics for Section C. There is a concentration on the key ontological and epistemological concerns as to the nature of power and the possibility of ‘knowing’ who has power. has written this chapter. although not required of you. You will need to use your textbooks in a slightly different way for Sections A and B than for section C. and considers religion in relation to social integration. who has taught political sociology at LSE for a number of years. The sociology of organisations This has been written by Simon Dickason and is of particular interest to you when you take 127 Organisation theory: an interdisciplinary approach.21 Principles of sociology this chapter. power. therefore. It is worth noting that reading lists are updated annually and provided online even when the subject guide is not fully revised that year. and it is of particular relevance to those of you who are studying for the politics and international relations degree.
and J. Sharrock and D. 2008) fourth edition [ISBN 9780132051583 (pbk)]. This book is supported by a website and there are lecturers’ notes online. and methods of social research. W. although the style is clear. A. clearly written text for the theoretical aspects of the unit such as Section A. and K.. Newby The problem of sociology. 2005) third edition [ISBN 9780131287464 (pbk)].W. and. The chapters on globalisation and identity are very useful. It is written in a clear and simple style. or Giddens. However. although it is not essential reading for the Section C chapters on race and gender. charts and pictures. and K. some of the chapters have been organised in an unusual way and so it is very important to make use of the directions to specific reading provided in the subject guide. J. It does not have as much material on globalisation as Macionis and Plummer or Giddens. however on its own it does not have enough material for the theoretical aspects of Section A. We suggest that you decide which text to buy in relation to your choice of subject in Section C. (London: Routledge. As indicated by its title. as some of the textbooks are also used as key reading for Section C.Introduction Reading for Section A We have provided you with a choice of three major textbooks as introductory reading for Section A. This is an excellent. (Oxford: Oxford University Press. This covers all the theories indicated in the reading for Section A.W. Plummer Sociology: a global introduction. it will support them well. (Harlow: Prentice Hall. However. 5 . 2008) fifth edition [ISBN 9780745633794 (pbk)]. it does not cover many of the theoretical aspects of the unit and will not offer much support for your Section C topic. Students are very happy using this text. Plummer Sociology: a global introduction. J. (Harlow: Prentice Hall. This text is easy to read and is well illustrated with many examples. and H. 2000) [ISBN 9780415094535]. you will only need to buy one of them. (Cambridge: Polity Press. E. D. or Macionis. the relationships between theories and methods. We then move on to the textbooks which specifically cover the theoretical aspects. it takes a global approach to the subject and so is an ideal text for students studying this subject on the External System. Sociology. J. Francis Perspectives in sociology. Choose one from: Fulcher. 2006) fifth edition [ISBN 9780415301114 (pbk)]. we have indicated two texts of which you should buy one. Scott Sociology. We strongly advise you to buy the fourth edition of Macionis and Plummer. however we have also provided references to the third edition: Macionis. 2007) third edition [ISBN 9780199285006 (pbk)]. or Lee. (London: Routledge. Choose one from: Cuff.
Again we have indicated the relevant chapters in the textbook in reading advice given in this subject guide. Websites Websites are increasingly sophisticated sources of information and there is a great deal of material available. it approaches the subject historically and therefore it helps students to locate the sociologists clearly within the society and time they were writing. We advise you to log in to the VLE regularly and to make use of the forums for this unit to share your ideas and discuss topics with your fellow students. Video/DVD For some chapters we are able to recommend a video/DVD to you. which may help you by giving you a chance to ‘see’ sociologists in action. However.londonexternal. The websites relating to the classical sociologists are usually very good indeed. (London: Routledge. as with all texts it should be read in relation to the topic studied. 2001) second edition [ISBN 9780415238540]. You will need to use the same username and password to access this resource as the ones you are sent to use for the Student Portal. beware of the ‘sample essays’ and ‘examination tips’ websites – these may not necessarily help you to write and think in the style and manner that will help you for this unit on the External Programme.ac. are being made available to you online via the University of London External System Virtual Learning Environment (VLE). It is clearly written and you should have little problem in reading it. M. You are given reading advice at the start of each chapter. However. our strong advice is that you should work through your Section C topic slowly and carefully ensuring that you fully understand each section before proceeding to the next. At the end of this subject guide we have provided a full list of all reading referred to in this subject guide for ease of reference. They have not been designed to be read as a novel! You need to do the reading as you tackle each section to ensure that you have fully understood it before you proceed to the next section. Reading for Section C These chapters are written in an academic sociological style and require students to read the key texts in parallel with the material in this subject guide. If a page is no longer available please try an Internet search to find its new location. Reading for Section B There is one major text for this Section which you will need to buy or have access to.uk/ 6 . This will help your understanding and provide you with the necessary critical skills required for these chapters. Globalization. The Online Library can be accessed via the Student Portal at https://my. we have no control over this. Online resources An increasing number of resources. However. You will also need to refer to the relevant chapters in the compulsory textbooks which you have bought for Section A.21 Principles of sociology This contains much more material than is required for this unit. Waters. such as recordings of interviews with academics and self-testing quizzes. The authors have provided you with some thinking points. We have indicated some in the subject guide. Some web page addresses may change during the life of this subject guide.
Because of this we strongly advise you to always check both the current Regulations for relevant information about the examination. Remember: the examination tests your knowledge and understanding of the subject. You should also carefully check the rubric/ instructions on the paper you actually sit and follow those instructions. discussing the issues raised with other students or colleagues. You are required to know all the material that has been indicated in the subject guide. sample examination questions have been included for you to practise on. You do not need to mention everything that you have learnt and should answer the question economically. You will need to adjust this for your own study year. You can demonstrate understanding by answering the question that you have been asked directly. starting in October. You will need to read widely and think deeply. We have provided you with a detailed examination advice section and a full sample examination paper at the end of this subject guide (p. At the end of Sections B and C. We have suggested a study schedule here to help you plan your time. but more importantly you should indicate that you can understand this. this is based on completing your unit in one year. using references and examples which indicate that you are aware of the relative importance of each. You need to make sure that you have clearly understood Sections A and B before moving on to Section C.331). especially the concepts involved and the perspectives of the relevant sociologists. The examination and examination advice Important: the information and advice given in the following section are based on the examination structure used at the time this guide was written. we suggest that you might also like to look at the past years’ examination papers. You will be rewarded if your essays are well structured and if you select and use only material that is relevant to the question. The examination structure has been designed in such a way that you will be rewarded for your knowledge of the subject and your ability to demonstrate an understanding of the key issues. There is also advice about how the marks are allocated to each style of question in Section A. and the current Examiners’ commentaries where you should be advised of any forthcoming changes. we do not need to know all you know! 7 . For Section A. You should practise answering the short questions in Section A and gradually build up to answering the essays for Sections B and C.Introduction Hours of study and use of this subject guide You should aim to study this unit over eight months and you should spend at least seven hours on this unit each week. Please note that subject guides may be used for several years.
21 Principles of sociology Notes 8 .
we shall be addressing four key questions: • What is sociology about? (Chapter 1) • How do sociologists do research? (Chapter 2) • What is the relationship between theory and method in sociology? (Chapter 3) • How have sociologists tried to explain how societies work and change? (Chapter 4) 9 .Section A: Social theory and research Section A: Social theory and research In Section A.
21 Principles of sociology Notes 10 .
(A reminder: for full details of the editions and ISBNs please check the reading list at the end of this subject guide. (Cambridge: Polity Press. and J. Scott Sociology. social change and the relationship between the individual and society • how our identities arise from social relationships • what sociologists mean by socialisation and identity. A global introduction. you should have a clearer idea of: • how to study sociology. 2008) Chapters 1 and 2. what is meant by active learning.Chapter 1: What is sociology? Chapter 1: What is sociology? Written by Dr Steve Taylor. Further reading It is worth dipping into any of the following classic introductions to help give you a ‘feel’ of sociology and sociological thinking. please refer to the full reading lists in the Appendix to this subject guide. Plummer Sociology. J. (Oxford: Oxford University Press. Aims of the chapter The aims of this chapter are to give you a clearer idea of the following: • how to approach studying sociology • what sociology is • the differences between sociology and commonsense • what is meant by sociological thinking • the relationship between the individual and society • socialisation and identity formation. 2005 and 2008 editions) Chapters 1 and 7. or Macionis. Essential reading For full edition details. and what examiners will be looking for • what sociologists study • some of the key ways that sociology gives us insights that go beyond commonsense understanding • what is meant by thinking sociologically and sociologists’ interest in social order. 2007) Chapters 1 and 4.) 11 . Learning objectives By the end of this chapter. and K. A. but note that these books can be a little more difficult to understand than the textbooks. and how Parsons and Mead put forward different explanations of these processes. or Giddens. (Harlow: Prentice Hall. Sociology. Choose one of: Fulcher. It is worth noting that reading lists are updated annually and provided online even when the subject guide is not fully revised that year. and having completed the essential reading and activities. J.
Mills. . and H. (Aldershot: Ashgate. It is about understanding what it means to ‘think sociologically’. The presentation of the self in everyday life. (Harmondsworth: Penguin. Mind. (Harmondsworth: Penguin. C. 1934). 1976) [ISBN 9780465097180 (pbk)]. Websites 8 www. millions of people in modern industrialised societies are confronted by more choices than ever about how to live their lives. 1963). as rates of crime. To make the most of this chapter. However. 8 www. So how did the world become this way? Why are people’s lives today so different from those of their parents and grandparents? What are the possibilities for our lives in the future? These are the questions that sociology asks and attempts to answer. P Invitation to sociology. (London: Routledge.21 Principles of sociology Bauman.1 Introduction We are living in a world of dramatic and unprecedented social change: new technologies and cultural upheavals are transforming our lives. It is simple and. The social system. It is not about learning theories or facts and figures. Willis. T.com]. Once you start thinking sociologically you will find the later chapters on research and theory and the topic areas covered later in this chapter and in Sections B and C easier to understand. 1951). 1970).sociology.sociolog. P Learning to labour. A short video/DVD giving some insights into ‘sociological thinking’ by explaining what sociology is about and showing how a sociologist might bring a very different perspective to everyday things like the mobile (or hand) phone and the security camera. (University of Chicago. Thinking sociologically.uk This is a British sociology website. and how societies make us who we are. S. Wright The sociological imagination. 1. Gintis Schooling in capitalist America. Berger. mental disorder. Sociology is about trying to understand the social world. geared towards the British school syllabuses but it has a lot of good introductory material and useful links to specialist sociology websites. As prosperity grows and cultural taboos break down. This chapter is designed to help you start thinking like a sociologist. Parsons. drug addiction and self harm continue to rise. Goffman. take time out regularly to stop and 12 . (Harmondsworth: Penguin. it seems that the drive for ever greater prosperity and new-found freedoms and lifestyle choices come at a price. (New York: Free Press. 2004) [8 www. G. (Oxford: Blackwell. 1971) [ISBN 9780140213508 (pbk)]. self and society.org. 9781857421705]. but it is also about trying to understand ourselves. E. Works cited Bowles. we hope. you should find it quite easy to follow. Z.com This website gives links to a range of other sociology resources.halovine. Video/DVD Introducing Sociology (halo vine. 1990). 1993) [ISBN . Mead.
So if you find yourself simply trying to remember lists of facts you need to learn in a different way in order to do well in sociology. This is wrong. you must be able to: • describe key sociological ideas. you have to recall information in all subjects. Obviously there are all sorts of possibilities. The idea of actively thinking about a problem can be illustrated with an 13 . sometimes. you have to criticise what you read. but the main emphasis in sociology is on testing your thinking abilities rather than your memory. This involves actively thinking rather than passively trying to absorb information as a sponge absorbs liquids. theories and studies • apply sociological ideas. Maybe your aspirations are different from your mother or father? Maybe your values are different? Maybe you have (or hope to have) very different work from your mother or father? Now try to account for those differences. or can you relate them to wider changes in your society? For example. If you cannot compare yourself with a parent for some reason. More specifically. Lists of ‘learned’ points will not impress examiners. Obviously. compare different ideas and. 1. then choose another relative or acquaintance 20–30 years older than you. to do well in sociology. All these skills involve active learning and thinking. but rather ask yourself all the time. theories and studies • discuss and compare sociological concepts. Before reading any further attempt the Activity below. Active learning Some people may tell you that examinations are all about memory. ‘What does this tell me about how a sociologist thinks about the world?’ Let’s start with an example.1 A changing world Write down five ways that your life is different from that of your mother (if you are female) and your father (if you are male) when they were your age. or question. Look at your list. have educational opportunities.Chapter 1: What is sociology? reflect on the points being made and attempt to answer the questions that have been set in the Activities. patterns of work or certain social values changed since your parents were young? Do you think these might have influenced some of the differences you have identified between yourself and your mother or father? By asking yourself these kinds of questions. that has been set. Sociology is primarily about understanding ideas. by exploring how personal lives may be influenced by wider social changes. Do not rush the chapter. and examiners will be looking for evidence of this understanding. theories and studies to different aspects of social life. you are already starting to think like a sociologist. You also have to question things. How would you explain them? Are they just individual differences. Activity 1.2 Approaching sociology Critical thinking So how should you approach studying sociology? It’s important to make it clear from the start that sociology is not a subject you can simply learn. You have to apply your knowledge to the problem. It doesn’t matter what you have written down.
such as family members.21 Principles of sociology example from everyday life.’ Answering such questions well involves going through the same process described above in relation to being locked out of your house. Any subject is easier to understand once you have some grasp of its field of inquiry and what it is trying to do. Is there some other way you can get into the house without a key? How many other people have keys and which one of these people would it be the best to contact? Is there somewhere else you could go and wait? Should you smash a window to get in? Here. The first step on the road to understanding sociology is to ask ourselves what the subject is about. questioning the things you read about. you are also actively thinking about the problem and working out possible solutions. 1. such as asking yourself questions. looking for links between different parts of the subject. for example. compare and contrast their relative merits and.2 What is sociology? Before reading any further write down in one sentence what you think sociology is. This involves active processes throughout your period of study. or ‘Compare the costs and benefits of using structured and unstructured interviews. friends and people we know at work or college 14 . or social relations. Sociologists are primarily interested in all that happens to people in terms of their relationships with others. so the word literally means the study of companionship. who else has a key?) but you are doing much more than that. to ‘Identify three ways sociologists can study the past’. Try this even if you have never studied the subject before. How can this story help us to tackle questions in sociology? You certainly won’t be given a question asking you to.’ But you might be asked. Now try to develop your definition by attempting two further questions: • What do you think sociologists study? • How do you think a sociologist’s understanding of some aspect of social life would be different from a ‘commonsense’ understanding? The study of social relationships The word sociology comes from a combination of the Latin socius (meaning ‘companion’) and the Greek logos (meaning ‘the study of’). noting down what you do not understand and looking for the answers from your books or this subject guide. You have to work out the possibilities. you are certainly drawing on your existing knowledge (for example.3 What is sociology? Activity 1. It is a useful activity to try to think about a topic first before reading something about it. above all. Let’s begin by introducing some of the key ideas of sociology and the questions it asks. focus on the problem you are confronted with. These may be: • personal relationships with people we know well. Imagine you have returned to your house and found you have forgotten your key and there is no one in. You have to ask yourself some questions and work out the best solution. Stop and think about this for a moment. ‘Describe three ways to get into your house.
many sociologists adopt a structural. a decision by corporate executives in the United States to shut down an overseas plant can affect the working and domestic lives of thousands of people who live nowhere near the USA. The fact that sociology is about social relationships that can take many different forms means that its scope is very wide. To give a simple example: productive institutions are dependent on educational institutions for a skilled workforce. It can range from things that affect large parts of the world over long periods of time. to the study of specific social organisations. rely on productive institutions to create the wealth to finance government spending. education and religious practice are examples of social institutions. for example. Social institutions Social relationships are rarely random. right down to two people having a brief conversation in an elevator. Thus it is very difficult to give a precise definition of sociology because it operates at different levels. economic. political. the key idea in all sociological research is that people’s lives and behaviour cannot be understood apart from the social contexts in which they participate. perspective that means looking at societies as 15 . but whose actions influence our lives. the word relationship is very important in sociology. Sociologists refer to these patterns of behaviour as social institutions. Economy Workforce Education Funding Taxes Government Figure 1. From this starting point. Although these institutions seem to be separate and distinct they are also related to each other in various ways. Types of family life. educational. take away our rubbish or drive the taxi we are in • indirect relations with people we neither know nor see. Sociologists call this institutional interdependence. in turn. how they are produced and how they shape people’s lives. educational institutions are dependent on the government for their funding. relationships between different societies. In contemporary industrial societies we find. such as those we have with people who serve us in shops. Sociologists are interested in the study of individuals’ personalities and behaviour but they are also interested in how they relate to other people. What we loosely refer to as a ‘society’ is actually a complex of many social institutions. between different parts of a society and between individuals and societies. directly or indirectly. where behaviour tends to be regular or patterned. or macro.1: Institutional interdependence As a result of this institutional interdependence. However. Normally they are organised in various ways. sociologists want to know more about these social contexts. legal and religious institutions. such as schools or families. and government institutions. All sociology is about relationships of one sort or another: for example. For example.Chapter 1: What is sociology? • impersonal relationships. Therefore. family. such as industrialisation or globalisation.
21 Principles of sociology systems. which they saw as being in manual labour. For example. The only point in going to school was to ‘have a laugh’ and make fun of those who did work. Sociologists explore different forms of social institutions. Can you think of some reasons for this? Two US sociologists. by refusing to work at school. if the research calls for it. Sociologists are not only interested in exploring relationships between social institutions. they are also interested in the relationship between individuals and institutions. It also explores the ‘inside story’ of people’s lives. but it is important to note that there is an important difference between sociology and natural sciences. usually from the more deprived backgrounds. Bowles and Gintis (1976). He found that rather than simply being failed by the school and the society. Sociologists in the UK and the USA studying the relationships between the institutions of family and school have found that. in a famous sociological study called Learning to Labour. approach and looking at small segments of institutions in much greater detail. or small-scale. They had already decided that education was irrelevant to their futures. prejudices and. which are natural processes. that is how people interpret and make sense of the situations in which they find themselves. children from lower-class or working-class backgrounds have more problems at school and leave with fewer qualifications. this ‘structural approach’ tells only part of the story. Sociology as a science? Another question that is often asked about sociology is whether or not it is a science. for low-paid. Think about this for a moment. is not just about just about the wider ‘outside’ picture of patterns of social organisation and behaviour. the boys he studied deliberately failed themselves. then. the relationships between them and how individuals experience them. This illustrates how sociological research can help in the formation and analysis of government policy. An interesting postscript to this study is that Paul Willis’ services are now very much in demand from the governments of some newly industrialising countries puzzled by the fact so many young students are turning their back on the educational services provided for them. Summary Sociology may be generally defined as the study of the social relationships. as we shall see. on average. Exploring this question usually involves adopting a micro. This means that social institutions are produced by the conscious activities of human beings. and trying to work out how different institutions ‘function’ to produce particular outcomes. their values. Sociology. such as physics or chemistry. how they make sense of social situations. The result of this is that sociologists are also interested in the subjective aspects of life. They argued that schools prepared large numbers of young people. subordinate jobs. even their darkest secrets. Now read 16 . in contrast to things like gravity. as Bowles and Gintis suggested. However. Paul Willis (1977. The subject of sociological research – social institutions – is cultural rather than natural. adopted a structural approach to explore this problem. beliefs. We shall be looking at this issue in much more detail in Chapter 3. the weather and chemical processes within the body. reprinted 1993) made a detailed study of 12 British working-class boys.
14 concerning how you think sociology is different from commonsense. In a way. After all.4 Sociology and commonsense In the next three sections your main reading will be this subject guide rather than your textbooks. 17 . They are not directly accessible to us. or commonsense. Giddens (2008) or Macionis and Plummer (2005 or 2008). and should. If you want to read a little more deeply. 1. Berger’s Invitation to sociology takes a different approach and is very entertaining. Are we all sociologists? It’s interesting how many people think that sociology is just commonsense. So. we cannot understand the workings of things like atoms. we are also bombarded with information about our own and other societies from newspapers. We call this ‘lay’. But we can’t say the same about the social world. knowledge of society. We can only know about them from expert knowledge. be done to make things better. although I shall suggest some further reading throughout. look at Chapter 1 of Mills (1970). It’s a perfectly fair assumption. Sociology is different from commonsense because it involves: • asking distinct sociological questions • doing research. look back to the answer you gave to this question in Activity 1. People also have theories and opinions about their society. what’s causing these problems and what could.Chapter 1: What is sociology? This is a good place to start reading to develop your understanding of some of the issues raised here. what’s wrong with it. using any one of the textbooks we have recommended by Fulcher and Scott (2007). Therefore. but note that this is more complex. radio and television and the Internet. what is different about specialist sociologists? There are many answers to this question but here we are going to look at three of the most important ones. it is easy to justify the need for specialist subjects like physics. molecules or cells simply from our everyday experiences.2 on p. because answering it is a good way to find out more about what sociologists do and how they think about the world. and I shall use the example of crime to illustrate them. by the time we are grown up. So. and • applying or testing sociological theories. commonsense understanding? Can a sociologist tell you anything about social life that you couldn’t have worked out for yourself? It is worth pursuing this question. But first. is the sociologist’s understanding of societies any different from everyday. Much of it is directly accessible to us and we begin learning about it from the moment we are born. most of us have developed a number of social skills and an extensive knowledge of the social world around us. It is important that you attempt the activities that have been designed to illustrate key points and help give you a ‘feel’ of the subject. chemistry and biology. we are all sociologists of a kind because. We don’t just learn about social life from our own experiences.
The conversations you hear are usually about how bad crime is. Select a setting that is very familiar to you. think back to the first day or two when it was new to you. or whatever. or a tourist in a foreign land. The famous French sociologist. why it happens and. interesting about this ‘new’ culture? What do you like or dislike about it? Finally. returning to your ‘real life’. including the UK. If you have travelled to another country for work or a holiday. some people may not understand that you are ‘doing’ sociology. They may feel that you are playing tricks on them and may take exception to your behaviour. For example. it was quite legal for a man to rape his wife but illegal to be a practising homosexual. is there anything you might now question or do differently as a result of ‘your visit’? But be careful here. people spend quite a lot of time talking about it. For example. whereas other acts that may be equally harmful are seen as quite acceptable? Why do societies change their minds about what is and what isn’t a crime and what should be done about crime? For example. or some of the customs. thinking as a sociologist also raises other questions. amusing. the laws relating to the prohibiting of homosexual relationships have been changed and it is not illegal to be homosexual. Activity 1. certainly in countries like the United States and the UK that have high reported crime rates. college or home. they are also interested in how crime contributes to social order. From this perspective. is what the law states is a crime. for example.21 Principles of sociology Asking sociological questions: making the familiar strange Most people feel they have some understanding of crime and. what can be done to stop or at least reduce it. paradoxically. how different the houses were. Making the familiar strange means learning to look at your familiar environment in the same way. the people. What this shows is that what is defined as a crime is socially defined. Sociologists are also interested in these questions and a number of sociologists work in crime prevention. This means trying to see the taken-forgranted world around you afresh. What questions spring to mind? What do you find odd. and labelling certain people as criminals and punishing them. Sociologists are interested in how these definitions are constructed in everyday life. Emile Durkheim (1858–1917). but in many countries. sociologists question some of the things that most people just take for granted about crime. 18 . Write down what you notice. However. Another difference between sociological and commonsense thinking – as we shall see in the next chapter – is that sociologists are interested in how everyday social order is maintained. by the legal system. observed that it is only by identifying certain acts as crimes. which social groups have the power to define some acts (but not others) as crimes and some individuals (but not others) as criminals? What is considered as a crime. However laws are changed by people and laws change over time. From this point of view sociologists are not just interested in how crime disrupts social order. and spend a little time pretending you are a visitor from another country and have never been here before. by looking at it with the eyes of a stranger. in the UK 40 years ago. why are some actions defined as ‘crimes’ in the first place. that people are made aware of the boundaries between acceptable and unacceptable behaviour. above all. Recall how much you took in. Thus. Now it is illegal for a man to rape his wife. such as your place of work. The famous US sociologist Peter Berger – whose book Invitation to sociology we have recommended as further reading for this chapter – says that part of the sociologist’s art is making the familiar become strange.3 Making the familiar strange Try this yourself. the streets.
Applying sociological theories In everyday life we all draw on our commonsense understanding to theorise about things that puzzle us. Doing research People in modern societies probably feel they know something about crime – such as whether it’s going up or down or which social groups are committing most of it – because they are bombarded with information about crime from newspapers. So. However. For example. The process of doing sociological research. unless they have been a victim of crime or are criminals themselves.Chapter 1: What is sociology? crime actually plays a part in maintaining social order. You will be reading more about this in Chapter 3. So. Maybe the bus has broken down. Maybe it’s because of the traffic. sociologists studying crime would use many other sources of information. My theorising may then influence what I do next. magazines and television.2. are dependent on what the media tell them. 19 . the first answer to the question of how sociology is different from commonsense is that sociologists see the world differently and ask different questions about it. Maybe it came early. sociologists studying crime have access to much wider sources of information than most people who. involves applying particular skills. section 3. I am standing at the bus stop but my bus hasn’t arrived. In sociology these are called research methods and we shall be looking at these in the next chapter. like the process speaking a foreign language or playing chess. such as geographical region or people’s age or social background • explore how the statistics are produced and how reliable they are • interview people who have committed crimes • talk to victims of crime • observe the police at work • study the workings of the courts and the legal system • join criminal gangs • visit prisons and have even have had themselves locked up to observe prison life from the inside! In short. they also collect and organise this information in very specific and systematic ways. How do you think sociologists might study crime? Sociologists: • examine the official crime rates to see how crime is related to aspects of society. However. such as carry on waiting or get a taxi. we can see that a second major difference between the layperson and the sociologist is that sociology involves the systematic study of societies from a wide range of sources. Further reading See Berger (1963) Chapter 2. Why is it not here? I might then begin to theorise about the problem by drawing on my commonsense understanding of why a bus might be late. it is not just that sociologists have access to more sources of information. Sociologists are also interested in how the media report crime.
1. status and power. or deregulated. or goals. what makes sociological theorising different from commonsense theorising is that sociologists have another source of knowledge to draw upon. He argued that although the culture of US society encourages everyone to pursue the ‘American dream’ of achieving wealth.21 Principles of sociology Sociologists also draw on their commonsense understanding when theorising about human behaviour. have had a bad upbringing and so on – Merton’s explanation locates the causes of crime in terms of the organisation of wider society.5 Thinking sociologically In the previous section I suggested that one way that sociology is distinguished from commonsense is that sociologists think about social life rather differently. without any obvious means of obtaining them. Therefore. although commonsense theories tend to explain crime in terms of the characteristics of individuals – they are bad. who do not have access to good educational institutions or useful social contacts. So. they are also conforming to US society’s norms by wanting greater material rewards. crime will continue to rise. they are in a state of anomie and more likely to try to obtain their goals by illegitimate means through crime. Summary Most people have some commonsense understanding of societies simply by living in them. growing ‘disrespectful behaviour’ of young people. A US sociologist. In this section we shall look at this sociological thinking in a little more detail. most people from disadvantaged backgrounds. do systematic research and apply sociological theories. a key concept in sociology is anomie. The fact that sociologists have access to this specialised knowledge means that they can provide explanations of human behaviour that are different from commonsense. sociologists have developed very general frameworks of ideas called sociological theories that help explain how societies work and change. Although criminals are clearly deviating from society’s norms by committing crimes. used the concept of anomie to develop a sociological theory of rising crime in US society. A person can be said to be anomic. or when we hear about social issues in the press or on TV it is usually about things that people feel . when they have aspirations. 20 . For example. are going ‘wrong’ with society. Sociological problems When most people think about society. However. You will be reading more about Merton in the section on structural functionalism in Chapter 4. have no legitimate means of achieving these aspirations. sociological understanding is different from commonsense in at least three important respects: sociologists tend to ask different questions. As the subject has evolved. This does not mean that Merton’s theory was necessarily right – indeed it has been modified and criticised – rather I have used it here simply to illustrate how explanations drawn from sociological theory are significantly different from commonsense explanations. Merton’s theory predicted – quite rightly as it turned out – that as long as Western societies encourage people to want more and more material goods while effectively preventing a large proportion of the population from ever obtaining them legitimately. increasing crime. conflicts between different groups in society. However. Robert Merton (1910–2003).
then. Sociological problems. • The role of educational institutions in modern societies.Chapter 1: What is sociology? Most people – including most people starting sociology – say that sociology is about studying social problems and perhaps helping to find ‘solutions’ to them. just take a few minutes to stop and look. ‘normal’. for sociologists. Why is there is this order and regularity to social life? How and why do societies hold together? Why do most people seem to follow the rules of a society or social group most of the time? Where does this order come from? Are these rules generally agreed? Or do some groups impose their rules on others? 21 . they are just as interested in things that are seen to be ‘good’. You might have mentioned: • people queuing at bus stops • people waiting for others to get off the train before they get on • cars stopping at a red light • people paying for the goods they take from the shops. how this order changes and its relationship to the behaviour of individuals. not racial discrimination but racially defined segregation. Imagine you are seeing it all for the first time. • How societies change. This is partly right. As Berger puts it in Invitation to sociology: The fundamental sociological problem is not crime but law. Sociologists are interested in social problems and some work for organisations that address some of these problems. For example. However. by driving through a red light or going straight to the front of a queue rather than the back. We begin by asking why the world is this way.4 Social and sociological problems Which of the following do you think are better described as ‘social problems’. are about how societies. sociologists are interested in why people break the ‘rules’ of a society – such as committing crimes or behaving in odd. Let’s look at each of these in turn. such as a busy street. (p. • Unemployment. Most people take this order for granted and the only time they notice it is when someone breaks a rule. or parts of societies. and which do you think are better described as ‘sociological problems’? • Rising divorce rates in your society. these rules are the starting point. ‘ordinary’ and so on. The puzzle of social order Next time you find yourself in a crowded place. Pause and write down some examples of social order. • The organisation of economic production in your society. However. work in the way they do. not divorce but marriage. Although sociologists are interested in things that people feel are ‘bad’ or ‘wrong’ in societies. You’ll see evidence of the social order that is all around you. a shopping mall or crowded subway. not revolution but government.50) Activity 1. sociology is about much more than this and its focus is much wider. anti-social ways – but they are more interested in the rules themselves and how they work. Thinking sociologically means being curious about the order of everyday social life. ‘right’. ‘acceptable’. • Illegal drug use.
For example: • economic data show that the patterns of employment. 22 . the modern age was characterised. but we can introduce two of the most influential figures here. we would find more evidence of the regularities of social life. sociologists are more interested the usual. were losing much of their influence. whose ideas were later to transform the world. See the section on Karl Marx in Chapter 4 for further reading. The late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were times of reform and revolution and new sources of power. rates of mental illness and even suicide rates are much the same year in and year out • social differences – there are significant and consistent variations between different social groups in a society: for example. the mass media and to some extent the general public. those from economically poorer social backgrounds – sometimes referred to in sociology as socially deprived or lower social class – are more likely. imports and exports of a country are very similar from one year to the next • demographic data – that is. to end up with lower educational qualifications. Traditional institutions of power and control. get married and get divorced • rule breaking – reported crimes. are more interested in the unusual and troublesome. work in lowpaid jobs. would lead to revolutionary change and the creation of what Marx believed would be fairer communist societies where resources would be distributed to people according to their needs. such as the Church and landed aristocracy. However. Sociology is about documenting and explaining these kinds of regularities and patterns. output. above all. For Karl Marx (1818–1883). and the subject we now know as sociology was born. whereas journalists. European societies were industrialising and there was a mass movement of people from the rural to the urban areas. Marx was very critical of capitalism. The injustices they produced. the everyday. information about the distribution of populations – show that in any given country roughly the same number of people are born each year. the ‘taken-forgranted’. by a new form of free market economy that he called industrial capitalism. He argued that most of the wealth it created remained in the hands of the small owning class who made their profits by exploiting the labour power of the workers. and Marx was optimistic that they were sowing the seeds of their own destruction. and people’s increasing awareness of them. capitalist societies were constantly changing. have worse health and die at younger ages. We shall be looking at these theories in more detail in Chapter 4. These early sociologists tried to make sense of this new industrial age by identifying what they believed were its essential characteristics and comparing them with what had gone before. such as the property-owning capitalist class and organised labour movements were beginning to emerge. So. Origins of sociology The formal study of sociology began in the nineteenth century as an attempt to make sense of massive changes that were sweeping over Western Europe at that time.21 Principles of sociology If we were to dig a little deeper and do some research. on average. arrests. The fact that societies could be transformed so dramatically in such a comparatively short space of time led scholars to start exploring the sources of social order and change.
Do you think either. if you really want to be a musician but feel you have to study banking to get a good job. most people learn to evaluate their lives not so much in terms of what they do. they are alienated from their natural selves. This is ‘caused’ by the way production is organised. For Weber there was no way out of the ‘iron cage’. it may be worth stopping for a moment and thinking about one of their key ideas and seeing if it has any relevance today. took a different and altogether more pessimistic view. In fact he thought it would almost certainly lead to an even more bureaucratic state having more control over people’s lives. For example. It may seem strange to be asked to read about theorists who were writing about societies in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.2. However. few people have the opportunity to realise their creativity. By rationalisation he meant the change from doing things because they had always been done that way (traditional action) to identifying outcomes and calculating the most efficient means of achieving them (rational action). or estranged from our true selves. However. or both. and the increasing bureaucratic administration of life. section 4. The bureaucratic efficiency of the organisation can take away the creativity of the people working in those organisations. They simply have to ‘follow the rules’ and lose the ability to think for themselves. but in terms of what they own and what they consume. Marx argued that people are naturally creative. He called this the ‘iron cage’ of rationality. the displacement of elites based on birth by ones based on qualifications. For Marx. Most sociologists today are not as ambitious as Marx or Weber. the principle that studying societies (or parts of them) involves seeing them as changing social processes is still an essential element of thinking sociologically. looking back shows just how 23 . Therefore. the terms ‘health’ and ‘illness’ seem clear enough.5 Marx and Weber today: alienation and creativity You will be reading much more about Marx and Weber later in your studies. modern life is characterised by increasing bureaucratic control and regulation of people’s lives. Weber did not think this would be any liberation. Activity 1. For example. They tend to focus on particular aspects of societies rather than trying to construct such large-scale and general theories of social change. Weber was concerned that the remorseless spread of rational bureaucracy was stifling individual initiative. This is the effect of rationalisation. creativity and imagination.Chapter 1: What is sociology? Max Weber (1864–1920). Now if we just look at our contemporary world. I am a medical sociologist and that means I study health and illness. Other examples of the rationalisation of life included the replacement of religion by science as the major source of intellectual authority. unlike Marx. you might be said to be alienated from your true vocation. He argued that the modern age was characterised by a process of increasing rationalisation. of these ideas apply to your society or to your personal experiences? Can you think of some examples that: a) illustrate b) contradict Marx and Weber’s views? You will be dealing with this topic in more detail in Chapter 4. However. which is also a form of alienation. Weber believed that Marx could be right about capitalism being replaced by communism. Thus. For Weber. The term alienation means being separated. another key founder of sociology. because the profit motive predominates above all else in capitalist societies. However.
as some claim. involves moving to and fro between past. then. for example – that provides the key to understanding human behaviour. This raises many questions for the sociologist. Sociologists use the term medicalisation to describe the process whereby more and more aspects of life are being labelled as illnesses. and a lot of sociological research involves talking to and observing individuals. In modern societies many things that were simply seen as part of life a century ago – such as pregnancy. Start by completing Activity 1. sociological problems take a much wider focus and ask how societies work and change in the ways they do. Further reading Berger (1963) Chapter 8. 1. thinking sociologically involves seeing the relationship between the individual and society as a two-way.6 The individual and society Commonsense thinking holds that societies are all about individuals. sociologists are interested in how this changing social order shapes our lives as individuals. Many social scientists and scientists would agree with this. it is the study of the individual – through biology.6 below. Summary Whereas social problems are about things people feel are ‘wrong’ with societies. Sociologists are particularly interested in documenting and explaining social order and the processes by which this order changes over time. arguing that as societies are clearly created by individuals. as continually changing social processes. medicine and psychology. or parts of them. As individuals we obviously create societies but sociologists argue that. street. In questioning this view sociologists are not. How does this happen? We shall start exploring this process here by asking you to look at your relationship to society. Above all. rejecting the study of the ‘individual’ in favour of the ‘group’. Rather. We will come back to this activity again so it is important you take a little time to fill it in now. rather than a one-way. societies also create us. 24 . Sociologists are interested in studying individuals.21 Principles of sociology much our ideas of what constitutes ‘health and ‘illness’ have changed over time. how it is happening and whether or not we are gaining or losing out by being persuaded to see more and more aspects of our life as illnesses over which we have no control? Sociological thinking. present and developing ideas that help explain societies. long-term unhappiness and disruptive behaviour by children in school – are now seen as medical conditions requiring treatments. Maybe there is more of society ‘in you’ than you realise? You and society: identity and role What we would like you to do for this section is to think about yourself and your relationship to the society in which you live. in important respects. such as: why this is happening. You will be looking at this topic in more detail in Section B on globalisation.
These are familiar. mother 8. attractive 10. Afro-Caribbean 3. hairdresser 5. add a few additional comments to your original list. female 4.6 Self and society Imagine you have 10 words to describe the person you are to someone who has never met you. that is. I am: 1………………………………… 2………………………………… 3………………………………… 4………………………………… 5………………………………… 6………………………………… 7………………………………… 8………………………………… 9………………………………… 10………………………………… Check over your list and spend a few moments asking yourself why you have chosen these words. wife 7. intelligent 9. Ask yourself why you think these words say something about you as a person? What do they tell other people about you? Now look at the list below compiled by one of my students. Julie. student 6. characteristics she shares with millions of other people. Sociologists usually refer to these things as part of our social identity. they refer to relationships with others. 25 . Julie’s list I am: 1. each of them has a social component. People have different ways of doing it. that is a label that places people in particular social categories. British 2. Write down the 10 words you would use. if you think about it. Let’s look at Julie’s answers in a little more detail.Chapter 1: What is sociology? Activity 1. If you can. Afro-Caribbean and female. popular. everyday words but. There is no ‘right answer’ to the question: describe yourself. Don’t worry if you put in things that are very different from her. Social identity Julie’s first three answers are British.
how we view the behaviour of others and how we ‘see’ the world. you may also have put down some of the things you do. Most nation states. not only have their own language. (See Chapter 10 on ‘Race’ and ethnicity for a further discussion on this point. values and behaviour. Nationality and ethnicity confer identities on people that influence their relationships. show a better standard of behaviour and help around the house more. For example. Which of these differences do you think are primarily due to biological causes (for example. For many people their ethnicity may be an equally. By an ethnic group. access to public places). that she is a student and that she is a wife and a mother. To say I am Malaysian. or female rather than male. in most cultures. or countries. for Julie. These are also common everyday words. Indian. both her nationality and ethnicity are important sources of identity. This is because.21 Principles of sociology Let’s take nationality first. for many people.) Like Julie. boys are expected to be ‘tough’ and ‘masculine’. or more. Social roles Like Julie. Many countries are increasingly comprised of different ethnic groups. However. Many of these norms vary over time within a particular country and also vary between countries. although nationality is a very clear and unambiguous source of identity for some people. whereas girls are usually expected to be more mature. language. they also have their own traditions. We don’t just become men or women. Social and ethnic groups tend to place different expectations on males and females and this then shapes the subsequent behaviour of boys and girls and men and women. sociologists mean a social group that has certain common characteristics. It is also social. However. as they are for many people. or with a combination of the two. their nationality is still an important statement of their social identity. such as a shared culture. In important respects we learn to be men or women through social interaction. These cultural norms have an important influence on us. and boisterous and aggressive behaviour is usually tolerated more in boys than in girls. customs and generally accepted ways of behaving. Activity 1. you probably put down your gender as one of the most important ways of describing yourself.7 Gender differences Stop and think about this last example for a minute and write down five ways that you think your life would be different if you had been born male rather than female. Thus. important source of identity than their national identity. Describing herself as British and Afro-Caribbean suggests that. government and laws. availability of employment opportunities. smoking in public places or consuming alcohol are legal in some countries but illegal in others. sociologists have shown that gender has important social dimensions. whether a person identifies primarily with a nation or with an ethnic group. women bear children) and which of them do you think are due to the way in which your society is organised (for example its cultural values. history. the same sociological ideas apply. Singaporean or British is to say much more than I live in a particular region of the world. it’s not the same for others. but they have also have specific social expectations attached to 26 . Sociologists refer to these as norms. men are physically stronger. In answers 4–7 she has told us about her occupation. customs and institutions. as we are simply born either male or female. For example. Although gender may appear to be purely biological. You too may have put down your nationality. They affect how we behave. for sociologists. gender is not just a biological category.
Activity 1. attend classes. they usually expect rather more than this.8 Roles Have you put any of these social roles on your list? If so. social consequences will normally follow. if your teachers praise your contributions in class. if like Julie. outgoing or shy. 27 .Chapter 1: What is sociology? them. However. Sociologists refer to these characteristics as aspects of our personal identity. Colleges. another may work part-time. for example. For example. you may have said that you are hardworking or lazy. This may then be confirmed by getting good marks in the exams. easy-going or stressed. a person may see themselves as attractive. They are also presenting them with an identity: ‘this is the sort of person you are expected to be while you are here’. One mother may choose to stay at home. rather than as a social role you share with millions of others. make a few brief notes about some of the expectations you think are placed on them. because their face and body shape fit the cultural norms of attractiveness as defined in magazines. But how does a person know whether or not they are intelligent? If you are a student. cinema and on television. or beautiful. You may behave like a child at college. because it is as if societies are giving people scripts they are expected to follow rather like actors in a play. Of course. work without the close supervision they had at school and hand in work that is properly presented and referenced. But. At first sight these characteristics appear to be purely ‘personal’ rather than social but. Whether we conform to social expectations or not (and most of us do most of the time) we have to take into account the expectations others have about how we should behave. What do you think that involves? Colleges obviously expect their students to do academic work. They expect students to conduct themselves in certain ways. you may also have put some personal characteristics on your list. you are given a ‘mothering script’. Similarly. For example. they also have social aspects to them. You could even tear up your ‘social script’ and do something entirely different. are doing more than teaching students academic subjects. like actors. people can interpret their scripts in different ways. or you may neglect your children as a mother. while a third works full-time and arranges childcare. you are a mother. there are certain social criteria by which you can judge this. Julie has said she thinks she’s intelligent. you are expected to love your child and (in most cases) take the main responsibility for its upbringing and its day-to-day welfare. shout at the teachers and do no work. listen to their lecturers. give you good marks and write favourable comments on your coursework – or even tell you that with your natural ability you should be doing much better! – then you are more likely to begin to develop an idea of yourself as capable or intelligent. Similarly. Sociologists sometimes refer to these as social roles. such as being thrown out of college or having your children taken away from you. things that say something about you as a specific individual. Personal identity Like Julie (answers 8–10). asking them for dates and telling them how lovely they are. when you think about it. Other people then confirm and reinforce this identity by looking at the person with approval or admiration. then. Let’s take the ‘script’ of being a student. when you think about it.
we are all born into societies where there are already established patterns of organised behaviour that we referred to earlier as social institutions. How do others see us? This in turn may influence our behaviour in all sorts of ways. Summary Here we have asked you to describe yourself as a person and illustrated just how much of ‘yourself’. make up the culture of a society. Did you put in any of these more personal characteristics? • If so. such as speaking a particular language or organising ourselves into small groups called families. • What do you think have been some of the most important influences on the way you see yourself? • Are there any particular incidents that stand out as being particularly important? • Also ask yourself how much the social expectations and the reactions of other people influence your behaviour. individuals and societies are inseparable. or not trying to make friends. we may try to make ourselves more clever. gender. perhaps by not working in class. When we think about what we are. But how does this arise? In very general terms. or more sociable and outgoing. your ethnicity. For example.21 Principles of sociology In short. Activity 1. occupation and personal qualities are influenced by the society in which you live.7 Socialisation and identity The previous section illustrated just how much your life as an individual is bound up with the social contexts in which you live. Further reading Berger (1963) Chapter 5. These social practices. Socialisation We observed in the last section that a key sociological problem is the relation between the individual and society. fat or thin. You cannot understand one without the other. Sociologists use the term institutionalisation to describe the processes whereby these social practices become accepted ways of doing things in a society or social group. and the values and beliefs surrounding them. 1. as we saw in the previous section. these cultural practices and values place expectations on how people should behave. and theories that help describe and explain this process further. ask yourself why you think you have developed this view of yourself. even the ideas we have about ourselves as individual people – such as whether we think we are intelligent or stupid. Or we may go the other way and accept that we can never be any of these things and adjust our behaviour accordingly. 28 . attractive or unattractive. For sociologists. we compare ourselves with these social norms. or sub-culture of a social group and.9 Personal identity Look at your list. more assertive. outgoing or shy – arise from social relationships and socially accepted norms and standards. How do we match up? We also monitor other people’s reactions to us in daily life. In this section we shall introduce some sociological concepts.
people are socialised into ethnic. team games. such as ethnicity. They also learn what is expected of them when they are becoming old. 29 . gender and occupational roles. In premodern or traditional societies. they are negotiated in everyday life through social interaction.Chapter 1: What is sociology? Sociologists use the term socialisation to describe the various processes through which people learn about. and generally conform to. discipline and that good work will be rewarded. Self and identity It is through socialisation that a person develops a sense of identity: that is an image of who they are as a person. In sociological terms. This is sometimes known as the ‘hidden curriculum’. However. bad work penalised. As we saw. people’s social identities. or adult. of people between different parts of society. Schools obviously teach us academic skills but. in number of ways. there was relatively little movement. For example. So socialisation is a continuous process: it begins when we are born and only ends when we die. for example. • Primary socialisation involves the socialisation of the young child by the family. The distinction between social and personal identities is one of the ways that sociologists have documented social change. Medical sociologists have even shown that terminally ill people are socialised by medical and nursing staff into dying in the ‘right way’. schools are trying to socialise us for adulthood. co-operation. largely defined who they were throughout their lives. People do not just get old. • Social identity refers to the ‘public self’. the increasing opportunities many people now have to change their status and their lives means that personal identities have become much more important statements of ‘who we are’ than they were in the past. such as nobleman. • Personal identity refers to those qualities that mark a person out as unique and set apart from others. sociologists usually distinguish between social identity and personal identity. or peasant. People have a view of themselves but that view has to be sustained in social interaction by people confirming to us in various ways that we really are who we think we are. So. Another example is socialisation into old age. socialisation continues through our lives. • Secondary socialisation is socialisation by the school. Therefore. Socialisation processes can be divided into three stages. Although social identities are still important sources of identity in modern societies. they are teaching us a lot more. as we saw in the previous section. socialisation doesn’t end when we leave school. So identities – especially personal identities – are not fixed but are rather fluid and changing. In some societies growing old gracefully means retreating into the background. or mobility. as sociologists have shown. gender and work identities. We explored some examples of this in the previous section when you were asked how you would describe yourself. the norms and values of the social groups in which they live. and is constructed around characteristics that are attributed to a person by others and mark them out as a member of a particular group. • Tertiary. It is from school that we learn. punctuality.
For example. did you notice other people reacting to you differently? Did this affect the way you thought about yourself? On stage and off stage Erving Goffman (1969) brought a new. such as changing your appearance. and some would say cynical. in given situations. Socialisation also gives us skills to exert some control over who we are and how others see us. So although people may still be playing roles backstage at home. or present. Erving Goffman (1922–1982). Under personal identity she felt she was ‘popular’. such as when they are labelled as a criminal. (For more on the process of identity formation and labelling.) Activity 1. such as the enthusiastic teacher. for example – husband. 30 . wife. Sociologists who research the area of identity are particularly interested in exploring situations where people are suddenly and dramatically redefined by others. Activity 1.10 Spoiled identity? Stop for a moment and ask yourself if there have been times in your life when you have found a person or people suddenly reacting very differently to you. it is now much easier for people to change where they live. etc. However. we are not simply dealt our identities as if they were cards in a game. People in these situations are confronted with what the US sociologist. Think about why and how it happened and try to recall if it affected your view of yourself. not all social life is like this. daughter. how they live. So. we are rather like actors ‘playing’ the roles on stage. how they look and what they believe in. becoming more sociable or driving ourselves on to success in our careers.21 Principles of sociology The role of others Go back to the previous section and look at the list compiled by Julie. or backstage. there is less deliberate ‘presentation of self’ and more congruence between how we are seen and how we really are. section 4. For example. twist to the question of changing social identities. behaviour or lifestyle? Did it work? If so.3. unemployed. Some sociologists argue that one of the defining characteristics of contemporary affluent societies is that increasing numbers of people have unprecedented scope to transform their identities. for Goffman. mentally ill or disabled. – they are doing so less self-consciously. Goffman recognised that. If these responses were to stop and people started avoiding her. He argued that identities were not so much a part of us – permanently or temporarily – as resources we ‘pick up and put down’ to negotiate everyday life. we can influence the way others see us by buying new clothes. like actors. bankrupt. people have time off stage. then her idea of herself as ‘popular’ would be threatened and may even break down. Identities are things we consciously manipulate. when they are less obviously presenting an identity.11 A new you? Have you tried to change yourself in some way recently. to sustain ‘being popular’ as part of her identity requires people reacting to her in certain ways. However. and we selfconsciously monitor our ‘performances’. such as wanting and enjoying her company. the caring nurse or lazy student. The role of the individual Although the reactions of others are clearly important. who they live with. has called ‘managing a spoiled identity’. see Chapter 4.
12 Presentation of self Do you think Goffman is right? Do you find yourself self-consciously presenting an image of yourself to your managers at work. but I am really a very different person’? Can you think of recent developments in technology that now give people more scope to present different identities? Two theories of socialisation and identity So far. we have been describing and illustrating the processes of socialisation and identity formation that are crucial to helping us understand the relation between the individual and society. hand in their essays and so on. However. In one of the most innovative and creative applications of the idea of role. Consider illness. follow medical advice and accept treatment when necessary. It enables organisations to distinguish between those who have a legitimate reason for not fulfilling their obligations and those who do not. Parsons’ insight here was to show that even sickness. following the great French sociologist Emile Durkheim. We don’t just become ill.Chapter 1: What is sociology? Activity 1. The privileges are that the sick person is not held responsible for their condition and they are allowed exemption from their usual obligations. these social roles have a purpose. Illness is dysfunctional because when people are sick they do not go to work. a good job). This constraint is both external and internal. A person not fulfilling the obligations of the sick role may lose the privileges. They arise and persist over time because they help societies to function smoothly. which appears to be purely biological. it helps to maintain social order. Parsons argued that in modern societies there is a distinct ‘sick role’ consisting of privileges and obligations. Parsons Parsons (1951) saw societies as complex systems of parts working together to promote social stability. we are also socialised into sickness. The sick person must want to get better. such as going to work. people simply learn that acting one way (for example. For Parsons. With external constraint. Social institutions define roles for people and socialisation is about learning these roles and the expectations surrounding them. or to your professors if you are at college? Are you conscious sometimes of thinking to yourself ‘Here is the identity I am presenting. But how can we begin to explain them sociologically? Here we are going to look at two of the most influential theories of socialisation developed by two of the leading figures of twentieth century sociology. for example. argued that this happens because societies constrain us to act in certain ways. Mead (1863–1931). there are also obligations to the sick role. It also ensures that people do the ‘right things’ when they are ill to enable them to recover as soon as possible. The sick role functions as a form of social control. look after their children. going to college and handing in essays. Talcott Parsons (1902–1979) and G. whereas acting another way (for 31 . But why do most people conform to these social obligations most of the time? Parsons. So ‘society’ is influencing us even when we’re sick. is also a social state surrounded by expectations about how people should behave when they are ill. working hard at college and getting a good degree) will probably bring rewards (for example.H. that is.
For some insight into this question. Afternoon: Daniel is in his interview and a well-known professor has just asked him a question. while Parsons’ theory was more about ends (the desirability of socialisation). He looks round the classroom. the mass media and so on. but it is really quite a simple idea and one which we can easily relate to our own experiences. We can then consciously monitor our behaviour in social interaction. As their eyes meet. We begin to develop these skills in early childhood when we start pretending to be other people. The crucial insight provided by Mead was to show that we do not just use language to make sense of the world around us. Daniel quickly changes his answer. so he decides to finish it early. Daniel thinks that perhaps the interview did not go that badly after all and maybe he will get the job. for example. socialisation was not just a process of learning and internalising the institutional expectations transmitted by families. People have to want to behave in socially acceptable ways.21 Principles of sociology example. the professor smiles and gives Daniel an encouraging nod. It was rather about learning skills that then enable people actively to interpret the expectations of other people and social institutions and act accordingly.13 Taking the role of the other – Daniel’s day Taking the role of the other might sound complicated. This happens. 32 . Mead Although Parsons’ theory has been very influential in sociology. Mead’s was more about means (how it happens). a person may work hard at their job and not consider stealing from others not because they want promotion and are afraid of getting put in prison. there needs to be more than external constraint. but because they believe that is the right thing to do. it is mid-morning but he sees several of the students yawning. one of its limitations is that it tells us very little about the social and psychological mechanisms by which socialisation and identity formation actually take place. As he is telling his friend about the interview that he thinks did not go well. for societies to function effectively. he has an important interview for a new job this afternoon and he wants to think about that. Daniel notices the professor is starting to frown. Parsons argued. Evening: Daniel is in a restaurant with a friend. Anyway. no degree and not being able to get a good job). In a very important phrase. Activity 1. others are looking out of the window. Here we look at it though a day in the life of Daniel. However. The only students who seem awake are the ones texting on their mobile phones. not working hard) will more likely bring failure (for example. some actually seem to be asleep. schools. Internalisation of values can even override survival instincts when. and over time we learn to see ourselves as we believe others see us. he suddenly notices the professor who had interviewed him earlier in the day sitting at a nearby table. we also use it reflexively to monitor our own behaviour. a young college lecturer. Mead called this taking the role of the other. As he is answering. For example. we can turn to the work of Mead (1934). people willingly die for their country or their religion. Daniel realises the lecture is not going well. Morning: Daniel is giving a lecture. Mead’s focus was on the social significance of (verbal and non-verbal) language in both socialisation and identity formation. For Mead. because social norms become internalised through socialisation. They become part of a person’s identity and source of morality. In simple terms.
From a Meadian point of view. For Mead. for Mead. However. Imagine. What we call consciousness is a form of a ‘conversation’ between the ‘I’ and the ‘Me’. creative and instinctive part of the self that has ideas and imagination. used the term looking-glass self to describe how the image we have of ourselves is based on how we believe others see us. which he divided into the ‘I’ and the ‘Me’. When we take the role of the other we receive information from others about ourselves that. However. For Parsons. ‘It’s rude to walk out of classes’. this ‘social self’. then you might just walk out. Just as the mirror (looking-glass) reflects back to us an image of our physical self. for example.2: Mead’s concept of the self The ‘I’ is the individual. leave now and go for a cup of coffee. Self I Has ideas. that communication doesn’t have to be verbal. a colleague of Mead. with its capacity to take the role of the other. Mead’s view of the relationship between the individual and society was rather different from that of Parsons. on another day if things got really bad.Chapter 1: What is sociology? Can you identify the times in this story when Daniel was taking the role of the other and seeing himself as he thought others were seeing him? How do you think he consciously monitored this and altered his behaviour? • the students are not enjoying this lecture. you were one of Daniel’s students sitting in his lecture being very bored. Social institutions confront people with sets of rules and expectations and most people simply conform to them most of the time. Mead expressed this ‘double centre of gravity’ in his concept of the self.’ So you sit quietly in the class. the kind of person we are. Charles Cooley (1864– 1929). However. although 33 . ‘Wait a minute. I might as well cut it short • the professor doesn’t like this answer. for Mead. while the ‘Me’ is the social self that takes into account the reactions of others. ‘I want to get up. instincts and inspirations. taking the role of the other. reflects on intended actions Behaviour Figure 1. initiates action Me Takes role of the other. you have conformed to normative expectations not just because you have internalised the value. enables us to build up the concept of self that we looked at earlier. the relationship between individual and society was rather more volatile and problematic. maybe the interview went OK after all? Notice. I must change it quickly • the professor is smiling. society was dominant over the individual. instincts. over time. ‘He’s sure to notice and he will be marking your examination paper! It’s better to wait. so others’ reactions to us reflect back an image of our social self. spontaneous. they are also driven by sudden impulses. also. but because you have actively made a decision to stay. was only part of the self. Each time in the story Daniel was responding to non-verbal communications.’ says the ‘I’.’ says the ‘Me’. People are obviously shaped by societies but they are not simply the puppets of societies.
22–24. See if you can identify any of them. Compare your answers now with the ones you wrote at the start of the chapter.14 Parsons and Mead In this section on socialisation and identity.3. pp. Activity 1. The relevant sections from introductory texts are: Fulcher and Scott (2007) Chapter 4. A reminder of your learning outcomes Having completed this chapter. Summary Socialisation describes the processes by which people learn social behaviour.2 and 4. social change and the relationship between the individual and society • how our identities arise from social relationships • what sociologists mean by socialisation and identity. Reading Here it is important that you supplement what you have read on socialisation and identity with some textbook reading. and these identities can change through social interaction.21 Principles of sociology we are social beings. we implicitly touched on some of the ideas of Parsons and Mead. you should have a clearer idea of: • how to study sociology. It is a good way of monitoring your progress. Activity 1.14.2 on p.15 Look back at Activity 1. society is the source of both our conformity and our individuality. Giddens (2008) pp. Whereas Parsons saw socialisation arising from internalisation of social norms. This will provide you with some essential building blocks for you to develop your sociological awareness and to give you the necessary support for reading the more difficult work in Chapter 4 and for your chosen topic in Section C. It is a good way to help you clarify your understanding and revise the ideas we have looked at here. Mead suggested it arose primarily from people’s ability to take the role of the other.238 Macionis and Plummer (2005 and 2008 editions) Chapter 7. we are never completely ‘taken over’ by society in the manner suggested by Parsons. It is through socialisation that people develop a sense of social and personal identity. and the essential reading and activities. and what examiners will be looking for • what sociologists study • some of the key ways that sociology gives us insights that go beyond commonsense understanding • what is meant by thinking sociologically and sociologists’ interest in social order. and how Parsons and Mead put forward different explanations of these processes. sections 4. We shall be returning to the theories of Parsons and Mead in Chapter 4. Try to answer the questions again. 34 . what is meant by active learning.163–69 and p.
et al. A. Plummer Sociology. I. 2007) Chapter 3. 2008) Chapter 3. Aims of the chapter The aims of this chapter are: • to explain what social research is and how you will be expected to approach it • to identify the main criteria by which research is evaluated • to explain what is meant by a research design. Essential reading One of: Fulcher. comparative and ethnographic research designs • the key research methods: interviews. 2005 and 2008 editions) Chapter 3. Theory and practice in sociology. (Cambridge: Polity Press. and identify some of the key research designs and strategies in sociology • to introduce you to the main methods of sociological research. 3. 35 . J. (Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Harlow: Prentice Hall. 4. observations. (London: Routledge. and having completed the essential reading and activities. Scott Sociology. 9–12. you should have a clearer idea of: • the nature of sociological research and why it is important to know how research is done • the key criteria by which research is evaluated • what is meant by a research design and how the nature of the research design influences the data that is collected • the characteristics of survey. and K. The good research guide. (Buckingham: Open University Press.Chapter 2: Sociological research Chapter 2: Sociological research Written by Dr Steve Taylor. A global introduction. 2007) Chapters 1. and J. M. Further reading Denscombe. . Marsh. Sociology. (Harlow: Prentice Hall. Note: It is very important that you supplement what you read here with the recommended reading. experimental. McNeil. or Giddens. particularly on research design and research methods. Learning objectives By the end of this chapter. 2005). 2002) Chapters 1 and 2. or Macionis. P Research Methods. J. the analysis of official statistics and documents • how to approach questions on sociological research.
History.5–13. Charlton. (Oxford: Blackwell. Jacobson Pygmalion in the classroom: teacher expectation and pupils’ intellectual development. Inside the British police. S. (ed. J. (New York: Holt. In Chapter 2 we shall be looking at how sociologists find out about societies. This is why understanding social research is such a central part of understanding sociology. The discipline of sociology is based on the claim that sociologists offer some kind of expert understanding of social life. (London: Longman. Holdaway. Rosenthal. B. Some of the famous sociological studies mentioned here have been made into videos or DVDs where the authors talk about the aims of their research. R. Taylor. ‘Researching child abuse’ in Burgess. 1987) [ISBN 9780140552195]. M. E.1 Introduction In Chapter 1 we saw that sociology is about understanding how societies. work. Videos available in halovine’s Classic Collection series are: Eileen Barker Michelle Stanworth Peter Townsend Paul Willis The making of a Moonie Gender and schooling Poverty in the UK Learning to labour All available from halovine 8 www. Townsend. E. 1984) [ISBN 9781851681617]. we need to know how this ‘expert knowledge’ is generated. 1983) [ISBN 9780091511616]. S. Durkheim. (Harmondsworth: Penguin. E. Gunter and D. S. Braithwaite. T. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1989) [ISBN 9780582355958]. shame and reintegration. R. 1983) [ISBN 9780631131120]. and L. 1993) [ISBN 9780415096706]. 1982) [ISBN 9780333286463 (pbk)]. philosophy and science. [ISBN 9780140221398]. (London: Hutchinson. how it was done and what they found. Gordon. S. or parts of them. Goffman. Asylums. 1989) [ISBN 9780521356688]. Rinehart and Winston. Crime.halovine. how well it stands up to critical scrutiny and what assumptions it makes about the nature of the social world. pp. P Poverty in the United Kingdom. 1968). To evaluate this claim. Gender and schooling: a study of sexual divisions in the classroom. (London: Routledge. Video/DVD It is often helpful to supplement what you read in the subject guide and your Sociology textbooks by watching a video. 1979) . 1952).) Investigating society. (Basingstoke: Macmillan..com 2. Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties (3) 1998. 36 . (Harmondsworth: Penguin. Stanworth. Suicide: a study in sociology. change and influence how people think and act.21 Principles of sociology Works cited Barker. The making of a Moonie: choice or brainwashing? (Oxford: Blackwell. (London: Routledge. Coles ‘Broadcast television as a cause of aggression: recent findings from a naturalistic study’. Taylor. Durkheim and the study of suicide.
then. Look again at Figure 2. talking to some current students and so on. such as working out how research questions can be translated into a researchable project. deciding how data is to be collected and organised. most of us do it. This might involve looking at websites. The process of undertaking sociological research is broadly similar. the collection of information and the application of this information to the problem. Figure 2. is a reflexive process. Everyday research. For example.1: Key stages in the research process Choice and reflection in research Sociological research is about getting out ‘into society’ and exploring it in a number of practical ways. usually involves a problem or question. at various times in our everyday lives.2 Some principles of sociological research Some key terms When you start reading about social research you may find that some of the technical language will make things seem more complicated than they really are.1. 2. This information may help them make a more informed choice. In planning and carrying out research. See Figure 2. It is also helpful to remember that although research seems to be something only undertaken by specialists. So we start by introducing you to a few of those terms: • research is simply a process of investigating something systematically and sociological research is investigating social life using sociological theories and methods • data refers to the information researchers collect • research design is the way research is planned and organised • methods are the tools sociologists use to collect data • methodology is the study of sociological research methods. then. visiting different departments. 1. analysed and related to the question that is being investigated. There are usually three key stages. The analysis of these choices and their consequences is what we mean by methodology.1. but also looking inwards and continually reflecting on the processes by which the research is being undertaken. Data interpretation: the information that is collected has to be presented.Chapter 2: Sociological research 2. someone thinking of studying for a degree may do some research before applying for a course. 3. It is clear that sociological research also involves a number of particular decisions. this tells only part of the story. and thinking about how it is to be interpreted. Data collection: the research has to be organised and data collected through various research strategies and methods. sociologists are confronted by a number of choices and each choice brings advantages and limitations. Formulation and design: research begins with questions that then need to be translated into a researchable form. 37 . However. Doing sociological research. It involves the researcher not only looking out at the part of the social world being studied.
Some research techniques are more appropriate than others to particular research problems. researching the distribution of income in a whole society will require a different research design and different methods from a project exploring how a particular organisation works. Sociologists have different theoretical ideas about the nature of human societies and the best ways of generating knowledge about them. • Practical considerations. understanding sociological research. This critical evaluation of data is not only valuable in sociology. When confronted by some data. sociologists ask questions about how it was collected and how much confidence we should have in it. it can also be applied to most of the other subjects you will study. It is important to look carefully at this example because we are going to be using it in different ways throughout this chapter. They want some answers to four questions: • What do students think about taking sociology? • Why are there such wide variations in the grades of sociology students? • Is there a relationship between students’ social backgrounds and their sociology grades? • How do students from different social backgrounds relate to each other in sociology classes? Write down how you could study these problems. The consequence of these choices and constraints is that there is no single ‘correct way’ of doing sociological research. Think which ones you might choose and why. rather than simply taking a set of statistics at face value and trying to explain it. • Theoretical considerations. For example. For example. This involves the active learning talked about in Chapter 1. Can you see any possible problems with the approach you have chosen? Some of the most important influences on researchers’ choices of design and method are: • The nature of the problem being investigated. as economists tend to do. involves being able to compare and contrast different approaches. Identify the options that are open to you.1 below. Activity 2. Rather there are a number of different ways. it is helpful to begin thinking about an area before you start reading about it. and giving good answers to ‘theory and methods’ questions. each with their benefits and costs and their advocates and critics. So try Activity 2. This critical thinking means that sociology students learn to look for ‘the story behind’ the data. • Existing research. nothing is quite as it seems. check or question existing work in the field.1 Researching students taking sociology Your local university has asked us to do some research on students studying sociology as part of their degree course. Therefore. Much research is undertaken to extend. Sociology teaches us that nothing should be taken for granted. and these theoretical preferences influence their choice of research methods. the 38 .21 Principles of sociology Stop and think for a moment Can you think of some factors that might influence a researcher’s choice? As I said in Chapter 1. The researcher must work out what is possible in terms of such things as the amount of time and money available. access to sources of data and the requirements of those funding the research.
There is debate in sociology about whether or not it can provide objective knowledge of societies and we shall be looking at this in Chapter 3. Scientists are emotionally detached from the objects of their research. The scientific laboratory experiment is typically seen as the ideal form of generating objective knowledge.Chapter 2: Sociological research person with sociological training should automatically be asking questions. It refers to individual’s perceptions. As Gordon (1992) observed: That objectivity cannot be attained is not a reason for disregarding it. Subjectivity and objectivity are very important terms in sociology. maybe kindness. There is nothing ‘wrong’ with subjective knowledge and understanding. opinions and preferences. there are also criteria against which sociological research can be evaluated and we are going to look at some of the most important ones here. maybe good looks. What qualities make someone attractive to you as a friend? Stop and think for a moment. opinion and prejudice. Standardisation Your mother is complaining about your behaviour again and she brings in evidence to support her complaints. But how are we to do this? Let me start by asking you a question. so I shall spend a little time explaining them. However. but whatever you have written down are criteria. She tells you that you’re not working hard enough at college and you’re rude to your father. However. it will also help you for the rest of your life. Perfect cleanliness is also impossible but it does not serve as warrant for not washing. as most sociologists believe. including their values. However. Can I trust this data? How was it collected? What definitions were used? How reliable was the collection? This is a valuable skill that will not only help you on the rest of this programme. Similarly. much less for rolling around in the manure pile [dirt]. maybe it is just that they look rich! It could be all sorts of things. Aims and criteria in research I have drawn attention above to the importance of evaluating both specific data and sociological research methods. Objective knowledge is knowledge that is more than personal perceptions. From subjectivity to objectivity The general aim of sociological research (and indeed all research) is to try to move from a subjective understanding to a more objective understanding of what we are studying. objectivity remains a goal of sociology and research has to provide an understanding of societies that goes beyond mere subjectivity. this raises the question of how researchers try to be more objective. Everyone – including the sociologist – draws on their subjective understanding to make sense of the world around them. This is where objectivity comes in. The aim of social research is to move from a subjective understanding to a more objective understanding of how societies work. sociologists have to provide knowledge of societies that is something more than their own opinions and prejudices. it is knowledge that is free from bias. sociologists should aim to do the same. Maybe it is intelligence. Subjective knowledge is literally knowledge belonging to the subject. even if sociology cannot be truly objective. or benchmarks. All that she says 39 . by which you are likely to judge people. to justify itself as an academic subject. maybe sense of humour.
sociologists may be surprised by what they discover. The findings of the original research may be unusual. However. However. So if. it does not necessarily make it the ‘wrong’ choice. the data collection will be less standardised than the questionnaire data. There are many reasons for doing this. which is very close to reliability. sociologists may also have to compromise on key research criteria. This means that rather than having their views consistently confirmed by the evidence. One way of trying to avoid such subjectivity is to standardise the collection and organisation of data by making research as systematic and consistent as possible. instead of giving out questionnaires. even if we record our observations as systematically as we can. such as knowledge of how students actually behave in class. even though my subjective view is that sociology is a fascinating subject and they should all love it. for example. This is typical of the way we behave in everyday life. She only refers to things that support the point she is making. Here. this suggests that researchers have been able to detach themselves from the object of their research – indicating objectivity. Therefore. The researcher will have to make compromises when doing research. but her use of evidence is highly selective. It may well bring benefits. the data collection is standardised: that is. Sociological research cannot – or certainly should not – be carried out in this way. just as a person choosing friends may have to sacrifice one desired criterion. We tend to look mainly for things that confirm what we believe. we observe sociology classes and talk informally to students. although this observational approach does not do so well in terms of the criterion of standardisation. Reliability Reliability is concerned with the question of whether research is repeatable and is most commonly used in relation to quantitative research (see below). that would not be obtained by a standardised questionnaire-based study. even to the point of having their favoured theories challenged or overturned. This criterion is important because people have more confidence in research that can be repeated and the results checked out. it is done in a consistent fashion. or a researcher may want to find out if the same results still apply after a time lag. is when one researcher chooses to repeat the research of another. So. The reliability of a test employed in research is the extent to which repeated measurements using this test (under the same conditions) produce the same results. a majority of students tell me that they dislike sociology and find it ‘very boring’ I am stuck with the results. such as a sense of humour and lots of money. supposing we choose an alternative method and. such as kindness. If we use a questionnaire and give it to all students taking sociology. We can illustrate this point from our earlier example of studying sociology students.21 Principles of sociology may be true. there is more risk of our subjective view influencing the data. This means there is less opportunity for the researchers simply to take data that suits their own point of view. in order to obtain others. Replication. If sociologists simply grab at evidence that supports their favourite point of view then their accounts of social life would be highly subjective. We won’t be able to remember everything and we can’t even write down everything we do remember. 40 . If the research is repeatable and produces the same results each time.
However. (By the way. arguing that they do not really measure natural intelligence as they 41 . don’t worry. In other words. facts are facts. with the most reliable method given 1 and the least reliable given 3. explained how they were asked. It is now common practice for many researchers to leave the various records of their work in research archives for other researchers to examine and possibly replicate. it is constructed through the ideas being used by the researcher. We can illustrate this problem with a further example from our study of students taking sociology. sociological thinking shows it is not quite that simple. In sociology it has a slightly more specific meaning. some people have questioned the construct validity of IQ tests. (For example. aren’t they? As we shall see in more detail in the next chapter.Chapter 2: Sociological research Activity 2. Construct validity is concerned with whether data represents what it is supposed to represent. The data that sociologists (and other researchers) collect is not simply ‘discovered’.ac. Grade these methods in terms of their reliability. if interview methods were used. We could use standardised IQ (intelligence quotient) tests that are designed to measure people’s natural intelligence. Can you think of three reasons why another researcher might want to replicate our study in five years’ time? Transparency Transparency means that a researcher has shown exactly how the research was done. a lot of original research from British sociological studies is stored at the University of Essex in England and can be accessed at8 www. we wanted to measure the students’ intelligence to see if there was a relationship between natural intelligence and exam results. indicated the numbers of people who replied and so on. If possible. we are trying to choose between three different methods: • spending time with the students and observing their activities • using a standardised questionnaire given to all the students • conducting informal interviews with students at break times. this isn’t really the case!) Supposing. Validity The textbooks and your Statistics unit will list many forms of validity but in everyday language something is valid if it is believed to be reasonable or well founded. the research methods are transparent if the researcher has provided the questions. how justified are we in drawing these conclusions from this data? From this basis we can distinguish between construct validity. this may seem a strange criterion. Research example: construct validity The second question we were asked to look at by the university was the wide variation in grading in sociology exams. internal validity and ecological validity. the transcriptions or tape recordings should also be available.uk. For example. The issue of validity is concerned with the correspondence between a piece of data and the conclusions that are drawn from it. and these ideas are open to question.) For research to be reliable and replicable the research methods must be transparent. Rather. At first reading. How can data not be what it is? After all. in exploring this question.data-archive.2 Reliability and replication In our research example of what students think about studying sociology.
‘Have I understood this?’ This is why attempting the third question is particularly important. Activity 2. such a conclusion might not be justified. a researcher may claim that (a) causes (b). We might then conclude that there is a relationship – or correlation – between ethnicity and educational achievement. They have less money for books. Internal validity is concerned with whether the conclusion that is drawn about the relationship between two or more different things is justified. 42 . However. on average. less space at home to study and the have to work longer hours outside college to afford the fees. For example. ‘Have I learned this?’ but rather. the relationship between (a) and (b) may be the result of something else. they may not be a valid measures of intelligence. might show that students in the ‘underachieving’ ethnic group B are also. Therefore. Suppose we find that students from ethnic group A get higher marks on average than students in ethnic group B. • What is the difference between construct validity and internal validity? • Can you think of another imaginary example of how a study might lack either construct or internal validity? Check your answers with this subject guide and your sociology textbooks.3 Reliability and construct and internal validity Without looking back: • Try to explain the difference between reliability and validity. Again we can illustrate this with a problem from our study of sociology students. This is a criterion that is much more specific to sociology than to the other social sciences. Some of you will have sociology teachers. because being able to answer it shows understanding. Further research. So although IQ data may well be reliable. they will help you with things you don’t understand. However. much poorer. we can illustrate ecological validity with an example and an activity from our study of sociology students. We shall be looking at reliability and validity again.21 Principles of sociology favour middle-class children over working-class children and favour abstract thinking skills as opposed to practical skills. The question you should be asking yourself is not. You will also have encountered these ideas when you studied 04A Statistics 1. Research example: internal validity We were also asked to see if there was any relationship between students’ social background and their exam performance. Although they are not there to ‘spoon-feed’ you with the answers. Ecological validity The criterion of ecological validity is concerned with whether the results of social scientific research are actually applicable to the reality of people’s everyday lives. Don’t worry if you are finding some of this puzzling. with researchers using the same methods getting the same results. we might conclude that differences we observed are the results of relative poverty rather than ethnicity and the original conclusion lacks internal validity. Again.
there are similarities between going on holiday and doing research. But.Chapter 2: Sociological research Research example: authenticity/ecological validity We saw earlier that if we give the same questionnaire to all the students taking sociology. Therefore. the data we obtain may not reflect how things really are. some sociologists would claim that this research has limited authenticity. it is always helpful to start thinking about things in advance. can you think of some limitations with this method? We shall be looking at observational methods in more detail later in the section but. Another way to explore this question is to go into the classes and observe them. students may give me the answers they think I want to hear and say nice things about sociology in spite of what they really think. However. there is not necessarily always a ‘right’ option. the interview method doesn’t really tell us how they really behave in day-to-day classroom situations. it’s just down to the researcher’s preferences. Sometimes.3 Research designs: planning and choice What is a research design? It’s very rare just to drop everything and dash off on holiday. Planning and undertaking research involves making strategic decisions and these decisions are influenced by a number of factors. We could interview students about this issue. Some methods work better than others for some problems. 2. Similarly a sociologist can’t just suddenly start doing research. Holidays are usually planned in advance. Although doing sociological research never felt much like a holiday to me. Even if students answer our questions honestly and frankly. standardisation. but first we have to look at how research is planned and carried out. Some of the key criteria by which research studies and research methods can be evaluated are objectivity. Some think validity is the most important criterion in social research while others argue that standardisation and reliability are more important. the data collection is both standardised and reliable. Sociological research often involves making choices between the different options. They lack authenticity. Activity 2. You will be expected to show both knowledge and critical understanding of some of the main research techniques in sociology and be able to see how sociologists apply these techniques in their research. Research journeys also need to be planned and organised in advance. Both of them usually involve going on a ‘journey’ to somewhere 43 . However. going back to the criteria outlined in the previous section. transparency and validity. This may well give us more ecologically valid data. but can you think of a problem with using interview methods here? Students may give us socially acceptable answers. reliability. We shall be looking further at these differences in Chapter 3.4 Ecological validity The final question the university wanted addressing was how students from different backgrounds relate to each in other in sociology classes. Summary Research is the systematic investigation of a problem. or they may exaggerate the amount of work they do. For example. as we have noted.
What we call a research design is the process of translating a researcher’s original ideas and interests into a researchable ‘journey’. However. One of the ways they try to do this is by using theoretical categories called concepts.21 Principles of sociology different. Your account would also be very different from those of other students. Different social class groupings can be identified in a society 44 . Therefore. or why societies change in the way they do. even when you were writing about the same incident. in the same way as travel itineraries provide frameworks for holidays. like everyone else. such as why societies are different from each other. You will know from your own experience that some groups in your society have more wealth and opportunity than other groups. and the selection process is shaped by people’s subjective views of what they consider to be important and interesting. a sociologist who is interested in how a society has changed in the last 25 years cannot possibly study every change. Social classes are groups of people who share a similar economic position in a society. as we have already observed. It is the researcher’s questions that give research its sense of purpose and direction. They are clearly defined categories given to aspects of the social world that have significant common features. or approaches. we start by examining some of the key choices facing researchers and then we look at some of the most commonly used research designs. Concepts are the most important tools of social research. why social groups within the same society have different life chances. they are influenced by their subjective views. It involves making a number of strategic decisions and provides an overall framework for the research. people’s accounts of things tend to be different because they are selective reconstructions of a set of real events. the sociologist’s general questions need to be narrowed down into something that can actually be researched. In this section. researchers have to move beyond their own subjective views and provide more objective accounts of social life. Concepts are the theoretical tools sociologists use to describe and explain the social world. Concepts and conceptual thinking If you were asked to write an account of a particular day at your college. They will have to narrow this down into something manageable by focusing on specific changes in particular institutions. Research always begins with questions. You might choose to write about different things. in sociology. work and leisure activities. For example. They are the building blocks around which theory and research are organised. But how can we study this systematically? Social class is one of the concepts used in sociology to simplify the infinite complexities of social inequalities. They also have to select evidence in their accounts of social life and. Sociologists ask all sorts of questions about social life. We can illustrate this by looking at researching social and economic inequality through the concept of social class. depending on what you felt was important and. It is much the same for researchers. This is because there are many things you would simply not know about. your account would actually be a simplified version of what ‘really’ went on. such as family life. This means they have to find ways of making the selection process more systematic and standardised. Holidays begin with a desire to take time out and go somewhere. and research begins with the desire to find something out. However. you would probably interpret it differently.
That is. administrators Clerical workers. sociologists do not all agree about how things like ‘class’ should be defined or measured. Semi-professional 3. Unskilled Example Operationalising Doctors. theoretical term and sociologists wanting to do quantitative research have to find ways of measuring. See Figure 2. whereas attendance.3: Conceptual analysis example: social class and educational achievements Concepts are the most important aspect of research design. Skilled/intermediate 4. Semi-skilled 5. it is important to note that concepts are contested categories. people who share a similar economic market position Indicator Occupational ranking For example: 1. educational achievements and life expectancy. or operationalising. These operationalising devices are called indicators. reliable and potentially replicable. For example.3. For example.2). Concept Social class That is. the concept. Concept 1 Social class Concept 2 Educational achievement 1 Theoretical framework 2 Operationalisation 3 Theoretical analysis of results Indicator Parents’ occupational ranking Indicator School grades. electricians Bus drivers. the sociologist is able to examine the relationship between ‘class’ and ‘educational performance’ in a way that is standardised. technicians. political beliefs. However. 45 . would have to find indicators of these concepts. qualifications Statistical correlations Figure 2. they shape it and this is one of the main ways that theory is linked to research. a sociologist wanting to explore the relationship between the concepts of ‘class’ and ‘educational achievement’. As occupation is the major source of income for most people. postal workers Cleaners. They define what the sociologist studies and provide the basis for organising and presenting data. senior managers Teachers. labourers Figure 2. most sociologists have typically used various forms of ‘occupational ranking’ as indicators of class (see Figure 2. reports and academic qualifications gained at school can be used as indicators of educational success. sociologists have explored relationships between people’s social class and their values. social class is an abstract.Chapter 2: Sociological research and this can provide a basis for exploring patterns of inequality.2: Concepts and indicators: measuring social class By looking at rates of educational performance in each occupational group. Professional 2. in much the same way that the mercury in the thermometer measures the concept of temperature. The important thing to understand here is that concepts do not just reflect data. In this context.
In very simple terms. it can also reflect different theoretical approaches to sociological research (as we shall see later in Chapter 3). Quantitative research designs have a number of important advantages. For example. a descriptive study of social change might ask how family life. quantitative data can be measured whereas qualitative data cannot. For example. a descriptive study might suggest explanations that are then ‘tested’ by further explanatory research (see Figure 2. See if you can think of some before reading further. Explanatory research asks why something happens and identifies possible ‘causal mechanisms’. an explanatory research study of social change might ask why family life. whereas exploring the inner world of a religious cult or a criminal gang will almost certainly require a qualitative design.4: Deductive and inductive research Quantitative and qualitative research designs Another important distinction is between quantitative and qualitative research designs. this means that a researcher is testing a theory. Explanatory research studies are more likely to be deductive. However.4). 46 . For example. Deductive: Inductive: Theory Observations Theory Observations Theory Observations Observations Theory Figure 2. but the term has much wider implications (see below). Descriptive research studies are more likely to be inductive. For example. this means that a researcher may draw out possible explanations from their observations. many move between the two. Although there are sociological studies that are either purely deductive or inductive. Descriptive research is about trying to construct a much clearer and more comprehensive picture of how something works. Sometimes a researcher’s decision to use quantitative or qualitative designs is shaped by the nature of the problem being researched. work and leisure have changed over the last 25 years. Quantitative data is closer to the scientific ideal of research.21 Principles of sociology Descriptive and explanatory research designs Research designs have many different purposes but an important distinction is whether the research is descriptive or explanatory. the decision to use quantitative or qualitative data does not just depend on the nature of the problem being investigated. or hypothesis. against the data. often on the basis of earlier exploratory studies. work and leisure have changed in the last 25 years. studying poverty levels in a society will almost certainly require a quantitative research design. Quantitative designs usually mean researchers are relatively detached from the people they are studying and it is less likely that their values will influence the research process.
happen. sociologists usually have some idea of what they are going to find from their research. The expected and the unexpected in social research We conclude this section where we started it by comparing the holiday and the research project. A quantitative research design using concepts and indicators in the way described above can provide valuable data about relationships between class background and education. such as economics and psychology. such as sandy beaches or snowy mountains. It can also be used to criticise the use of statistics in social research to see how they are socially constructed – see Chapter 4. The simple answer to this question is that there are many important sociological questions that simply cannot be answered with quantitative methods. We can illustrate this point by returning to our earlier example of the relationship between social class and educational achievement. Sociologists’ research designs provide the framework for the things they find out about social life. Stop and think for a moment: if quantitative research designs have all these advantages why isn’t all sociological research quantitative? After all. Can you think of some of the strengths of qualitative research designs? Qualitative data: • is more ecologically valid • provides knowledge of how people behave in their natural contexts • enables researchers to explore people’s experiences and the meanings they give to their actions and how they develop over time. So just as the holidaymaker expects certain things from their holiday. are based almost exclusively on quantitative methods. most holidaymakers narrow the possibilities of what might happen. section 4. measurement is synonymous with science and some social sciences. For example. The plans made in advance provide a framework for what actually happens. the holiday experience is a product of the unexpected and the expected. Much the same is true of research. Much the same is true of research. by planning a holiday and deciding to stay in a particular place at a given time of year. Qualitative research also allows us to examine the processes by which individuals and groups come to understand their roles and identities. You may be going to an unfamiliar place and unexpected things can. and often do. You are often surprised by some of the things you discover.3. reliability and transparency • give data more authority. Therefore. However. what is it actually like to be brought up in relative poverty or in relative affluence? How do pupils and teachers interact with each other in the classroom? These kinds of questions can really only be examined by qualitative research designs and strategies – such as making detailed observations of school life or interviewing people at great length – that bring researchers into much closer contact with those they are studying. 47 . There is usually a sense of adventure about going on holiday. But when it comes to trying to explain this relationship there are some questions that cannot be answered very well by quantitative research designs.Chapter 2: Sociological research Quantitative research designs: • enable relationships between variables to be documented systematically • are more likely to fulfil the key criteria of standardisation. especially with government departments and the media.
and researchers cannot collect data from everyone in the population. in sociology. Our brief trip through research designs has shown that what emerges as data in a research project is a product of the relationship between the researcher’s design and the intrinsic nature of what is being researched. Similarly. or approaches. They are used for simply collecting information. Surveys are usually – but not necessarily – quantitative.4 Major research designs in sociology Here we are going to develop the ideas of the previous section by introducing you to four of the major research designs. Surveys offer breadth of view at a specific point in time.) Researcher’s theory and design Data in the world Research data Figure 2. However. They are doing much more than this. Sociological thinking teaches us always to look behind the data to find out how it was produced. for example. 2.5: How research data is constructed This is why it is so important to know about research designs and research methods. the survey is a research design or strategy and not a research method. Survey data are most commonly collected by asking people questions. usually administered by questionnaires or face-to-face interviews. testing peoples’ opinions or attitudes and mapping out relationships between things in a quantifiable form. surveys try to map out aspects of the social world. By understanding how research was done. in social sciences. In geography. (See Figure 2. Simple random sampling means that everyone in the population has an equal (non-zero) chance of being selected. You will have studied this in unit 04A Statistics 1.21 Principles of sociology The really important lesson to learn from this comparison is that researchers are not just giving us information about what is happening in the social world. rather like a photograph of a landscape or townscape from a distance. Probability sampling means that the sample has been selected randomly. Sampling Survey research is usually undertaken in relation to large populations. 48 . They are shaping and organising it for us. and survey data can be collected through other methods such as using documents or making observations. Therefore they use a sample: this is a part of a population being studied. we are in a position to evaluate it. Surveys In everyday language to survey something is to take a general view.5. surveys map out a landscape or a town.
for example choosing any 110 girls and 88 boys. validity and reliability. Non-probability sampling means that the sample has not been selected using a random selection method and cannot be taken to represent the population as a whole. The subject guide for unit 04A Statistics 1 has more material on sampling. where a researcher makes contact with a small group.) A quota sample represents a group of people that a sociologist wants to make statements about. For example.Chapter 2: Sociological research Stratified random sampling is a special case of sampling. especially in terms of key variables such as age. if females outnumber males by four to one in a population then stratified random sampling will ensure that 80 per cent of those sampled are female. In non-probability sampling researchers will simply contact whom they can and this is known as convenience sampling. for example. ethnicity. crime and self-harm. The main reason for non-probability sampling is that the researcher doesn’t have enough information about the population being studied to construct a sampling frame as. (Figure 2. then the more confident the researcher will feel in generalising from the results.6.6: Types of sampling Cannot generalise statistically 49 . Population Sample Probability Non -probability Stratified random / random Convenience Snowball Quota Can generalise statistically Figure 2. Snowball sampling is a form of convenience sampling that is often used in research into very sensitive areas such as health problems or criminal activities. gender and professional status. Therefore if we were researching a school and we knew the population of the school contained 55 per cent of girls and 44 per cent of boys we would select a sample in proportion to these percentages. which means that every member of a population being studied has an equal chance of being selected in relation to their representation within the general population. They divide the population into parts on the basis of the population. gains their confidence and uses that to make further contacts and enlarge the sample. The more the sample surveyed represents the population being studied. class. in studies of drug use.
21 Principles of sociology Activity 2. Research example: Townsend (1979) on measuring poverty By the middle of the twentieth century it was widely believed that poverty had been virtually eliminated in Britain. illustrating how sociological research can influence public opinion and public policy. here the sample is the sample frame. This concept was measured by a number of indicators. it is because Townsend and the government statisticians were using different concepts of poverty. lack of fresh meat on a regular basis and an absence of household amenities such as a refrigerator or a bath. To study poverty a researcher has to have a concept of poverty. which was much higher than the government’s official figure of six per cent. We conclude this section with a real example of sociological survey research to illustrate some of the points that have been raised. A national census is a survey of the total population but it is not a sample because everyone is asked to provide information. So. health and educational research. being poor is having an income less than a certain level. • The lifestyle choices of footballers registered at your local football club. Townsend defined poverty in relative terms as the inability of people to participate in a substantial number of the activities and customs followed by the majority of the population. They calculated that almost 20 per cent of the population were living in poverty.5 Sampling Look at the four research topics listed below. This was not because the government statisticians made a ‘mistake’ and miscalculated their figures. It is not really a design in itself but is rather an addition to an existing design and is most frequently used in survey research when the samples being investigated are interviewed at different times.052 households. including the lack of a holiday in the last year. The government statisticians were using an absolute definition – that is. Which ones do you think a researcher would be able to study through probability sampling? • The future career ambitions of management students at the local university. The level of poverty in the UK was highly embarrassing to the government of the time and the book was credited with forcing the issue of poverty back onto the political agenda.000 adults living in 2. • Homeless people in your town or city. while Townsend was using a relative definition – that is. being unable to afford things that most people in a society consider normal. Taking a longitudinal approach is one of the ways sociologists document changes in individuals and organisations over time and is most frequently used in areas like child development. Longitudinal approaches A longitudinal research design involves collecting data from the same source at intervals over time. 50 . Peter Townsend and his associates set out to find out if this was really the case. • Victims of domestic violence. Is a national census a sample? • No. Townsend and his researchers then made a stratified random survey of over 6.
to see if they ‘work’ or to find out if one works better than another. is manipulated under controlled conditions to see if it produces a change in another factor. as a result of increased teacher expectations. turn back to the criteria outlined in section 2. One way round this problem is to use a ‘natural experimental design’ where a researcher makes use of some naturally occurring event that creates a quasi-experimental situation. and students had just been randomly assigned to the ‘highly intelligent’ group. Research example: Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968) on teacher expectations In this famous study the researchers were interested in whether teachers’ expectations influenced students’ performance. research designs that attempt to explore relationships between independent and dependent variables in more natural settings are becoming increasingly common in sociology. They also fulfil the criteria of reliability and transparency. but it has the advantage of high ecological validity as the events are occurring naturally. In fact no such test had been done. Here is an example. Smoking Independent variable Cancer Dependent variable Laboratory experiments are rare in sociology. Teachers were told that 20 per cent of students (the experimental group) had been identified as highly intelligent through intelligence tests whereas the rest (the control group) had ordinary abilities.2. Experimental research designs give researchers much greater control of the research situation. Nonetheless the classic experimental design is seen by some researchers as an important yardstick against which other methods can be assessed. Here is an example. The study showed how much teacher expectations influenced students’ educational performance. A natural experimental design has the disadvantage that the researcher has much less control over events. called an independent variable. However. the intelligence scores of the experimental group really increased in the short run.) • One criticism of field or quasi-experimental methods is that the data collection is often difficult to standardise. or ‘quasiexperimental’. (Looking back like this helps both understanding and revision. The aim is to see if there are differences in the behaviour of the experimental group and the control group. called a dependent variable. • Another criticism is that experiments may lack full ecological validity because although they usually take place in ‘real settings’ – such as the classroom in Rosenthal and Jacobson’s research – researchers actually change those settings so that they are not completely authentic. 51 . Can you think of any? If necessary.Chapter 2: Sociological research Experimental and evaluative research The laboratory experiment is the key method in scientific research. particularly in evaluative research. there are some criteria that they do not usually fulfil so well. Field. This involves establishing two broadly similar populations and introducing an independent variable to one group (the experimental group) but not to the other (the control group). such as crime prevention strategies or health promotion policies. The most common type of experimental research design uses a control group. In the experiment a possible causal influence. The aim of evaluative research is to examine different social programmes. However.
Ethics refer to responsibilities researchers have to the researched. they should be fully informed about the purpose of the research. The concerns expressed above are examples of ethical issues in social research. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 2. • The children’s educational environment was changed just to accommodate the experiment. Ethical considerations apply to all research.21 Principles of sociology Research example: Charlton et al. but can you think of any reasons why some might argue it should not have been done? • The teachers were being deceived about the true nature of the experiment.) 1. look back at the criteria discussed in section 2. Comparative research Another limitation of experimental research designs is that they are invariably small-scale. or suicide vary between societies – cannot be studied by experimental designs. give two reasons why you think this is so. unless it is unavoidable. if necessary. Ethical guidelines state that the subjects of research should not be harmed or have their lives disrupted in any way and.6 Experiments and ethics Laboratory experiments are rare in sociology. (Again. To date there is no evidence from the study that the introduction of television has caused more antisocial behaviour in children. To examine these larger cultural and historical questions.2. because the units of analysis are often whole societies. It was obviously a very valuable study. and particularly violence on television. The introduction of television to the island of St Helena in the south Atlantic in the 1990s provided natural experimental conditions to explore the effects of television on the island’s child population. or even groups of 52 . for producing antisocial and violent behaviour in children. (1998) on the coming of television Many people blame television. or cross-cultural. Activity 2. and ethical considerations have to be taken into account in planning research designs. questions that interest many sociologists – such as why societies change. Would the violence they would see on television cause them to behave more violently? Charlton and his associates monitored the viewing habits and subsequent behaviour of a large sample of children. Comparative research is much wider in scope than other research designs. researchers are more likely to use what is called a comparative. This means that many of the large-scale. but are most commonly raised in connection to experimental designs that often set out to manipulate people’s behaviour in various ways. Research ethics have to be balanced against the importance of the research findings and the possibility of doing the research in another way that doesn’t involve compromising ethical guidelines. research design. or micro. ethical guidelines mean that researchers cannot do anything they want in the name of research. crime. or why rates of health and illness. why societies are different from each other. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Look again at the famous school study by Rosenthal and Jacobson outlined on the previous page. Most people would consider Rosenthal and Jacobson’s research ethical because of its contribution to educational research and because the deception was unavoidable. However. or macro.
Chapter 2: Sociological research
societies, such as Western society or Latin America. Comparative research does not just mean comparing different societies or the same society over time. It involves searching systematically for similarities and differences between the cases under consideration. For example, in his comparative study of crime, the Australian sociologist John Braithwaite (1989) looked for similarities between countries with particularly high rates of crime, such as the USA and UK, and at how they were different from societies with low rates of crime, such as Japan. Braithwaite found that crime was lower in societies that tend to place collective interests over individual interests. Although comparative research usually uses secondary sources, such as historical documents or official statistics, research designs can still be organised in ways that resemble the logic of experimental comparisons between dependent and independent variables. This can be illustrated by looking at one of the most famous sociological studies of all time, Emile Durkheim’s comparative study of suicide Research example: Durkheim (1952) on suicide rates In his study of suicide, Durkheim used official suicide rates – that is the number of people per 100,000 committing suicide – as an indicator of different forms of social solidarity. Different countries and different social groups consistently produced different levels of suicide. But the data still had to be organised and analysed systematically. For example, the statistics showed that European countries that were predominantly Catholic, such as Italy, had much lower suicide rates than countries that were predominantly Protestant, such as Germany. But was this due to religion or national culture? In order to find out, Durkheim then looked at the suicide rates of Catholic and Protestant regions within the same countries. The fact that the Catholic rates were still much lower, even with nationality ‘controlled’, led him to conclude that the relationship between religion and suicide was real rather being an artefact (i.e. the result of some other cause).
The key idea behind ethnography is that as human behaviour is intentional, research should be orientated towards understanding the reasoning behind people’s actions. This is sometimes referred to as ‘verstehen’, a German word meaning empathetic understanding. Ethnography is usually based on detailed case studies of particular groups, organisations or individuals, and uses methods such as observations, long conversational interviews and personal documents, that bring researchers into close contact with the everyday lives of those they are studying. Research reports are in the form of a narrative, with key evidence, such as detailed descriptions of particular episodes being reproduced to illustrate the point the researcher is making. Research example: Taylor (1982) on suicidal behaviour Taylor’s ethnographic study of suicide can be compared with Durkheim’s statistical and comparative approach. For Taylor, the flaw in Durkheim’s brilliant study was his assumption that suicide could be explained sociologically without reference to the intentions of suicidal individuals. Using a combination of interviews with people who survived suicide attempts and documentary sources, Taylor attempted to piece together a picture of the context of suicidal actions from the victim’s point of view. So, whereas the units of analysis in Durkheim’s comparative study were populations, such as nations or religious groups, the units of analysis in Taylor’s ethnographic study were individual case studies.
21 Principles of sociology
This research suggested that we should change the way we think about suicide. Most suicidal acts were not attempts to die so much as desperate gambles with death where suicidal individuals were uncertain as to whether they wanted to live or die. Therefore, the question was not just why do people kill themselves, but why do so many more risk their lives in these ‘games’ of chance. Observations about how people actually think and behave in real situations can only come from ethnographic research.
Here we have looked at four of the main research designs, or approaches, in sociology. Survey research is the systematic gathering of information about individuals and groups at a given time. Experimental designs attempt to manipulate one variable to examine its effect on another. Comparative research focuses on similarities and differences between different societies or social groups. Ethnography focuses on how people think and act in their everyday social lives. There are, of course, other research designs and sociologists often combine different aspects of the different approaches. However, the main point here has been to show you that not all sociologists take the same approach in their research.
2.5 Research methods
What are research methods?
Research methods are techniques used for collecting data. There are many different types of data in sociological research, but an important distinction is between primary and secondary data. Primary data is information that researchers collect for themselves by, for example, interviewing people or observing them. Secondary data is information that is already in existence before the research starts. For example, a researcher may make use of government statistics or monitor the content of newspapers, magazines or TV programmes. Although some sociology textbooks use the umbrella term ‘Methods’ to describe the entire research process, it is important to distinguish between research design and research methods. Sociologists have a range of research methods to choose from, each with their advantages and limitations, and they have to work out which methods best fulfil the aims of their research design. Methods are about the practical part of research, and sociologists don’t just have to work out what method they are going to use. They also have to work out how best to implement it. For example, suppose I have decided to use an interview method. I still have to decide if I’m going to do it by telephone or face-to-face. If it’s face-to-face, I still have to work out how to record the data. If I’m constantly scribbling notes or using a tape recorder it may intimidate interviewees and prevent them from saying what they really think. But if I conduct the interview more like a natural conversation, it may be difficult to recall enough of what the interviewees say. However – and this is important and less obvious – sociologists’ decisions are not just influenced by practical or technical concerns. They are also influenced by theory. This is because methods are not simply neutral research tools, as if they were methodological hammers or screwdrivers. As we shall see, each of them involves making theoretical assumptions about the nature of the social world and how we understand it. We shall be examining this in more detail in Chapter 3. Therefore, sociologists not only have to work out which methods will work best for which research problems, they also have to decide which methods
Chapter 2: Sociological research
best fit their theoretical views of what societies are and how we should be finding out about them. When you write about methods you will be expected to know: • the key sociological methods and their relationship to research design • their strengths and limitations taking into account both practical and theoretical considerations • how they are linked to different theoretical viewpoints in sociology. In this section we shall be more concerned with explaining and evaluating research methods.
Primary research methods
Asking people questions in social research One of the ways sociologists try to find out about the social world is to ask people questions. This can be done by: • asking people to fill in questionnaires • telephone or Internet1 • formal face-to-face interviews • asking questions informally in the context of field work. There are many different types of interview methods in sociology but the most important distinction is between structured and unstructured interviews. Although sociologists sometimes use a combination of interview methods in their research, we shall look at them separately to clarify the distinctions between them. Structured interviews and questionnaires The structured question format is the most popular method of asking questions in sociological research and is the most commonly used method in survey research. In the structured interview, or questionnaire, interviewees are asked a set of identical questions in exactly the same way. They are usually asked to select their answers from a limited range of options, and these are known as ‘closed’ questions (see Figure 2.7). Q. How would you rate your sociology lecturer? Tick the answer closest to your view:
You will find that an increasing amount of research is conducted online, including research by the University of London.
Excellent Quite good Don’t know/neutral Quite poor Useless.
Figure 2.7: Structured interview for a class studying sociology
Structured interviews have a number of advantages over other methods of asking questions. Information from a large number of people can be obtained relatively quickly and cheaply, the data can be quantified and the researcher is more detached from the process of data collection. Activity 2.7 Structured interviews Data from the structured interview fulfils some of the key criteria outlined in the first part of this section. Look back to section 2.2 and see if you can identify which ones they are.
However. Try to think of some different meanings the word ‘excellent’ could have in this context.21 Principles of sociology However. using language. section 4. Some of the students may have said that their teacher is ‘excellent’. The data collection is not standardised and is thus hard to generalise from and. • The problem of depth and ecological validity. the data will lack construct validity. In sociological terms. As researchers are detached from the people they are studying. Another limitation of the structured interview method is that it lacks depth. The effectiveness of unstructured. Why do you think this is? • The meaning problem. They are also normally more valid as they give greater insight into the meanings of a subject’s experiences. For example. but they are most frequently used in ethnographic research. and ultimately the reader. it is difficult for them to explore what their subjects actually mean and it is impossible for them to know how they actually behave in real situations. The aim of such interviews is to allow respondents to reconstruct their experiences in as much detail as possible. The problem here is that people who might mean very different things by ‘excellent’ would still be included in the same percentage figure. Stop and look again at the question reproduced above (Figure 2. It does not represent what it is supposed to represent – that is – a consistent and similar set of responses. The main reason for questioning the structured interview is found in what I’m doing now. and a major problem with the structured interview method is that the same word can mean different things to different people. an insight into how they experienced particular events. Unstructured interviews are also less reliable than structured interviews as the results cannot be quantified and re-tested. qualitative interviews often depends on the rapport and trust that is built up between researcher and respondent. my lecturer: is inspiring and makes the subject interesting is easy-going and doesn’t mind if you don’t hand in any essays is a nice person looks good. as there is usually far too much data to reproduce in full. Unstructured interviews have more depth and flexibility than structured interviews. 56 . they also have important limitations.3 that unstructured interviews can allow the researcher to understand the processes by which people came to understand social situations. Unstructured interviews are sometimes used in survey designs. some sociologists are very critical of the widespread use of structured interviews in sociology. Unstructured interviews One way round some of the limitations of the structured interview is to use an unstructured interview. Therefore. this means that it is low in ecological validity. giving the researcher. You will see in Chapter 4. To write an interview question I have to use words. readers are dependent on the researcher’s selection of data.7). there is no set interview structure and interviewees answer in their own words. Unstructured interviews are more like ordinary conversations. in spite of its benefits.
sociologists have to find ways of getting into the groups or organisations they wish to study and this may take a lot of friendly persuasion. and unstructured questions to probe deeper into people’s experiences. such as age or income. This is easier said than done. Alternatively. it uses a combination of both. the research work involves detailing observations. learning their language and customs in order to document ways of life that were disappearing with colonisation and the relentless advance of industrialisation. A great deal of psychological research has shown just how unreliable memory can be. as children who had been brought into care because 57 . observation can be structured or unstructured. and most of them use a method called participant observation where the researcher participates directly in the life of the people being studied. However. Michelle Stanworth (1983) systematically recorded the amount of direct contact time teachers give to male and to female students. I watched. Researchers using observational methods do not have to rely on what people say they do. despite their many benefits.Chapter 2: Sociological research Limits of all interview methods Some sociologists use a combination of structured and unstructured interviews in their research on a ‘horses for courses’ principle. However. • With all interviews (structured. using structured questions to obtain factual information. Like interviews. For example. as part of her research on gender and schooling. there are certain limitations with all interview methods. subjects may be given certain tests or tasks to do as part of an experiment and the researcher systematically records the results. then they have to go and take a look. • People may simply have problems in recalling information accurately. Once established. Like anthropologists. 1989). Structured observations are most commonly associated with experimental or evaluative research designs. I described this process in relation to research I did on social workers’ management of cases of child abuse (Taylor. They can see for themselves. This technique was first used by Western anthropologists who joined tribal societies. It requires both an attachment to and a detachment from those you are studying. For example. that is. but interviewees are given space (in questionnaires) or time (in face-to-face interviews) to elaborate on their answers. Structured observation can also take place in naturalistic settings. I regularly encountered forms of cruelty to children I hardly thought were possible. amazed. persistence and the cultivation of helpful contacts. This means that interviewees may give the more ‘socially acceptable’ answer. As a student of child abuse. the vast majority of observational research studies in sociology are unstructured. listening to what is being said and asking questions. If researchers want to find out how people really behave in their daily lives. or semi-structured. unstructured or semi-structured) researchers are dependent on what people tell them. they may use semi-structured interviews where the questions are closed. Observational methods Watching people is another important way that sociologists find out about social life. or they answer a question in the way they think the interviewer wants. • There is something known as the interview effect.
Neither of these reactions is suitable for the sociological observer.58–59 Participant observation is the method most commonly used in ethnographic research designs and you will find that some textbooks treat ethnography and participant observation as if they were the same. Some of the most vivid and interesting studies in sociology have used participant observation. There is a richness of detail in participant observation research that tends to be lacking in other methods and I have to confess it has always been my favourite research method. In participant observation sociologists are able to see for themselves how people behave in their natural contexts. Activity 2. schools. 2 2 Taylor (1989) pp. and sometimes has to. If this happens. Maybe you were missing the cues or maybe people were deceiving you? Take a moment and write down your answers to these questions before moving on. This authentic knowledge and the depth and detail it provides mean that data from participant observation usually fulfils the key criterion of validity far better than data obtained from other methods. On the other hand. try to identify some of the reasons. It was as if nothing that happened to children could surprise them any more. be done by other methods. I have seen social workers and police having to drag screaming children away from their parents. Participant observation can be used in experimental designs and ethnographic research can. For example. However. this is not strictly accurate. on street corners and in public toilets. clubs. and the researcher is not seeing the subjects 58 . section 4. and they’ve joined political parties.21 Principles of sociology they had been abused. criminal gangs and religious cults.8 ‘Telling it as it is’ Stop and think for a moment about the claim that being somewhere allows you see things as they are.3. sociologists have worked in factories. all in the name of research. they’ve made observations in clinics. and the less you will see of what is going on around you. the researcher should take nothing for granted. the professional social workers remained detached and unemotional. While a ‘lay’ person witnessing such things would probably react emotionally. but rather be surprised and intrigued by what is observed. Do you think participant observation always ‘tells it like it is’ or do you think there may be some problems with this view? Can you think of times in your life when you have found yourself participating in social situations without really knowing what is going on? If so. ran with open arms to hug the ‘abusing’ parents who had been allowed to visit them. the more you will write about your own values and reactions. In essence. used to claim that participant observation ‘tells it like it is’. such as unstructured interviews or documents. this means that those being observed may change their behaviour simply because they are being studied. It also offers flexibility and can provide the basis for inductively generating new theoretical explanations. The idea that participant observation ‘tells it like it is’ is challenged by something known as the observer effect. We will be discussing the Chicago School in Chapter 4. which encouraged observational work and despatched its sociologists into every corner of the city. The famous ‘Chicago School’ of sociology. the more you let your own values and feelings take over. while it is impossible to keep your values out of research. offices. On the one hand. prisons and mental hospitals. call centres.
For example. Participant observation methods also tend to be unreliable.Chapter 2: Sociological research of the research as they really are but as they want to be seen. Sometimes researchers try to get round this problem by using covert observational methods and concealing their true identity from the group being studied. For example. and a comparative study of unemployment based on official statistics that have been compiled in different ways will be neither standardised nor valid. divorces. because it is often based on a single case study or a small and non-representative sample. a national census is held in developed countries. This ‘undercover’ research raises ethical issues. For example. Secondary sources A great deal of sociological research involves the analysis of secondary data. in his classic study of a state mental hospital in the United States. Two of the most important sources of secondary data are official statistics and documents. Goffman (1987) worked as a games teacher in the institution. The analysis of official statistics The term official statistics refers to the mass of data collected by the state and its various agencies. It is also time consuming and. usually every 10 years. economic organisations and voluntary agencies provide important sources of statistical information. enable comparisons to be made and help document important changes in societies and social groups over time. State sources also regularly produce economic statistics on patterns of employment and unemployment. They are social constructions that reflect the conceptual categories and bureaucratic procedures through which they are collected. A problem for sociologists wanting to use official statistics is that classification and collection procedures can vary both between different societies and within the same society over time. as well as publishing rates of crime. suicides and the like. However. and it has the limitation that the researcher is unable to ‘stop the action’ and ask questions freely and openly. Furthermore. This may include data from previous research but it is mainly material that is not specifically produced for research and this has important implications for the sociologist. sexuality. They are plentiful. income and expenditure. illness. 59 . they can provide a picture of a society at a given time. then the ecological validity of the research is compromised. some governments often change the way in which unemployment is classified. other organisations such as hospitals. sociologists have to approach the analysis of official statistics cautiously. cheap and available. In addition to state-generated data. selection of data is very much dependent on the researcher’s subjective views of what should (and should not) be included. data not generated by the researcher. it is hard to generalise from the results. especially in large-scale comparative research designs. This provides information about the composition of the population in terms of factors such as births. Official statistics are a major source of information for sociologists and are widely used. ethnicity and the structure of families. there are many areas of social life – domestic violence. suicide and childhood experiences – that cannot usually be studied in this way. that is. data collection is not standardised and. as those being studied have not given their consent to the research. marriages. They are not self-evident ‘facts’ simply waiting for researchers to use. while Holdaway (1983) made a study of the police force he was serving in at the time. like the unstructured interview.
legal reports. • Sociologists should never use official statistics. Official reports. • Townsend’s research on poverty showed that the official statistics were wrong. diaries. magazines. newspapers. rates of immigration. then the data will still be valid. art works 60 . The analysis of documents is the major method used in comparative and historical research designs. reports from journals. These statistics give a much more accurate estimate of the level of crime than the official crime rates. because they are not valid. government reports. • If a researcher who is comparing different sets of official statistics is sure that they have been compiled in much the same way. records from schools. or should not.21 Principles of sociology Another problem with official statistics may be under-reporting. Documents can be classified in many ways but a useful classification is: • official documents: for example. and even graffiti scrawled on a wall. letters. death rates and murder rates are taken to be accurate representations of the true numbers. for example. For example. • Not all official statistics have the problems of classification and underreporting outlined above. are examples of documents. crime. illness and suicide – are far lower than the real levels. emails. in many societies. For example. what you write in your diary or in letters to friends might be a more valid representation of how you think and act than what you tell me in an interview.9 Official statistics Critically evaluate the following statements: • Government statistics have shown that there has been a sharp rise in crime this year. for example. These observations do not mean that sociologists cannot. use official statistics. TV programmes.50) The analysis of documents In its widest sense a document simply means anything that contains text. where a random sample of the population are asked if they have been the victims of crime. when writing about the limitations of official statistics. Activity 2. companies’ profits. some of which can offset the limitations of the others. do not simply state. • Researchers have access to different data sets. films. Therefore. personal assets. films. It is much better to say they ‘may lack validity’ and then go to explain why this could be the case. law courts. but documents are also widely used in ethnographic research. Therefore. (Look back to the example of Townsend’s research on p. could mean either that crime has risen or it could simply mean that more crime has been reported and recorded. birth rates. photographs. Documents are used when subjects cannot be observed or interviewed. company accounts • cultural documents: for example. an increase in the official crime rates. newspapers. For example. hospitals. It is generally accepted that official statistics – such as those recording people’s incomes. many governments undertake annual victim surveys. but it would be wrong to see them merely as a substitute for primary data. that they ‘lack validity’. magazines.
150 a month in state benefits and live rent free.10 Content analysis Imagine you are doing a content analysis study of the news programmes on your local TV stations. look at the following news item from a British newspaper. exaggerated. international news stories. said he would not take the job in case his state benefits were cut. Activity 2. write down what you think are the advantages and limitations of this approach. They are now demanding a bigger house when their new baby arrives in October. Dad of 5 Turns Down First Job A jobless teenager about to become a dad for the fifth time was offered a job yesterday – and turned it down. It is possible here to interpret an underlying sub-text of statements and questions that help to give the story a framework and a much wider meaning. diaries. documentary methods use qualitative techniques to explore the meanings of texts. or it could mean looking beneath the actual words or images. national c. For example..Chapter 2: Sociological research • personal documents: for example. rather than documents derived from earlier sources. 23. in 1983 the German magazine Stern paid seven million marks (£2 million) for 60 volumes of Hitler’s diaries after they had been ‘authenticated’ by several eminent historians. researchers usually examine a number of documentary sources looking for accounts that confirm. or sub-text? The story is not just about Mike and Kathleen. Mike B. In structured. To illustrate this latter approach. looking at the proportions of time given to: a. This may involve examining the literal meaning of the document. The diaries were being sold round the world when it was revealed that they had not been written by Hitler. or simply false. or corroborate. or content analysis sociologists systematically analyse documents in terms of certain pre-determined criteria. local b. sexuality or stereotyping in programmes. but by a former waiter and window cleaner called Konrad Kujau! Another question researchers have to consider is the validity of the document’s content. But what else do you think the story is saying? Can you see a hidden meaning. Another important question in the context of authenticity is whether or not a document is a forgery. Mike and his wife Kathleen. On the surface this is simply an account of a young man with four children who turned down a job. documentary methods can be structured or unstructured. letters. who has never done a day’s work. For example. or textual. written by people who witnessed something personally. A document may be both authentic and first hand but. Like interviews and observational methods. Even with relatively recent documents this is not always clear. emails. Unstructured. 19. to interpret the contexts that give them meaning.2. Using the criteria outlined in Section 2. Researchers generally prefer first-hand accounts. Therefore. each other. researchers might monitor the output of TV stations at regular intervals to calculate the proportion of violence. the content may be distorted. Look back at the 61 . A key question in documentary research is the authenticity of the document. for various reasons. receive £1. and any other material you think is relevant here.
Audience: • People who work for a living and pay taxes. been anorexic or been abused in their childhood provide an invaluable source of information for sociologists researching these areas.8: Research design and research methods (or the research design– method relationship) Although I have looked at the major methods separately in order to explain them. societies. Many studies in sociology. Selection of methods In practice sociologists will select the methods that best fulfil the aims of the research design and there are usually clear relationships between research designs and research methods. researchers will usually use more than one method to fulfil different aims of the research design. documents Participant observation. Who do you think it is aimed at? What else do you think it is ‘saying’ other than what is in the text? What questions do you think it is raising? Here are some suggestions below. Often methods will be combined in a 62 . For example. unstructured interview. personal documents Figure 2. Research design Survey Experimental/ evaluative Comparative/cross cultural Ethnographic Typical subjects Samples of large populations Small groups of subjects Institutions. the autobiographical accounts by adults who have tried to harm themselves. particularly historical studies.11 Textual analysis Take a story from your local newspaper and see if you can interpret its underlying subtext. Vast amounts of information are held in documents. are based almost exclusively on documents. Documents can also be used when observational or interview methods are not possible because people cannot be contacted or observed.21 Principles of sociology story again. Underlying text: • Look how much money people on state benefits are paid! • If you have more children the state will find you a bigger house when other people have to earn more money to move to a bigger house Questions raised: • Do you think this is fair on people who work hard for a living? • Do you think the benefits system is encouraging some people not to work? Activity 2. groups of societies Case studies Typical methods Structured interview questionnaire Structured observation Official statistics. • People who ‘really’ need state benefits because they cannot work. many of which are easily accessible and in a form that can be examined and checked out by other researchers.
for example. Sometimes. Some of the most important ones are: • Access: sometimes sociologists cannot get access to the documents they want from an organisation or to the social group they want to observe. is ‘… choice or brainwashing?’. a term borrowed from navigation where the position of a ship is plotted from two fixed points. 1. when you join you do everything in utter obedience to me’. tells followers. ethical considerations might constrain research.12 Revision check In the above example there are four terms in bold type: • random sample • structured questionnaire • control group • participant observation. choice of research methods is influenced primarily by the aims of the research design.The sociological question she asked. She explored possible differences between Moonies and non-Moonies by giving structured questionnaires to a large sample of Moonies and to a control group of non-Moonies. She found that the Moonies chose to be members of the group. Barker found that were no significant personality differences between Moonies and non-Moonies and also little evidence of ‘brainwashing’. have followers and business interests all over the world. such as interviewing people who worked for the organisation or were members of the social group under consideration. 3. Write down what you understand by these terms and then check your answers by looking back at the subject guide and using your textbooks. However. ‘I am your brain. This is known as triangulation. • Ethics: as we have already observed. which is the subtitle of her book. she found that the Moonies had actively chosen to be Moonies. using questionnaires instead of detailed unstructured interviews. 63 .Chapter 2: Sociological research way where the strengths of one method can be used to offset some of the limitations of another. Eileen Barker wanted to find out what sort of people join the Moonies. the reverend Moon. Research example: Barker (1984) on the Moonies The Moonies. The founder. As I observed above. Activity 2. • Time and money: lack of time or funding means that researchers sometimes have to select the cheaper option. She explored these questions using three different methods. 2. whether they are different from ‘ordinary people’ and if they are ‘brainwashed’ by the organisation as many people believed. there are external factors that also have to be taken into consideration in planning and undertaking research. She carried out participant observation research in a number of Unification Church centres over a period of six years to see for herself the ways in which Moonies were controlled within the organisation. In spite of so much criticism of the Moonies in the press. She carried out detailed interviews with a random sample of Moonies to explore their motivations for joining. or Unification Church. so they have to find alternative methods. Eileen Barker’s study The Making of a Moonie (1984) is a classic example of the use of multiple methods in research. they are not always simply decided by what the researcher would like to do.
21 Principles of sociology • Funding body: sometimes the organisation funding the research will expect the research to be done in a certain way. Here we have looked at four of the major research methods: interviews. some organisations have a preference for quantitative rather than qualitative research.8. 64 . the analysis of official statistics and documents • how to approach questions on sociological research. official statistics and documents. there is one thing about which they have no choice. most researchers have choice and discretion about most aspects of a research project. If you would like to understand more about the history of sociology before you begin working on the subject in more detail. and the essential reading and activities. Summary Research methods refer to how data is collected. It is important to appreciate the strengths and limitations of each method. and that is that all research involves making theoretical assumptions about the nature of the social world. The various factors influencing selection of methods are summarised in Figure 2. for example. observations. you should have a clearer idea of: • the nature of sociological research and why it is important to know how research is done • the key criteria by which research is evaluated • what is meant by a research design and how the nature of the research design influences the data that is collected • the characteristics of survey. Researchers’ selection of methods is influenced by the nature of the problem. experimental. A reminder of your learning outcomes Having completed this chapter. Although it is important to mention the influence of external influences on research. theoretical preferences and by external constraints. you can turn to Chapter 4 now. comparative and ethnographic research designs • the key research methods: interviews. However. This is what we shall be examining in the next chapter. observation. they should not be exaggerated. Most of the time.
A. 2007) pp. J. we’ve looked at the questions sociologists ask about human societies (Chapter 1) and how they do research (Chapter 2). In this chapter we’re going to dig deeper and look at some of the different theoretical ideas underpinning sociological thinking and social research. as the very act of doing research involves making contested – that is. Plummer Sociology: a global introduction. J. but you must also supplement it with reading from your textbook. and having completed the essential reading and activities. New York: Longman. 65 . (London. 2005) pp. 2008) pp.15–17 and 24–27. (Harlow: Prentice Hall. you should have a clearer idea of: • how research is underpinned by theoretical ideas • what is meant by an ontology/epistemology problem in sociology • the key aspects of positivist theory • the interpretivist critique of positivism and the key aspects of interpretivist approaches in sociology • what is meant by realism in sociology and how realism is different from both positivism and interpretivism. The key pages in the textbooks we have recommended are: Fulcher.77–78 Macionis.50–57. Learning objectives By the end of this chapter. J. The philosophy of social research. Aims of the chapter The aims of this chapter are to: • develop the idea of methodology introduced in Chapter 2 • introduce you to ontological and epistemological issues in sociology • outline the key aspects of positivism • outline the key aspects of interpretivism • outline the key aspects of realism. 1997). and J.44–69 and (2008) pp. The key idea here is that there is no such thing as ‘theory-free’ research. Sociology. (Cambridge: Polity Press.Chapter 3: Theory and research Chapter 3: Theory and research Written by Dr Steve Taylor. Further reading It would also be helpful if you referred to: Hughes. Introduction So far. theoretical – assumptions about the nature of social reality and how we obtain knowledge of it. Essential reading The essential reading for this chapter of the unit is the subject guide. Giddens. and K. (Oxford: Oxford University Press. Scott Sociology.
what units make them up and how these units relate to each other. I. Ontology The term ontology originated in philosophy and is concerned with the essential nature of what is being studied. Here we are going to ‘unpick’ the idea of methodology and look at it in a little more detail. 66 .2 Ontology and epistemology are very important concepts in sociology (and in any other discipline) because they involve exploring the ‘core’ ideas and assumptions of the subject. (Oxford: Oxford University. Methodology = Principles + Methods Figure 3.halovine. Social research methods. is about developing the principles and practice of social research (see Figure 3. then. It is concerned with what societies are. interpretivism and realism. Video/DVD ‘Theory and methods’ [from 8 www. S. 2002) Chapter 1. T. The practical skills – which we looked at the previous chapter – involve things like gaining access to research sites and selecting the right methods for the research problem. Methodology is the analysis of these skills. This video/DVD may be helpful to you as it explains and illustrates the three major theories considered here: positivism. Methodology = Ontology + Epistemology + Methods Figure 3. Gieben (eds) Formations of modernity.1).com]. 2001) Part 1. As Pawson (1999. Social research: issues. subjecting them to critical scrutiny and considering alternatives. ‘Principles’.20) has observed. 2003) Chapter 11. May.1 Methodology revisited In Chapter 2 we introduced methodology as the study of the methods used by sociologists to find out about societies. p. Hamilton. The thinking skills – that we shall be more concerned with in this section – involve things like excavating the underlying theoretical assumptions on which research is based. can be divided into two further categories called ontology and epistemology (Figure 3. (Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan. Therefore.1 The middle term. Methodology.) Theory and practice in sociology. and B. ‘The Enlightenment and the birth of social science’ in Hall. The ‘special tools of inquiry’ involve a combination of thinking skills and practical skills. (Buckingham: Open University. Social theory: a basic tool kit. 2008) Part 1. Marsh. (Harlow: Prentice Hall.21 Principles of sociology Other relevant textbooks are: Bryman. 3. an ontological question in sociology addresses the essential nature of human societies.2). (Cambridge: Polity. the assertion that sociology provides some authoritative understanding of the working of the social world is based on usage of some special tools of inquiry. Parker J. A. (ed. 1992). methods and process.
sociologists have different ways of conceptualising these relationships. From this point of view. A cluster of approaches in sociology. Thus the focus tends to be on large-scale. as history books led people to believe. Durkheim’s famous study of suicide – looked at briefly in Chapters 2 and 4 – was an attempt to demonstrate that social groups with more integrating social structures (that is. However. sociologists should begin by studying individual social action and the meanings people give to these actions. where people are bound more closely together) have lower suicide rates. Weber disagreed with Marx that the rise of industrial capitalist 67 . Marx and Durkheim conceptualised societies this way. transmitted from one generation to the next. one key difference (that we shall be looking at in more detail in Chapter 4) is between sociologists who see societies as social structures and those who focus on social action. Many of those whose work helped to ‘found’ sociology in the nineteenth century viewed societies as social structures. its productive processes and its customs and values shape people’s life experiences irrespective of their conscious wishes. For example. the wealth of a society. section 4. as social forces that regulate people’s behaviour and bind them to each other through shared membership of social institutions. From this point of view differences in suicide rates were a consequence of different social structures rather than of the characteristics of individuals. the societies in which we live influence and constrain how we think and act. Sociologists adopting this approach try to show the ways that different social structures shape the behaviour of the individuals living within them. Marx claimed that social change was caused primarily by changes and resulting tensions in the underlying economic structures of societies rather than by the outcomes of battles or the decisions of a few powerful people. Durkheim took a different view of social structures. Sociological approaches that see values and beliefs as the ‘core’ elements of societies are called idealist. For example. section 4. Action theorists sometimes suggest that structural theories reduce people to the mere puppets of societies.2). both viewed people’s behaviour as the product of the structural organisation of societies. view the relationships between the individuals and societies rather differently. Sociologists who favour structural approaches conceptualise societies primarily as networks of social institutions and patterns of social relationships that are comparatively long lasting. loosely described as social action theories. sociology is about the relationships between individuals and societies. He saw the morals and values of a society. Both are ‘external realities’ that constrain people’s actions in various ways.) For example. there are similarities between the natural world and the social world. despite the differences between Durkheim’s idealist theory focused on cultural values and beliefs and Marx’s materialist theory based on economic production. For Marx. (We will be going into more detail into the theories when we look at Weber in Chapter 4. For example.2. Action theorists argue that as societies are produced by the intentional activities of people. social processes. (You will be reading about these sociological theories in more detail in Chapter 4. the key to understanding societies lay in their economic structures. This is known as a materialist view of societies. However. Just as gravity limits our power of movement. or macro.Chapter 3: Theory and research As we observed in Chapter 1.
as far as possible. it follows that epistemological questions in sociology are investigations into how sociologists justify the knowledge they are providing of social life. Therefore. Weber was able to highlight something absent in Marx’s theory – the relationship between religion and the rise of modern capitalism. there are those – sometimes referred to as antinaturalists – who argue that because nature and society are completely different from each other. An epistemology is a theory that presents a view of what can be regarded as knowledge rather than belief. sociology can develop methods of investigation based on the logic of experimentation and measurement found in the natural sciences. A major epistemological debate in sociology concerns the similarity of sociological knowledge and scientific knowledge. sociology requires a very different approach from that of the natural sciences. This will affect the way that they believe that they can understand and know about the world. This point of view holds that. Whereas some sociologists argue that researchers should remain as detached as possible from the subjects of inquiry. which we looked at briefly in Chapter 1. version of this epistemological position holds that you actually have to be a member of the social group being studied. Another related epistemological question concerns what is called the subject/object dilemma. the principles and methods of the natural sciences have little or no application to the study of social life. more disciplined work ethic and the tendency of so many of the early industrial capitalists to work long hours and reinvest. He argued that this theory did not explain the motivation behind a new. is to follow the logic and procedures of the natural sciences. Another. people are reflective and try to make sense of the situations in which they find themselves. Sociologists study people and. their profits. rather than spend. it explores the basis for knowledge – how we know what we know. one where researchers transcend their subjectivity by interpreting the subjectivity of the people they are studying. there are those – sometimes referred to as naturalists – who argue that the best way for sociology to transcend subjectivity and produce more objective knowledge of social life. On the one hand. sociologists have different views on this. In more simple terms. arising from the Protestant doctrine of predestination where economic (or worldly) success came to be interpreted as a sign of God’s favour. On the other hand. Again. By focusing more on the actions of individuals.21 Principles of sociology society in Western Europe could be explained merely by changes in economic structures. In between these extremes there are a variety of positions that accept the principles of scientific inquiry to a limited degree in relation to specific research questions. others argue exactly the opposite. Therefore. or at 68 . Epistemology Epistemology is another term from philosophy. that valid knowledge of social groups comes from researchers immersing themselves as closely as possible in the lives of those they are studying. So we can see that there are differences in the way that sociologists view the social world. more extreme. unlike the matter studied by most natural scientists. Weber used economic statistics and other documentary sources to suggest that an important factor in the success of many early capitalists was a religious conviction.
In the following sections we shall try to simplify matters to some extent by identifying three of the most influential theories of knowledge in sociology: positivism. • First. However. positivism.2 Positivism Now read Fulcher and Scott (2007) pp. Its key idea is unity of scientific method. However. For example. tradition or divine revelation. This means that although the content of the various sciences is obviously very different.Chapter 3: Theory and research least have shared the same kind of experiences personally. a great deal of research in sociology (and other social sciences) is underpinned by positivist assumptions. to provide valid knowledge of their behaviour. as it would be quite wrong to see sociology as divided into three distinct and entirely separate approaches. realist ideas.11–12. 3.3. However. there are many different views in sociology about what societies are and the best ways of obtaining knowledge of them. interpretivist or realist. as its logic suggests I can only ‘really’ understand suicide by committing suicide myself!) So. interpretivist and. in summary. so it is important to identify some of the most important ones. the form of all scientific enterprise is essentially the same. • Secondly. In simple terms you cannot really understand people without having ‘been there’ yourself.54–55 or Giddens (2008) pp. Most modern sociologists do not have such grand ambitions and tend to write about ‘trends’ or ‘probabilities’ in particular societies rather than ‘scientific laws’ of social development of all societies. sociology could discover the ‘laws’ that explained how societies worked and changed. few sociologists would describe themselves as a positivist. 69 . more recently. These are terms used primarily by methodologists and social theorists to try to describe and evaluate the theoretical assumptions underlying different approaches to research. Scientific inquiry is based on the systematic accumulation of ‘facts’ rather than on belief. many studies in sociology use a combination of positivist. just as they use different research methods. others (following Schutz) argue that sociology cannot move beyond people’s subjective meanings.24–27 or Macionis and Plummer (2005) pp.46–47 or Macionis and Plummer (2008) pp. Positivism originated as a philosophy of science. some interpretivists (following Weber) believe that understanding the meanings that people give to their actions is the first step towards explaining their behaviour. chemistry and biology). such as Auguste Comte (1798–1857) and Herbert Spencer (1820–1903) believed that by applying the principles and practices that had worked so well in natural sciences (especially physics. (This epistemological position would. create problems for me. opinion. incidentally. We will be examining these approaches in more detail in Chapter 4. Many of the early sociologists writing in the nineteenth century. • Thirdly. it is important to put them into perspective. before looking at these theories. interpretivism and realism are very general descriptive terms and there are many different theoretical approaches within the general framework of each one. section 4. interpretivism and realism.
an economic recession in a society may cause higher unemployment and poverty in some sections of a society. For example. positivism does not necessarily lead to a fatalistic acceptance of the way things are. what things (or factors) do you think have influenced your life? 70 . This means that the organisation of the societies in which people live causes them to think and act in the way they do. Comte argued that it was possible to know (about the world). and this may then be a cause of increasing rates of crime (Figure 3. some of your behaviour has been determined by things outside your direct control? If so. Researchers adopting a positivist point of view may still be interested in finding out about people’s subjective views. In spite of its determinist views.1 Determinism and free will Write down some characteristics of your own behaviour.3: How an effect may become a cause Determinism Another positivistic assumption underlying much sociological research is a deterministic view of the relationship between the individual and society. For example. they explore things such as attitudes and opinions through survey research. In fact. Just as scientists can intervene in nature – for example. irrespective of their free will. a [economic recession] b [increased unemployment and economic deprivation] c [increased crime] Figure 3. or choice. For example. they see the task of sociology as explaining why people behave in the way they do. by finding the cause of a certain disease and developing an effective treatment – so sociological research into the causes of people’s behaviour can. he went as far as suggesting that. As you will have seen in your reading. to predict (what would happen in the future) and to control (what they discovered was wrong in the world).3 increasing unemployment and poverty and not free choice ‘causes’ the increase in crime.3). such as literature or poetry. In more simple language. this means that something (a cause) makes something else (an effect) happen and an effect of one thing can then be the cause of something else. understanding the causes of crime can lead to the development of policies that might reduce crime rates. For positivists. However. in the case of crime given in Figure 3. future societies would be run on the advice and guidance of sociologists! Activity 3. be used to engineer social change. science – and good social science – involves describing and trying to explain these causal relationships. in principle. as sociological expertise developed. How people really feel about things cannot be explained scientifically and is the proper subject for ‘arts’ subjects. Do you feel that you behave in the way that you do because you make a free choice? Or do you think that. For example. to some extent at least.21 Principles of sociology Causality Positivism sees the social world – like the natural world – as comprising phenomena (which is just a complicated technical way of saying ‘things’) that are causally related to each other.
provides objective knowledge that is.4). What proves a scientific ‘truth’ is the empirical evidence. Favoured methods are those that are more likely to produce testable and quantifiable data. science and (good) social science. The links between positivist theory and research can be worked out logically from what we already know. The theory can be tested and it is the evidence that shows whether or not it works. go back and reread about sociological research designs and methods in Chapter 2. or epistemology. you are sitting on a chair. Theories may then be proven. In scientific terms. not the researcher’s subjective values or arguments. According to this view. as far as possible. If you cannot begin to answer this. We do not have to take the researcher’s word for it. Therefore positive research is guided primarily by the ‘scientific criteria’ of the measuring instruments of quantification. design and method 71 Research methods (most common) Structural interviews Structural observations Official statistics . systematic collection of evidence. For example. Theory Positivism Research design (most common) Social surveys Experimental Comparative Figure 3. Empiricist epistemology holds that the only valid source of knowledge is that based on experience. Before reading on. The important consequence of this sociologically is that positivist research is confined to relationships between observable social phenomena. reliability and transparency. the goal of sociology is to produce an objective understanding of societies by following the principles of the natural sciences. value free. knowledge is that which can be directly perceived. This view can be summarised in the phrase ‘the facts speak for themselves’. ask yourself what research designs and methods you think would be most common in positivist research. partly proven. structured observation and analysis of official statistics (Figure 3. Empirical. such as structured interviews. The positivist view is that science (and ‘good’ social science) involves constructing theories that express relations between observable phenomena (or things). as you are reading this. Positivist research designs tend to be those that are closest to the logic of natural science research: surveys or experimental designs. Methods There are clear links between positivist theory and the research designs and methods that we looked at in Chapter 2.4: Theory. an empiricist epistemology means that research has to be grounded in concrete evidence that can be checked out. For positivists. or factual. you know the chair exists because you can see it and feel it. or even falsified. if.Chapter 3: Theory and research Empiricism Another characteristic of positivist approaches is the distinction researchers make between ‘theories’ (ideas) and ‘observations’ (empirical knowledge). Theories are then tested out in research designs to see if the phenomena behave in the way predicted by the theory. This is known as an empiricist concept of knowledge.
sociology involves the search for causal relationships between observable phenomena and theories are tested against observations. but what they do question is the idea that the logic and methods of natural science can be imported into the study of societies. Max Weber (1864–1920) was one of the main influences on the interpretivist tradition in sociology. and almost all research in psychology and in economics.3 Interpretivism Further reading Marsh (2002) pp. We shall look at the alternative sociological theories of knowledge arising out of these critiques below. and to study people you need to get out and explore how they really think and act in everyday situations. positivist assumptions are important because they still underpin a great deal of empirical research. positivist sociologists have sometimes forgotten that they are studying people. The humanist question At the heart of interpretivist critique of positivism is a humanist viewpoint. particularly the second point on theory and data collection. ‘natural science’ and ‘social science’ are two very different enterprises requiring a different logic and different methods. 3.21–25.) Summary Positivist theory argues that the methods of the natural sciences are applicable to the study of societies (naturalism).81. However. Now make of few notes to explain how these points are linked to each other. In the positivist view. Activity 3. Interpretivist sociologists do not necessarily reject the positivist account of scientific knowledge. Some of those favouring an interpretivist view of sociology have long argued that in their quest for a scientific explanation of social life. Can you think of any other criticisms of positivist theory? (For a clue.21 Principles of sociology Positivist ideas are very important because they still underpin a great deal of research in sociology. For him. argue that scientific methods have little or no application in sociology. as we have seen. • A statistical study of crime rates amongst a city’s different ethnic populations. Others suggest that the positivist interpretation of science is flawed. 72 . go back and look at the relation of theory to research on p. Although very few sociologists today would describe themselves as positivists. they have been subject to a great deal of criticism. The interpretivist tradition in sociology developed largely as a criticism of the dominant theory of positivism.2 Positivism Can you write down three characteristics of positivist theory? Look at your list. Which of the following research projects is more likely to be underpinned by positivist theory? • An in-depth analysis using unstructured interviews to find out how the victims of crime really felt about their experiences. Some sociologists.
A problem at work Imagine you are working in a bank and your manager comes in and starts shouting at you about how bad your work is. often make very ‘irrational’ choices. atoms and electrons therein.e. human societies are essentially subjective realities. however. there is not necessarily a consistent cause–effect relationship). but I know he has problems at home and this is why he has lost his temper. as explored by the natural scientist. 73 . they actively interpret the situations in which they find themselves and act on the basis of these interpretations. I have been making mistakes and causing him problems. A group of economists is now arguing that one of the weaknesses of economics has been its failure to get out into the world and see how people really behave in economic situations. (Schutz. there is now a flourishing humanist movement in psychology. The observational field of the social scientist. For example. is starting to ask itself some similar questions. As Schutz (1899–1959). a researcher cannot really make sense of your behaviour without interpreting the meaning that you attributed to your manager’s actions. Economics. Consumers. intentional activities and attach meanings to their actions. argued: The world of nature. There are two points here that illustrate the interpretivist position: • The same stimulus – the angry manager – can produce different responses depending on how his anger is interpreted (i. He is out of order and has no right to talk to me like that – the mistakes were mainly his fault anyway. • Whatever your response. Rather. What you would do next depends on how you interpret his action.Chapter 3: Theory and research The same question is now being raised in other social sciences. The key idea of interpretivist ontology is that there is a fundamental difference between the natural world and social world. has a specific meaning and relevance structure for beings living. Social institutions – the subject matter of sociology – cannot be divorced from the subjective understanding that people (including sociologists) have of them. The social world is meaningful. for it is this meaning that explains your response. one of the most important influences on interpretive sociology. some of which you may be studying at some time on your programme. People do not merely react to stimuli. Interpretivists argue that the positivist idea of a chain of causation is quite logical in the natural world where a particular stimulus consistently produces a given effect. Action You apologise and promise to do better in future. acting and thinking therein. as we illustrate below. traditionally the most complacent and self-consciously scientific of the social sciences. but does not apply in the social world. It is so unlike him to get angry like this. 1954) As people engage in conscious. You stay quiet and accept the criticism. For example: Interpretation He is quite right. does not ‘mean’ anything to molecules. namely the social reality. You argue back and threaten to report him for bullying. for example.
particularly in Western societies. section 4.21 Principles of sociology Activity 3. The idea of verstehen is that researchers. you could do a little research and ask some of them. How to do you think a sociologist researching you could interpret and ‘make sense’ of these experiences? What do you think the limitations of such a study would be? Verstehen A key concept here (also described in Chapter 2 and Chapter 4. Phenomenology argues that it’s not enough simply to interpret the meanings people give to their actions.4 The social meanings of actions Car theft is a growing crime. They would start by trying to interpret criminal behaviour from the criminals’ point of view (see Activity below).3 Your week Write down three experiences you have had in the past week. for example. An important issue raised by Max Weber is that behaviour that seems the same ‘from the outside’ can have very different meanings when examined from the ‘inside’. For example: • financial gain: the car can be changed and sold • revenge: people who have expensive cars deserve to have them taken and wrecked • convenience: ‘borrowing’ someone’s car to get somewhere else • danger: the motivation is the risk of getting caught and being chased by the police. This does not mean. But the act of breaking into someone’s car and driving it away can have different meanings for different people. We will be looking at phenomenology in more detail in Chapter 4. • Can you think of some different meanings that other students taking your degree programme may have? If you have time. focusing on people’s states of consciousness and ‘bracketing off’ judgments about what may be causing their behaviour. that sociologists have to agree with those points of view but rather that they have to interpret them in order to understand crime. • Ask yourself what meaning the degree programme you are now taking has for you. a German word meaning ‘understanding’. This is elaborated in Activity 3. Sociologists adopting an interpretivist approach to study crime. A phenomenological approach means studying everyday life. place themselves imaginatively in the position of those they are studying and ask how they see the world and what ends they believe are served by their actions. sociology has to show how people come to construct these meanings for their actions. Interpretivist sociologists argue that these different meanings require different explanations. as far as possible. • How do you think these different meanings might influence students’ motivation for the degree programme? 74 . section 4. associated particularly with the work of Alfred Schutz.2) is verstehen. would not begin by asking what causes criminal behaviour.3.4 below. Activity 3. Phenomenology is another important concept in interpretivist epistemology. of course.
• Which view do you find more convincing and why? Summary Interpretivists argue that there are fundamental differences between the natural world and the social world and that the logic and methods of the natural sciences are not applicable to the study of societies. It has also influenced a whole field of research illuminating people’s everyday life experiences.Chapter 3: Theory and research Methods The aim of interpretivist approaches in sociology is to understand the subjective experiences of those being studied. design and methods Interpretivism has provided a powerful critique of many of the taken-forgranted ideas of positivism that are widely used in sociology and in other social sciences. unstructured interviews and personal documents (Figure 3. such as unstructured observation. The favoured research design is ethnography and the main methods are ones that help researchers understand social life from the point of view of those being studied.6 Sociology and science • Write down some arguments in favour of sociology as a science of society. • Now write down some arguments against this view. interpretivists’ accounts are criticised by some sociologists for not providing testable hypotheses that can be evaluated. Therefore. • Can you think of any criticisms of interpretivist theory other than the two mentioned above? Activity 3. This can lead to relativism where one theory. However. Sociological methods are primarily about investigating and understanding the meanings that people give to their actions. is seen as just as good as any other. although interpretivists still try to be objective and systematic in their research. or study.5: Theory. Theory Positivism Research design (most common) Social surveys Experimental Comparative Interpretivism Ethnography Research methods (most common) Structural interviews Structural observations Official statistics Participant observation Unstructured interviews Personal documents Figure 3. how they think and feel and how they act in their natural contexts. • Make some notes explaining how these characteristics are linked to each other.5).5 Interpretivism • Identify three key characteristics of interpretivist theory. 75 . • Identify three research methods that are more likely to be favoured by interpretivist sociologists. the key criterion in interpretivist epistemology is validity. Activity 3.
21 Principles of sociology
Further reading Parker (2003) Chapter 11 is also relevant to this section but it is not essential reading. Realist theory, like positivism, holds that sociology can, and should, follow the logic and methods of the natural sciences. Where realism differs from positivism is in its interpretation of science. Realists question positivism’s empiricist interpretation of the basis of scientific knowledge. (If you cannot remember what empiricism means go back and remind yourself, using section 3.2.) They argue that no form of science relies exclusively on observable empirical evidence. There are always aspects of any form of reality that remain hidden beneath the surface of what can be observed. According to realists, the aim of scientific work – rather than looking at relationships between observable phenomena as positivists argue – is to uncover the underlying causal mechanisms that bring about observable regularities. The idea of medical viruses was originally constructed to explain infections that could not be explained as a result of bacteria or germs. Thus, while the causal mechanisms were unobservable or ‘hidden’ they were nonetheless real and observable in the effect of the viruses. This is where the term realism comes from (Figure 3.6). Observable regularities underlying
Figure 3.6: Hidden causes
Realism has become quite fashionable in sociology. However, like positivism and interpretivism, it has a long history. For example, there were strong realist elements in the work of Karl Marx. Marx was particularly interested in the analysis of capital accumulation and the process of change. However, he argued that the observable features of capitalist society, such as economic fluctuation, capital growth and massive inequalities, could only be explained in terms of something called the mode of production; that is the relationship between how goods are produced and how production is organised. (However, the mode of production was a theoretical construct that could not be observed directly. Thus, for Marx, to understand how capitalism worked, you had to look beneath the surface.) In Chapter 4, section 4.2, we will be examining Marx’s theories in more detail and you will need to know why he has been described as a realist to be able to understand the idea of a mode of production which can only be seen by its effects. The development of a clear, realist epistemology is comparatively recent in sociology and owes much to ‘new realist’ writers like Bhaskar (1986) and Pawson (1989). The key to realist epistemology is that it is theory-driven and non-empiricist.
Chapter 3: Theory and research
Realists do not make the clear separation between theory (‘ideas’) and observation (‘facts’) found in positivism. In positivist research theories are tested against observations and found to be ‘true’ or ‘false’ or somewhere in between. In simple terms, the ‘facts’ are the judge of the theory. Realists do not make this clear-cut separation because they do not believe that ‘observations’ can be separated from ‘theories’. For realists, all data is theory-dependent. Before reading on, try Activity 3.7 below. Activity 3.7 The ‘facts’? Do you agree with the realist argument that there are no such ‘things’ as facts without theories? Can you find some examples of data that you think are theory free? As theory comes before data collection, theoretical concepts impose a frame of reference on the data rather like the way in which the rules of a game set parameters for the players. Theory thus orders data. However, if theory and observation cannot be separated, this raises the question of how theories can be evaluated. Realists address this question by looking at what happens in the natural sciences. They argue – in contrast to the positivist view – that data collection in science is also theory-dependent and that explanation does not involve testing theories against observations, but rather generating data to test theories against each other. Realists argue that this is what should happen in social sciences. As data never speak for themselves but can only be interpreted through theory, research should be about developing, refining and comparing theories in the following way: • a research problem is formulated • the most plausible theories are identified • research designs are constructed to compare the explanatory power of rival theories in given circumstances. As Pawson (1999, p.47) observes:
Data analysis whether quantitative or qualitative is about utilising evidence to choose between theories. The principle skill of data analysis is the refinement of theory.
Although realists see the structure and logic of scientific inquiry as being applicable in the social sciences, they recognise two important differences between the study of the social world and the natural world: • The social world is an ‘open system’ and the social contexts enabling (or preventing) the operation of causal mechanisms are subject to rapid and sometimes unpredictable change. This severely limits the scope for prediction and generalisation in social science compared to most natural sciences that can operate under experimental, or ‘closed’, systems. • The causal mechanisms in social life only operate through people’s intentions and thus, in contrast to positivists, realists argue that sociology involves the attempt to understand subjects’ interpretations of situations.
21 Principles of sociology
Realists, like positivists, see research being guided primarily by ‘scientific’ criteria, such as the systematic collection of evidence, reliability and transparency. However, because they recognise the importance of the subjective dimension of human action, they also include methods that document the validity of people’s experiences. Research designs are more likely to be experimental or comparative in realist research, but there is no particular commitment to either quantitative or qualitative methods. The focus of realist methodology, however, is on theory. Realists argue that as there is no such thing as theory-free data: sociological methods should be specifically focused on the evaluation and comparison of theoretical concepts, explanations and policies (Figure 3.7). Theory Positivism Research design (most common) Social surveys Experimental Comparative Ethnography Research methods (most common) Structural interviews Structural observations Official statistics Participant observation Unstructural interviews Personal documents Non-specific, but methods are theory-focused
Figure 3.7: Theory, design and methods
‘New realism’ has provided a different – and what most commentators believe to be a valid – interpretation of science and its relationship to social sciences. It has also provided a (developing) alternative to the dominant theories of positivism and interpretivism and laid the foundations for a non-empiricist epistemology in social science. However, realism is also criticised for exaggerating the dependence of science and social science on theory, and realist epistemology offers, at best, very limited truths about the social world.
Realism holds that sociology involves trying to uncover the underlying mechanisms that generate observable events. It suggests that rather than testing theories against the ‘facts’, data is generated to evaluate theories against each other.
All sociological research designs and methods make certain assumptions about the nature of the social world and how knowledge is generated. One of the ways that research can be evaluated and improved is to make these assumptions more explicit. For example, one of the questions we have addressed here is about the nature of scientific knowledge and whether or not it is applicable to societies. As we have seen, positivism, interpretivism and realism give different answers to this question. However, while these theories have been separated out here in order to explain them more clearly, it is important to repeat a point made earlier in this section: that a great deal of sociological research contains elements of all three.
79 . and the essential reading and activities.Chapter 3: Theory and research A reminder of your learning outcomes Having completed this chapter. you should have a clearer idea of: • how research is underpinned by theoretical ideas • what is meant by an ontology/epistemology problem in sociology • the key aspects of positivist theory • the interpretivist critique of positivism and the key aspects of interpretivist approaches in sociology • what is meant by realism in sociology and how realism is different from both positivism and interpretivism.
21 Principles of Sociology Notes 80 .
you should: • understand the historical development of sociology and its roots in the Enlightenment • be aware of the influence of the major sociologists of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and their contribution to social theory and substantive sociology • be able to compare and contrast the approaches of the major theorists • understand how sociology has developed since the 1980s into a more fragmented disciplinary. Chapter structure 4.2 Sociological theories 4. your main reading here. will be your textbooks. and having completed the essential reading and activities. This chapter is particularly important for Section B. or perspectives. 81 .1 Origins of sociology 4. Durkheim and Weber. In this chapter we are going to look at some sociological theories. and to structural functionalism • introduce you to micro sociology and the phenomenological approach • identify some of the key theoretical dilemmas and developments in social theory • outline the postmodern critique of sociology.Chapter 4: Theories and developments Chapter 4: Theories and developments Written by Dr Steve Taylor and Rosemary Gosling. It can be studied or read immediately after Chapter 2 if you would prefer to understand the history of sociology before you start understanding the subject in more detail.3 Bringing the individual back in 4. Introduction In the previous chapter we looked at theories of knowledge that have general implications for social sciences. that have been specifically developed to describe and explain how societies work and change. Learning objectives By the end of this chapter.4 Postmodernity and sociology Essential reading Whereas in Chapter 3 your main reading was this subject guide. Aims of the chapter The aims of this chapter are to: • outline the origins of sociology and sociological thinking • introduce you to the classical sociological theory of Marx. particularly on the theories themselves.
2004). 8–9 and 12–13. The Journal of Philosophy 51(9) 1954. Videos/DVD There are three videos/DVDs that may be helpful to you for the material being covered in this chapter: Understanding sociological theory From modernity to postmodernity Anthony Giddens on Capitalism and modern social theory All produced by halovine – see 8 www. Schutz. Plummer Sociology: a global introduction. Plummer Sociology: a global introduction. (Buckingham: Open University 2008) Chapters 1. Scientific realism and human emancipation. A. Francis (London: Routledge.. and K. 2007) Chapter 2. Further reading We suggest that if you want to look for these in an order of preference. W. 2002) Chapters 4. ‘Methodology’ in Taylor. I. 2 and 10. 2006) Chapters 1–6. Theory and practice in sociology. Situating social theory. From post-industrial to post-modern society: new theories of the contemporary world. Postmodernity. it should be Swingewood. or Macionis. May. However. Kumar and Lyon first. (Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Harlow: Prentice Hall. Sharrock and D. 2008) Chapters 1 and 4. (Basingstoke: Palgrave. (Basingstoke: Palgrave. pp. Social theory: a basic tool kit. 6 and 7. J.W. Marsh.W. and Cuff. (Basingstoke: Macmillan.257–73. (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press 1999). Pawson. T. A. D. 2000) Parts 1 and 4–8. Newby The problem of sociology. to begin to understand these theories. A short history of sociological thought. S. J. 2005 edition) Chapters 2 and 7. K. Sociology. ‘Concept and theory formation’. and K. Parker. 2003) Chapters 6–7. J. and H.21 Principles of sociology Fulcher.com 4. it is necessary first to look back to the origins of sociology. (London: Routledge. (London: Routledge. Pawson. R. (Harlow: Prentice Hall. 1989). or Giddens. 2008 edition) Chapters 2 and 7. R. Kumar. Parker. Swingewood. 2005) third edition. Lyon. A. 1986). (Cambridge: Polity Press. (Harlow: Prentice Hall. Macionis. J. 1999). Measure for measures: a manifesto for an empirical sociology.) Sociology: issues and debates. What was sociology trying to explain? Why did it develop when it did? What ideas influenced its development? 82 . R. (Oxford: Blackwell. or Lee. (ed. D. Scott Sociology.1 Origins of sociology This section is about some of the key sociological theories that sociologists have developed to help describe and explain the modern world. and J.halovine. (London: Verso. E. Bhaskar.
The invention and development of the steam engine. These changes were later described as ‘the great transition’ from ‘pre-modern’ to ‘modern’ societies. It has a rather different meaning in sociology. to get these terms into perspective. for example.1. As Francis has observed: The idea of a ‘great transition’ by which modern.1 1 Francis (1987) p. some key terms that you will encounter in your reading about the rise of modern societies are: • Modern: in everyday life ‘modern’ refers to something new and up to date. urban living. • Market: in its most general sense a market is an arena where goods and services are freely exchanged for money. A modern society is sociological shorthand to describe societies which are characterised by mass production. rural society is arguably the central motif of the history of sociology. 83 . • Modernisation: this means the processes of societies becoming modern. Most modern societies have been characterised by the spread of market economics and this is reflected in sociological thinking. The distinction between ‘pre-modern’ and ‘modern’ is outlined below. In one form or another it has influenced every area of sociology and provided some of its most abiding theoretical and empirical questions. Societies don’t suddenly just change from one form to another. mechanical) sources of power.Chapter 4: Theories and developments From pre-modernity to modernity First. Premodernity and modernity are very general terms used by sociologists to describe the key characteristics of societies and long processes of social change. For example. eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. However it is important.e. • Urbanisation: a process where the proportion of people living in urban areas increases. All historical periods are the legacy of what came before and the past doesn’t just disappear. nation states and predominantly secular values. urban. industrial society emerged from pre-modern society. • Industrialisation: this describes a process of rapid economic growth arising from the increasingly sophisticated application of inanimate (i. first. Aspects of ‘modern’ societies (such as the growth of science) were developing in pre-modern societies and some characteristics of premodern societies (such as the continuation of monarchies in some societies) survive in the modern world. • Modernity: this describes the attributes of modern societies outlined above. Sociology developed in Europe in the nineteenth century. primarily as an attempt to understand the massive social and economic changes that had been sweeping across Western Europe in the seventeenth. consumer goods. had a major impact on the process of industrialisation. Weber’s concept of social class was built on classifying people’s market situation. • Capitalism: this is a form of economic organisation where the means of generating economic wealth are largely in private hands and are organised predominantly for profit.
providing employment for many and services. Modern economies are money-based market economies with mass production of goods organised in factories. Justice and punishment depended largely on the personal views of those dispensing it. pre-modern societies were largely decentralised with localised leadership and government was despotic. for example. There was a sense of permanence about social life: things were done in certain ways because they had always been done that way. and science replaces religion as the major source of intellectual authority. Politically. Social life is organised around formal rules and bureaucratic procedures rather than custom and tradition. Modern societies are characterised politically by centralised nation states that begin to play an increasingly large part in people’s lives by. organised around the family. or aristocracy. goal-orientated activity Science major source of knowledge Dominant class: capitalist class Majority class: industrial workers Democratic government Figure 4. or serfs. Modernity Modern societies are predominantly urban and industrial and the majority of them are capitalist. merchants and craftsmen. ‘all that is solid melts into air’. giving the greater part of what they produced to the lords.1: Pre-modern and modern societies 84 . This economic order was known as feudalism. or arbitrary. In modern societies the pace of life increases: industrial societies are societies in a permanent state of change. Religion was the major source of intellectual authority. The division of labour becomes increasingly complex and allocation to occupational roles is based. the majority of the population lived and worked on the land. Pre-modern Agricultural production Small-scale units of production Village communities/small towns Traditional values and behaviour Religion major source of knowledge Dominant class: aristocracy Majority class: peasantry Despotic government Modern Industrial production Large-scale units of mass production Urban conurbations Rational. health care and welfare to most citizens. such as clerics. As Karl Marx famously put it. soldiers.21 Principles of sociology Pre-modernity Pre-modern societies were predominantly rural and agricultural. It was largely a non-market economy and production was based on small units. such as education. the two major strata in Europe were the lords. at least in theory. The lords owned the land and the peasants worked the land. that is. there was a very limited division of labour with very little mobility (that is movement) between different strata. Although there were various occupational strata. and custom and tradition governed people’s everyday behaviour. and the peasants. more on qualifications and achievement than on birth and privilege.
The Enlightenment was a name given to a philosophical and social movement in Europe roughly spanning the last quarter of the seventeenth century until the last quarter of the eighteenth century. the rights of the individual and a commitment to social progress. Although it was a diverse movement spanning different subject areas in different countries in Europe. First. so the ‘new’ subject of sociology drew on earlier influences.10. and writer Voltaire (1694–1778). Would you describe your society as a ‘modern’ society? If so. Activity 4. Scientific knowledge would give people more power and control over nature. and this power would be used to improve the human condition. and they began asking questions about the sources of social order and social change and the effect of these changes on people’s lives. more consumer goods.Chapter 4: Theories and developments Pre-modern societies were relatively static compared to modern societies and the world that people left was little changed from the one they were born into.11–15 or Macionis and Plummer (2008) pp. For example. It championed the power of human reason. 85 . However. the scientist Isaac Newton (1643–1727). and scientific medicine would reduce disease. These are questions that we identified in Chapter 1 as fundamental sociological questions. Second. the fact that societies were changing so dramatically in such a short space of time led some scholars to become curious about societies. Major figures of the Enlightenment included philosophers Descartes (1596–1650) and Kant (1724–1804). religious dogma. Further reading Swingewood (2005) provides an excellent explanation of the Enlightenment. superstition.23–27 or Giddens (2008) p. and one of the most significant of these was an intellectual movement known as the Enlightenment.1 Are you living in modernity? Different societies have ‘modernised’ at different times. they had confidence that human beings would use this knowledge to transform the world for the better. irrationality and. However.12–17 or Fulcher and Scott (2007) pp.) What do you think are some of the benefits and some of the drawbacks of living in modern society? The Enlightenment Now read Macionis and Plummer (2005) pp. above all. It was called the Enlightenment because scholars believed they were throwing light into the gloom of a world that for too long had been dominated by tradition. just as modern societies developed out of pre-modern societies. Enlightenment philosophers shared two principles. when do you think it became modern? (You would probably be describing a period of around 50 years or so here. they believed in the power of the rationality of the human mind to understand the world. scientific developments would create more productive agriculture. Science was the epitome of reason and rationality because it produced objective knowledge of the world that was not conditioned by religious superstition.
2 Comte’s famous statement was ‘To know is to predict. sociology developed as an autonomous subject. people could ‘dare to know’ about the social arrangements under which they lived rather than have them presented to them through the haze of a religious ideology.21 Principles of sociology The radical nature of these ideas should not be underestimated. saw societies merely as collections of individuals. what was distinctive about the Enlightenment was that it was a social movement whose influence spread beyond the scholars themselves. societies were much more than this. used the concept of society to describe the new institutions. to predict is to control’. Embryonic sociological perspectives could be detected in the Enlightenment. pp. (Hamilton. committed to the idea of individuals as essentially rational and self-sufficient. How did Comte believe we could ‘know’? How did he believe sociology could predict? 86 . they also shaped the ways that people thought and acted. 1992. For the first time.55–56). There had. and should. However. Technological developments. social groupings and productive processes arising out of the wreckage of the pre-modern European world. meant that the ideas of Enlightenment scholars were reaching a greater proportion of an increasingly literate population and the Church’s monopolistic position over knowledge and information was being challenged on a wider scale. Although created by individuals. They constituted a direct challenge to the view of the world put forward by the Church that the order of the world was the result of God’s will and couldn’t be changed. Sociology was – and continues to be – profoundly influenced by the Enlightenment’s key values of rationality. of course. particularly in transport and printing. The Enlightenment thus brought about a cultural change in what constitutes knowledge and a distinctly ‘modern’ conception of knowledge was born. as scholars became more interested in how social life was organised. While the Enlightenment philosophers. been a number of individual scholars who had challenged the Church’s view of the world long before the Enlightenment. scientific understanding and the application of knowledge to improving the human condition. be organised. ‘dare to know’. they lacked a concept of ‘society’. The idea that societies were subjects of study in their own right did not come until the nineteenth century when early sociologists. although Enlightenment philosophers were interested in ‘the social’ and how it could. the Enlightenment ideal of providing rational understanding of societies in order to improve them. By knowing about these social arrangements. it was also increasingly applied to the social world. separate from philosophy and economics. Hamilton (1992) suggests that the essence of this embryonic sociology is captured by Kant’s motto. their operation would become clear and thus open to change. This modern way of thinking was not only applied to the study of the natural world. for most early sociologists. Summary In nineteenth century Europe. not only inspired the genesis of sociology but continues to underpin the subject today. This view represented a break with the Enlightenment. as an attempt to make sense of the massive changes taking place in newly modernising societies. However. such as Henri St Simon (1760–1825) and Auguste Comte (1798–1857). However. Activity 4.
Max The Protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism.edu/ ~felwell/Theorists/Weber/Whome. and Macionis and Plummer (2005 or 2008) provide good introductory material. [Most recent edition: London: Routledge. Durkheim. Elwell. Translated by Talcott Parsons. (London: Heinemann. Durkheim. Modern social theory. Swingewood (2005) provides an excellent historical approach and links Chapter 3 and Chapter 4. 1991) [ISBN 9780415060561 (pbk)]. Parsons. (1996).htm Marx. 1992) second edition [ISBN 9780312086749]. ‘Preface to a contribution to the critique of political economy’ in Karl Marx: early writings. Le suicide. This will provide you with most of the reading required for this section. and G. See: 8 www. and C. Talcott The structure of social action. P Modern social theory. (Basingstoke: Macmillan.H. (Glencoe: Free Press.Chapter 4: Theories and developments 4. If you have bought this text you will need to depend on one of the two texts below for most of the background reading on the sociologists discussed here. 1975) [ISBN 9780140216684]. (London: Routledge. Wright Mills (eds) From Max Weber. with an introduction by Anthony Giddens (London: Unwyn Hyman. For extra reading. 1989) [ISBN 9780415254069]. section 4. Max On the methodology of the social sciences. Weber. Weber. 1949) [ISBN 9780029343609]. Marx.faculty. Introduction We begin this section by reading about how social theory developed from – and in reaction to – the Enlightenment. Simpson.marxists.A. • The second part will address theories which are broadly interpretivist.rsu.htm Gerth. The German ideology. Works cited Cohen. K. (London: Harvester Wheatsheaf. 1969) [ISBN 9780029242407].1984) second edition [ISBN 9780333339817]. E. Giddens (2008). • In the first part of this section you will read about: the development of social theory in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries three of the major ‘classical’ sociologists – Marx. www. 2002] Translated by Spaulding. Craib. 87 . K. J.org/archive/marx/ works/1845/german-ideology/ch01a. Das Kapital.2 Sociological theories Reading The best textbook for this section is Fulcher and Scott (2007) Chapter 2. 1968) . Marx. The division of labour. Frank The sociology of Max Weber. (Harmondsworth: Penguin. (Free Press. Weber and Durkheim the structural functionalists. but do not go into enough depth for this unit. We have indicated two supporting texts: Cuff.1 very well to this section. K. E. Sharrock and Francis (2006) or Lee and Newby (2000). I. H. [ISBN 9780710033116]. [ISBN 9780435821814].
You will then be able to see clearly the relevance of each theory and be able to illustrate your answers with material from your chosen topic. In short. While you are reading about these sociologists. think about how they address the key sociological problems which you encountered in Chapter 1. • In order to study your chosen topic in Section C you will need to have a good understanding of the different approaches of the major sociologists. please remember the following: • This is not a unit in social theory and you will not be expected to know and understand each theorist in detail. criticise their assumptions. for example: Marxism.21 Principles of sociology • The third part of this section will link the two and introduce you to some new developments. think about and make notes on the following: • the assumptions each has about the nature of society • the assumptions they have about human nature and the role of the individual • their view of history and their explanation of social change • their explanation and understanding of social order • the role of ideas and ideology • their view of science and their prescriptions as to how to find out about society. • Social theorists themselves were profoundly influenced by other social theorists and the times in which they wrote. This section of the subject guide is vital for the work that you will do on your Section C topic. compare them. • In your reading do try to understand the major aspects of their approach to sociology rather than simply trying to categorise them into predetermined boxes. Examination advice In the examination you will be expected to write about any one or more sociologists. We are providing you with building blocks so that you can understand the contribution that each theorist has made to the subject of sociology and for your understanding of Section B on Globalisation and social change. structural functionalism. symbolic interactionism. 88 . etc. • You are not learning about social theory for its own sake. so it is important that you have some knowledge of the history and the society in which they were writing. After you have worked on Section C return to this section of Chapter 4. assess their contribution to sociology. We suggest therefore that you ensure that you have understood the major assumptions of each theory before you start on your chosen topic for Section C. The questions could ask you to describe and explain the major aspects of their perspective. You will have come across many of these theories in your initial reading but here we concentrate on their major contributions to social theory. The writers of Section C chapters have assumed that you will have knowledge of the sociological theory introduced here. While you are reading. You may also be asked to describe any one perspective.
influenced by them. the Enlightenment. Marx. and particularly class relationships. 2 Cohen (1968). Karl Marx (1818–1883) Reading Before you read this section on Marx. Professor Percy Cohen suggested that all sociological theory should: • explain.90) for you to track the sociologists that we will be discussing. You should be aware of the major influences on his thought. His genius lay in his ability to ‘create’ new ideas from those existing in philosophy and economics and from the writings and observations of social activists. especially historical materialism. 89 .1 we described the great changes that occurred in Europe. • The Utopian Socialists.Chapter 4: Theories and developments Background In the first part of section 4. The major influences on his thought were: • The Scottish Enlightenment (Adam Smith and David Ricardo from whom he took ideas such as the division of labour and the idea of economic rent – extraction of surplus value). Sharrock and Francis (2006) or Lee and Newby (2000) provide a good deal of material on Marx. or on the website 8 www. in part. look up and read the section on Marx in your chosen textbook or in any reference book. and we will not give you a complete description of his work or the work of the later Marxists here.org Note: Cuff. or suggest ways of explaining. • German Idealism – Hegel. We have created a flowchart (on p. Use it to help you locate them in time. are often called ‘The founding fathers’ of sociology. We have provided you with some guidance for your reading and some description of his concepts. He wrote extensively on economics and philosophy and all these ideas have been incorporated in much twentieth century sociological theory. so you should know about these social theorists and the influence they had on the development of sociology. A major aspect of his work concerned the nature of social relationships. You read about the economic changes (industrialisation and urbanisation) and. Marx’s ideas have had a profound influence not only on sociology but on many social and political movements. why social phenomena have the characteristics they have • provide ideas for an analysis of complex social processes and events • aid in the construction of models of how social structures and social systems operate. indeed many revolutions in the twentieth century were.2 Cohen believed that Marx. Marx was one of the greatest social critics of the nineteenth century. Weber and Durkheim were committed to these aims and that it should be possible to evaluate their theories in the light of these three aims. so it quite properly fits into sociology. This diagram has been left intentionally incomplete – feel free to add your own notes and links as you read. Keep these aims in mind as you read about these sociologists and the other sociological perspectives you are introduced to. Weber and Durkheim along with Comte. most importantly for this section.marxists.
2 Marxism Symbolic Interactionism Ethnomethodology 90 .21 Principles of sociology The Enlightenment philosophers (1770-1831) Kant (1724 .1920) Meade (1863 .1880) Durkheim (1858 .1831) Comte (1798 .1903) Marx (1818 .1917) Weber (1864 .1804) Hegel (1770 .1931) Structural Functionalism Figure 4.1857) Spencer (1820 .
Chapter 4: Theories and developments Marx’s influences: Georg Hegel Georg Hegel (1770–1831) is important for an understanding of Marx’s historical materialism. Change is seen as ‘progress’ but society changes dialectically through struggle and contradiction. He further suggested that the ability to control the natural world would result in a creation of a ‘superior moral and social life’.1 attempt to explain the nature of society in terms of human consciousness. Feuerbach suggested that people who had not yet developed the social and technical knowledge to understand the natural and social world attributed particular powers to these ‘social constructions’. Marx’s influences: Ludwig Feuerbach Ludwig Feuerbach (1804–1872) was a pupil of Hegel.3 3 Lee and Newby (2000). He accepted Feuerbach’s assertion that religion was a social creation. He called this phenomenon religious alienation. Over time. these ‘social constructions’ became institutionalised into formidable belief systems which control their adherents. ‘What distinguishes humanity from other living things is its ability to conceptualise. who developed his ideas and suggested the following: Gods did not create humanity but humanity created gods. These two major aspects of Hegelian logic are central to Marx’s analysis. From the contradiction between the thesis and the antithesis there emerges a transformation which becomes the new thesis. but he suggested that people create religion to deal with the real misery which confronts them. to construct categories of thought. as we have seen in Chapter 3.3 In your own words answer the following questions: • How did Feuerbach account for religious behaviour? • How do you think that Feuerbach would suggest that religious alienation could be overcome? Marx asked a key question of Hegel and the idealist philosophers: where do ideas come from? Marx rejected the notion that ideas determine the nature of social life. section 3. 91 . The dialectic The Hegelian notion of the dialectic holds that all matter (or the thesis) always and inevitably creates its own opposite (or antithesis). Activity 4. How did he come to this conclusion? He asked the following question: ‘Why do people need religion?’ In particular. (progress and human history) Idealists. Early religions were based on attempts by their believers to make sense of the world especially in times of disruption.’ Hegel believed in the ‘progression’ of humanity. Idealism. thus he thought individuals would be increasingly able to understand the social and natural worlds and the processes and principles which lie behind their development. These ‘gods’ were idealised creations of human thought. which he called the ‘opium of the people’. he asked why did the poor and the oppressed need religion.
It is not enough to theorise about it. we should study society empirically and scientifically rather than by means of speculation or metaphysics. ignorant and needful of help. From these ideas follow Marx’s ontological assumptions about the nature of society. Now read Cuff. Materialism is not an easy concept.113–15. If they were unhappy then they turned to religion. it is the assumption that he developed from Henri de St Simon that the most important aspect of human existence is the necessity to produce the means of subsistence. Now read At this point. Everything else follows from this: social relationships.78–79). Religious beliefs and values were not. Therefore Marx rejected the notion that ideas determine social life. therefore. Marx asks where does this spirit come from? Where do ideas come from? Marx believed that ideas are a product of society so we should not only study ideas.10–20 or Lee and Newby (2000) pp. however illusory. section 3. Marx and realism In Chapter 3. The first historical act is thus the production of the means to satisfy these needs.marxists. You will see here that the capitalist mode of production is an example of a theoretical construct which cannot be observed directly. Marx rejected Feuerbach’s view of religious alienation. He therefore suggested that it was necessary to examine the nature of the material conditions that faced the working class. Ensure that you understand the influences of Hegel and the Idealists on Marx’s thought. independent of the material conditions that existed in a particular era. a habitation (shelter/home). Marx and materialism In your reading you will have seen that Hegel’s idealism saw society as guided by and limited by the human ‘spirit’ or ‘Geist’. He believed that the reason that people believed in supernatural forces was a result of their objective situation.htm 4 92 . there is a real material world and in order to gain knowledge of this material world we must participate in it. of all history. org/archive/marx/works/1845/ german-ideology/ch01a. The German Ideology – see www.4 you read about realism. the production of material life itself. the structure of society. clothing and many other things. to uncover the real relationships between capital and labour. At its most basic in Marxist analysis. eating and drinking. ideology. as the idealists suggested. The first premise of all human existence and. religious ways of thought. reread the section on Epistemology in Chapter 3 (pp.4 From Marx. which acted as an opiate and which would dull their pain. You have to ‘look beneath the surface’ to find out how capitalism works. But life involves before anything else. Sharrock and Francis (2006) pp. (is that humans) must be in a position to live in order to be able to ‘make history’.21 Principles of sociology As long as people were poor. would constantly reproduce themselves. etc.
the nature of the relationships between the major classes. Marx: base and superstructure In your reading you will see that each type of society is characterised by a particular mode of production which determines the nature of class relationships and all other social institutions. The mode of production is made up of: • the forces of production – the way that goods are made in any epoch • relations of production – the productive relationships.21–22 or Lee and Newby (2000) pp. ‘determined’ by the infrastructure and is composed of the prevailing cultural ideas.4 ‘Men distinguish themselves from animals as soon as they produce their means of subsistence. Marx: conflict and contradictions Dialectical materialism At the centre of Marxist analysis is the concept of the dialectic (see Hegel).’ (Marx and Engels) Can you explain this statement? Why do you think the form of production makes a difference to how people think and behave? Marx suggested that in primitive communism.115–20. the economic roles that are allowed by the state. ownership and non-ownership of the productive forces. or the steam engine in the industrial revolution. 93 . the newly developed productive relationships of production (classes) and the traditional system of political ideological institutions (superstructure). Conflict for Marx is the motor of history. the level of technology and the existing social organisation (social relations) which prevent new forms of technology emerging c. and human development involved man’s increasing ability to control nature. As with many social theorists of the nineteenth century. These changes give rise to tensions and contradictions between the productive relations and the productive forces (infrastructure). Do you think that this is the case in the twenty-first century? Can people control nature? Think about the recent catastrophes such as SARS. in agriculture during the agricultural revolution. Sharrock and Francis (2006) pp. for example. These tensions in turn give rise to changes in the superstructure. nature controlled man. the idea of progress and development was central to Marx’s writings. including law. the tsunami and other earthquakes. The forces and relations of production make up the economic base (infrastructure). The superstructure is. society and nature – between any given level of technology (the productive forces) and the conditions in which these productive forces appear b. in the last instance. Now read Cuff.Chapter 4: Theories and developments Activity 4. and other social institutions. Dialectic strains exist between: a. He explains change dialectically. Changes occur in the way that goods are produced as a result of changes in technology.
Others suggest that the economic base is the determining factor in explaining the prevailing legal and political arrangements in society (the Structuralists).82–88 or Macionis and Plummer (2008) pp.787–90 or Macionis and Plummer (2005) pp. literature.3 Source: Diagram adapted from: Sztompka. There was general optimism about people’s ability to develop natural resources to produce even more sophisticated goods. religion) Socioeconomic formation Relations of production 3 Mode of production Productive forces 1 2 Nature (extra-social environment + human hereditary endowment) 1. However Marx believed that the processes of production in capitalism increasingly alienated people. 2. (Oxford: Blackwell.21 Principles of sociology Political and legal (ideological) superstructure Forms of social consciousness (art. indeed not only become alienated from the products of their labour. In your reading you will discover that there are at least two different readings of Marx: humanistic Marxism and scientific or structural Marxism. Workers. The working class in capitalism became dehumanised.172. but from the labour process itself. The Sociology of Change. Humanistic Marxism Marx believed that the history of mankind had a ‘double aspect’. (Remember that Marx was writing in the nineteenth century.117 94 . Some suggest that the real Marx did not believe that the mode of production determined everything in the superstructure (the Humanists). Sharrock and Francis (2006) pp.14–17.5 5 Lee and Newby (2000) p.101–06 or Cuff. from each other and ultimately from themselves. Now read Fulcher and Scott (2007) pp. There have been many ‘readings’ of Marx’s works. 3 – Main dialectic strains Figure 4. P. Developments in technology gradually allowed ‘man’ to control nature. 1993) [ISBN 0631182063 (pbk)] p. whereby the products of human labour become expropriated from and appear as opposed – ‘alien’ – to those who produce them. and to provide protection from the elements.22–32 or Giddens (2008) pp. Alienation refers to the process. industrialisation was occurring throughout Europe). endemic to capitalism.
Chapter 4: Theories and developments Activity 4. A person’s class position depends on his relationship to the means of production – whether they are ‘owners’ or ‘nonowners’. Marx suggested that Capitalism prevented the people of the working class from understanding their true nature and from understanding their real interests. Structural Marxism Marxists such as Louis Althusser (1918–1990) believed that the Humanist Marxists laid too much emphasis on the superstructural aspects. It was not inevitable that the members of the working class would develop revolutionary consciousness and become fully aware of the nature of their condition. Remember that he had rejected Hegel’s idealism: The philosophers have only interpreted the world in various ways. were more philosophical and concerned with alienation and the possibility of emancipation. The value of a product is the effort put into creating the product. however is to change it. Note: Lenin took the concept of praxis further. Think about this for a few minutes. It is possible to measure the value of a commodity and the extent to which the capitalist has extracted surplus value. So Humanist Marxists concentrate on both superstructural and infrastructural elements. he considered. We cannot understand them. What do you think he meant by this? We see science fiction films about aliens and find them fascinating because they are different from us. the working class will become economistic (they will simply struggle for money not political power). The profit they receive is the part of the value of the work that is put into creating the profit. This could be achieved by what Marx called praxis – putting theory into action. Marx: the labour theory of value In your reading you will see that class positions/roles in Marxist analysis are seen to be determined by their position in relation to production. They have to be encouraged and persuaded by political actors (like Marx). Marx suggested that the world would not be changed by simply ‘thinking about it’. the point. Capitalism is a system of commodity production. Marx’s early writings. whereas in Das Kapital he was concerned with exploitation.5 It is a strange idea to think that people could be alienated from themselves (what Marx described as being alienated from ‘their species being’). 95 .6 6 Marx (1975). Althusser suggested that there had been an epistemological break in Marx’s writings. The products that the workers made are sold in the market and the capitalists receive profit from these transactions. They believe these have an independent role to play in the class struggle. Labour itself is a commodity. Humanist Marxists believe that the base/superstructure distinction is too deterministic and they believe that the working class can be liberated from this alienated state and realise its full potential. everything is produced for sale in the ‘market’. The labour theory of value states that the value of any commodity is the value of the amount of labour required to produce it. He believed that without leadership. Therefore people were unaware of what they could achieve. Marx believed that being in a state of alienation prevents us from knowing the real nature of the world and from ‘being’ our true selves. This exploitation could be understood and measured objectively.
gender and ethnic relationships. How does society change from one epoch to another? 6. What is meant by the terms ‘dialectical materialism’ and ‘historical determinism’? 7. which is unaware of the true nature of the relationship. in religious belief and practices in the last 30 years. it will take time for you to understand some of this theory and you will need to reread this section in conjunction with your texts more than once. the working class is a class of ‘non-ownership’. 96 . However. Does a Marxist analysis of class have relevance today? 4.22–34 or Lee and Newby (2000) pp. and in the forms of inequality particularly in power. who are the ones that create value. Fulcher and Scott (2007) provide a good introduction in Chapter 2. Activity 4. Sharrock and Francis (2006) covers all the materials necessary. Social inequality and social injustice. The capitalist class extracts ‘surplus value’ from the working class. The interests of the capitalist class are opposed to the working class (zero-sum game). Further reading Lee and Newby (2000) Chapter 9 Think about how a Marxist would explain the changes in the family structure and relationships that have occurred in most societies in the last 50 years. What is meant by alienation and how does it occur? 3. What is meant by structural Marxism? You will need to have a good understanding of Marxism and the later Marxists for Section B Globalisation and social change. Explain the concept ‘mode of production’. Chapter 1 of Giddens (2008) also provides some useful background.124–32. Was Marx a humanist? 9. and when read with this section Cuff. Sharrock and Francis (2006) pp. You will not be required to know and understand all the material in Lee and Newby (2000). Why is Marx described as a conflict theorist? 8. by not giving them the full value of their labour. What is the role of the individual in Marxism? 5.21 Principles of sociology In capitalism. Macionis and Plummer (2005 or 2008) have written a short piece in Part 2 which provides a good account of the concept of function. How did Marx view society? 2.6 See if you can answer these questions: 1. Now read Cuff. The section in Fulcher and Scott (2007) on Marx gives a good indication of the level required. Emile Durkheim (1858–1917) Reading First we suggest that you look up and read about Durkheim in your chosen textbook. the Sociology of organisations and Religion and society. The capitalist class exploits the workers. and also for the Section C chapters on Power in society.
2007. This has become known as the biological analogy. and working together to ensure that society ‘survives’.61–63 or Chapter 14 in Lee and Newby (2000) ‘Moral obligation and individual life’. these induce individuals to conform to the society. • The scientific nature of sociology. It views society as a system of interrelated parts. Spencer (see Fulcher and Scott. Durkheim believed that the methods that sociologists should use should be modelled on the methods used in the natural sciences (Naturalism). and Spencer in England. Society is a moral force which acts on individuals. ‘Sociology as a Science’ and ‘Methodology’. pp. They should seek to find out law-like relations between phenomena. societies become increasingly complex and specialised as they evolve. He was influenced by August Comte (1798–1857) and Herbert Spencer (1820–1903). pp. One of the greatest problems he identified was the growing individualism in nineteenth-century society and the withdrawal of individuals from public life. and varies according to that society). Sharrock and Francis (2006) Chapter 4. The individual cannot exist without society and society has a constraining influence on individual and group behaviour. Now read Cuff. You will have read in your texts that Durkheim wrote Suicide to demonstrate that the most individual of all acts – suicide – was in fact either caused or prevented by society. working in France. both developed the idea of comparing society to an organism. each institution playing a part to sustain society. This moral force is also creative as it provides the cultural resources necessary for individuals to lead their lives in a group. they became more specialised. remedies could be suggested. The social should be separated from the psychological. The example Durkheim used was the religious beliefs and practices of the aboriginal peoples of Australia. Following on from Comte.73–82) believed that as societies evolved.27–28 or Lee and Newby (2000) pp. Comte. Durkheim’s key ideas Below we outline Durkheim’s key ideas – they will help guide your reading on the chapters indicated here. Society exists sui generis. Durkheim believed that man is only a moral being because he lives in society (since morality consists in solidarity of the group. just as organisms grow and mature. Durkheim saw the practical role of the sociologist as being similar to that of a physician. Durkheim believed that society is more than the aggregate of individuals. Norms and values are created by individuals acting in groups. once these causes were understood. He attempted to demonstrate that the causes of suicide were to be found in society and could not be reduced to the state of mind of the person who had committed suicide. • Holism. He believed that scientific sociology would enable the sociologist to distinguish between the sickness (pathology) and the health of a society.Chapter 4: Theories and developments Durkheim’s mission was to develop sociology as an academic discipline. Society exists and is observable in its effects (see Realism in Chapter 3). 97 . Sociology would enable a diagnosis of the causes of pathology to be undertaken and. All the texts have a description of Suicide which is important for you as you study ‘Research Methods’.
Law is external to our perception of it and it certainly constrains our actions.7 If you are using Cuff. The collective sentiment in society is the cause of the disapproval’. psychological. there was little specialisation and thus a low division of labour. However.8 Can you think how religion can help meets a society’s need for social cohesion? Think about times of natural disaster. but not by other facts (biological. Where most of the experiences of the individuals are similar. There is a moral consensus which unites members of the society. Fashion would be another example.35. These societies were small. • Functionalist method of explanation. Society and social change Durkheim described two forms of society. individuals did not depend on each other for their existence. so that is why religion exists in society. Activity 4. which he differentiated by their different forms of solidarity (cohesiveness): mechanical and organic solidarity. for example. ‘The punishment attached to a crime. The solidarity in the society is a result of the likeness of the members. Here the explanation of the social fact/phenomenon is explained not in terms of what it is. etc). Mechanical solidarity This is a form of solidarity which Durkheim believed existed in very simple societies. Durkheim suggested that we must treat ‘social facts as things’. Sharrock and Francis (2006) give the example of the law. 98 . • Social facts/society. Activity 4. He described this as the collective consciousness (the values and beliefs shared within a community) thus: society forms a determinate system which has its own life.7 Functional analysis is concerned with the effects of a social fact. Durkheim did not explain the cause of social facts by their functions (unlike many later functionalists). Sharrock and Francis (2006) as your main textbook. It explains the part that a social fact plays in relation to the needs of society. Social phenomena and institutions can be explained in terms of their role in the maintenance of society as a whole (see above). Durkheim set out two criteria: social facts must be external and also have constraining effects which set limits to our actions. may express an intense collective sentiment of disapproval. Cuff. but what it does for the whole. they are therefore likely to hold similar value systems. self-sufficient groups. try the same activity with ‘fashion’ that they use with law to see if you understand the concept of a social fact. The cause of a social fact must be accounted for in relation to other social facts. Hence Durkheim suggests that religion helps to meet a society’s need for social cohesion. geographical. or war or internal struggles. In determining the nature/existence of social structures. Social facts can only be explained by other social facts. not its causes.21 Principles of sociology Now read Look up and read about Durkheim’s work Suicide in your textbooks. 7 Fulcher and Scott (2003) p.
could be so accurately harmonised as to form a coherent whole. They are functionally interdependent on each other. 1984). He believed that industrialisation and other political and social changes dissolve the restraints on behaviour. The division of labour Durkheim’s concept of the division of labour is different from Marx. Durkheim used the concept of anomie in The division of labour in society (1893) and defined it as a ‘state where norms and expectations on behaviours are confused. In Suicide (1897) he describes it as ‘morally deregulated behaviour’. individuals rely on each other for their existence. which created pressures that could only be accommodated by greater specialisation.Chapter 4: Theories and developments The function of religion in these societies was to reinforce this consensus. Far from preceding collective life they derive from it. The collective consciousness is strong in these societies and the law is repressive.) For Durkheim. which would serve to constrain behaviour and so prevent anomie. under the pressure of social sentiments and needs. It would be a miracle if these differences. for Durkheim. arising from chance circumstances. The law in these societies is restitutive. causing people to feel morally adrift and lacking moral direction. The decline of mechanical societies was a result of increasing population growth. unclear or not present’. the division of labour consists of moral as well as economic ties. He believed these to be Nationalism and even the belief in the power of science. (Remember Marx believed that the division of labour through production was one of the factors that contributed to the alienation of the working class. Anomie The word anomie comes from the Greek word Anomos.8 From Durkheim (1893. 99 . and therefore derives from society rather than being outside or opposed to society. Organic solidarity occurs as a result of difference. Work is not shared out by independent individuals who are already differentiated from one another. Durkheim believed that other sets of beliefs and values would develop. who meet and associate together in order to pool their different abilities. They can only occur within a society. Durkheim was worried about the effects of the rapid social changes that were occurring in the nineteenth century and believed that such changes could lead to a state of anomie. Organic solidarity Whereas in simple societies there was a low division of labour. Religion in these societies was a constraining force whereas in organic societies religion is less important in constraining people’s behaviour. organic societies were characterised by greater differences between the members as a result of specialisation and a complex division of labour. which means ‘without laws’. However. it is through the division of labour in organic societies that society becomes cohesive and solidaristic. 8 Therefore.
21 Principles of sociology
Activity 4.9 How does Durkheim’s concept of anomie differ from Marx’s concept of alienation? If, at this point, you are finding that you are not sure how to start answering this question, or are finding it difficult, reread your notes, your textbooks and the previous section on alienation. You should think about the following: Many people have said that the concepts are broadly similar, because both describe people being detached from society. Marx used the concept of alienation to describe the situation of the workers in capitalism who had become increasingly estranged from each other, from the objects that they produced and finally from their real nature (their species being). As a materialist Marx therefore attributed the cause of alienation as the capitalist mode of production. The result was that workers became dehumanised. Alienation would disappear when the mode of production changed in a society, when private property was eliminated and there was minimal division of labour. For Durkheim the cause of anomie was a lack of moral guidelines brought about when society changes too rapidly. The cure for anomie would be a new moral force. In organic societies Durkheim believed that the individual was connected to society through the division of labour in work, and work was regulated through norms. An individual’s identification with a profession and its ethical values was a source of social solidarity and so professions and guilds functioned to prevent anomie and curb egoistical tendencies.
At this point, refer to your textbooks again for an account of Spencer and the biological analogy. Like Spencer, Durkheim had an organic view of society. To say that a society exists implies that it must have boundaries: these boundaries are created by a membership, and membership of a society implies that there are other people who are not members. Nonmembers are outside society; by differentiating between members and non-members the moral boundaries are maintained. Those people who do not conform to the norms, values and laws of a society are ‘outside’ society. Much of Durkheim’s work concentrated on the nature of social solidarity.
Summary: Durkheim’s legacy
Durkheim’s work influenced the Structural Functionalist anthropologists and Parsons. His concept of structure was important to structuralists, including Claude Levi Strauss, Louis Althusser and Ferdinand de Saussure. The concept of structure implies that there are underlying principles by which a system works and that it is the task of the social scientist to work out what these principles are. Durkheim’s work is an important antidote to some of the evolutionary theorists (such as Spencer) who were dominant in the nineteenth century. His stress on seeking the underlying causes of social phenomena have been further developed by realist sociologists (see Chapter 3, section 3.4). Activity 4.10 Write short answers to these questions: 1. Why did Durkheim write Suicide? 2. Why did Durkheim believe the division of labour was functional? 3. What did Durkheim mean by society being ‘a moral force’? 4. Why has Durkheim been described as a realist?
Chapter 4: Theories and developments
5. What is the difference between anomie and egoism? 6. What is the role of the individual in Durkheim’s sociology? 7. How did Durkheim differentiate between causal analysis and functional analysis? 8. How did Durkheim account for social change?
Max Weber (1864–1920)
Weber’s sociology is important for many aspects of Section A, particularly for ‘Methodology’ and for illustrating some methods of social research. In Section C, all the chapters will require you to know, and apply, Weber’s theories and his ideas about the nature of the social world and how it should be studied. Now read Your chosen text will give you some general background about Weber’s life and approach, and we suggest that you read up on his biography now. Macionis and Plummer (2005) pp.88–91 or Macionis and Plummer (2005) pp.109–11 or Giddens (2008) pp.17–19 or Fulcher and Scott (2003) pp.39–42. You will see that Weber was not just a sociologist; he was a historian, a politician, a lawyer and an economist. As you read the chapters and pages indicated below you should recognise how he has linked economic ideas into his sociology. His work on the State and bureaucracy is based to a very great extent on his knowledge of the Law and the State, especially German law at a time when the German state was becoming particularly strong. His legacy is immense; he created a conceptual framework for the development of the social sciences that is still relevant for today’s sociologists. One of his major influences was Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) and you should look this up in your texts now. Now read The Introduction to Chapter 3 in Cuff, Sharrock and Francis (2006) or Lee and Newby (2000) also have a clear introduction to the German Idealists in Chapter 11. Kant’s viewpoint was that there could be no knowledge of things as they exist independently of our thinking about them. In trying to understand the world the observer attempts to give meaning to the physical and social objects which s/he sees. Whereas Durkheim believed we should treat ‘social facts as things’, Kant believed that it was necessary to interpret these facts. In interpreting the world individuals select what is meaningful to them. You have already read about concepts earlier in Section A, and seen how many of these are ‘essentially contested’. Weber, following Kant, suggested that the concepts we use to understand the world derive from cultural values. These values tell us what is ‘significant’ and what is ‘insignificant’. Concepts are therefore value relevant. Thus in Weber’s view there can be no universally valid scientific concepts. This has profound implications for how we ‘do’ sociology. For example: it would be impossible to do research on children’s learning without having some understanding of the concept of education (note that this concept can be used in very different ways). Therefore the world is interpreted in the way that is significant for the observer. That is why Weber is often described as an interpretivist sociologist. The German idealistic tradition viewed people as active, purposive, free agents. Weber believed that the social sciences should not proceed in the
21 Principles of sociology
same way as the natural sciences. The reason was that if individuals are free to act, if they have agency, then they will act in unpredictable ways. It is impossible to control for this and therefore he rejected the ideal of creating nomothetic theories for the social sciences. Nomos comes from the Greek meaning ‘law’. These approaches create generalisations and produce laws. Examples of such theories include Marx’s explanation of social change and Comte’s law of the three stages. Weber suggested that social science should adopt an idiographic analysis which would particularise historical events. He rejected the possibility of developing laws, especially those relating to evolutionary processes. His work The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism9 (see below) is an illustration of this. In this text, Weber described and explained the rise of capitalism in the West. He did not believe that this explanation was generalisable to other epochs Whereas Durkheim concentrated on social structures; Weber suggested that sociology should concentrate on social action and the interpretation of social action. Social sciences should be distinguished from the natural sciences because sociology involves the interpretation of subjective meanings given to action. An action such as falling off a chair when asleep is not social action! (Here the sleeper ‘relinquishes’ agency when s/he is asleep.) However, if someone deliberately fell off the chair then it would be social, as the individual ‘would attach meaning to his action’. Weber therefore had a very different approach to sociology to either Marx or Durkheim. Most of his work involved interpreting social action. He wrote extensively on how sociologists should go about their work and the tools they should use. In this section we will examine: • Weber’s concern with modernity and rationalisation • Idealism • Weber’s methodology. Weber’s main goal was to understand modernity; the major theme in his work is the growing disenchantment of the world. Unlike the Enlightenment philosophers who championed the ‘debunking’ of religious beliefs and superstitions, he was pessimistic about the effects of the increasing ‘use of reason in all things’. His view of the future is illustrated by the quote below:
Not summer’s bloom lies ahead of us, but rather a polar night of icy darkness and hardness.10
The Protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism is one of Weber’s key texts. Most libraries have copies of this and we do advise you to read some of it to see Weber’s writing at first-hand.
Weber (1946/1958) p.120.
Weber and rationalisation
Rationalisation for Weber was a process in which social interaction and social institutions were being increasingly governed by methodical procedures and calculable rules. He believed that in modernity, traditional values and emotions gave way to formal and impersonal practices. These practices may encourage greater efficiency to achieve designated ends but they lead to a situation where one ‘can master all things by calculation’. Modernity allows people to ‘have mastery of the natural and social environment’, but the division of labour, bureaucratisation and mechanisation lead to individuals becoming ‘little cogs’ in a big machine. Rationality, which Weber described as the application of reason to achieve a desired end, leads to greater predictability, calculability, co-ordination and control in all spheres of social life. However this leads to individuals feeling trapped in an ‘iron cage’ with no room for creativity.
are formed by a complex interplay of social actions. Then take any large-scale organisation that you know and see if it mirrors the situation described by Weber in the quote above. This passion for bureaucracy . Weber also disagreed with Marx who believed that most structures. For example.11 11 Elwell (1996). and helpless if they are torn away from their total incorporation in it. being composed of a large number of continuing social relationships. is enough to drive one to despair. He described how McDonald’s organises every aspect of the work process into smaller parts which can be controlled and standardised. change occurs first in the way that goods are produced. become nervous and cowardly if for one moment this order wavers. Social structures. He was particularly concerned about the growing bureaucracy in modern society. as in the Egyptian records. 103 . but what can we oppose to this machinery in order to keep a portion of mankind free from this parcelling-out of the soul. playing an ever increasing part in the spirit of our present administrative systems. Activity 4. Weber focused on social action and saw social structures not as external to and independent of individuals. Weber and idealism You may have read that much of Weber’s sociology has been described as a ‘debate with the “Ghost of Marx”’. for example by adopting rational principles. It is as if in politics … we were to deliberately to become men who need ‘order’ and nothing but order. That the world should know no men but these: it is in such an evolution that we are already caught up. the way that things are produced will determine the way that society is organised. that indicates how rational a society is. George Ritzer suggested that rationalisation and bureaucratisation is a feature of many organisations in society. For materialists. little men clinging to little jobs and striving toward bigger ones – a state of affairs which is to be seen once more. Weber rejected all determinist models of social explanation but he accepted that material considerations were extremely important. according to Weber. the basis of society is the way that material production is organised. An example of this is his concern about the growing bureaucratisation of the modern world.Chapter 4: Theories and developments Whereas science can provide the knowledge about how to do things. In your own words attempt to write a definition of it. from this supreme mastery of the bureaucratic way of life. in his work The McDonaldisation of society. not how we can promote and hasten it. ‘matter matters’.. human motivation and ideas were the major forces behind social change. The following quote illustrates Weber’s pessimism well: It is horrible to think that the world could one day be filled with nothing but those little cogs. He accepted that bureaucracy was the most technically efficient of all forms of organisation but he was concerned about the effect this would have on the people who were increasingly acting rationally. Remember that for Marx. Weber on the other hand suggests it is the change from traditional to rational thinking that makes the difference. therefore. For Weber. the students.. scientific techniques are ‘empty of meaning’. and the great question is. were external to and coercive of social actors.11 Now look up rationalisation in your textbooks. It is the willingness to use and adapt to new technologies. and especially of its offspring.
Lee and Newby are very careful to state that it was not Weber’s intention to refute Marx’s theory of the development of capitalism. Weber was determined to argue against the economic determinism of the some of the later Marxists. We will use the example of The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism to illustrate these key ideas. We ‘know’ that 2 + 2 = 4 without 104 . Weber categorised societies by the differences in how they viewed the world.12 Now look up the four types of social action in your textbooks and make sure that you are able to link these to the particular forms of domination. Now read Chapter 3 on Weber in Cuff. We outline some of the most important methodological aspects of Weber’s sociology below. Thus: Traditional action Affective action Instrumentally rational action Value rational action Traditional domination Charismatic domination } Legal rational domination In traditional societies the dominant type of social action is tradition. Lee and Newby also give a good corrective to those texts. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism was Weber’s attempt to explain how the process occurred. formulating theories on the basis of this research. Weber’s methodology Sociology should focus primarily on empirical research. traditional action was dominant and people’s actions were guided by the past. The importance of this work lies in Weber’s methodology and the comparison with Marx’s analysis of the development of capitalism. Weber demonstrated that human motivation and ideas were the forces behind social change – ‘ideas values and beliefs had the power to bring about social transformation’. Try to see how these points compare with the notes that you will have made on Marx and Durkheim. Individuals give authority to those in power on the basis of their traditional right to rule. In pre-industrial society. which state that Protestantism caused the development of capitalism. (A priori literally means ‘from the former’. whereas in industrial/capitalist society individuals’ actions are goal-oriented. Sharrock and Francis (2006) or Lee and Newby (2000) on Weber’s The Protestant Ethic and Spirit of Capitalism. A priori assumptions imply that knowledge exists prior to experience.21 Principles of sociology Activity 4. For Weber the central organising principle of the modern system was rational capitalism. not on a priori assumptions. The Protestant Ethic thesis demonstrates Weber’s ideas of rationality and rational action. Sharrock and Francis (2006) or Chapters 11 and 12 in Lee and Newby (2000). Weber described the first two forms of action as being non-rational. Now read Cuff.
In The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism his creation of an ideal type of rational capitalism allowed Weber to argue that northern Europe had all the features indicated in his ideal type. which had changed. In The Protestant Ethic. Activity 4. An ideal typical farm for example would have: A farm house. Although ancient China and India had some of the essential features for rational capitalism to develop they lacked some key aspects and therefore could not be considered as capitalist societies. The social scientist is concerned with the evaluation of means rather than ends or goals. Value freedom/value neutrality The social sciences should be principally concerned with addressing practical problems. believing that the explanations of sociologists must always be rooted in an interpretive understanding of the subjective meaning that individuals give to their actions. 105 . As they saved and spent their resources wisely they were able to accumulate capital which could then be invested in rational projects. as far as possible.13 Attempt to construct an ideal type – of a farm perhaps – or even an ideal type of a sociology student. should be in the country. he suggested that rational capitalism arose in part because of the behaviour of the Protestants. Weber rejected all determinist theories. caste. Now read Look up descriptions of the ideal type and its use in the social sciences in your textbooks.Chapter 4: Theories and developments any further research. These ideal types are important in comparative sociology as they allow social phenomena to be compared with the ideal type. Weber suggested that social scientists should. However objectivity in the social sciences should not be confused or treated as synonymous with political neutrality or ‘sitting on the fence’. The changing belief systems caused changes in the way that the Protestants worked.) Therefore sociologists should carry out research and not simply theorise about the world without any evidence or doing sociological research! Methodological individualism Weber has been described as a methodological individualist – unlike Durkheim who saw society as existing sui generis. You should create a set of features. saved and spent their money. Therefore we should use methods which can examine aggregate behaviour. have a tractor or a horse. Examples of these include: bureaucracy. some barns/animal sheds. In this sense he is close to the social constructionists but he did not go as far as they do. may have a distinctive smell of animals. However. seek to be value free – that is. Weber saw society as an aggregate of individuals rather than an ‘entity’. This change in aggregate behaviour was one of the reasons behind the development of rational capitalism. to place to one side judgments about what ought to be the case (normative statements). be separated from the rest of the countryside by fences. rational capitalism. The comparative method The social sciences proceed through the construction of ‘ideal types’ which have been called ‘interpretive benchmarks’. You should note that these ideal types were created by Weber. social action. as they suggest that society is itself a ‘social construction’.
Spencer.4 of this chapter) as his work can be seen as an attack on the grand narrative theories of Comte. the branch of philosophy which involves ‘the human understanding and interpretation of texts’. for bringing ‘the individual back in’ to social analysis and for demonstrating the importance of understanding the meaning behind action. Social sciences are concerned with the interpretation of social action and sociology should be concerned with the interpretation of subjective meaning. According to Weber. Weber was an advocate of hermeneutics. Weber’s legacy Weber’s influence on the twentieth century has been immense. It could be argued that he was a precursor of postmodernist theorising (see section 4. 2. What is meant by methodological individualism? 3. how did rational capitalism develop in Northern Europe? 6. What is an ideal type? Why is it useful in comparative sociology? 7. In sociology a hermeneutic study involves sociologists interpreting documents and attempting to understand what the authors meant by their writings.12 12 Weber (1949). Activity 4. Why was Weber worried about rationalisation in the modern world? 106 . In The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. using rationalised technology • rational organisation of free labour • unrestricted markets. Weber interpreted the works of Benjamin Franklin.21 Principles of sociology The ideal type of rational capitalism for Weber had the following features: • the pursuit of profit – capital is organised entrepreneurially • rational enterprise. In the social sciences we are concerned with mental phenomena. What is meant by verstehen? 8. his analysis on power and the bureaucratic states has been a useful corrective to much Marxist theorising and has gone a long way to explaining the character of late capitalism. Verstehen (empathetic understanding) You will have seen that for Weber. How does Weber explain conflict in society? 4. Marx and Durkheim. the social sciences can be distinguished from the natural sciences.14 Attempt to write short answers to the following questions: 1. and so doing caught ‘the essence of the capitalist spirit’. His main influences were on Parsons and the symbolic interactionists whom we will be discussing in the next section. He was responsible. with others. the empathetic ‘understanding’ of which is naturally a task of a specifically different type from those which the schemes of the exact natural sciences can seek to solve. Outline Weber’s explanation of social action. both in substantive sociology and in methodology. What is meant by ‘elective affinity’? 5. His importance in political sociology has been immeasurable.
Structural functionalism has its roots in Comte and Spencer’s organic analogy and of course in Durkheim’s sociology. Sharrock and Francis (2006) and Lee and Newby (2000) – go into too much detail. ‘Social inequality and social injustice’. His theories owe a lot to the classical sociologists but. Sharrock and Francis (2006) or/and in Lee and Newby (2000). much of his work lay in a rejection 107 . Smelser and Davis and Moore. Instead of looking at how societies evolve over time. which explains why structural functionalism is so difficult.Chapter 4: Theories and developments Structural functionalism and Parsons Now read Either Fulcher and Scott (2007) Chapter 2 or Cuff. In this section we will outline the key features of Parsonian functionalism. If you choose to study one of the following in Section C – ‘Power in society’. Pareto and Freud. Weber. The anthropologist A. the set texts provide very little material on structural functionalism. Introduction Structural functionalism in sociology rose to prominence in the United States after the Second World War. Instead he developed a grand model of how he believed society to be organised. He suggested that social institutions are the key to maintaining order and that it was possible to make generalisations about the functions of social structures across societies. ‘Religion and society’ or the ‘Sociology of organisations’ – you will need to have a good understanding of the major assumptions of Parsons and the structural functionalist approaches. In this section we will concentrate on Parsons but in your reading you should be aware of the work of other structural functionalists. ‘How is social order maintained in society?’ Most structural functionalists use a biological analogy. is Ian Craib’s Modern Social Theory.6 on the individual in society. With the exception of Fulcher and Scott (2003). Its leading exponents were Parsons. The major influences on Parsons’ thought were Durkheim. Radcliffe Brown (1881–1955) developed Durkheim’s functionalist framework. section 1. The main task of a sociologist is to identify the parts or structures in society that function to maintain equilibrium. and the key texts – Cuff. A particularly good text from your Works cited. You should be able to describe and evaluate these theories. Talcott Parsons (1902–1979) Parsons’ theory Parsons’ sociology was primarily theoretical. and. seeing society as an organism. see Chapter 1. Sharrock and Francis (2006) Chapter 5 or Lee and Newby (2000) Part 7. Its main concern was to answer the sociological problem. especially the work of Parsons. Merton. He was interested in finding out what holds society together and prevents it from ‘falling apart’. and indicate the areas which it would be helpful for you to know and understand now and what can be left for general reading later. You need to understand Parsons’ theory in relation to socialisation and role. with little empirical content. unlike Weber or Durkheim.R. he looked at how different parts of the society (social institutions) functioned to maintain the whole. as you will read later in Cuff. Parsons did not create methodology for the study of society.
It also owes much to the work of Comte and Spencer’s ideas of organicism and equilibrium. they explained how each institution changed in response to changes in other institutions at that particular point in time. 1995. In the structural functionalist approach. leaving the individual with little autonomy.) Parsons created a synthesis of ideas from these social scientists and created a theory that was to dominate US sociology for three decades. Like Durkheim. (As you have seen in section 4.21 Principles of sociology of Thomas Hobbes’ individualistic conception of the human being. He sought to explain the nature of society and the role of individuals within it – a grand plan indeed! Parsons’ theory is analytical ‘in that. However. 2007. a social institution is described by the role it plays in maintaining the stability of the wider society.) The anthropologists advocated a synchronic approach to the study of societies. He was also influenced by the work of some social anthropologists (Radcliffe Brown and Malinowski) who were concerned about the epistemological problems arising out of the evolutionary theories of the nineteenth century. Rather than explaining why and how societies changed over time. for example Louis Althusser’s Structuralist Marxism which we have discussed in the section on Marx. Structures 108 .1.45). Parsons believed that the task of sociology was to analyse society as a system of interrelated variables. in Fulcher and Scott. Now read Look up the biological analogy and details of Parsons’ biography in your textbooks. they aimed to demonstrate how changes in one part of the social system could be explained in relation to changes in other parts. But it was also realist in that. The structural functionalist perspective Students often have difficulty with the structural functionalist perspective. Parsons’ ideas on the social system and social structure Parsons’ major aim was to analyse the social system as a whole and hence he can be described as a macro sociologist. sociology in the nineteenth century reacted against the individualisation of the Enlightenment. like Durkheim. therefore he sought to show how each social institution functioned to maintain the whole society. he recognized that all observations were dependent on concepts. he saw these observations telling us something about what the world is really like’ (Scott. There are also many explanations in sociology that explain the shape. Structuralist theories suggest that social institutions are ‘structured’/determined by society. like Weber. (They believed that it was impossible to know what previous societies were like and that it was impossible to predict how they would develop. structural functionalists believed that individuals and groups are constrained by structures. In their fieldwork. form or structure of a social institution by its ‘function’. Parsons’ influences Parsons’ theories owe much to Durkheim’s concept of structure and Durkheim’s functional analysis by which he describes social facts by their contribution to the working of society as a whole. p. structural functionalist is a name given to a particular group of sociologists who are both structuralist and functionalist and most of whom described themselves as such. There are some theories that are structuralist.
especially The structure of social action written in 1937. Activity 4. Parsons believed that the sociologist should analyse social action rather than physical events and biological behaviour. social. by environmentalist ideas that it is not good to waste petrol driving fast cars and by the fact that you have a job and a family to support. In structural functionalism. In the model of social action. it is a simple exchange: if the actor receives satisfaction in an exchange then this action will be repeated. educational and political structures. Parsons believed that understanding the way that people make these choices is the most important task of any social scientist. by your lack of finances. legal and cultural factors (environmental factors) which limit the opportunities available to the actors. so he would need to find out why people act in the way that they do. Means: the resources available to achieve these ends/goals. The components of the unit act are: Actors: the people who make choices (in choosing the ends/goals and the means to achieve the ends/goals). Structural functionalists believe that social systems have certain needs. he describes action as ‘the unit act’. Unlike Weber he was not an Interpretivist aiming to understand meaning behind the action. These means are not always available. which we describe below. These norms will in turn be influenced by the prevailing values in society. If these needs are to be met. he believed that a sociologist must attempt to understand social phenomena as they appear to the actors. This gives rise to a set of expectations relating to similar exchanges. These expectations build up into sets of rules and norms. so these choices are constrained by physical. it is the social structures that meets these needs. Parsons’ major assumption in explaining social action is that the ‘actor’ aims to maximise his/her gratification.15 Can you think of something that you would like to do and cannot do? What are the constraints which prevent you from doing this? Example 1 You may want to drive a Ferrari across Africa but you may be constrained by your inability to drive a car. Parsons’ voluntaristic theory of social action In Parsons’ early work.Chapter 4: Theories and developments include economic. which contain mutually dependent parts. Like Weber. social systems and cultural systems. you will see that action is governed by the prevailing norms and values in a society. First. legal. Parsons viewed the structure of society as a normative framework. The unit act Individuals make choices – they choose between different goals and they choose between different ways of achieving these goals. these parts work together to form a social structure. societies are seen as a mixture of personality systems. This normative framework or cultural system (very like Durkheim’s concept of moral regulation) is important in defining the expectations that are attached to each role in a social institution. the cultural system playing the most important part. Like Weber. 109 .
You will know how to play different roles through a socialising process which ensures that you understand the expectations attached to each role. 13 Craib (1992) p. The key institutions in society which help to define the social roles within these institutions are: the market. marriage and kinship. These values and norms are the basis for order in society. These norms and values structure individual choices. each governed by established norms and values. section 1. the values regarding the environment and your duty to support your family. individuals are not autonomous actors. as we have seen.3 which explains how sociologists define a social institution. how can there be social order? Social action is not simply a reaction to external stimuli. Actors take account of the expectations of others. In structural functionalism an institution is described as the ‘generalised norms and practices’ which are shared by many members of a society. However you are constrained because the restaurant has a no smoking policy. Hence roles are taken in a structural functionalist model.42. In front of your friends you will act informally but in a large lecture theatre you will be much more formal and will not be expected to interact with the lecturer unless asked to do so. a role is a ‘cluster of normative expectations’ which exist prior to an individual taking up a role. You may be asked to leave the restaurant and your friend will probably be very offended.’ Parsons believed that people tend to co-operate on the basis of these values. You will behave differently in each case.6 – The individual and society – which compares Parsons’ and Mead’s ideas of socialisation and role. section 1. your companion hates smoking. This is a difficult concept in Parsons’ work. Social institutions Now reread Chapter 1. the choices available to them are limited by the prevailing norms and values in a society (as well as financial and legal constraints). These norms are normally well-established and settled and help tie the various social roles in society together. each actor develops a system of expectations in choosing how to act and what goals to aim for. ‘I act towards you in respect of how I expect you to act.21 Principles of sociology Here the constraints relate to your skills. Question: If people pursue their individual self-interest.13 Now reread Chapter 1. We expect an institution to be like a school or a bank. For example. Status roles For Parsons. ‘Society can be considered as a network of social roles. and you believe that you should not smoke. your financial situation. Example 2 You may want to smoke in a restaurant after having a very good meal. However. 110 . contract. property. Actors are constrained by the values and norms of the people around them. as a student you will play your role in relation to others playing their role. Here the constraints are very strong and smoking may incur punishment.
For social interaction to occur over time there must be some stability in the symbolic system. The personality system was made up of a mixture of biological drives and culture but cannot be reduced to biology. Hence one of the major functions of the family and education is ‘pattern maintenance’ (see below). individuals seek approval in social relationships. For example. the stratification system serves to integrate people into the society. The general system of action Social institutions tend to be arranged in groups which make up subsystems.Chapter 4: Theories and developments In a market there are buyers and sellers – each role carrying a role set of expectations and behaviours. • The biological system: this provides the biological link between the physical world and the meanings that make up the ‘world of action’. the political sub-system sets the goals in a society. This ensures that the culture of a society is internalised by members of a society. A person’s personality is affected by all the conditioning and learning that occurs in a ‘hers’ or ‘his’ life. Without some degree of conformity to the ‘conventions’ in the society. • The personality system: the personality system was concerned with human motivation. • The social system: patterns of activity resulting from the sum of social interactions in the society. 111 . Integration. People conform because there is a consensus (agreement) over the prevailing set of norms and values in a society. There are also subsystems of each of the above systems! You will have read that structural functionalists use a biological analogy. and in joint families parents and brothers and sisters-in-law. In order for society to survive each of the sub-systems – and the sub-systems of sub-systems – it must satisfy four functional prerequisites: Latency/ Pattern Maintenance. communication would be impossible. Goal Attainment and Adaptation (LIGA). the roles relate to husband and wife. In a marriage. • The cultural system: Parsons can be described as a consensus theorist. Note: Parsons believed that women tended to play ‘expressive’ roles whereas men would play ‘instrumental roles’ in the social division of labour. On the next page the chart indicates how these prerequisites are met. Culture is a symbolic system but people in different situations will read symbols differently. Each of these systems relates to each other and adapts in response to changes in the other systems. According to Parsons the sub-systems of the social system are: • the economic system • the political system • the societal community • the socialisation system. Human beings are seen as essentially passive and reactive in the Parsonion model.
POWER Met by: the Economy – structures of production distribution and exchange. The cybernetic hierarchy The systems illustrated above are related through the exchange of symbolic information.) Met by: The societal community – this includes localised structures such as kinship and neighbourhood. Symbols are exchanged and each system remains in equilibrium with the other systems. but also larger bonds of ethnic and national community.4 Source: Generated from Fulcher and Scott (2007) p.) Goal attainment (The need to mobilise existing resources to achieve individual and collective goals. Social stratification is an important mechanism INFLUENCE COMMITMENT Figure 4. Each of the sub-systems has an equivalent ‘symbol’ which is indicated in CAPITAL LETTERS in the above boxes. Means of action Ends of action Adaptation (The need to accumulate and control resources from the natural environment. which ensures both the stability of the system and the perpetuation of its culture.) Met by: the family and education – people are socialised into the generalised values and norms in a society.21 Principles of sociology Structures related to External needs These relate to the facilities and resources that must be generated from the environment. Thus a hierarchy emerges: • the cultural system is high on information • the social system is high on information • the personality system is high on energy • the biological organism is high on energy. Latency and Pattern Maintenance: (The need to build up a store of commitment in a society and to ensure stability of the system as a whole. MONEY Internal needs Relating to the integrity and cohesion of the social system.) Met by: the Polity – political structures of decision-making and control.49. Integration: (The need to integrate individuals into the society. 112 . Using the idea of cybernetics (the science of systems and their ability to be self-regulating) Parsons attempted to demonstrate how each system is controlled by another system.
These interests cannot be reconciled and so society is normally in a state of conflict. society adapts to deal with the tension (tension management) and moves back to a state of moving equilibrium. were material resources. the more is available to pursue collective goals. In Marx’s analysis of social class. 113 . Change is generally ordered and evolutionary. in capitalism. The normative system ensures that individuals are socialised into the rules of the society and so society is normally in a state of solidarity of equilibrium. in Marx and Weber’s analyses. Parsons described this process as ‘moving equilibrium’. They had a zero. This triggers changes in the sub-systems to rectify the situation and conflict also contributes to social change. Remember the cultural system has to ensure that there is a general consensus and agreement in society. However. Resources. Parsons’ concept of moving equilibrium can serve to indicate how the various sub-systems react to these changes. Parsons’ theory of the family illustrates this well. the functions of the family are reduced to two important functions – the socialisation of the young and the stabilisation of ‘adult personalities’. they were scarce and there would be competition over them. the working class is generally unaware of these opposing interests). even thought this conflict may not be overt. Change in one system will affect changes in another system which will react and restore the original situation. the functions that an institution is left with are more effective than when that institution was carrying out multiple functions. with one part of the system adapting to changes in another. As societies become more complex and differentiated. the family remains in Parsons’ model the ‘cornerstone of society’. When there is overt conflict. Those with highest energy (the personality and biological organisms) push energy up through the system and those with high information push information down through the system. They account for conflict as an indication that the system is not working effectively. However. classes have oppositional interests (even though. the number of the functions that an institution can achieve decreases. In contrast. As societies develop. The more these resources are utilised. therefore the cultural system controls the personality and biological systems. In adapting to the conflict situation the society will change in some way. Parsons attempted to demonstrate how a change or ‘disturbance’ in one system induces a reaction in another which maintains equilibrium. As social systems become more specialised. Specialisation Social systems change as they become more differentiated and as structures become more specialised. and societal resources in a society if the society is organised to properly utilise them. the cultural system has to adapt to these changes and becomes more abstract and more generalised. Moving equilibrium The sub-systems above are constantly adapting to changes within the social system (endogenous changes) and from outside the system (exogenous changes).Chapter 4: Theories and developments Those systems which are highest on information control those who have high energy. The task of the education system is to socialise the young into this generalised culture. conflict is endemic. The other functions have been taken over by the education system and the state.or constant-sum view. for Marx. Parsons assumed a variable-sum view of society: there are enough power resources.
Do you think that the structuralist functionalists can account for this situation? Summary Structural functionalism dominated US sociology until the late 1960s (although there were other paradigms which were dominant in some univerisites: phenomenology and other interpretivist traditions in Chicago. Other paradigms became more popular and there was little work done using the structural functionalist perspective. Specialisation. and also in Cuff.102 on anomie). then what? In the organic model. He took Durkheim’s concept of anomie as a starting point but developed this to include a typology of the different responses to anomic situations. far from ensuring social cohesion. society will die or the equilibrium will be destroyed and society would be reborn.50–51) on this topic. Neofunctionalism Reading If you are using Fulcher and Scott (2007) we suggest that you read their background material (pp. Activity 4.21 Principles of sociology Robert Merton (1910–2003) Now read The descriptions of Merton you will find in your main textbook. However. We should ask questions of both Merton’s and Luhmann’s positions. 114 . If you have chosen the study of organisations or religion in Section C. since the 1980s there has been a re-emergence of this tradition with the development of neofunctionalism around people such as Nicholas Luhmann. Now read Cuff. Here you will see that Nikolas Luhmann developed Parsons’ ideas but suggested that social systems were very often unstable and that they often failed to adapt. His work as been used to describe deviant behaviour and even revolutionary change. for instance). Merton’s theory will be very helpful to you. Sharrock and Francis (2006) and Lee and Newby (2000). created a situation where social institutions became so specialised that they developed different value systems.16 Think of a society in which there has been continuous open conflict for over 10 years. if this conflict persists. How do structural functionalists explain the existence of conflict in so many societies? They can explain it using the concept of ‘function’ but. Merton’s development of Parsons’ work on social action has been used extensively in the study of organisations and crime (see p. Sharrock and Francis (2006) Chapter 5 or Lee and Newby (2000) Chapter 16. Use the above notes to guide you in your reading. This brings us quite close to the postmodernist theory which suggests that culture is ‘fractured’ and there is no one point of reference for social behaviour.
NJ: Prentice Hall. 1918) [ISBN 9780252010903]. Badger. 1969) [ISBN 0138799245]. Modern social theory. 1974) [IBSN 9780471085706].Chapter 4: Theories and developments Much of the material in Sections B and C depends on a thorough understanding of structural functionalism as a perspective and its concern with explaining social phenomena. Introduction Most sociology in the nineteenth century could be described as macro sociology. and D.28–30 or Macionis and Plummer (2008) pp. H.S. Harold Studies in Ethnomethodology. (New York: Wiley Interscience. Jane and Robert C. Knopf. and Florian Zaniecki The Polish peasant in Europe and America. this group believed that we need to understand the processes by which individuals come to understand the behaviour of others and how individuals identified themselves through interaction. section 1. (Anchor. For Weber. Symbolic interactionism. J.3 Bringing the individual back in Works cited Atkinson. Blumer. 115 . we had to ‘put ourselves in the shoes of the other’ (verstehen). Fry. The presentation of self in everyday life. Bogdan Autobiography of Jane Fry. 1928) [ISBN 9780384601789]. Social interactionism. (Englewood Cliffs. E. Craib. Thomas. for behaviour to be social ‘meaning had to be attached to it’. 1984) [ISBN 9780415018753]. This is not only in terms of causes but in terms of the ends that social institutions and practices have for the maintenance of society. (London: Harvester Wheatsheaf. (Boston: Richard G. 1992) second edition [ISBN 9780312086749].I. However. W.7.33–36 and reread Chapter 1. as Parsons and Durkheim did. (London and New York: Methuen. Garfinkel. (Englewood Cliffs. Thomas The child in America: behavior problems and programs.22–24 or Macionis and Plummer (2005) pp. there are differences between these approaches that you should be aware of. Sociologists such as Comte and Durkheim were committed to the idea that there was such a thing as ‘society’. Social interactionism Now read Fulcher and Scott (2007) pp. Goffman. and society structured individual behaviour and consciousness. In your reading you will have seen that Weber moved away from this structural approach. NJ: Prentice Hall.I.51–54 or Giddens (2008) pp. 1967) [ISBN 9780745600611]. W. 4. For the next group of social scientists this did not go far enough. Maxwell Our masters’ voices: the language and body language of politics. 1959) [ISBN 9780385094023]. Thomas. Interactionists did not try to create a theory of society. I. symbolic interactionism and ethnomethodology This group of sociological perspectives can be described as ‘micro sociology’ because they stress the importance of looking at the individual in society. (New York: Alfred A. In order to understand the meaning that the actor was giving to her or his behaviour.
Thomas and Florian Zaniecki examined the way that these migrants perceived their situation and how they adapted to the different social environment of the large city.S. ‘If men define situations as real. particularly the review of Mind. they are real in their consequences. These perspectives were developed in the University of Chicago where George Herbert Mead and W. Self and Society by Jacob Robert Kantor: 8 http://spartan.I. attempted to find out the nature of the relationship between society and the individual.brocku.html Now read You need to reread the material on Mead in Chapter 1.52–53. Whereas Weber and Parsons stressed social action. especially in relation to Mead’s view of the ‘I’ and the ‘Me’. They were particularly interested in the way that different social groups struggled over resources in the rapidly developing city in the time of mass migration. They wrote this up in a book The Polish peasant in Europe and America (1918).572.I. and D. Things are what they mean to people. what was new in the Chicago School was the development of a department which was interested in finding out how people define and interpret the social environment. It had its roots in the work of William James (1842–1910) and Charles Peirce (1839–1914) and the theory of Pragmatism. Mead believed that the field methods of anthropology should be used to understand the process of interaction between the self/mind (the ‘I’ and the ‘Me’) and society. Thomas.I. Mead. If you have access to Fulcher and Scott (2007). having migrated from small rural communities. 14 15 Here Thomas and Thomas take the example of a prisoner who interprets the behaviour of people talking to themselves (aloud) in negative terms. and particularly people’s ability to manipulate symbols. They did this through a content analysis of one migrant’s (a Polish peasant) letters home to Poland. Kantor (see above).7.ca/~lward/Kantor/Kantor_1935. section 1. The prisoner believes that these people are making disparaging remarks about him. which suggests that there are no abstract definitions of things as they really are.14 Pragmatism is a theory of meaning. Now the idea of interpreting behaviour was not new. like other sociologists. He therefore attacks them and in some cases kills them. So he acts on his perception of the situation. An example of this is the Thomas Theorem. please read this now. George Herbert Mead (1863–1931) Mead has been very influential in both sociology and social psychology. Thomas (1928) p. Thomas were working. In his book review. To 116 . You may like to look up some of these notes on the web. explains how Mead suggests that we should study ‘the inner experience of activity which arises in the social process of interaction’.’15 Fulcher and Scott (2003) pp. but the problem has been that he actually wrote very little and most of his work has been gathered together by his students.21 Principles of sociology Social interactionism is a loose term. W. You will have seen that Mead is usually described as a social psychologist. W.ac. but is generally applied to theorists who stress the importance of looking beyond action and structure to the way in which people create their identities and define the situations/ reality in which they find themselves in. They examined his interpretation of his situation and how this changed over time.
section 1. knowing. Therefore interactionists do not simply seek to understand a single action through verstehen. so that they can understand the processes by which individuals develop a sense of self through the processes of communication and interaction. The mind. You should be aware of Goffman’s empirical work and try to read some of it. An individual’s gesture indicates subsequent behaviour to another.116–29 or Macionis and Plummer (2005 or 2008) Chapter 7 or Giddens (2008) pp. Erving Goffman (1922–1982) Goffman was a Canadian sociologist who studied in Chicago. For Mead. particularly participant observation. There cannot be a mind in the absence of society. Interactionists therefore use ethnographic methods.Chapter 4: Theories and developments understand Mead it is important to be aware of the concept of gesture. In order to understand gestures. Mead believed that individuals can control their behaviour and act according to their interpretation of the meanings of the gestures and events that they are exposed to. known and reflected upon. is characterised by the processes of meaning. shapes human thinking. and the processes by which individuals come to understand ‘their’ social reality. you need see how they are interpreted – and to see how the process of interaction occurs.7). The social self emerges only through social experience and the self will not emerge unless individuals are able to interact with others and ‘see themselves as others see them’. Her/his identity is given by her/his reactions to others. when an individual responds to a gesture it is regarded as a significant gesture. He used a phenomenological approach – see below – to understand how individuals perceive the interactions they observe and take part in. Now read Fulcher and Scott (2007) pp. All these processes assume that there is an external environment (society) which can be understood. Interaction is by definition a dynamic process. the individual cannot be detached from the environment. Mead said that ‘the mind should be studied scientifically (because) its workings are displayed in human contact not concealed behind it’ and that ‘the content of the mind is only a development and product of social interaction’. The self The ‘self’ arises in the process of gesture conversation in social interaction – the self is reflexive. face-to-face interaction. He concentrated on small-scale. They observe the processes by which people are socialised. Whereas behaviouralists believed that humans react directly to external stimuli and events. Gestures have meaning to social actors. Gestures include all verbal and non-verbal communication. The social self takes on the role of others (see Chapter 1. therefore. for Mead. The mind arises through communication which is result of the interplay of gestures in the form of significant symbols. and are central to Meade’s analysis of social interaction. significance and reflection. particularly The presentation of self in everyday life. The social environment. What differentiates men from animals is man’s ability to reflect on past activities and anticipate and prepare for future situations. The most important category of symbols is language.126–33. 117 .
A ‘front’ is a collective representation which provides the ‘proper setting’. an audience can influence the actors to act in a way that is expected of them. and this performance is shaped by the external environment and the audience of the action. Goffman undertook a participant observation study in the Shetland Islands (in the far north of Scotland). The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life (1959) was a largely descriptive study of the way that individuals engage in presentation management. Reading note Fulcher and Scott (2007) have a good section of Goffman in Chapter 4. Individuals aim to create an impression on others. pp. Yet their work has addressed power especially through labelling theory. the poor crofters deliberately let their houses get run down because they wanted to create an ‘impression’ that they were so poor that the landlord would believe that they could not afford to pay any extra rent. In The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. 118 . it is an analogy taken from the theatre. so they acted accordingly. Interaction is a reciprocal and continuous negotiation over how situations are defined.e.16 16 Fulcher and Scott (2003) p. However as we have seen in the example of the ‘dumb girls’. So the actor has to fulfil the duties of a social role and be able to communicate the characteristics of the role to others. The image the actors present will vary according to the impression that the actors believe is expected by the audience. and this impression is called the self. Roles are not given. Individuals learn their role and the context in which the role is played. Actors act towards an audience to make an impression. Therefore individuals learn about the ‘front’ through socialisation and act to standardise their behaviour so that others can understand it. Goffman suggests that interaction is a performance. and they have been accused of neglecting the constraints under which actors perform. Consensus exists only when this definition has been established and agreed by all involved. to illustrate his idea of impression management.54. young girls ‘acted dumb’ (i. Front The process of establishing a social identity is linked to the concept of ‘front’ which is ‘that part of the individual’s performance which functions in a general and fixed fashion to define the situation for those who observe the performance’.128–29. In the Shetland Islands. stupid) to impress their boyfriends. ‘appearance’ and ‘manner’ for the social role. an interplay in which each actor interprets and responds to all others. Power Much of the work of the symbolic interactionists concentrates on the individual. A definition of the situation is the joint construction of the participants in interaction. The girls believed that their boyfriends liked dumb girls. they are learnt through a process of interaction. The social process The social process is an interplay of action and reaction. They can manipulate symbols to create a particular response to their behaviour. they are the sets of expectations which others have of our behaviour.21 Principles of sociology Goffman described his work as a dramaturgical approach.
Blumer developed many of Mead’s ideas and formalised them. 19 119 . most of which he developed from Mead’s ideas. and derives its interpretations from such naturalistic studies. Blumer believed that Durkheim and the structural functionalists had ‘reified’ society. Reificiation means treating a phenomenon (a thing) as an occurrence that has no concrete existence. Symbolic interactionism Herbert Blumer (1900–1987) Symbolic interactionism is a term created by Hebert Blumer.799–803 or Macionis and Plummer (2005) pp.87. • Human beings act towards things on the basis of the meanings that the things have for them. • These meanings are a product of social interaction and negotiation in human society (see Chapter 1. in the chapters of the textbook relating to labelling theory you will see that the locus of research is on the people with the power to label. (We have described this in relation to the Thomas Theorem above. • Thought: These meanings are modified and handled through an interpretive process that is used by each individual in dealing with the signs each encounters.17 17 Blumer (1969) ‘Societies for Blumer were not fixed objective structures. For example. They posed as psychologists and gave the children a dummy test. Blumer described symbolic interactionism as: ……a down-to-earth approach to the scientific study of human group life and human conduct. Becker (who was a member of the Chicago School) described deviant behaviour as that behaviour which people label as deviant. Society is a fluid and flexible network of interactions within which we act. section 1.17 Can you explain how the term symbolic interactionism was derived? Blumer outlines the following assumptions of symbolic interactionism. Labelling theory has also been used in understanding educational success and failure. Rosenthal and Jacobson and their team organised an experiment with Mexican children to test the reasons certain groups of children failed at school.19 Labelling theory Unlike Goffman’s work which concentrates more on the impression management of the actor.136–41. Activity 4.565–67 or Cuff.Chapter 4: Theories and developments Now read Fulcher and Scott (2007) pp. who was a student of Mead. The researchers then reported to the teachers that Fulcher and Scott (2003) p. It lodges its problems in this natural world.447–50 or Macionis and Plummer (2008) pp.53–54 or Giddens (2008) pp.’18 Look back at the section on Parsons – for Parsons these networks made up ‘society’ and society constrained an individual’s actions.54. Sharrock and Francis (2006) pp.) Note also the descriptions of gesture. Its empirical world is the natural world of such group life and conduct. 18 Adapted from Craib (1992) p. This test was given to all the children in the class. Here the authors explain how symbolic interactions have explained deviant behaviour through the process of labelling. conducts its studies in it.7) on socialisation. Howard S.
21 Principles of sociology some children who had been labelled ‘slow learners’ were in fact late developers. Activity 4. The labels did make a difference. He aimed to create a radical philosophy whose task was to restore ‘the connection between knowledge and everyday experience’. They found that those children who had been relabelled as late developers had done significantly better than was originally expected of them and much better than their peers who had not been labelled ‘late developers’. Therefore. Edmund Husserl (1859–1938) is considered to be the founder of phenomenology. Now read Chapter 3 for a discussion on interpretivist ontology and epistemology for a description of Schutz’s phenomenology. They describe this both as a systematic treatise in the sociology of knowledge. Rosenthal and Jacobson left the school for six months and when they returned they re-tested all the pupils. is nonetheless socially constructed. Husserl pointed out that Weber’s theory of action was one-sided as Weber did not attempt to explain how the individual came to understand the meanings of social action. Two major aspects of his work are: • ‘The world we live in is created by our consciousness. Its major aim was to demonstrate that the social world does not exist sui generis as Durkheim suggested. This indicated to Rosenthal and Jacobson that the teachers had acted towards the pupils as if they were late developers rather than slow learners. Schutz (1899–1959) further developed Husserl’s ideas. The social construction of reality In 1966 Peter Berger (who worked with Schutz) and Thomas Luckmann wrote this important text. . Phenomenology is the study of structures of consciousness. the task of the social scientist is to understand the processes by which we come to know social reality. Husserl was concerned with studying the structures and workings of human consciousness. Society. Were there instances where teachers labelled pupils? Do you think this made a difference to their performance? Phenomenology You have been introduced to phenomenology in Chapter 3.’ • ‘The outside world only has meaning through our consciousness of it.’ Husserl criticised the positivists of the nineteenth century because they believed that the social world existed sui generis.20 120 20 Berger (1963) p. However. Everyday life presents itself as a reality interpreted by men and subjectively meaningful to them as a coherent world. the task of the phenomenological sociologist is see how people make sense of their lives. although meaningful to social actors.54–55. They termed this process a self-fulfilling prophecy. the effect was not lasting and there was no subsequent improvement in the pupils’ performance.33.18 Think back to the time when you were at school. Now read If you have a copy of Fulcher and Scott (2007) read pp.
Atkinson in his text Discovering Suicide demonstrated that those who had power to label a suicide as a suicide – the coroners – came to their conclusions on the basis of ‘biographies’. In Cuff. There you will have read that ethnography involved studying people in their own environments. The chapter in Cuff. Ethnie = people methodology = the science of methods. Hence sociologists should engage in trying to understand how people have developed their understanding of reality.21 Jane Fry was a transsexual and this text is a day-to-day record of his/her perceptions as she ‘became’ a woman. Atkinson observed coroners in England and Denmark and he found that British and Danish coroners gave different typifications of typical suicidal behaviour when presented with similar biographies. that society is socially constructed and that the task of the social scientist is to find out how people construct their world. This can be achieved by setting aside what we know (bracketing) and see how we come to know it. Over time they came to understand that a particular type of person. In Chapter 2 you were introduced to the concept of Ethnography. 21 Ethnomethodology Students are often worried about this term because it sounds rather daunting. One famous study which used this approach was The autobiography of Jane Fry. Sharrock and Francis (2006) on ethnomethodology is useful but contains more than is required for this unit. Harold Garfinkel and Aaron Cicourel who were writing in the 1950s and 1960s were its main exponents. Sharrock and Francis (2006). Reading note The only textbook to have some description of this approach is Fulcher and Scott (2007). as you will have seen in Chapter 3. studying how people judge social situations.Chapter 4: Theories and developments The task of the sociologist is to take this reality as the object of analysis and see how this reality is constructed. Ethnomethodologists attempt to find out the methods that individuals use to decide whether something is real or not. Sociologists such as J. They would therefore label the death as a suicide of people who ‘fitted’ into these types. are distrustful of statistics. that is. Maxwell Atkinson and Jack Douglas have cricitised Durkheim’s use of statistics and demonstrate how statistical data is socially created. they give an example of how people judge between fact and fiction. Berger and Luckmann believe commonsense is simply ‘senses held in common’. Fry and Bogdan (1974) . This process is known as typification. They used in-depth interviews and other ethnographic methods to uncover the taken-for-granted assumptions that people have. between the possible and the impossible. Here the process of becoming was the main focus. between what really happened and what was a dream. which they describe as social constructions. Phenomenologists. how we evaluate the methods that sociologists use. Ethnomethodology takes the philosophical standpoint of the phenomenologists. 121 . Hence the study of perception is at the forefront of their analysis. Knowledge can therefore be achieved by trying to find out how individuals come to perceive social reality. in a particular situation would be a suicidal type.
122 . my finances. Case 7 My friend and I were talking about a man whose overbearing attitude annoyed us. The social world is made up of rules and regularities and the task of the sociologist is to understand how these come about and how they operate. e: Would you explain what is wrong with you that you are sick. Ethnomethodologists believe that the way to discover these rules and regularities is to break them and to lay bare the taken-forgranted assumptions that people use to make sense of the situations in which they interact with others.? s: (Red in the face and suddenly out of control) Look I was just trying to be polite. my peace of mind.. believed that individuals had little or no autonomy and were like ‘puppets’. The breaching experiments involved his students ‘bringing conversations to a halt and refusing to take for granted that they knew what the other person was saying’ (Garfinkel 1967). He believed that we cannot simply look at action. s: Are you kidding me? You know what I mean. most of his work was an analysis of conversations. The ethnomethodologists examined transcripts of conversations and analysed how this turn taking was managed.. you learnt about the nature of sociology and that sociologists’ main focus is on studying the nature of relationships in society. Garfinkel called these experiments ‘breaching experiments’. e: Please explain your ailment. Frankly I don’t give a damn how you are. My friend expressed his feeling: s: I’m sick of him. s: (He listened to me with a puzzled look) What came over you? We never talk this way. However. and then ask for explanations of the explanations! Garfinkel asked his students to talk to their friends and deviate from the normal conventions of conversation – we give two examples here.21 Principles of sociology Garfinkel criticised the structural functionalists who. as you now know. my school work. Their methods were sometimes experimental. They included acts such as interrupting lectures. People in conversation can create an illusion of social order even though they may not understand each other fully. we need to understand the methods that actors use to organise their interactions and how they judge what is real or not. my. and suggesting to students that they should act ‘as if they were lodgers’ in their own homes. You should be able to relate to this case. Case 6 The ‘victim’ waved his hand cheerily: s: How are you? e: How am I in regard to what? My health. This allowed them to ask for explanations. In Chapter 1. In a conversation each person ‘takes a turn’ in the conversation. When you say ‘hello’ to someone or ‘how are you?’ you do not expect to have a long description of their illnesses. or interpret action. We need to go beyond this and understand not just the meanings of social actions and how the social world is constructed.
22 23 Atkinson (1984). If a speech contained a comparison – ‘we do this’.22 In conversations there are many gaps. The first part on phenomenology is the most important. is not acting according to the rules of normal conversation and s. Therefore he concluded that the audiences fill in gaps in speeches as dictated by their structure. e. In his textbook he uses the case of the monetary system. However. In your reading you should now try to compare them in relation to whether they believe that individuals are constrained by the society or actively create their own understanding of ‘reality’. It did not seem to matter what the content of the speech was. and they also make choices as to how to use it. Sharrock and Francis (2006). the individual is constrained by the culture of the society and is socialised into a role having little autonomy. In speech there are gaps in information and in conversation people fill these in and assume that this is what the other meant! The idea that there is a shared agreement between partners in a conversation is a myth. Individuals would find it very difficult if they did not use the monetary system (a structure) – unless they opt out of society completely or are completely dependent on others who do! Yet individuals can make choices. is getting confused. read Chapter 7. J. structural functionalism and at the other ethnomethodology. The question he asked was ‘How does an audience know when to clap?’ He found that if a speech contained three points the audience would clap more enthusiastically than two points. according to Garfinkel. Most of the textbooks try to compare these theories in terms of structure and action (agency). s. individuals contribute to its continued existence and development. However e. the individual is actively involved in making sense of the situation she or he finds her or himself in. Giddens has developed a way out of this ‘dualism’ and suggests that ‘we should bridge the gap between structure and action’. believes that e. According to ethnomethodology. In using the monetary system. other speech structures were not so successful. Structure or action? Structuration We have now introduced you to two very different approaches: at one extreme. According to Parsons. is not going to take this for granted and asks for further information. By analysing the speeches he was able to demonstrate that the content of the speech matters less than the structure of the speech. knows what ‘I’m sick of him’ means. Garfinkel’s task lay in attempting to understand the conditions under which people can make sense of one another’s activities and act accordingly. but ‘they do that’ – then the audience would also clap. Partners in a conversation interpret what they think the other person means. there are many matters that the partners don’t understand but act as if they understand what the other is talking about. Both cases from Garfinkel (1967). There is a dynamic process involved. they could decide not to use money. s. does not know how to answer this second question and starts getting angry.23 Now read If you have Cuff. Maxwell Atkinson has developed a similar approach to conversational analysis in his studies of how politicians can ensure participation in public meetings. it was the structure that mattered. 123 .Chapter 4: Theories and developments Here you can see the breaching experiment.
9. J. However individuals are only able to act in predictable ways if they are aware and have a great deal of ‘socially’ structured knowledge. 8. or Macionis. Sociology. Individuals learn language. in what way has it changed? Summary In this section we have described how the interactionists brought the individual back into sociological analysis. In his textbook Giddens uses the idea of language. 2005 edition) pp. or Giddens. Societies only have structure if people behave in regular ways.20 Attempt the following questions: 1. has the everyday language of communication changed? If so.4 Postmodernity and sociology Essential reading Fulcher. Explain the phrase ‘the world we live in is created by our consciousness’. Activity 4.115–16. (Cambridge: Polity Press. 2007) pp.19 In your society. However. Language can only exist if people use the language and abide by its rules. J. Plummer Sociology: a global introduction. How did Garfinkel conduct his experiments? 7. (Harlow: Prentice Hall.21 Principles of sociology Structuration refers to the process whereby individuals make and remake social structure during the course of their daily lives. Why is phenomenology sometimes called ‘a sociology of knowledge’? 4. A. (2008 edition) pp. people do not receive language passively. and K. (Oxford: Oxford University Press.64–66 and 386–87. Activity 4. 124 . and although many people are concerned about proper grammatical forms the structure of our language changes over time. Language vocabulary and structure pre-exist the individual. What is pragmatism in philosophy? 10. 2008) pp. What is meant by the phrase ‘the presentation of self in everyday life’? 12. as he states. Scott Sociology. What methods would phenomenologists use and why? 5. How does structuration theory attempt to link structure and agency? 4.33–34 and 686–88. Vocabulary changes through interaction. What is meant by bracketing? 6.38–39 and 848–50. What is meant by ‘gesture’ in symbolic interactionism? 3. It provides some important social theory for your work on methodology and will be very important if you have chosen either ‘Race’ and ethnicity or Gender as your Section C topic. What is meant by labelling in sociology? Illustrate your answer with some examples. Why do phenomenologists criticise statistical methods? 2. and J. languages are constantly changing. Why do phenomenologists believe it is important to analyse conversation? 11.
revealing inequalities or disarming prejudices.21 below: Activity 4. religion. S. if necessary. 1989) [ISBN 9780631162940]. Marsh. (ed. before reading on. D. Hall. fill in any gaps. E.W. (London: Sage. • What do sociologists mean by modernity? • What is meant by a ‘modern’ way of thinking? • Can you identify the key ideas of the Enlightenment? • How did the Enlightenment influence the development of sociology? • What did the Enlightenment philosophers mean by reason? • What did Weber mean by rationality? Now go back to Chapter 1 of this subject guide and your textbooks to check out your answers and.. informing social policies. for example. W. sociological theory (like theory in any subject) is a dialogue. Harvey. S. once validated and acted upon.21: Modernity and the Enlightenment revisited Try to answer the following questions before going back to look at the subject guide or your textbooks. 1984) [ISBN 9780816611737]. although different from each other. postmodernism and the sociology of gender’ in Owen. (Manchester: Manchester University Press. Postmodern theory: a challenge to sociology? As you will know by now. try Activity 4. F. ‘Feminism. Sharrock and D. • There is an order to social life and social change. The postmodern condition: a report on knowledge. The condition of postmodernity. are all characterised by the ideals of the Enlightenment and all of them are based on three fundamental ‘modernist’ assumptions that were outlined earlier. (London: Verso Press. 2006) pp. D. • This order can be illuminated by rational understanding which provides a knowledge of societies that is superior to commonsense. criticising or developing earlier theoretical ideas.286–99. Lyotard. S. Postmodernism or the cultural logic of late capitalism. 1991) [ISBN 9780860915379]. J. Held and T.) Sociology after postmodernism. can lead to improvements in society by. 1992) [ISBN 9780745609669]. • Sociological knowledge. D. Works cited Ashenden.. The theoretical approaches we have looked at so far. I. Theory and Practice in Sociology. So. (Oxford: Blackwell. Francis Perspectives in Sociology. 125 .Chapter 4: Theories and developments Further reading Cuff. (Cambridge: Polity. 2002) [ISBN 0130265535] Chapter 7. 1997) [ISBN 9780803975149]. McGrew Modernity and its futures. Therefore. with theorists questioning. opinion and prejudice. Jameson. the best way to begin to understand postmodern social theory is first to be clear about the theoretical ideas and assumptions it is questioning. (London: Routledge. (Harlow: Prentice Hall. ‘The question of cultural identity’ in Hall.
We shall introduce you to the postmodern critique below. The first is that we are living through another period of intense social change in which modern societies are being transformed into something different called postmodern societies. All sociologists realise that many modern societies had been transformed. chat . 126 . However. and can refer to divergent areas such as music and architecture as well as the way social life is ordered. satellite and cable TV websites. Postmodern theory in sociology is based on two key arguments. it is not just another new theory. Postmodernity: This describes a social formation coming after modernity. Postmodern theorist Harvey (1989) refers to this as ‘space-time compression’. the world has become increasingly globalised (see Section B). the most advanced societies have tended to de-industrialise. The second argument is that many of sociology’s most influential theories and concepts are now out of date. However. in contrast. and a new form of sociological thinking is required to understand this new world. A postmodern world? It is important to make clear that it is not just postmodernists who realise that the latter part of the twentieth century was a period of dramatic change. For example. The key to postmodern theory is in its interpretation of the effects of living in a media saturated society. Postmodernism: This refers to cultural and social beliefs and ways of behaving that result from living in postmodernity. competitiveness and private enterprise. It raises important questions about: • the nature of contemporary societies • the status of sociological knowledge • the purpose of sociological research. like Anthony Giddens. emails. Terrestrial. it also very important that you supplement what you read in this subject guide with the textbook reading indicated above. Therefore. In reading about postmodern theory it is also important to distinguish between some terms that sound similar but are actually different from each other. most sociologists see these developments as changes in the nature of modern societies and some. argue that the most ‘developed’ societies have become postmodern and this represents a clear break with the past era of modernity. refer to the contemporary world as ‘late modernity’.21 Principles of sociology Postmodern theory rejects all these assumptions. rooms and digital radio stations bombard people with sounds and images from around the globe that cut across and blur boundaries of time and space. Postmodern theory: This refers to a new way of theorising that some sociologists argue has to be used to understand the postmodern world. Contemporary societies are dominated by new information technologies that bring the world into people’s homes and consciousness. class boundaries have become much less clear and nation states have disposed of many of their assets and actively encourage more self-reliance. Postmodernists. It is also a challenge to existing sociological theory and research.
have become so diversified and fragmented and are now much less important in shaping how people think about themselves and the world. gender. Postmodernists argue that this no longer holds: what sociologists call societies. no longer work. fleeting multiplicity of possible identities. or specialist. the cornerstone of sociology is that there is an institutional order to societies which. or social structures. Thus ‘modernist’ sociological concepts. the football teams they support and so on. the generalisations sociologists typically make about the relationship between institutions (such as family or education) and individual behaviour and the comparisons they make between different social groups have become increasingly difficult to sustain. Thus the ‘postmodern condition’ has been described as one unending choice for increasing numbers of people. People’s identities are thus formed in the interaction between self and society. In the postmodern world people’s sense of identity now comes less from ‘social’ things like where they live. They are past their sell-by date and. like social class. 127 . their family. images and identities. but also for new lifestyles. ethnicity or gender. and much more from the images and choices presented to them via the media. people define themselves much more in terms of the lifestyle choices they make about their clothes. This loss of a stable sense of self is described by postmodernists as a decentring of the subject. Postmodernists argue that these changes have important implications for the ontological basis of sociology: the relationship between the individual and society.Chapter 4: Theories and developments Postmodernists argue that the ‘information explosion’ of the last two or three decades has not led to increasing conformity and acceptance of ‘dominant values’. or family. knowledge of societies. Postmodernists further argue that. Identity becomes a ‘movable feast’: formed and transformed continuously in relation to the ways in which we are represented or addressed in the cultural systems which surround us…We are confronted by a bewildering. As Hall (1992. education. any one of which we could identify with – at least temporarily. where people shop not only for consumer goods.277) puts it: The postmodern subject is conceptualised as having no fixed or permanent identity. In a postmodern world. p. Sociological knowledge and progress A second – epistemological – part of the postmodern critique concerns sociology’s claims to produce some expert. compared the status of knowledge in ‘modern’ and ‘postmodern’ societies. they have to be deconstructed. The effect of this has been to transform contemporary societies into something resembling endless shopping malls. as the social order that once characterised modern societies has fragmented. although created by people also shapes how they think about themselves and the world. class. in a book that had a profound influence on the development of ‘postmodern sociology’. As we have seen. fragmented and uncertain. Identity is therefore much more precarious. but has in fact led to a massive increase in diversity and choice. as many ‘modernist’ sociologists feared. cars. Lyotard (1984). in the technical language of postmodernism. beliefs.
They argue that. a faith in the truth of the word of God was replaced by a new faith in the power of the human mind. sociological research cannot be evaluated in terms of key criteria such as objectivity. For example. engineering sciences would transform environments for the better. people are no longer convinced it is necessarily transforming it for the better. Like any other major ‘belief system’. Not only have most people in contemporary societies lost interest in religious and political meta-narratives. reliability and authenticity. However. such as ‘social institution’. to uncover the truth about the world and change it. The most the sociologist can do is to offer ideas about the social world which people can take or leave as they see fit. it is simply arrogance on their part to presume to tell people how societies ought to be improved. scientific truths are increasingly called into question and. the value of which is determined by whether or not people want it. medical sciences would give people healthier and longer lives. Postmodernists are particularly critical of structural theories such as structural functionalism. a set of ideas and assumptions woven into a story that provides a justification for the beliefs. In the contemporary world. For Lyotard. Postmodernists argue that in an increasingly fluid and fragmented social world. they have also now become more sceptical of scientific meta-narratives. Postmodernists argue that sociological concepts. as sociologists cannot obtain special. ‘capitalism’. it had to be supported by what he calls a meta-narrative. that is. the postmodern condition can be defined as a scepticism towards meta-narratives. ‘patriarchy’ and ‘gender’ are far too general to do justice to the complexity and diversity of contemporary societies. Knowledge is simply a commodity. as we have seen.21 Principles of sociology In modern societies. Marxism and some feminisms. although science is certainly transforming the world. For example. Postmodernists challenge sociology’s claim to be about improving societies in the name of social progress. tradition and irrational beliefs and progressively laying the foundations for a more rational and improved world. according to Lyotard. They argue that these are simply further metanarratives and the only purpose of so-called research is to convince people of the truth of the basic ‘story’. no form of knowledge – not even ‘expert knowledge’ – has privileged status. Therefore. Postmodernist sociologists have developed Lyotard’s ideas into a critique of sociology’s meta-narrative of producing expert knowledge of societies in order to improve them. it is no longer possible to develop general explanatory theories of the type we have looked at in this chapter. They argue that sociological theories can only be about providing specific interpretations of particular aspects of the social world. 128 . and the social sciences would produce better organised and fairer societies. sociological knowledge can only be assessed in terms of how useful people find it. this faith in science and various scientific enterprises did not just happen automatically. Like any other commodity. through science in particular. understanding of societies. They argue that in an increasingly fragmented and sceptical world there are no longer any clear criteria for determining whether one theory or piece of research is better than another. Marxists only find evidence of class inequality and some feminists only find evidence of patriarchal domination. In the postmodern world. or ‘true’. Thus the meta-narrative of the Enlightenment was that scholars and scientists were liberating people from the darkness of superstition.
Four of the more important ones are outlined below. Weber was deeply critical of nomothetic approaches to sociology. or find others in your textbooks. Postmodernists are critical of the generalisations made in sociological theory. but argue that theories can still be found to be more or less valid. I used some important technical conceptual terms that we have encountered before in this and earlier chapters. Activity 4. most sociologists are very critical of postmodern theory and have raised a number of valid points in response to its claims. this anti-empiricist view is shared by many sociologists. try the following activity to check your understanding. For example. this does not mean that sociology has to descend into relativism. yet they make a major generalisation themselves by claiming that the whole of Western society has been transformed from modernity to postmodernity! In fact postmodern theory could itself be described as another metanarrative! • Postmodernists are very selective in their use of evidence and tend to ignore the many aspects of modernity that remain relatively unchanged. or research study. but it seems that some have more choice than others. • There is a contradiction in the postmodern position. As we saw in Chapter 3. Phenomenologists can explain the changes in the way people identify themselves. People might have more choice in contemporary societies. 129 . and nation states still remain strong and continue to play an important part in regulating people’s lives. do you feel there are some aspects of your society that are (or are becoming) postmodern? • Can you think of some criticisms of postmodern theory? As you might imagine. people’s socioeconomic backgrounds still have a major and measurable influence on their life chances. • Many of the things that postmodernists see as characteristics of a new ‘postmodern condition’ – such as greater choice and the ability to construct and consume identities – tend to apply only (or at least mainly) to the better off groups in the most affluent societies. if not. For example. go back and check them out.Chapter 4: Theories and developments Evaluation of postmodern theory Before reading on. As a revision activity.22 Postmodernity • What do sociologists mean by postmodernity? • Why is postmodern social theory a challenge to sociology? • What are some of the differences between conventional sociology’s view of identity and postmodernists’ view of identity formation? • Would you describe your society as ‘modern’ or ‘postmodern’? Alternatively. • The postmodern critique of the possibility of discovering ‘true’ and ‘universal’ knowledge of societies is hardly original.23 Revision In the evaluation of postmodern theory above. Activity 4. realists also recognise the impossibility of obtaining absolute knowledge of the social world. is as good as any other. the economic organisations that produce goods and services are still characterised by rational planning and systematic organisation. However. where one theory. but see if you can think of. ask yourself if you know what they mean and.
how the media images we consume can become more ‘real’ than the things they are supposed to represent. social class. images and style are no longer promotional accessories to economic products. especially its relativism. Some sociologists. What did he mean by this? What is empiricism (and anti-empiricism)? Can you explain the key features of realist epistemology? Sociology of postmodernity? In spite of the reservations that most sociologists have about aspects of postmodern theory. Giddens (1991) and Hall (1992) use postmodernist ideas in their discussions of cultural identities. However. but are the products themselves. have developed a sociology of postmodernity. in particular. Chapter 9). What does this mean? Weber referred to the modern world as being characterised by the progressive rationalisation of life. • It has provided a new way of looking at culture and identity in contemporary societies and. identities are becoming more fluid. • It has raised important critical questions about some of sociology’s most established concepts. They argue that in the postmodern world there are no such things as ‘masculine’ and ‘feminine’ identities. that have led many sociologists to reconsider their relevance to understanding contemporary societies.21 Principles of sociology What is a meta-narrative? Can you remember who first used this term? And why might postmodern theory be described as a meta-narrative? In the second point of the evaluation above. Jameson (1991) argued that postmodernism is the expression of a new form of ‘late capitalism’ where the production of culture has been integrated into commodity production. Rather there are many different feminine and masculine identities that people construct for themselves in different situations and at different times in their lives (see Section C. They accept that many societies have been transformed into something different from modernity (i.e. while rejecting the totality of postmodern theory. fragile and precarious. They argue that. 130 . postmodernity) but they argue that this means transforming rather than abandoning existing sociological theories.) • It has also provided a new way of looking at the mass media and the effects of living in ‘mass mediated society’ and. something postmodernists call hyper-reality. For example. ethnicity and power. Modern feminist theories of gender tend to be based on the assumption of clear differences between the experiences of men and women. many agree that it has made a number of valuable contributions towards understanding contemporary societies. although not postmodernists themselves. postmodernist feminists reject this view as oversimplified (Ashenden 1997). it is suggested that ‘organisations are still characterised by rational planning’. Marxist theories of postmodernity explore links between economic factors and postmodernism. gender divisions and gender identities are much less clear-cut. (See Section C chapters on Gender and ‘Race’ and ethnicity. For example. such as organisation. gender. Two examples of this are Marxist and feminist theories of postmodernity. Many ‘postmodern ideas’ have been incorporated into ‘modernist’ sociological theories. You will find there is a ‘postmodern approach’ to the topics examined in the Section C chapters in this subject guide. in particular. in contemporary societies at least.
the point is that you understand why these questions are important. 5.’ Discuss this statement. If you cannot answer any of them return to your reading. Most sociologists reject this idea. and having done all the reading indicated.) 7. ‘Sociologists are influenced by other sociologists’. 11. 10. Weber or Durkheim? 8. Activity 4.Chapter 4: Theories and developments Summary Postmodern theory argues that many modern societies are becoming transformed into postmodern societies and this requires a different form of sociological theory reflecting the fragmentation and diversity of the contemporary world. Take one sociologist and explain how other social scientists or philosophers influenced their work. agency and structure? (Use the work of any two sociologists to illustrate your answer.24 By the end of Chapter 4. What are meant by the terms. What is meant by phenomenology? 15. What is meant by the term ‘structuration’? 16. 12. but should be used as a check to see whether you can explain in your own words what you have read. What is meant by rational action? Compare any two theories of rational behaviour. How do feminists explain postmodernity? 22. How did Marx. Durkheim and Parsons explain social order? 9. What is meant by a meta-narrative? Give some examples of such explanations? 4. 14. However. 18. Why did some sociologists turn away from developing grand explanations of social change? 3. What is meant by the terms bracketing and typification? 17. What is the difference between a consensus and an ideology? 13. What is meant by postmodernity? 20. 1. or ask your tutor (if you are studying in a college). How did one of the following sociologists explain change in society: Marx. Weber and Durkheim’s views on the nature of society. you should be able to answer the following questions. ‘Conflict is normal. These questions could usefully be used as tutorial or discussion questions. postmodern theory has opened up new questions on issues such as culture. What did Durkheim mean by the phrase: we should treat ‘social facts as things’? Why do the phenomenologists believe that this is impossible? 19. What is meant by a meta-narrative? This list is not exhaustive. Is there a difference between Durkheim’s idea of the collective consciousness and Berger and Luckmann’s social construction of reality? 6. Explain the concept the social construction of reality. 131 . identity and media and has had a significant effect on contemporary sociological theory. How do Marxists explain postmodernity? 21. You are not expected to write long answers. Compare a structural functionalist view of socialisation with an interactionist account. What was the Enlightenment? 2. Compare Marx.
you should be able to: • understand the historical development of sociology and its roots in the Enlightenment • be aware of the influence of the major sociologists of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and their contribution to social theory and substantive sociology • be able to compare and contrast the approaches of the major theorists • understand how sociology has developed since the 1980s into a more fragmented disciplinary. and the essential reading and activities. 132 .21 Principles of sociology A reminder of your learning outcomes Having completed this chapter.
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