· Michael Swan Catherine Walter



How Engllshworks
A grammar

practice book

How English Works
A qrammor practice book

Michael Swan & Catherine Walter

V\lith answers

Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press Creal Clarendon Street. Oxford


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r9 431457 x (without

answers) Walter 1997

Michael Swan and Catherine

First published 1997 Sixth impression 2000 No unauthortsed photocopying

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic. mechanical. photocopying. recording or otherwise. without the prior written perrmssion o! oxroro uruversuy ness. This book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not. by way of otherwise. be lent. resold. hired out. or otherwise Circulated wuhout publisher's prior consent in any form 01 binding or cover other than which it is published and wuhout a similar condition including this being imposed on the subsequent purchaser.
n' ,

trade or the that in



lI::U lOy l"UI,UU









Paintings by David Downton Drawings on page 129 by pupils in Year I of Stonesfield School. Oxfordshire Map On page 145 by Neil Gower. Allez Studios, Brighton Typeset in Monotype Phouna and Franklin Tradespools Ltd. Frome, Somerset Printed in China Gothic by

In writing this book the authors obtained information from the British National Corpus. The British National Corpus is a collaborati ve initiauve carried out by Oxford University Press as a Lead Partner. Longman, Chambers Harrap. Oxford University Computing Services. Lancaster University's Unit Ior Computer Research in the English Language. and the British Library.

Introduction Test yourself 1 3 11 12

Test yourself: answers Phonetic alphabet Answers to exercises Index 351 15

Explanations and exercises: list ofsections Explanations and exercises 303 17

Authors' acknowledgements
\,Vecould [lot.have produced this book without several kinds of help. In particular. we would like to express our gratitude toe • Keith Brown. Brian Graver and Diann Gruber. for their- care in reading the original typescript: their comments and suggestions have resulted in many important improvements Enge Bullock and BerbaraHately-Broad. for organising our personal and professtonal lives whtlewe were doing the wrmng our children Ma.rk and Helen. for putting up with us while it was going on Stewart Mellulsh of Oxford Uni'llersUy Press and Richard Morris. our editor and deslgner. for the expertise. creativity. patience and good humour with which they handled us and thetypescrlpt,

.. •

Publisher's acknowledgements
The Publisher rhanks the following for their kio(l permission to reproduce cartoons:

Andre Deutsch Ltd: p, 224. from ,Modem1'imes by Mel Calman (;Q Mel Calman 1 YS:f(): Sand C Calrnan: pp. 30. 137 (© Sand C Caiman]: Encyclopaedia Britannica lnternatlenal Ltd; p, Ill. BrHannffi'lFrartwok o!Sciew:e alld the Future 1995 (!0 1996 by Sidney Harris); Mi,ft"Oll yndication Internattonal: S pp, 5 5,ill 42. 210. 252 (© Mirror Group Newspapersj: The New Yorker Magazine Inc.: pp.24 Wana Fradonj. 78 rVieaorl. 82 IGahanliNilsonl. ]_15 (Drucker). 1 I b (Mankoff). 1 ~8 1M Stevens I. 143 (GahanWlIsoo). 226 (Barsotti). 2. 50 (Nosepb Farris): ,Private Eye; pp. 39 ,(Nick
Newman). 175 (Michael Heath). 187(Miehae~ Heath). 244fKen Pynel. Punch

Cartoo» Ltbrary: pp, 27,. ,67.73.87,88.89,94.96. 98.101. W5..l07. ]08. HO.117.123. 125.131. 135.136,151. 153.155, 171. 174. 175.177. 193.203.21h.218.113.2J2.234~ 161.163. 166.173. 274. 282 ..286. 291. 295: 50.10 Syndication Ltd: pp..49. 55. 146. 158.21 S (© Associated Newspapers Ltd): The Spectator: pp, 27. :B. 3. 7.65 ..67. 73..
]]_2S, 132.134.143. 199,213.219.221; Agency: pp, 47.90. 183. 195 (© R Searle 1948. 1951. 1944. The Tessa Say~e


The Publisher thanks the following for their kind permission rouse extracts and adaptations from c~pydght rnaterlal: Clarks and McCann Erikson (Manchester) Itd: p. 71. Springers advertlsemene .Feel like you're in Paradise' ..from Lifernagazlne. T.h£ Observer, 7 May 1995: Didcot Herald: pp. 64. head~line'FootbalJ club burglars cut home phones', 29 September 1994. 73. adverusements ·Wonderful. tall energetic guy .. .,' . .2 June 1994 and 'Wood Street'. 1100€: 1994. J. 78. eKtnlc~ 'A driver has been sent to jail ..', :2 7 Ianuarv ] 994: l)orHng Kindersley Ltd: p, 173. extract (rom Chrollide ollftf 20lh Cr1ltury (Longman. o jacques Legrand S A International Pubhshtng, Paris): David Higham Associates: p, 112. abridged extract from Under Milk Wood by Dylan Thomas (J !VI Dent. } 954. 1955. Ii;;: Dylan Thomas Trustees]; The In.derendem.: p, 64, headlines 'Channel ferry safely drUl' Uames Cuslck], 26 September 1994, and "Decision day In rail dispute' (Barrie Clement). 27 September 1994: International Musk Publlcations Ltd: p. 11 L extract from the lyric 'What shall I say?' by Peter Tinnmn (['I 1973 Chappell & Co. lnc., USA. VVarner/Chappe II Music Ltd. Londen W] V 3f.Al: Penguin Books: p. 218. Potato Pancake recipe from faOtl'f in the Kitchen, by Bruce Beeby (iVUchael [oseph, ]977. ~cl Bruce Beeby 1977): Peters Fraser & Dunlop: pp .. 141. extracts from The Gmeml by

C S f'oresner O?enguio .. 1936. t9 C S Forester Estate). 125. Modern HwnJ)1J1" by E M Delafield ~E'Ve~yman's library Ltd. if EM Delafield's estate). 241. TIle 1"'0 Brorhers by V S Pritchett [rom The Comp/eli Short. St.ories IChatto & Wlndus. © V SPritchett 1990),
297. Three Rusty Nt/ils by Roger McGough from In the GlClssrooffl (jonathan Cape Ltd ..

© Roger Mc(;ough 1976): lames Thurber Literary Estate: p. 173. adapted extract from 'The Little Girl and the wolf'. Fables For Our Time (Harperf'clhns .: © 1940 james Thurber. (f' 1968 Rosemary A Thurber): Ed Victor Ltd: p. ]1,05. adapted extract from Playback by Raymond Chandler (Hamish Harrulton. 1958. eo Raymond Chandler 1958. Estate or Raymond Chandler): Win. Thomas Productions: p, 210, transcrtptlon from an episode of the Amedcan TV serial Soap {C("' Witt. Thomas Peoductlonsj: Wrller's nigest Books; p. 269. extract from Who wrote that song; by Dick and Harriet lacobs {Wriaer's Digest Books, C~ncil.1na.U.Ohio. ~ Harriet I acobs 19941.
Everyeffort has been made to trace the owners of copyright material used in this book. blLi~ should be pleased to hear from any copyright holder whom Vole have been we unable to con tact

The purpose of the boQt( is for learners of English who want to speak and write more correctly. It contains:
Ho\v English Vi/arks

short dear explanations of the rules of English grammar exercises.

• examples of correct use

How to use the book Uyau are studying with a teacher, he or she w.i.lI help you to use the book eUec.tively. If you are studying at home. the 'following suggestions may be useful: • Don't go through the whole book from beginning to end ..How English "'"orks contains explanations of bask rules (e.g. bow to make questions). Intermediate points (e.g, the use of passives) and more advanced problems (e.. . difficult structures wtth who. whom and wh.ich). DllJerent learners wil~ g need to study dHlel'eot parts of the book. Start by trying the tests on pages 4-9. These win help, you to decide what you need to learn - what are the most important problems in English grammar _for yOlJ. Use the list of sections ~at the begnnning) and the Index (at the end) to help you find the sections that you want Read the explanations and do the exercises. if you stiil have problems with a point. work through the section again. You will sometimes need to know some afthe words that we use when we talk about grammar in English (e.g, verb. preposition. tense. plural, countable)_ These words are explained 011 pages 298-302.

1'heexplanations We have tried to make these as clear and simple as possible, You can find more complete explanations of some points in Mi.chad Swan's book PmctJcal Englisl1 ,usage (Oxford University Press),

Sometimes we ask you to try to work out a rule for yourself. \i\fhen you have tried these '00 It Yourself activities. you can look at the blue pages
1303-305) at rhe back ofthe book to see if you were right.


The exercises Most of the exercises arc sin: pie in sl ruciu reo More difficult exercises are marked '",,'ith the sign ... A few exercises are designed fur group work in class.

What kind of English does the book teach? Vve teach the grammar of everyday spoken and written British English. \,Ve have used the British National Corpus - a collection of 100 million words or modern spoken and written English - to help us make sure that ow' rules and examples give a true picture of the present-day language, For information about differences between British and American English. see

Practical English Usage.

How Important

is grammar?

Grammar is not the most important thing in the world, but if you make a lot or mistakes you may be more difficult to understand. and some kinds of people may look down on you or not take you seriously. Hardly anybody speaks or writes a foreign language per fectly, but you will communicate !!lor e successfully if you can make your English reasonably correct. We hope this book will help.


Test yourself

These tests will belp you to decide what you need to learn. First of all; try the
':basic lJOints' test on 'Pages4-5 and check yorn.- answers onpage 11. If you have problems with any ofthe points. go to the sections where these are explained and do the exercises: then try the test again. The tests on pages

6--9 are suitable for totennedtateand advanced students. and can be donetn
the same way.

Test yourself: basic points
Here are some of the basic grammar points from How English \Vorks. Do you know them all? Check your answers on page 11. Choose the correct answerts). One or more answers may be correct.

1 She's ... university teacher. Aa B an C the 2 I like ,.. small animals. A the B - (::::: othing) n

Done C every
D aH

3 Is this coat ... ? A yours B your 4 Is Diana '" ? A a friend of yours

C the yours
B a your friend

C your friend

vv no are ... peopie over tnere. A that B the C these ... is your phone number? A Which B What CHow

D those


7 Could I have ... drink? B an other A other

C another

8 There aren't ... for everybody. A chairs enough B enough chairs

C enough of chairs

They're ... young to get married. A too much B too C very too
/1.1' .1 D

10 Most ... like tra velling.



11 Ann and Peter phone ... every day. A them R thernself C themselves 12 It's ,.. weather. A terrible B a terrible


each other

C the terrible
E babies

The plural of car is cars. Which of these are correct plurals? A journeys B ladys C minuts D sandwichs Which of these is/are correct? A happier B more happier This is ... winter for 20 years. A the more bad B worse E the worst C unhappier C the worse

14 15

D bcautifuller D worst



16 She's much taller ... me. 17 He Uves in the same street ... me. A that B like e as D than 18 Her eyes ... a very light blue. A are B have C has 19 ... help me? A Can you to
B Do you can


Canyou D mustn't

20 You ... worry about it. A not must B don't must

C mustnot

2 I It ...again. It ...all the time here in the winter. A's raining. 's raining B rains. rains 22 I ... she ... you. B am thinking. is liking A think. likes C think, is liking D am thinking. likes 23 Who ... the window? A open B opened 24 Why ... ? B are laughing those men e are those men laughing 25 What ... ? A does she want B does she wants





26 I didn't ... he was at home. A to think B think ... a 0 e m my soc . A There's B There is


thinking CIt's

D thought D It is E Is

28 I'll see you ... Tuesday afternoon. Aat Bon Cin A at B to


30 We're going ... the opera tomorrow night. Aat Bein Dto



Test yoursef: intermediate points
Here are some of the intermediate grammar pointsfrom How English t-'\!',orks. Do you know them all? Cheek your answers on page 11.

Choose the correct answer( 5). One or more answers may be corre.ct.
31 32 33 34

I went out wtthout ... money. A some B any He's got ... money. A much B many 'Who's there?' A It's me B It is E
i ••• .'

C a lot of

D lots 01

Although be felt very .... he smiled ..... A angrtly.frlendly B angry ..friendly
1•.. to America.

C angry. in a [riendly way C have been often
C forgets always

A have often been 36

B often have been
B alwaysts forgetting C the same like

My mother '" my birthday,

A always for~el:s 37 You look ... a teacher.
Alike B as

38 39 40 41

How many brothers and sisters ... ? A have you got !B do you have Goodl I ... work tomorrow. A mustn't B don't have to I ... smoke.

C are you having C haven't got to C used to

t= rl.oth.ing)

B use to

Andrew ... to see us this evening. A will come "B comes C is coming

41 Alice... havea baby .. A will B shall Cis go~ng to 43 44 45 I knew that he ". waiting for somebody ... A is B was C would ....Gloria lastweek/ A Have you seen B D~dyou see C Were you seeing

She's an old friend-s- .I ... her ....years. A've known. for IS know. for C 've known, since D know. since




We met when we ... in France. A studied B were studying

C had studied

47 As soon as she came in I knew I ... her before. A have seen B saw C had seen 48 This picture ... by a friend of my mother's. A is painting B is painted C was painting 49 Can you ....
A make me some tea C make for me some tea B make some tea for me

D was painted

50 Try ... be late.
A notto B to not

51 I went to London ... clothes. A for buy B for to buy

C for buying

D to buy

You can't live very long without .... A to eat Beat C eating D you eat A to teach. to do D teaching. to do B teaching, doing

C to teach, doing

54 Her parents don't want ... married. A her to get B her get C that she get 55 I'm not sure w at ...
A do they want? 56 B do they want.

D that she gets

C they want.

The policeman ... me not to park there. A asked B said C told D advised

5 C hit. 'II say
S8 S9 It would be nice if we ... a bit more rOOID. A would have B had C have D 'II hit. say

If you '" me. I •.. in real trouble last year.
B hadn't helped, would have been C hadn't helped, would be D didn't help, would be


There's the man ... took your coat.

Test yourself: advanced points
Here are some of the more advanced grammar points from How English Works. Do you know them aU, Check your answers on page 11.

Choose the correct answ:er:(s). One or more answers
A Is 62 B are

may be ,correct.

61 My fmnily .•. thinking of moving to Birmimgham.
We watched a ... on TV last :nilght.

A war film

B war's



rum of war

63 He Was wearing •.. .riding boots.
A red old.Spanish leather C old red Spanish leather 64 .••he gets ••... ,
A The richer. the more friends he has B Richer.m.ore he bas friends C Richer. more friends he has

Bold leatherred S]pamsh D Spanisb red oldleailier

D T'h.ertcher. the mere he has friends
165 It's ... if you take the train .. A Quicker B :fhe qu.icker
66 He ... very ann,pying. A's· B's being 67 That ." be Roger at the door - it's too early, ,A can't B mustn't C couldn't

C quickest

D the guidtest

68 At last. after three days. they ... get to the top of the meuntam. A could! B managed to C succeeded to Dwere able to
69 70 It was crazy to drive like that Yon ... killed somebody.

A may have

B might


C could have

D can have

I wUD.der ifJoh.n ... this evening. A,vrn: phone B phones

71 Who ... you tbatringt
,A 's given 72 73 74 B gave He ... quite different since he ... married . .A is, haagot B bas been. has got This is the first time I _.. a sports A 've driven B 'm driving On her birthday .... A she was gi:v,e-n new car a


C is. got

D has been. got .

C drive B a new car was gi:ven to her

7,5 We can.'! use the sports haU yetbeca.use It ...• . is still built A B is s1:iII uHding b C is still being bullt



I lOOk. orward ... yon S€JOn. f
A seeing B to seeing C

to see

Uyon bave trouble going to sleep. try •.•:a: gl&~ of milk befonl; bedtime. A drinting B to drink C drink

78 This is my friend. Joe. I ... met, have yout! A. don't think you've B think. you haven't 79 How ....I A Ire works hard B hard be works

80 Which oJtht:6e senimct:S areconict in. fqJOhmEngl1shl
A Car's nnmingbadlly. B Seen .Peter? cCan't rome in here. sorry. D Careful what you say . .E Lost my gla~. FHave heard efher, 81 82 Nobody plumed, did .~. ? A. he B she C they

D it

If you were ever in I would, give you all thehelp you ...•. Avrill need B would need C need D needed



E be or she

F anybody

83 My wife will be upset. ... A 01 don't get back tomorrow .84 T~_liIe at once ... Ma_rgaret arrives, A tr B when C in case 85

B unless I get back tomorrow

It's lime you ... home. but I'd rather you ... here. A go. stay B went. stayed ~·Cgo. stayed

D went. stay

86 I wish I ... morelim.e. A had IB have 87 10lm~

C would haee

D will_have

A that I was at scboel with C with who I was at school

....• has just come to Iliv:em our street.
B I was at school with U wi.th wbom .I was at 5011.001

88 89 90

She.koops tapping her lingers •... gets on my eeeves, A whlc-h Bwha.t Cthat which Can you fini.~the joh ... Friday~

_A tiH

B until

C by

D for

There's, a supermarlret •.. ow- house. A m front or B oppooite C Ca.cing

Test yourseH: answers
•• Ie .......
suprge .......... paInta


2 B.D 3A 4 A,C

18 22

5 B,D
bB ,8 B 9B

28 28

31 B 31 C.D 33 A~C

32 40 48

61 A.B 62 A


31 44





63 C 64 A. 65 A,C
66 A.B 67 A.,C 68 B.D

63 73 .84


43 44 47

36 A 37 A




38 A.·S

10 C



13 A.B 14 A.C


102 113 128

69 B.C
70 A

114 121


56 58 7980 88 95

16 A

11 C
18 A


41 A..C 42C 43 B 44B 45 A 46 B

130,134 132~3


71 B 72 C,D
73 A 74 A 75 C

141 154 156 164

153 161 170 180

48D 49 ~B 50 A 5,1 D


76 B

19 C
20 C.D


176 183

77 ,A 78 A 79 B




21 0

22 A
23 8

148 210


52 C
53 54 55 56

24 C
25 26 27 28 19 A. B A.B B A

210' 210

213 222 ~ 284
284 285

D A 20.2 251 C A~C. D 252 57 u256 58 B 158

192 196 199.204

80 A,B.C. D.E 224 81 C 227
82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 D A A.R B A D A C.D R.C 245



267 269

59 B

30 D ,

60 B.C

262 270

277 286 287



Explanations and exercises: list of sections
(Note: for explanations of the words that we use for talking about grammar. see pages 298-302.)

detennlnen: articles.,posseutyes and demonstratlYu

17 17 18 20 21 22 24 26 28

a and an a/an and one alan: main uses alan in descriptions the == 'you know which one(s)' generalisations without the the and no article: special cases articles: revision possessives (my and mine etc) this and that

57 58 59 60 62 63 64 65 66

uncountable nouns: special cases plUriilSof nouns: spelling plurals of nouns: special cases mixed singular and plural possessive's noun +noun noun + noun or preposition structure noun + noun and possessive's possessive's or the of structure

adfedh'u and adverbs


68 adjectives and adverbs
other determiners 70

31 which? and what?

34 35 36 37 38 39 40 42 43 44 46

some and any some/any and no article no == 'not a/any any == 'it doesn't matter which' some, any and no: revision all. everybody and everything whole and aU much, many, a lot (00. little, few less and least. fewer and fewest otherts) and another enough, too and too much of with determiners


71 72 73 74 76 77 78

confusmg adjectives and adverbs and with adjectives adjectives without nouns adjectives: order before nouns word order: adverbs with the verb focusing adverbs: even and only adverbs at the end of a sentence still. yet and already



79 comparatives and superlatives 80 irregular comparison 81 comparative and superlative 82
83 adverbs much etc with comparatives comparative or superlative? comparatives: other points superlatives: other points than, as and that as ... as like and as so and such very and too very (much) with past participles

pnHIOUns and nouns


50 52 54 55 56

personal pronouns. I and me etc reflexive pronouns (myself etc) you, one and they onets) pronouns and possessives: revision countable and uncountable nouns

84 86 87 88

91 92 93

148 94 95 96 98 100 102 104 105 : progressive orms: be: age. colour etc do: em hatic auxili do and make have: actions have (got): possession etc have: habitual and repeated actions have + object + verb form 150




revision of present tenses

tenses: perfect and past
151 152 1 54 156 158 160 161 162 163 164 166 18 1 70 171 172 simple present perfect: introduction present perfect and past: news present perfect and past: time words resent erfeet: situations 'u to now' present perfect progressive present perfect progressive or since and for tenses with since and for present perfect and past: revision past progressive past perfect past per ect progressive perfect tenses with this is the first etc past and progressive in requests etc revision of past and perfect tenses

10 108 110 112 113 116 118 120 121 122 124 126
127 128

must, must, must must

a"ary ver asic es can, may, might: howcertain? should etc: obligation and have (got) to: obligation not. do not have to etc

can. could. may: permission etc will: willingness etc will and would: typical behaviour shall in questions should have, could have etc revision ofmOOal verbs need
bad better

pasAlv_ 17() passive structures 180 181 182 passives: verbs with two objects passives: progressive, perfect etc passives: complex structures


used to ,.. supposed to

130 1 32 134 future: will (and shall) future: going to future: present progressive structures after verbs, adjectives and

136 future: simple present 137 future: tenses after if and when 138 future progressive 139 future perfect 140 fu:ture: I am to ... 141 future in the past

183 verbs with two obl ects 184 verbs with prepositions and particles 186 structures with get 188 infinitives 189 perfect infinitives (to have gone etc) 190 infinitive with and without to
1 92

193 142 144 146 147 the two present tenses present tense stories etc present progressive for changes simple present: spelling 196 197 198 199 200

infinitive of purpose interested and interesting etc -mg orms as su jects.o [ects etc preposition + -Ing preposition + -Ing: special cases to ...ing verb + infinitive or -Ing form




201 2()2 204 206 207 lOS

need ...ing v'erb + objed + infinitive -iD,g form andinfiDitili'e both possIble adjective + infinitive or -ing term noun + iufinitiv-,e or -iog form for ... to ••.after adjective/noun

2 52 253 254 25.5

indirect speecb: mfini,tives teD and say indirect speecb: special cases revision. ()finctirect speech

&lructu .... ·WItb ~ "",._, 256
258 26{)

III c:aHetc

basic sentenC4MStrucblres

if ordinary tense-use if special tense-use
iff go and if I went: the difference if I were if: unreal past situations unless incase it's time. would rath,er. structures wish. if o,my: structures



213 214 216 217 218 220 221 222 224 225 226 227 228

what ... like. wliattim,e.
what sort etc

261 262

negative structures
D£FIitive questions Dot and no

negatives; I don'ttbiok etc imperatives let1s exdamatioDS thereis dropping sentence-beginnings dropping words after auxiliaries question ta,gs: basic rules questiootag.Ii;: advanced points short answers and attention signals 22'91 (dOD't)thlok so etc
so am Letc

265 266 268


270 27.2 274 275 276 278 229 280 282

relative wbo. whicb.and that Ie.avingQutl"elati.17c pronouns what = "the thiJill.g that" etc relative dauses reducedrelaeree clauses relatives: revision reading relative danses whoever. no matter who etc
relatJi.ve whose nOll-identifying

232 234

it: preparatory subject and object empbasiswi.tb it. what etc 284 285 286 287

236 conjunctions 23 7conjUD,ctions and elauses: posi.tion 238 using eODjUD,cti.ons 240 conjunetioDS witb -fng forms 241 ..:ing clauses without conJunotions 242 ~tb ... and: neither ... oor 243 leaving out that 244 tenses after conjunctions Indirect speech 246 247 .248 250 251 .indirect indirect hulirect in.direct indirect speech~ why things change speech: 'here' and 'now'

'prepositions wi.tn'Verbs, nouns etc at/in andto by and until for and. during
opposi.te andta


.2 90 .2 9 2 293

betweeu. and among preposi,tions at the end 0( questions prepositions in relative clauses prepositi.ons in passive clauses preposition" ,afteradjective + infinitive

r.. n.t of o


speech: tenses
speecb: present situations speech: questions

294 296 298

num"bers contnlcti.ons

grammar: useful words

Phonetic alphabet
It is necessary to use at special alphabet to show the pronunciation of English

words. because the ordinary English alphabet does not have enough letters to represent all the sounds of the language. Tbefollowing list contains all the letters of the phonetic alphabet used in this book. with examples of the words in wID"chthe sounds that. they refer to are found,

i: seat /sr..t/. feel/frj/

'el take /tedq. wait /wert}

eset /se.t/. any l'e.r.U!/ ~ sat /sa!t/. match tm«:tfJ
O! D

sit lsrt/. in.tmI march

ar mine lmam/t .light ./laltj :11 oil /JJJ/. boy jb:JI/ au house /hausj. now /naul 11;) hear /hI'3(r)/. deer Id~a(r)1 ea air lea(r)/. where /wea(Ji)/ u.a tour /tu~(d/. eadnre !m.'dju<:I([)!

Jpnt/. gone Igon! :)' port lro:t/~ ~awI b.. /

/mD!tJ/. after ta:.fQ(r)!


no' In~u/. open I~upan/

u good Jgud/~could /lmdj u: rood I~dj. group Jgru:p/
1.: tum

A mach /mAtfJ. front /frMlt/

/t3m/. word /w3:.d/ away !:a'weV. collect /ka'ld:,t/. onul/3nbl/


P puU fr!ul/. cup /kAp/ b bull PbuV: rob 1mbl


cheap /tJi·:p/.cakb


e a



S z

ferry J'feJ:'I.:J~life IlaJll very l'veri.~/,ive ./hv/ l think 1fmJk/. bath Iba:B/ thee /5enj. with Ima{ take /tedr.j. set lset/ day /del/.recl /red/ Sin:g/SIIJ/.rice /ra.Isj zoo /zu:/. days fder.z/ show ffau/. msh tM[J

d3, jall/d!)erJj. bridle /bl1d31


case Ike~sJ. ake IteIk/ t


pleasure /'p.le:p(r)h
occasion jolkerJD/

sing /str)l. finGer tfll)gd(r)/ lOve ./v.v/. hole ./h'dulj r round lraundl. carry l~ri:1 w well/well j young /jAr]1 lJ I

n no /nau/. on IDnf

go /gau/. rug /tAg! m my /maJ/. rome lkAJnj

h bouse /hausf

The s1.gn,


shows stress.

and an before a vowel. But it depends on the pronunciation oftbe following word. not the spelling.
a dog a hat a oll£-pound coin (J':J wan ...1)

We use. before a consonant

an orange

an uncle

an hour (I~n au~

auruon (Ja 'ju:nl~nJ) an MP (Ian em 'pit)

m .A or.tm?



3 4

__ __





honest maIl.

_ .._ half-hour lesson __ one-hour lesson __ nselul book 10 _80S II ~~. X-ra;y 12 __ . European

7 8 9

13 __ hand l4 __ underpass 15 __ unit 16 -CD 17 __ exam 18 __ school

alan and one ... We use 0". not a/tm.:
• •

in contrast with allflther or ot.lter(s) in the expression one day with hundred and thousand when we want to sound predse

tsee page 294)
• in expressions like onlll one and Just one.


day ru take YOl~to meet myJamily. '.How many are there? About Q hundred?' ".Exactly one humfredarm three:' IYe'Ire got p/e1lty of SQusages. but only one .egg.

g'r' wanted to go out. but the otIIerswanted

to Slay

at home.

day I.astyear~ it was __!_very bot afternoon inJune~ Iwas hurrying to get home.I was abcnt _]_ hour late - well, to be precise. exactly ___i_ hour and ten minutes: I had taken the train that arrived ae the station at 6.15. Anyway. them was ~5 _ W{)man stan:dl1ngunder the trees, and there were several children with her. I saw........§.._hild dearly - she was _7_ c lovely dark-hatredgtrl - but I only heard the others. Suddenly ____j_ strange thinghappeued. Tbe girl took some stones and leaves out of her pocket. and threw ..JL.. stone after another into the air.



alan: main uses
We use alan to say what kind oftIJJDs somebody or something Is. what Job a person does, 01' what something is used as. A/an bas no plural. She's a/antler. He worked as II tarei..dri\ter.

.Don'.t use the p.late as lin, ashtrllY.

They'refanners. TIrey worketf' asta~j-drivers. Don't use the plates as ashtrays .

:I Say what these peopleJs jobs are, (Ising the words in the box.




bureher conductor cook doctor hatrdresser lorry driver meehantc photographer scientist secretary










Alan can mean iany enmple ofsomethlngt. [n the plural. we use DO article or:. OfM (see page 34 ro[" the difTerence). S

A spJder has eight lens. A CD ccas more tllan CI·CflSsetu.
1"d ,like a cup of wffee.

SpJders have eight legs.

CDs cost'more than cassettes. .I'd like SOIlU! dups.


Say what these people and things are, Then make some similar sentences of your own. Examples:
, d(lftl1r is a p'r~(m \V'W hdps PL'tlt,le "'ho an' ill. 1,Jt'U j\ d ,Iljuq wictljor u·rWnq. curtein


dlctionmy dentist lawyer meehanlc teacher

person thing

that water comes out


who helps people to learn things

who services and. repairs cars
used [or6.nd.ing the meanings of words who helps people to keep their teeth bealthy that you put across a window wbo helps people witb legal problems used for talking to people who are far alvay

, tap

, telephone

Alall can mean ~a particular ODe'. if you don't say exactly who or whtch. In the plural. we use SOlIN' or no article. A. lHan called \vhUe you were out. Some nren called.

. "

James married a doctor.

They both married d«tors.

3 Compl,ete these sentences in any way yon like'.
iQ..my poCket/handbag. In. my town, there's a big _.~. Hyou see alan _._. you'll have good/bad luck. 41recenUy bought a/an __ . :5 I've got 8. beautiful __ . 2 3

1 There's alan __

AftecldJulofor sort 0/9 ajanis usua1ly dropped. Q IdmI o/tree (NOT at 16f¥lttJ .. !F8e) In Hclmnatioos with wlult. alan is not dropped. What a pity/ (NOT '4Zhst pI~/) A/an usually comes after pfle. ratIIer and sadI. quite/ruther/such Q nIce day

We don't use alan with uncountable nouns. (NOT a-HfR) We don't use a/an with possesshes, (NOT fllfJ§JAeAl)






alan in descriptions
Descriptions: He's got II long nose. (NOT ... dM1ePlf'R66eo) She's got All interatingj'tlu. (NOT •••fIM.m~RR )

.Make sentenees .6ke those al10ve to describe the people in. the pictures. using some of thewords wom the box.
long/small nose long neck round/square/oval face big/SIuall mouth bIg/small mouseache long/sbort heard nice sm11e/laugh gruellloud votce bad temper good sense of humour

», ~............ }.•..· -.. J.~;;".I .• • i_~
1 2 3










Describe people you know usiu.g alaR + singular as mum as possible. Uyou can wOl"kwith. it partner. describe another perso:n without giRn.g their name-Your paJ:'tuer must h'yto guess who i.t is.

She's got dtwk hair.

(NOT ,•. II

dark nffir

OR •., ilSf'H






= 'you know which


Tfw means "you know wbkh (one/ones)


I bought a radio and II CD player, but the CD plafIB didn't work.
( ::: the CD player I just told you about ,_ you know which one.)

'l1Ie womDl oeer there "'Or" \Yith my sister.
, :::the women I'm pointing out to yoo - you know which ones.)

Please dose the door. (You can see which one.) He's bun to the North Pole~ (lfs obvious which ~ there's only one.I
We often use tR with only and with saperlatives~ She'» the only w.ttmulnfor me. It's the best restaurtlnt in town. I. Put in the if the speake.- and hearer

Pot in the, alan or - ( =no article). 'Do YOlll, see _.~J_man standing near

probably know exactly which
(oneJoDeS). Put in. a/all or - ( =0.0


----.L door? He w'Orks as

_3_ assistant


Who opened _._
She lives in __

centre of Glasgow.

in _L sameshep as I do. Wen. I saw him the other day and he was driving
___,i____ big red Porsehe. And do you see

I'd like _. _. glassofwater. 4 My sister Is married to __~ farmer_ 5 ~~ . .man in. _ nest flat is French. _ 6 He's ~ olf1estchUd in __ scboel. 7 Who's __ gtd by __ pimo? 8: They've got __ boy and __ girl. _._ boy's two years oMe:r than. __


expensive clothes he"swearing?

Where does he get __7_ money to pay [or it an? ___.!_ month ago he hadn't got

penny. I toM you about _!Q_ burglary that we had at_1L shop, di.dn't [? Do you think I should go to -.-lLpollce?'

9 Today is __ only day that I'm free. 10 'Which coat is YDurS?' .~_ red one: .. 3 Work with anoth.er student .ifyou can ..Hynu, say the following expressions~ wiIllbe/she knowwbicb one(s) JOU proba.hly m.ean? If not, ad.d some words 'Sothat he/she wiD know which o:ne(s). Examples! the teacher OF\J the lights the school thecar the bus the President

the teache['tbe'Window the light the ceiling the door the light switch the lesson the di.ctionary the place the bouse the post offioe the station the government the restaurant




generalisations without the
The does Dot mean 'aU'. We do not use the tn generalisations nouns. Compare: with plural and uncountable

1like music. (NOT .... die H-IHs.ie.)
She'8 very interested jn fICIwt'e. People have to .1ive.in SDriety.

Can you turn off the murie?
What is the IUIwre of IW illmsU I've .Joined the Poetry Sodeq,. Put the books on the toble.

Books areexpensitle.
1 Put the or ~(

= no artide)

in each. blank.

There must be something wrong with me. _1_ people usually think that -:Lbab:ies are sweet and _3_ teenagers are annoylng. Not me. Ithi.nk __!_ babies are boring. For me, _5 _ children are only interesting from about _6 _ age of two. when you can understand ___7__ things that they say. But _8_ time between ages thirteen and twenty are _9_ years that J lik.e best. Oh.il's difficult at times. but I still prefer talking about __!Q_ money with a teenager to eleanmg a baby's bottom.

We do not normally use ~ In generalisations wuh plural and uncountable noons. even if there is an adjective before the noun.

ShE's studying Chinese history.

He collects IInUqlle clocks.



But we use the when a description with o/follows the noun. She~s studyirrg tile history of China .

Use some adjectives fl"um the box~or oiher adjeclrives,to write true Cor false!) sentencesa.bout yOUl'self •.()on.'t use tlte ..Ifyou are in a group. pass the sentences round; see if everyone can guess who wrote what. casual Italian

really hot

detective foggy pop romantic



1 I like eating __
2 3 4 5 6


1 can't standllstening to __ music. I (don't) like reading novels. Ihate __ weether. ] love __ weather. I like wearing __ clothes.

We can use the in genendisations with slnr;ular countable DOUDS. to talk about a whole class oI'thlngs. This is common in scientific and technical language. Ical,·1. play tire piano.
Who fnlYllted the ulrsaIJ!Ie?

TIre figer is in danger of dyIng out. l hate the ulqlKme.

Note also: I.lO\'e~ SM.. Do you like lil'ing .in t1reoountry? J never go to the dnem4l or the thmtre. 3 Comp'lete the sentences cwith same oftbe expressions from the box..
the aeroplane the ballpomtpen the Bihf.e the camera. the dog the fax maehloe the novel ibepersonal stereo the wolin the whale the wheel the X-ray machine 1 .2 the computer the typewriter

4 5 6 7


Belore peop~e invented _, tihey couldn't transport heavy loads easiny. In its early years. __ wasn't: thought to be good reading for young Ladies. Scientific calculations were much slower before the lnventtoa of __ . __ . is one of the hardest instruments to p}ay. Wbat didpecplewrtte with before __ ? __ is a much faster way of sending letters than the post. 1A'h.atcan we do to save __ from dying out? _.._ istslva]uable tool for doctors" but it has its dangers as well.

NeV8I' lend books, 14M no one eyer retums them; the only books I have in my library are ItIe lIooks that other

Iden't know anything about music ...in my 'ine yau don"l haYe to.
EMs .Presle,y

111i&,bocJks can do nor this alone: they give New views to I'ife, and
teach us how to IIYe.

people bave lent me.
A.ruitolt f'mnce


Classical musiels the kind we keep thlnting will tum into a tun&
Kin Hubbard

Iquite admit that

WitIIout music, life would be a mistake.

I would give anything to hear and to love music, but do the best lean, " is Just noise and

Give me books, fruit, Frencb wine and fine

modem novels have MaR)' good points .•AU that I Insist on is that, as a class, they are quite unreadable ..
OSr.nt Wilde

weather and a little
music out of doors,
played by somelNMly

Natur. is usuallywrong~
The prultur

nothing more ..

Ido not knew.

lames McNeill Whis41er

Cathnfue tile Greot of Russia

For espresslons like the blind. the old. see page 72.



the and no article: special cases
Some common expressions with

artide after a preposition:

to/at/from school. university. colkge. church. work at/from home to I 1n(OO)/ out q/'hosplt.al. prison. bed to/1nf.to)ffrom town on holiday by car/bus/pJane etc (BUT on/oot.) to/at/after breakfast,lunchtt.c at night (BUT in the morninglaftfrnotJn/evenlng) on Monday etc
in spring. summer etc (OR ill the spring etc)

at Easter, Christmas etc She works as a cook in the prison. IJound chewing gwn ill the bed again.
a preposi.tion.

She's ill prison. ( = She's a prlsoner.) You should be in bed. ( = resting) 1

Choose a word. or exp.ression for Cc"lcbblank,anda,dd bed bus car night Christmas


1 2


the evening [oot home town university work

'How do you usually get __ to do your sbopping,?' ·Ob. [ usually go ther-e __ but sometimes HI have a lot to carry I go _._."


After a hard day __ my motber used to come home and go __ to rest for half an hour before making supper. 3 ChUckeDgo __ to learn t.oread and write. 4 Does yOW"family usually go away __ or do you stay _( 5 Don't drink coffee __ if you have trouble sleeping __ 6Wben Juliet was studying , she broke her-leg and had to stay __ for two weeks,



th.e eartoOD. caption do you think

tis (".,;(JrreW

'He's from T~as j the Texas. ·

bJ D'!nil. Pmdrun: 0 1991 Tbe New Yod:er Magazi;'ie•.h..",

Piau Il8IIleS with DO aI'ticle: coo.ttoents. most countries states. counties etc towns
most streets lakes. most mocntatns

Ajrictl. Gtnnany. Peru (BUT The Netherlands) Texas. OxJonfshirr. Nonruznd.y Ottawa, PragUf. Sydney (BUT Th£ Hague)
F!fth Avenue. Oxford Street Imre Super1or. Everest, Mont Blanc Oxford Vnivtrsity. York AJrport. ReadIng StaUon

town + bulldings

Place IQIIIIeI with t1Jr.. name Includes common noun

seas. rlven. deserts

mountain and island groups most geographical regions
"'181DB5. IbeatreI

the Czech Republic. the United States the t\tlanlic. tilt! Thames. the SD.ham Desert the Alps. tht Himalnyo,s. tM West Indffs tire Far East. tht Huhr. the Midwest 1M RUt. th! Playlwuse



Make sentences using words and. expressions from the Exam.p11e:


A 1/10/1 6: AnJla (TOrSto L'rorl< onjool. Oft A.nnl1 n:ftt'u YO.t?sto ,,'ork OI!_100( U tlw 1.\·e~lt1rt'r"sinf. OR EW:'Ylllwdll in tl~·(lJjirr except ".lUra cOlm~sto \vork f

B3/9.125/31 P 6l25/14/16 J 4/2/9/26 N 4/t1/10/17

C 2/11/14 D 1/7/19/18 E 5/30/33 G 1/24/28/33 II 5/25/32/16 I 1l26/23 K 3/11/29 r. 13/21122 M 5/20 0,6/28/30/13 P 3/8/27 toooHege inprrson atdlnner towork 13, bytmin 14 bycar 15 byplane 16 onfeot 17 bybike 18 by bus 19 IhePacific 20 Everest
25. Oxford 31 Pll1son


.2 3 4 5

theKi.ng I allofus 6 it'seasy

7 8 9 10

21 theAIps
22 the North Sea 23 Lake Huron 24 the Hague

11 home

12 at work

26 27 28 29 30

Stirling Cardiff Ottawa Sydney Bostcn

32 Town Hall 33 Airport 34 Station

Hyou are in a groop,write stDdents~ 4

some 'u.umber senseaees'


Write the English n.am.es often. places you bave beea to, and ten places you wou1cHik.e to go to.

Other expressions with DO article: He was eltctedPraWmt. She bemnre Quem. They made her Manager. What·s on TV? Ltt's watdr. uleris1011. (BUT on die radio. Hsrm to the rmlio) Ddr JlA..lb'. (NOT ._ _ - ate page 62)



articles: revision
1 . fln~the or - (nothing)? ..4., 1 2 3 4: 5 6 7 8 .__ .dipiomat is __ person who can tell you to go to hell In such a way that you actually look forward to __ trip_ Caskie Stint'l£U __ dog is __ only thing on earth that loves you more than you love yourself. Josh B.illings _. _ Americans hke __ . fat books and __ thtn w()men. Russell Baker __ accountantjs _. _ man who is hired to explain tba.t you didn't make money you did.A.nonymous _~. actor's __ guy who. if you ain't talking about bUn.•ain't listening. A.ttributea to Marlon .Branda __ optimist is someonewho tbinks __ future is uncertain.

_,. _ death is __

nature's way of telling you to slow down.

~-_ diplomacy ts the art of saying 'wee doggie]' until you can find ~- -_ stone. Wynn C:aWn 9 ~- equality is ~_. lie - ~_ women are better. ,Anon:ymous 10 __ birds do it; __ bees do it; even __ educated fleas do it. Let's do it. Let'sjall in __ love. Cole Parler 11 I always pass on _" _ good advice. It is __ onJy thing to do with it. It is never any use to oneself. (lsmr Wilde 12 I love aenng, It is so much more real than __ life. Oscar Wilde 13 Never put anything on __ paper, my boy, and never trust __ man with ~_ small black moestacbe. P G Wodehouse 14 Nothing's illegal lf__ _hundred businessmen decide 00do U1 and that's . true 3n,fwberein ~_ world. Andrew Young 15 Remember that as __ teenager you are at __ last stage in your life when youwm behappy to hem tba.t __ phone is for"you. Fran Lebowitz 16 Save __ water, shower with __ friend. Anonymous 17 __ .happiest time of anyone's ilfe is just after __ first divorce.

18 19

Kenneth Galbmitll

20 21 22 23

Treat __ work of art like __ prince; let it speak to you first. Attributed to .Artllur Sc1wpenhauer When I was ~_ boy of fourteen, my father was so ignorant I could. hardly stand to have __ ' old mao around. But when I got to be twentyone, .I wesastonished at how much be had learned in seven years. MarkTwam Wheo. I was born. I was so surprised that I couldn't talk for ~ year and __ half. Gracie Allen A banker is __ man who tends you ._~ umbrella when __ weather is fair, and takes it away from you when it rains. Anonymous CaUfornia is great place .; you happen to be __ orange. FAllen Wdting about __ art is lite dancing about __ architecture. Anonymous


For .".pJ1anation.


the words that we usa to talk

about grammar;


page•. 298-302.




2 Complete~ captions with the t_hey go with.. 1 2


an. the or -, aud


which ea.rioons

'One nigbtyou'U get me out of __ bed, and it reaily will be __ burglar.' '[ don't think mucb of_.~ wedding photographer.' 3 'For heaven's sake. Harry! can't you must re.lax and enjoy __ art; ~._ musie, __ religion. ,~_literature, ~_, drama a.nd.~_ history, without tryingr.o tie it all together?" 4: 'Goodmornlng, Mr Dolby! ,It's 5.1S; am., and this is radio station WJRM!. If you name ~_ next tune you will win ~_ ride on ~_elephant and __ two tickets to ~_ rock conceetl'




possessives (my and mine etc) ,.


Completetb.e table and then check your answers in the k.ey.

TIlls belongs to me.
This belongs to you. Thjs belongs to __ . TWs belongs to h.el'. This belongs to _. This belongs to tbem .. Who does this belong to?

Tbis is my coat. money. Thls is .his car. Thls is _. _ offi.C(';. This is our house.
This is __ This is __ dog. __ bike is this?

This is mine. Thlsts __ .

This Is
This.is __


Thisis __ .
This ls __ . -_. is this bike?

Note also: its name




its value; its

2. Put in the I"i.ght possessi~es. 1 2 3 'Is this Ailee's book or (your/yours). do you mow?' 'uts (her/hers): '(Who/Whose) (8)"' is that in. the drive?, 'I don't lOlOW - not

Take (yollr/yours) feet off the table. (It/Its) Iegs aren'a very strong. 4 John's bringing __ guitar and Catherine's bringing __ drums. 5 Chris and Pat never cut the grass in__ garden. 6 TheWhartans are spending August in. (our/ours) flat. and.we're 7

borrowing (the.lr/theirs). That's (my/mine) coat. and the scarf is .__

too ..

You can't

put posIBiSives ~ai,eI'

:arttdes or aiel" thfs/thsi ate. ltt:8t~r})

She's a lrimd ofJJdne. (NOT She's "1ItfI1ABR4.) How"sthat brodJ~ro/lJDHrs?(NOT Hew's ,h.t!lBUr

1 2

Jom up tbe

ideas to make ex-pressious.
7 some + his distan.t relations 8 a + her beautiful cousin 9 this + your wond.erful news 10 that + our lazy son 11 those + their impossible children 12 these + ow sill., cats

3 4


that + your smelly dog that smeUy dog of yOtws that + her unemployed brother another + my good friend a + my brilliant idea these + his stupid plans those + YOW" old books



For explalNltlotill of the



word. tl'urt we UN to talk about



see p.Q:&I .. 298-302.


Anne broke her mm skii.ng. (NOT ,.• ~F8kethe anN no) He stood there. his eyes closed and Ids lumds In lUs pockets. 4 Pot in one 01the words from the box wI_t_ha suitable
foot mouth





1 Martin stood up and put ~~. on, 2 Helen hurt __ 'l"ery badly yesterday.

3 That dog's burt ~
4, They tookoff_~ andsatdown, 5 look at the weather - and rve forgotten __ again. 6 I'll tell you everything iCyon promise to keep _- ~ shut. 5 Complete the eartooo,capti,OD

with a suitablepossessne..

"No. be's not


We tbought ycu'dbrought him..'


this and that


, , ,







1 Study the examples, Bnd. think abom.! the dilIer-ence between lws/these aDd thatldl8se.
Come and look at this picture. This isn't a ven) gotJtlparty. What 'sthut on the Y{)oj? He's il1.1hat's why he's away. Slop that nnisel Thanks - that. was a great. meal. (on the phone) Who's that? I didn1t Wee dIOse stories he wld.

Do you .like this music?
Listen - this will make youlauglI. (on the phone) This is Ann.

This;s my friend Paula. Thes.e shoes are hurting my feel. These gnlpesare really ,sweet.

Do you remember those people we met .in Edlnburgh?

2 Leek at the examples again. Wbicbwords and expressions in th.e box go with tlUs/dlese. and. wbich 10 with dWllthose? Ch.eck your answers inth.e key. Hnished
here happenlng flOW near over there saldbefore


just about to start unwanted


Po.t im. this.lth.flt/drese/dtose .. Why am I living in __
Get me __ countzy? box from the table.


3, Ugh - _-_ petetoes taste burml 4 What was __ noise? .5 Who are __ people over tbere?
6 7

8 9 10 11 WbosaJd__l
12 13

Come __ . way. please, Isn't __ weather great? Didyou hear __ . rain in the night? Tell her to stop __ shouting. __ was a nice .meal- thanks. Wby did she marry ~ idiot? ..

Do it __ way, not like __

'My wife told me to carry tllis/that.'


which? and what?
We ask wIuItI when there



IfJridi sixe dn you waut -

Whed. is your sh.oe size?

small. medium orlarge2
Sometimes both are possible.


day lIt'xt week can you come and see us?

Before of and one. we can use u,hkh but not what. in Europe have you visited? (NOT WIt .. '" .lAJokIII all 'hose Sl.ars.Wlrieh one Is the nearest? (NOT WIHIt BIle 1fJIit'1J I

0/ the countries

?) ?)

Which or.hllt?

1 We've got red. wine and wbUe ~ .__ will YOll! have? :2 _._._ books did you read for last year's English dass? 3 ~_. of the books on the list have you already read? 4 . _ .Frencb queen said. '.Let thern eat cake'? _ 5 __ 's your name? 6 __ hand do you -writewitb? 7 __ kind of car have you got? 8 __ one is yours? 9 __ party do you thlnk will win the election? 10 __ subject do you prefer. chemJstry or physics? 11 __ was your favourite subject at primary school.?

Who won? (NOT WJHeIt ·~·.'6R·.')



some and any
Smne means '. certain (oot~"""" Some is used mostly in aBlnnaIive ~



./,/"./,/.1 .I ././././,,"

We also use some in questions when we expect people to say ·Yes (for example, in requests anti offen).

She"s got SI'IItIe interesUng ideas. TI,t're's som~ mild on tile carpet. 'Couldl haW' SOrIM coffee?' 'Sure. And wordd you like some biscuilu" We use IDIfllnstead ot some in .eptbre seDtlBces. in most questiens. with 1/. and with words like PlfW'r.halJfly. without. refuse. doubt (which J(~~¥~¥

have a nepthre kiRd ofllU!'JlUling).
Do you lutow fJlffl.f/OOd Jokes? If youfind flI1fl mistake~ please tell me. anfl mOlIey. Shf nner hasillig fun. Irefuse to give him any help.
He lJdSll't got

¥ ANY ? ??11 ~1

We got there witJwat GlIB dU}iclilty.

The difference between somebody/anybody, someone/anyone. smnet/d'wlanytlliny same as the durer-enee between some and any. There's smnebody outside. Would YOl.llike sometJdng to drink? Does fJlffl"body understand thIs? She didn't sayanyOdng.

etc is the

1 Here are some sentences with ally. W,hich word in eac:b.sentenee
gives the ·nel,;ative Idnd of mea.niog'.? Examples:

He lI~wr.listens to anyone.


hanDy got a.ny cat/aod.

1 The baby refuses to eat anything. 2 I doubt that you'll find any bread now. 3 There was hardly anybody in town. 4 You never get .any sense .ont of her. 5 You seldom hear any birds here .. 6 I leR the aouse wtthout any money, 2 Affinnativelnegathre: choo.se the rigbtwonl 1 2 3 I can't find (some/a.ny) butter. but we've got (somelany) margarine. Emma bas got (some/any) old pictures .ofthe bouse to show us. Ihavec't got (something/anythi11U) to wear to the party. 4: There aren't ($ome/any) buses on Sunday. S Helen brought.me (some/any) beau.tifUl.roses from her garden, 6 There's (somebody/anybody) waiting for yon at reception,


3 Questions: Choose somellmylsflmdJodnlanybf.H'Jy/sem.etWnglanythlns.
] 2 3 4 4 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 g: 9 10 Did you meet _. _ interestiDgat the party? Can loITer you_wine? Sball. we listen to __ music? Have you got __ children? Cboose the~ght wont. Ha.ve you got (some/any) time free on Wednesday afternoon? ]'here's (som£thing/anytnil1lJJ strange about the way Pete's ading today. NObody can find out (somdhJng/anythins) about when the exams wiU be. [s there (someUung/MgthiJ19) w·e should hrlng to the meeting? (S01lII!/Any) of Lama's friends were at the party last night. Shall I hring you (sometmnglanythinoJ to read wblle you wait? I had three sets of bouse keys. and .1 can't find (smne/any) of them now. HanUy (some/any) oCtile smaller CEl!t'S bave enough leg room. for Ji!l. Do you know if (sorne/any) of'the Momses are coming on Sunday? Can I.get you (some/any) ,co.ffee? rvejust made (some/any). Sbe refuses to have (wmethtng/anythinfj) to .110 with her family now. I haven't done fsomelarry) revision Corthe exam - [ know ['U fail Ifthere's (.scmelany) soup left, could you put it in the fridge, please? I doubt.that there's (smnething/anylhiny) we can. do now. Never trust (someone/anyone) who has a. perl'ect1y tid;y desk, Helen can ride a bikewitbout (some/any) help now. Has .Bvegot (some/any) brothers or sisters, do you know? Harriet has got {.somelany)beautlful jewellery! but she never wears it. 5 6 7 Is there __ I can do? Would you like to helpyou:? Do you know -Cerman?

12 13 14 15 16 17 18

5 Complete the cartoon caption.

'Oh. he's right here beside rue rnaklng to go __ where with bodyat

rus "I don't


rune" fa.ce.'

Por any meaning 'it, doesn't matter which'. see p!B.ge36.




some/any and no article
We use SDffWIIIIIll to talk: about ~ not YeI'y Iaqe DIDDben: 01' IIIIICJUIltB - when we don't know. care or say exactly how much/many. We use DO III1:Id.e when we are thin.k.ing about unllDlifaJ numbers or aJIIOII.Dt& or not thlnldn. about IDIJDbershuaou.ots at all. Compare:

l"veplanted some roses. (A limited number. it isn't dear how many. J I like roses. (No idea of number.) We got talking to some smden.ts. (A limited number.I OZlr new neighbours are students. (The idea is classification. nat number .. ) Is there any water in the fridge? (The speaker wants a limited amount.) Is there ",aUron the moon? (No idea of amonnt.) m Put some~an". or no article.
1 This car ha.rdly uses __ petrol,

1 Choosethe cerreet wersiOll oftbe
cartoon caption.

2 This car doesn't use __


it's battery-powered. 3 WouW you like __ beer? 4 In Belgium they make a stew with __ beef and __ beer. S Do you ever read __ novels? 16 ] read._- wonderful nevels by O'Brtan when I was on holiday. 7 Are your sisters __ doctors too? 8 VIle met __ doctors at the part)!. 9 Could you lend me __ money? 10 Is __ money something you worry a~bout? 11 Do you like _~ mushrooms? 11 Are there __ mushrooms left? 13 We need __ more milk. 14 Cheese is made from __ milk.

I some children that grew up aad weill: away?'
'Did. we have children

We do not use StIIIWIIIIIfl when it Is dear es&..::tiy how 1DIIdJ.ImImy. Compare: You've got SDnte .reat books. You've got pretty toes. (You've got some pretty toes wou1d suggest that the speaker is not making it dear how many - perhaps six or seven.)

no == 'not a/ a:ny'
NIl is 8 more emphatic way ef 98)1ing 'aut a' or -oot anyAt the ... _ of a sentmce~ no is almost always used.

Sorry. J"\:regot no time. There ll'en no letters for you this morning. No cigarette is completely harmless. (~OT NBt IRIfI eftJllMle ...) No tourIsts £''fr come to our Village. Nobody. nothing etc are used in the same way. No6odg lovesme. I've got absolutely nothing to say.
Before oj. we use none. not no (often with a singular verb). NDJIe oJ his Jritnds likes his lvi/e.


in. nolnolle/JlohdH.

1 'Why can't I have toast for breakfast? 'Because there's __ bread.' 2 "My students expect me to know ,everythblg,' '_._ knows everything,' 3 ~_ uewspaper re& the whole truth.
'What were your photos like?" 'ID~m akaid __ of them came out.' 5 1])0 you tJ:Unk he's honest?' '~_ politiclan is completely honest.' 6. __ o£thepeople theee remembered seeing anything unusual. patience with people lite her. 7 I've got 8. 'i'here~s .__ lean. talk to in tnJsplace. 9 __ of you care what I t:b.in:k. money. __ iob and ~ .._ place tohve, 10 He badl-4


2 Write answers. Use no, rwne., rwthing, and. nobody. 1 ~Whycan't you take me to school ill the car today.?' Bft:'llIlS(' ,l\'f' got nl'lime. 2 •Can. you aSk. someone in. your family to be'p you with your French?' 3 "Jeremy saystds father speaks seventy-six languages.' 4 "Do we have to go out tonight? Can't we eat at home?' 5 'Do you th.ink. ]_could ask you for a cup of coft'ee?' 6 'Why don't you phone home to find out if you I letter's arrived?' 7 'Ifyou're bored. why don't you go to the etnema?' 8 'Why didn't you buy any flowers?' 9 'Why didn't you join in the conversatton last night?' 10 'How many of your brothers are married?'


any == 'it doesn't matter which'
AJIfI can mean 'It doesn't matter wbicll·. With this meaning. any is common In aJ8rmatNe senknCes. In negative sentences, we can use jIut "1IfI to make this meanl.g dear.
A.nll doctor will tell YOli that smoking is bad/or you. He gets angry with any man whD looks at his wife. ('.ville IDlY time you like. 1don't do just any work: 1cnoose jobs that interest me.

Anybody. anything etc can be used Jn the same way. Anullodfl can sing if they really want to. ~CanI have something to eat?' '0/ course, take anything YOlllJJre. •
Anllls not ~tlve

- it is the q1p06lte of rIO or not anJ. Compare;

That's easy: lfJIylHHly can do it
That's too hard: nobody can do it.

I'm really hungry - I'lleat Imyt'ldng.
I'm not hungry-I don" want IIRflOtiIlfJ.

1 Cboose the best word
2 3 4 (Any/No)


expression for each seotence.

1 (A.ny/No) doctor can tell you if you've got flu.

doctor can tell you exactly how long you're going to live. Just say (arlyt1rirllJlnotlling), so we can see if the microphooe works. If the police arrest yon, say (anything/nothing) until your lawyer gets there, 5 What do you mean. music? I (can't hea.r I can hear) any music. 6 YOIl can hear {anYIn.o) kind of music you like at the Beadmg Festival. 7 Anea's very secretive: she talks to (anybody/nobody) about her problems. 8 Jim tells his problems to (.anybody/nobody) whowilllist:en .


2 Answer the questions using ang. I 2 3 ¥liler€ can you get! a plane ticket?mr!f tm'!tI t1!)f'ut·s lead-free petrol? dog [ood.?stamps? running shoes? a dicUonary? Who can give you advice on: English pronunciation? getting a divorce? paying your taxes ( problems with your camera? (nUking cows? Write adeerttsements for toothpaste. shampoo, a computer, an air]m.e etc, using 'Don't buy/Use/etc just. any ... ,.buy fete ..: Example: Don't vny just dUy nlr. buy II Jayum'.

some, any and no: revision
1 FUIin the blanks and put together the four sente.uces. Wbicb goes with which cartoon? Cook ~ you want for supper he's not seeing __ I suppose you·ve brought me here I'm sorry
in. the. cbruch Therets __ to teU.me haven't got-you pmceroli women



It's your birthday~

D l


all, everybod,y and everything
AU (of) can be used with a noun O£ pronoun. An is not used without B noun or pronoun to mean .everybody~.

AD tire pesp1e were tired. EYqbodfl was tired. (NOT All


All can be used to mean 'ewwythlq' or &dJe Oldy relathredause{all that .••). Compare:
She gave me alJlererytldng (t.hat) .sh had. AU (tIuIt) I WIUIt is a place ofmy own.


1 ,

but oo1y With a

The thieves tDokncrytJ:dng. (NOT~) 1, Put in all ifpossihle; ifnot. put In nerylh.'Dg. 1 __
2 3n 4 5

] need tomake a oomedyis a park, apolleemanand a pretty gid.

6 .,


Charli'e Chaplin I hurry to laugh at __ , for fear of having to cry. Booumurclws can resist __ except temptation. OsCllrWilde You can onl.}'have power oyer people so long as you. don't take __ away from them. Sol·zJumltsyn 'Beauty is truth. truth beauty,' ~ that is __ Ye know on earth. and all ye need to know. John: Keats They sa.y__ In the world .is good for something. John Dryden [A cynic] knows the price of __ and the value of nothing. Oscar Wilde Life is like nothing; because it[s __ .Wi.Uiam CoMing [We den't know] whether Laws be right, Or whether Laws be wrong; ~_ that we know who Ite in gaol Is that the wall Is strong. Oscar Wilde

2 .Put~nall ol'everyfmdy.

3 4

5 He who prajses __ praises nobody. Samuellohnson 6 [nsticefs open to __ peoplem the same way as the iRib: Hotel. Judge Sturgess

~ women become like their mothers. That is their tragedy. No man does. That's his. Oscar Wilde In the future. __ win be famous for fi:fteenminutes. Andy Warhol __ human beings are born free and. equal indignity a.n.d.ights. r llniverSQ.l.Decianrn:a1l of Hwnan Rights I am free of_. _. prejudices - I hate _ equally. we Fields


whole and all
e tlRwlblle ~
We Compare:


wWtd, ZtAaaDlllllllabie DOUI15. DW!It often wICh .aco.mtable and pIund nouns.

a whole plate - aU the food a whole' COOU.r1. - all tlu- music

the wlJol~ swtilter - .11 the wool
the whole orchestm - all the musicians

Note the word order with the: tile _hole .•.1all the ... Before place names. we most often use the ",holt' oj. I.M whole of Europe
I Write an expression

with .• hoh or ..11for each item. Exa:mples:

a football team _,. uu,holeJootballlellm the fiowetS "'* aU dIe }ltmlers

a family

the islands

. the children the vegetables the ~llggage

the road system the COtmtry the uaffic
the political party

South Arri.ca
a week

Asia the students

the meal


a class

"i~o., .1'H~s..W~G\t"s


flo~sc (lb()ol:~

Note: In SOllIecommon time expressions, both whole and all are tilt utlwle ajternoollinight/week- aU .(tile) afternoon./night! week the Qrfloli' ooy - aU day: the \~lhole time ~ all the time; my whole life·~ all my life




much, many, a lot (of), little, few
How lIIuch tiltNr have we got?
Mud! and IIUIJIlI are most common in qIIC!IIdiens and .... 1.... aier' _ .... t.oo and treI'If. In other Informal aIIIrmative sentences, we aeneraly pr-eiet-.lDf (of), lots It#} or .,Ien", (of). All three of these can be used 'db. ba\h-~ 1uraI6.
'Do you have nmdr trouble wi.th English?"" don't. have much trouble speaking. but 1 have lots oJ diJjiculty writing ..' (NOT ••.lII_h dt[IleuJl,y •••) rAre there many opera houses in London?' 'Not IIIany. but a Jot 0/ theatres and pJmty III


cinemas. • (NOT .... "'''1Ift tHMtfe6 RAil ... aHII eiRMIa6:' IlDve you Sf) mIlCh. Take as IhIKII as gou.like. There are too many: people here. )

WI'.iteat least eight. sentences about yourseU'. Have you gotnDt rtlueh not fflRlI!lt R 16t IIQIS oJ. orpleuty "f. f Examples: ..

I haven'! gol mud: amMiion ambittcn cousins

I've goL lois of CDllsius.



problems work to do

nice clothes


free time

2 W.ritemuch/mang with so, as~too or very for each blank. 1 Thank.you __
2 3 for your help. Are there __ chairs as people? You can never have __ love,

better today. 6 I don't know __ poems as YOli.

Bob feels _


4 I likeyour hair ~_. In a formal style.


She's got __ relatives! Get ~_ tickets as you can.


and much are more oommon in .affinnaJ:hre

The researches oflllCl.1QI commentators hmY(! already thrown mueh darkness on this subject. and it is probable that if this contimlf's we slml' soon .know noOlino at all alwut it. Mark Twain

tAl "1&1J8ed;W\lblllli .. laJ'~lliolltlsand(ll~thplUrals. U jaF are rather we: they mean 'not 1IlIICbImany' A _,_d --I- are more tkce:: their ll]fIBDIogts more lIke 'some' .

Cacfusts nted

little 1I'IIUr.

Gh~ tlte roses a .Iittle water tvery day. HiS ideas are l'erg diJ]icult. antI/nil people understand them. His ideas are very difficult. butsfew people wulerstand them. Little andfow (without a) are rather Iormab in a conversational style we more often say only a little/few or not much/many. Cactuses onJy need !II little \wter. Not many people urW£rstand his ideas.

Write Utl1e 01" lew~

I 2 3 4

There is __

friendship in the world. and least of all between equ.als.Fmncis Bacon A __ Iearntngts a dangerous tmng. A1.exfJnderPope Men of __ words are the best men, WiWam: 8httkespenre (Henry V) Never inthe fieM of human. ronll:1ctw3s so much owed by so many to so _
Winswn Churchill

,:) Never before have we bad so __

!6 A country havtng a __ Lecm Henderson
7 We __

.Franklin .Roosevelt inflation is fike a womao being it litHe pregnant
time in which to d.o so much.

. we b"appy __ , we band of brothers; P,or be today that sheds his blood with me Shallbe my brother, William Shakespeare (Henry V)

8 Death is one of the __
4 LJaJe or 1 IUs __

things that can be done as easily lying down,

Woody Allen

Uttle? Few or a Jew?

use trying to change hel'mind.

2 Could.you possibly give me __ hetp? .3 __ teenagers in the Village could. read,
4 Slowly. _. _ childreo. began coming to school 5 I only need __ minutes to get ready6 She .only wanted __ love, __ kindness, 7 Nadia drank __ coffee and no alcohol, 8 Unfortunately. be had __ ii.ends. Now write sentences 1, 3, '7 and 8 in a.more conversational style.

Few peop1e can be happy unless they hate soma other person, nation or creed,.


less and least, fewer and fewest

I've got less money thallI thought.

OJaUmy friends. Jake does tile least work.
TJrere' mre!ewer.,'FDblems than we expected. Ann was the person wh.o made the /nnst .mistakes in the {,ran.dation ,exam. In modem English. many people use 1.esswith plurals (e.g, Ti~eTewere Ie-ts problems than we expected), Some people feel this is incorrect, IWrife 1 2 3 4 5 6 Jess I the least Ifewe,.t tire fewest.

Of all British cars, this one uses ~_ petrol. It also needs ~. _ repairs. __ girh:;than boys do marhematics at lUliversity, This may be because girls get ~_ encouragement to study majhs at school. As the years went by. they had __ things to say. and __ interest in talk~ng to each other. Do you want. more time and __ money. or more money and __ timel Li2i.svery clever, but she has got __ self-confidence of anyone I' know. I've had. __ days off work of anybody in the office.

A.nn~s'ess shy than Pat .Uwas the least successful parllJ we'd given.
He drh~esless carefully
. 2

than Iexpected.

Put less Ithe least jn each blank. with one of the wordsilo the list (or another word, i.fyou prefer). If you are in. a group, compare

shy shyly easily pessimistic politely quick.ly confidently prosperous selfish worried. optimlstic dangerous religious fluently confident

I reel.__ about the future than I did a year ago. 2 My mother islwas __ person you can imagine. 3[ spoke English __ .a year ago than I do today. 4: I think thmscountry is __ than it was a year ago5 People from the north of my country speak __ than people from the south. 6 My home town is ~- place I know.


other(s) and another
When otheP is used before a pluralIIIWID~ it does not have -B. When other 11 used wilbuat. It has -s t:iural. Compare:

Tell the otJr.er people.. (NO'I
Tell' the tJiIrus.

••• the

efJfeH ;IH!W''')

Can you sho"~me .some other shoes? Canyoll :show me some others'?
1 Write ether or otlrers~ 1 .2 3 4: I coukl see Karima aud Nedjma at their desks - but where were the __ Long after all the __ cars bad ~eft.Dawson's Brvrvvwas still. there. I'D phone aU the __ ifyoutU phone Ted and. Lucy, OK? .1canp'ay tbe Sonata .in C. but not .any of the __ .. Do you bow an:y ~_ people wbo oU.ght have a reason to do th~s? This doesn't smt me. Have you got any __ eoloursz


9 10


Sorne metals m-emagnenc a.nd __ aren't. The police arrested [ane, Fred and two __ .

wish that girl would. p;.I.ay more with __ children. Gerald Durrell wrote a book called 'My Family and __

Animals' ..

We can use ......... (one word) to mean 'one more'. But with uncountab\es and p\unlls., we do notgenenilly use ether to mean 'more" . Compare:

Haveanother pomtD,. Have some more meat. We Ileoo more lUps. We can use IIIICJther

(NOT ~_.Inl 0""" (NOT ••• ~ea1.)


+Ie- or aJICJther + a IlIUIIber

with a plural noun.

Let's wait II'n.other few ntinuw. ( ::: _ a few more mtnutes.) .. The job will take IIJIOIh.er 1m. "qs. ( :.= ••• ten more d.ays.)

Clothes sleep!

frlends chlld three page-s hour mtle job possibilities few days hundred pounds money freedom holidays problem twenty miles

enough, too and too much

1 Look. at th.c examples. and choose the correct fonns oftlte niles.
Check your answer in tbe key. Tlds isn't hot enoush. (NOT .•. ffH6ff§h "of.) Am. 1going fast eoollgh?

Tilere is never ellougll time.

ERough normally comes (be/urelaftnJ an adjective or adverb.
BII8Ugh normally Gomes (IJ.eforelafter) a nODn.


in words from the box together with MfJUllh.

hard I 2 3: 4

champagne clever confidence money time friends old



In art the best is Flood {>lWH!lh. Goethe I never had _when I was yOW1g: now 1 never have __ TIlls town lsa't __ [or both or us. Susiehasn't got __ to p.Laywith • Bob's not _. _ to travel by himself.


6 There was __ . to give everybody a glass. 7 If you work __ •you don't have to be very intelligent. 8 She was __ to do anything she wanted. but she didn't haee __
We use too before an adJeetive without. noun, or an adverb. We use 100 nnu:Irhtumg before a noun (with or without an adjective). He's too old. (NOT ... kHI·dHIeII· eW.) She'sdriving too/asf. My pmblemi.s: roo much work and too IHIlDU'.te nights.

to try.

3 lo'Veutanswers

to the questions, Dsmg mOt too much 01' too mrmy ..

1 Why did Jack leave his car at the pub and take a taxi home? (beer)'
He'd drunk too Hillel! bert. 2Wh.y did they drive to the cinema in two curs? (people) 3 Why didn't joanna stop for lunc.b yesterday? (busy) 4 Wby don't we go to the Caribbean for our holiday? (expensive)

6 7 8

don't you let:the chlldren cycle to scbool? (traffic)

What went wrong in your exam? (sl(Jl:vly) Why did you have the phone installed in the other room? (noise) Can you understand what be's saying? (quickly)


4Wr--ite descriptions fol' the piClm'es using not rllODell or too much/many.

too many people







Note the structures •.•mGIl8'h (for _.) to m and too ....(lor ... ) tD •••

She~sold mooslt t8 voN. It's not warm eftOllgh for me to swim. The box was too II:etl'Pll tD JjJt. H:e''sp'oke too fast/or us to loUow.
5 ColDPlete the seDi:eUa::S with too.lelloullhao.d words from. the list. dean/people/swim Cast/police/catch

I The food was loo SPit:HJo.r tile ('hUtlren 10 ·{'ut 2 SalIy's Dot __ the dog [ora walk. 3 They were speaking __ what they were saying. 4 Near some beaches the sea's not __ in, 5 There's someone out there. butI can't see __ i.r if s Emma. 6 Tire water was __ .anything. 7 I'll work on. this tomo~ow- I'm _. _ it tonight. 8 ] don't understand Arabic __ to Egyptian radio.
'q\\e OxQ'il e ~_.Dl.m..

muddy /tbern/see old/take spicy Ichildren/eat quietly/me/hear tired/understand well/I.isten

\Ye can drop a noun after enough or tw mw:h/rmmy if the DH8JlIng Is clear.



people live here}' Too mtmy. •

We can use too mada as an,adverh: He talks toornlldJ. We cIon't nonna1ly use teo before adiecth'e + noun.
She doesn't, like men whO' Q1re too tall. (NOT .•• 'hJe~m€'11"') Compare: We hmlen't got enDuBh biB nails. =We need more oj them. We haven't got big enough nails. = We need' bigger ones.



of with determiners
The following determiners have f'JI/before ar1ides (the/a/an). possessives (lIIlJ/your etc). demonstratives (Otis/that etc) and pronouns (lflus/lfOllIthmt.): jew. all. both. MCh. every one. some. any, . of much. more,

some. any. much. many. more. most. too much etc. enoUJl~little. less. least. notlet and numbers one. two etc.
the. alaIl my, your, etc this, that. etc

some. any, i much, more.


it, us. you, them


etc every on.€of us aUo/you

some of the older people most oj my friends afew of those Drapes
too mtmy oj his Imoks
Inother cases, we use these determiners without

enough of them

few changes

1 some, any. e~

a Jitde water


some strange ideas

most people

EvenJ and no are used mstead of ev.ery one and none.

every two minutes


Put in of o.l'uotbin.g (~). DearPhU. Well. some .~l_ our luggage bas arrived. so things could be worse. I've got the books and papers, but I've lost mosl_l_ my clothes. I haven't got any ____!_ socks at all, and I'll have to buy some more _4_ jeans. but. at least I've got enough ____i_ underwear fOlr the week. (They don't sell it here, I don't think they wear it.) I'm going to buy a few ....L those woollen shirts that: you like. and one __L_ the big coats that we looked at. They've got no _.!_ shoes immy size, unfortunately ,and none _9_ the jackets Slut me. Anyway, I'm not alene, Every one ~ us has lost something - in fact. three __1L people bave got no ~ luggage at alL WeU,as they say. into each ___!l_ life ali.ttle _____14_ rain must faU. See you on the 17th. Andy



Note the . mostdifI'erence between molt .... and (Illite..". (talking about

(talking about people in general) particular people).

Most pr.ol"~ want to hinT children. Mos,; of ~·ptJOpl~ 1 knJ}l~r Ul'fin the country.
2 Put wDWst pt:Opl~ or most oJtJre people.

3 4

:) 6
7 ·8 3

enjoy talking about themsehres, __ who wanted to see the match. were dlsappolnted, m know __ in our street. __ like music, M think. 6sbing (01' sport.is wrong. but __ would disagree. __ on the train bad. no tickets. He gets onwith_ __ at theparty were Iii.oods of Jan '5.
__ ChtJOSe the

"Versions o(

the cartoon captious.


~ .. c
#.~ .•.• ~ •.......•..•.... -~ "

u: '--_

.. .Ai'}1t"~

Xavff... -...~

~Straigbten yonr tie. Stephen ..The woild is already Iilled with (f'110.llBll disorder I enough ,ojtlliorder). •

A .liUk less I)J noise). please.'

'Gi.rls. girls.f ~ (1\ liUle iese noise I

After fill and 1JotIr. we often drop oJ before determiners.
aJJ (of) my friends botl! (of) his eyes

personal pronouns: I and me etc
I. sire. It. we, they are used as subjects before verbs. Me. flOP. hJm. lin. Jr. liS. them are normally used in other cases.


.,lib Mary..
hllt:es lIle.

V.ERBS :Ma,ry

.Look At her. Everybody ~t

me WQ_S late. 'Who's thatl' 'ft's me/ (NOT normally ~ltis,J.:),

We'mn'tBoon like this. Ten lIS what to do. Why is she with him?

In short answers we can use me, II1ID etc (informal) or 1. lie etc with a verb (more fonnal).1'he same thing happens after aB and dtQh.

'I'm thirsty. ' iMe too. '(NOT '1-469-=')' 'Who's paving?' 'Bu. '

I've {Jotthe same number &.¥ him. She gets paid more tha.n me.

"1' . uursty.· 'II.am too. ,./.~am·. I ' . . . I£"~ ..m ~L; . 'Wllo'spayingr lShe Is.•(NOT !SIIe/) I've got the some number as Ire has. Site gets paid more thtm 1 do.


1 Put; an. appropria.te proooun in each blank (the sentences aremformal).
1 Nobody except __

2 3 4


knows where the key is kept. and I'm not telllng yon. 'Who bought these flowers ?' 'Itwes I th.oughtyou'd like them.' 'I haven't met Mark yet ~ is __ here?'


John's two years younger thanAllee, but __ 's nearly as tajlas __ "


'Who said that?' 'It was __ tnglasses, ·
a8 __ .

- the man

You've got almost the same colour eyes

"That's __

over there.'

'I've had! enough of this party.'
'__ too.' He's faster than __ • but I'm stronger

9 You.may be older than __

•but] don't


have to do what you say. 10 'Which is Iohn'swife?" "That.must be ~~ just getting out of the ·ear.~

Change these to make them morefonmd. or less formal. Example:
Anne's got the same car as me.


6 We are not as .oldas they are.
7 8 9 He had a bigger meal than I dtd, Eam not as qulck as she is. 'We are from York.' 'So am l' 'VVb.o ants a rlri-rlk?' '( do.' w

2 They've been here longer than us. 3 I'm much taller than h.im ..
4 5 'He's going to MeJdco.' 'Me too.' 'MlO said! that?' 'Her.'





We generally use wfIo as both ahjec:t and object. Whom is unusual. especlalIy in questions. except in a formal style. (For whom in relanve
clauses, see page 2iO_)

Wlto do you
We also use It


to see? fMore.oatural tbanWh6m do you. "rant to see.?)
and lUIytldng.

We use It to refer to rtDthJag,

nrJ'IIdWItJ. 8OIIIft1tJ,.. when :identifJtna people,

NoOting is ever the \\ray you expect it to be. O\Vho's the woman in redr 'Ifs ChriS Lewis .' (NOT !SIte's Chris l.ewi6:)

P;eople generally use he and shf [or their cats, dogs. borses etc; somepeople use she for tbeir cars. motorbikes and boats. Countries are us:uaUy it. Don't ride.him on the main road - hefs Q bit nervous. "Rew's the cari" 'Shr's n.m.ning beautUidiJl.• Britain imports mort than It exports. 3


rut in a.snitaIJ'e

pronODD .•


5 6
7 8

'\Yhat's your eat's D.ame?· •Annie, . _ understands everything we say.' _ Tbaillandis quite unusual; __ has never been ruled by another ceuntry, 'Doyou know who the managiag dffiredo.r i.s?··__ Rose Bercsuk. • My bike's been g]viIag trouble, so I'm taking ~_ into the garage," Nothing happened while I was away. did.~~( __ did you have lunch with? '\-Vbo'stbat on the phone?' '__ 's your father.·· Australi.3 doesn't accept as many immigrru.lts as __ used to.

9 10

don't know __ she's going out with now, Everythlng always happens when. you don't want ~


'1 don't know anybody

"'flO says "It is 1."-'


reflexive pronouns (myself etc)
myself. yOlIrself. himself. herself. itself. oneself

oursel yes, yourselves. themselves We use .reDexlves when the ohjeet is the

same person/thing

8S the

I cut myself shaving tlns morning. (NOT .,.eut me ...J He tried to kill himself. (Different from He tried to kill him.) The lights switch themselves Gna! night.
Sometimes a reflexive pronoun refersto something that is not the subject .


.His letters .ure all about mmselj.
I 1 2 3

1toM her the truth about herselJ.

Put In _.~.

!ID.. r""~ etc or

me. BOU etc,

Mazy boughta book and. taught __ to play the guitar. Jobn fen and burt __ yesterday, The computer win tum __ off if you don't use it. 4 We looked at __ in the mirror to check our makeup. S Don't pay any attention to __ - he always eomplains. 6 How much time do you give _~ to drive to wo.rk? 7 June can't afford to buy __ a :new C3I'. so her dad's going to bu.y one for~


Who gave __
It hurt __

those ovely flowers?

when [ reallsed Kan wasn'tgoing to phone me.

R.eflexive pronouns can also be used to emphasise the subject or objectto say 'that person/thing and nobody/nothing else',

I'll see the .Presldent "hirrudf if necessa.ry. The housei'seljis nice.•but tire garden's sm.all.
2 Put in. suitable reflexive pronouns.
1 No one is going to help us, so we'll have to do it

It's best If you do it llollrsilJ.

•ami it always looks great, 3 :Robert __ is quite friendly, but the rest of his family is very cold, 4 Did you Know that the Morrises built their house __ ? 5 I don't trust anyone else to do my accounts: I always do them __ .
6 I got. to seethe gardens. but the palace __ was closed.


Veronka always cuts her hair __


Note the difference between ..Klwn and Mdt other.


They are looking ,at t1ton.seJ.es.

They are looking at Mch fI.ther.


1lII,,'" utJtu or -SIllw.l

1 Hilary and June wrfte to __ every week. 2 Agnesand Pat have bought __ a flat in Rome. 3 Do you and ymrr\we telll__ everything? 4 You.\\1.Uall needphotos of __ for you.r membership cards. 5\Ve've promised .__ to telephone if one of us is going to be late home. 6 \Ve've decided to give __ areally nice holiday this year.
4 Pufin mg~ll

etc, eac:h QtJurr or m~. you etc.

We decided to keep most of the frujl for _~. Before leaving Ertc's offlce the robbers tied __ up and pulled out, all the phone \'Vir,es. 3 Cb.rlstiJne and [always take __ to lunch on our birthdays. -I Mum. please don't help me - ['d rather do it _ .5 Old you ask Allee \vhetber ber brother had phoned __ yet? 6 Don't just stand there shouting at __ - do something! 7 I've just got up ~ can I phone you back when I've made __ a cup of tea? 8 I've never met John. but we 've been writing to __ for over a year now. 9 The necklace -_. .wouldu"t normally be valuable, but it belonged to Queen Eliz.abeth I. so it will certainJy bring a very high price, 10 VI/benbabies first start to :feed __ • they usually make a big mess. 11 You can'tbe sure that she got the message unless you told her __ " 12 Your teenage children want to be independent - but tbey expect __ to be ready to help _ wbenever they ask you to.

1 2


essIens with reIIexive5: behave yourself, enjoy yourself. htIp JIOUl'StIf. malU!'yourself at home. by oneself l= 'alone'. "without help·). Verbs normally used without rdlexives~ wash. shave. dress, feel. hurry. Oat .nodta' can be used instead of each other. OInIrepiaces possessive reflexives: my DIIWI room (NOT "'II~ F99fJ'1).

you, one and they
One and BOIl can mean lJeople in general Onr is more fcmIal than you.

(including the speaker and hearer].

One/You can't team French in a montl'!.

One dials I You dial 999 in.an emergency.

OJre'slYour ownprovlems always seetl1 important.

To talk about people not induding the speaker/heater, we use they or a passive.
They spallc English in this Mlop./English (NOT ~ ~1rin this-sh¥.) is spollerl in. this shop..


(inkJrmaI~can mean 'the people around' or ·the authorines', 'the government".
TIley don '.t like strangers arowtd here. Tltey'realways digging up the roads. They say she's pregnant agam. They dDn't carenbout old peDpJe.

1 W:dte some sentences with yon and one. Examples:
a card I this phone: ()nt needs )lOll JU'ed a card ~oI.IS£' tbis plrmlt'. see her I appointrnent; One, ron nVl'l see her wtthou: an llJJ1Jointment •

.1 2 3 4

a ticket I a train
fly directly

get into the US I a. passport

I Gdansk /Prag ue?

good at rnaths

I 8. pbysicist

5 6 7

grow oranges I a wann climate
get a dtiv:iJnglicence j seventeen eat soup / a. Iork see animals in the forest I get up early


.2 Write lIflU. your, they or them.

'_l_'ve put the price
of stamps up again,'

'Oh, _._2_ haven't.
have _J_?

seem to do it more

'I know. Ami it's got
so expensivel Nowadays __!__ think twice before _ 9' write a letter. Of course

and more often. _~s_ can't buy more thana few stamps at a time. or else ~,,_ have to buy extra lp stamps to add to all _z____ letters.'

____!!!_'vegot special rates [or businesses>it's only ordinary people that. pay the extra,'

wonder why we keep
e1ecting___!:!_. •

n makes

'I know.



person - fOl" example. after

We can also use tIaew. tIJmt and fhdr(s) to refer to a. singular Inde6n.ite SOIIH!6odrJ. fUIlIbodll. INIlHHfg. wIlD. II,...."...
Somebody plwnm and sakl tltey wanted to see you. If angbody calls. teUthnn l"m out. Who's forgoUen tltdr lJmbrellil?

). TMylthemlthdrlt:JMirs

0" an.other


3 4.

6 '/ 8




Someone'sleft me a. note. but _._ bavea't signed it. The person who phoned wouldn't give _~ nsme, Nobod.y In the dub bas paid _~ annual subscdption f,et. Ican't be~p anybody unless __ brlng all the right documentswtth HI find out who's made this mess in the kitchen. ru kUI__ . Judy ,says somebody's stofen __ .I.ectu.re notes. Some idiot bas takeD my bag and left me __ f U anybody canfiIJ in this fonn, __ 're brighter than me. Nobody will believe me unless mshow __ the picture, Tbat "'oman I was talking to bad __ car stolen yesterday.


Diplomacy - the patriotic art of lying for onefs country.
A:mbJ"Mt' BitTa'

They cannot seare me with thai.r empty spaces Between &tars - on stars where no human race is .. I have it in me so Much nearer home To scare myseH with my own desert plac,es.

Knowing what you

can nofdo is more
important than knowing
what you can do ..
.f.uciHc BaH

You can get much further with a kind word and a gun than you c-an witb a kind wOf'da'one.

Watermelon ....t"s a I good fruit. You eat, you drink, you wash yourface6
Enrico CaI"lJ;Sl)

Most people cIon't use

their eyes except to keep from running into thing&,.

You cannot feed the

If the child posses.ses the nationalit". 01'

hungry on statistics.
Dawd. Earl LiOJ.jd Cemye

citizenship of another country ,they •. ay lose
this when they get a British pas$POrt ..
Po..sspo.rt .flpplirntirm!Qrffl

Iwas Uudged) in my absence and sentenced to death in my absence, fM.t I said they could shoot me in my
absence ..
B:rendrm l:Ie'tl'l1l

Britain would be a great country if on~yyou could roof it over.

No one can make you feel inferior without
your consent.
meanm' Roosevell

I hate,to spread FUlDDQrS, but what else can ene do wHh them?

We usecme(s) to avoid repeating a countable noun. ~What sort oj mll.e would gou.like?t 'A hig one with croom.' I'd like some sll.oes nke the ones .in the window. ~Cauldyou lend me II J1l!lI?' ·Sorry. 1 haven': got 011'6' .' We d.on't use one Cor an uD"cooD.tahl.e noun. ~ We h.avera got fresh €Teo»t. Would yau like thmd} (NOT ... fl1'l1.l00 6_.) I Putiu. words and expressions from. the box 'With or without Dneis). big grey leather blue red woollen sharp,
] 'Wh.at coloureardlgans

long sunnj [lew Chinese solid practical tall unsweetened
'VVha.tsort ofhoUday are you having this •• 7 TbIDS iso't Thai food. lt's __ . 8 I don't want pretty shoes. but _~. _ 9 Hand me a.lmife. will you .~a. __ • 10 There's my suitcase. the_! 6
yem'Y""'A" __

wm.Ifd you

like to seer ~BlrleOIlt'S, please: 2. I've lost my jacket. It's a _._ .. 3 'What. kind of juice is that?" __ .: 4 !Which glasses do I use?' 'The __ : 5 She doesn't used cars, only __ .


.lfthere is DO adjed.ive: we do not use a with one. 'Mwt SQrtoj cake would you like?' 'One with. cream.·~(NOT 'A-tHN!'... 1

We use some!WlY without. ones. We use mine etc instead of my on.e etc. 'Could you .lend me sonte stamps?' '1 haven't got .ng. '
(NOT •.,. 1I1lll-fJll:8S.') 'Which car slmil we take?' 'Mine. ' (NOT !Aly Bile. ')

2 Put in nne. some~any or nUne!yfJurs/etc. 1. 'What sort of job would you !.iketo do?" __ where I travel a lot.' 2 I haven't got a train Il:imetable.but ask Adrian- be may have __ . 3 'Is that your car or Anna's.?' '__ - Anna hasn't got Rear: 4 T.here aJ."en'tany matches here, but there may be __ ill the .kitchen. Sneed a.watch - __ with an alarm .. 6 'Wbere are the forks?' 'Oh, col We didn't brtng __ I' 7 Barry has put his name on this book. but liz says it's __ . 8 If'you baven't got enough plates. I'll be bappy to bring _~~

pronouns and possessives: revision
I Choose the best wo.rds to oompi,ete tbe cartoon mptian&.

'U's just natural, that's all! __ Jove __ because you're __ . like the car.'


'__ sotd __ wbat to __ (you/ site/my/Ills/ \cvJtatlw}1O )


'Couid __ reD __ if__ g1assesm-e ready yet?" (youlh£lm.e/uslrnyseljlmy/your)

'Have __ .seen a hilly without .i:» (llyo.u/her/melmyself)

'Yes. of course ft' si:mpor1ant enough to disturb _. _,' (rnelhirn/llimself)

'Have __

( y.o.ul he/herselfl

any ·'.Do It__ " booksi'

countable anduncountable nouns
Countable nouns have pIurabJ. and can be used with .IIm.
a chair - chairs
a I~(luse ~ houses



nouns have no plurals, and cannot nonnally be used Examples: llir. water. sand. intellignzce. Engli$h. wt:Ilther.

She speaks gOfJdEngjish. (NOT ... II BRtJIish,,) .lCs terrible WMtIrer,. (NO']' lfHeR!i)~wefl"'er,;)




Can you divide these into lIDCOun,tabl,e and coun,tabl,e?

book. cup, dust. flour. Hower. happiness" knowledge. love. IlIillk. meat .. mountain, music, nil. pi.ano. rain, river, snow, song, table. \Vall

Wood is made from paper. Did you remember to buy coffee? My mother never drinks 'wine.

l'm going out to buy' II pu;per.

I'll have II (cup ooflee. plMse. Spmnp,roduces same l.vonderful wmes. ( = kinds of wine)



Uncountable, singular countable (witlb alIBI) 01' plural? Complete the sentenees.

The house was near __ , (wood) 5 She looked at. him with __ . (p.ity) 6 It's __ Anne Isn't here. (p.ily) 7 __ goes so quicldy. (time) 8 She phoned! six __ yesterday. (time) 9' Three please. (beer) U) __ makes YOIll fat. (beer)

1 2 3 4-

Could.you pass,me~_i (glass) This table is made of ~ (glass) I needa pieceof_. (wood)

11 He hasn't got much __ . (experience) 12 It was __ I won't forget (expe.rience) 13 There's __ in the gmden. (chicken)
14 Doyou want __ or beeP (ducken)

WIth a few uncountable nouns refen1ng to emotional and manta1 activity. we use QjIll1 when thel'e Is an adjectlve or other description. lU1 exaUent know,. of German Q JVOd educClrion II low oj JJfU.!ic



uncountable nouns: special cases
Sometimes uncountable and countable nouns have similar meanings.

1 Test yoorseH'. Can you put thesewordsm pair.s (one UD.co.untabJe, one couuta,ble) expressing similar ideas? Example:
furniture - tabJt


loaf travel

advertisement, bagga.ge baokaote fact Oat fumlture infermatton money publicity SUitcase table





2 These noans aft norIllilDy unconntahli.';. Most can be made countable by 8,ddiDgpi«e (e.g. a piea 0/ atlrice)~ fOUl know Do which three eanbe made countable by adding II flasb tJf., II stroke of and a dap of
adetee rubbish knowledge spaghetti





3 Cboose the correct form of the captlon for ea.cb castoon,
no-cue ever solved, his problems Qyrum::m.i.lJJg a.way.·
'An advice.

I A, UllJm oJadvice • .! Some



'Doesn't iii: make you sick? Our nagBfl!je has I baggages huW:' been sent to Jupiter ..



plurals of nouns: spelling



look at the exam.ples and answer the questions. Check your answers in tbe key'. babies


dishes hofidays kilos photos pianos


boys echoes


foxes rnatches



lorries quizze.~

chairs gases heroes monkeys


ways 1 2 3 4 5






Wha.t is the most common way of making the plurals of'nouns? How do we makje the plurals of words ending in consonant + -g? How do we make the plurals of words ending in vowel + ~y.? After whlehleaers and groups or letters do we add -es to the singular? Fcnr common words ending io-o baveplurals in -es, Can you dose your eyes and remember whlch they are?

2 Write the plurals of these nouns, address box brush computer loss mess patch peach roy tree video witch desk play worry face




Write a sentenee Exam.ple:

using 8.t :I.ea.sttwo plurals frrom 1 above.

"you am. work with another student, glve him/her bNoplurals to make a sentence with.

One potatot', two potatoes
IN JUNE 1992,. US Vice·President DruJ.Quayle visited a. school classin New Jersey while the children. were baving a spelling competition. \Vheo 12~year~oMWilliam Figueroa wrote the word potato corredlliy on the blaCkboard, IQuayte b)ld bim he should a.dd an. e, WiU.iam became a. scbool.childre:m·s natiena] hero (without an e) and appeared 0.0. television; th.eVice-.P:resid.ent became an. intematieaal laoghing-stoek as echoes (with an e) of his mistake went round the world.


plurals of nouns: special cases
... I Here are seven groups of D.ODDS. Look in the box and fiudtwo more nouns to add. to eaeh group.



news tooth

mathematics sheep shelf



I.N "S


relies 2 3


analysis - analyses








hundred (e.g, two hundred)

million leaf


calf - calves
thief wile



-wes life





child - children foot - feet fungus - flUlgigOOse - geese man - men. medium- merna ox - oxen peIDly- pel1lce phenomenoD- phenomena woman- women 6

athletics billlards pbysicspoUucs





arms belongings coatenes earnings


cattle clothes congratulations goods outskirts people surroundings thanks troops trousers



mixed s.ingular and plural
Sin ........ DODDS for groups cJ. people often have pIuraJ "erbs and pronouns in British English, especially when we are talking about personal
kinds of action. Compare: My family

very angry with me: they think Ishould go to university.

The average famJly

3.5 members: II .is much smaller than in 1900.

The tefllH are g01119 W' .loseagain. 1'hey'reuseless.
A cricket ttam is mU.de up of eleven players. including jts caplain.
1 Cb.oose the best com.bi_na.tion for eaeh blank.

class is
class are

club bas club have

orchestra ls orchestra are

school bas school have

staff do


La In England. a state ~
1b 2a 2b 3a 3b 4a 41b

to give time to religious education. My daughter's __ decided to hold their sports day next Saturday. The _~ given £ 5,000 to charity this year. The __ 6Ity per cent more members than a year ago. The __ nat [ike the new manager. The __ not need. to be increased. [ane's~inRoom 6. Our __ planning a party.

Sa The __
5b An __

Just tuning up -let's hurry in.
composed or string. wind, and percussion instruments.

2 Cboose the correct form orthe arioOD. caption.

'It's the office. Shalll tdl il/thtmlhim you're sick}'


a number oj ... tIw majorfly of ... a couple of .•• a group of .•. a lot.of + plural nounJpronoun. the rest 0/ + plural noun/pronoun.
A. nWllIJ6 oJ us II~ worried about it. 'fhln IITI' If oouph of children outside. A .. 0(: of dian Wen!! late. 1 ~ rtst·ojt1J.enmnkrs an: ill.
The ftJajorltg tHStlfIlW.

The foUowIng sInpdar npaessioDI also usually have plural verbs;

Some,lural ~ have slnJDlar verbs: names of quantities.. plural names of countries. compound nouns joined by and. more than ORI! + sinpIar noun, Tn! pDJDldsi.s too murh to pay. TIll"« JF«b lVIlS.n·t erwugh holida!}'. The lJn.itd SUJ.ta is smaIJn than Canada. PUh IUJd ehips aJSts £3. More than one prrsDn disagn!n1.
We also use a singular verb after one

0/your dtiJdrm

of + Plural noun


hfls .losta shoe.

1 Cboosethe right verb.
1 1 :3 4 5 il group of teenagers in the to'lNll (hmlllcwe) organised a scheme to !help old people with their shopping. A number ofpeopfe (haslhcwe) complamed about the noise. Do you think three pounds (m/are) a big enough tip? Hamburger and chips (is/are) not a very healthy lunch. In the latest rallunlon vote. the m:ajonty (has/ha.ve) voted! to go on strike; tberestofthe members (is/are) expected to su,pport the strike fairly

solid]y. 6
7 8
9 T!.vo kilos (is/are) pretty small Cora newborn. baby, Our teenage son tbwn k.sthere (is/a.re) a number of good

reasons for

10 11 12 13 14 IS 16



staying up late and. having a good time. More than one house in our street (htis/~ve) been broken into recently. A couple of dangerous-~ooking men (is!o.re) waiting for you outside. One of my friends (has/have) just won two free plane tickers to New York. Six weeks (f5/are) a long time to wait for news ofyourfamtly. The majority of the childrec.' s parents (isl are) unemployed. .A lot of shops (is/are) operung on. Sundays now. The Philippines (has/have) signed the new human rights agreement, The police thlnk that more than. one person (Wia.~1 were) in the stolen car .. Tom and Rosie were late. but the rest of us (was/were) on time. (Is/Are) bacon and eggs what you usually eat for breakfast? We've just learnt that a couple of our club members lhas/have) been chosen for the national. team.




SINGULAR noun(s)


noun + ':

+ '.: my IIII1ther's


811,.",. ,..,

Ilafrg'. houu


plural + 'a;

my ptIftIrU' 1wme

t1Jd c:Id.Idn.'. lUl1lIe$

m Make possessive Corms from the items in List I to com.hinewith items fr1Jm Ust 2. Make fifteen combinations. Exam.pIes:

US'F 1 your sister my teachers most people

Katie doctors

AM. and Pat those women our dog SimonandJHl



address car/cars ideas father/fathers nose/noses
fear of'helghts

health clothes

legs education

.Possr.ssRes usually replace artides before nouns. We can say dte au O£ Sue's car. but not." .... ei'~ or the Sae'I M'F. But apossesslve word can have its own article: die .... '. car. Note abo: thD.t car olSue's; Q.frim# ofToe·s (lUreafrJend of rnlnl~ see p3jC 28). 1 1 2 3 S 6 7 Right orwrong(!Put tI' for correct senteacess rewrite incorrect ones. Is this the teacher's pen? Are you the AI's daughter? Do you know Lesley's last name? Here's my parents' address. It was the school's responsibility. What's the Wilsons' number? That's an old habit ofMari.on's. It's a cr.azy idea orAUce. Where is that brother of Carol.?

4 Here's the Barry' s address.

9 10


noun + noun
\Ve can put nouns together in three ways: 1 noun + Donn: Ii shoe SllOP; a war fUm 2 p.reposition structure: the top of the hlll 3 possessive~s stnIcbu:'e: my boss's cl1r;Ann 's idea Usually. an idea can be expressed in only one of these ways. and it is Oftell difficult to know which is correct. Tbe rules on pages 63,-·67 will help, but there are exceptions =thls is a v,ery dillicult point of grammer. We often put one noun In front did... and ill usually

or another. The first DOIID Is rather like an
• CWlllI'd'Ie nMfttigg is pIaral.

a fr.or~ race fa kind of race)! a raR horse (a: kind. of horse) a s~ shop (~OT ~ 6heJi) Q .'Llm.al,shirenum _ a tm mik "'{11k (~OT a kR ..!fI:ihs walk) l

Articles belonging to the first noun are dropped in this structure ..Officers .in tlI.e IfTlfl!I = army (JJJirers. NOT ·dJl! BARB 9jfiffFS •

.1 Match the expressions


the left witb tbeil' m~s

on the right·.

3 4 5 7

chocolate milk milk chocolate: book case case book leather-shoe


c d e

book describing cases chocolate madewith milk leather foil'making shoes drnwing done in ink garden with tlowers in

16 shoe leather
Hower garden S garden flower 9: ink drawing 10 drawing ink



ink used for dca'W'ing milk Havouredwi.lh. chocolate piece of furniture for books
flower that. grows in gardens shoe made oHeather

2 What do you caD these? 1 2 3 a shop that sells music a man from Birmingham a frame for a picture tea madefrom mint 5 the dock in the srnUon

4 J

6 7 8

a rocket that goes into space
a factory that makes biscuits powder made from soap

Put these U'Ol'dsinto pairs to make BOWl + noun expressions. Change plural to singular if necessary. antigue


bicycle bus kitchen map shop statton

cowboy newspapers




grapes race


noun + noun or prepositio:n structure
We use the noun + noun structure for weU-Imown everyday combtoadoDS. To talk about things that do not go together so often. we usually prefer a

b • pJe(JOlitioo. Compare: afilm about a dOD'

a war film
a .hiswry book' apostma.n

(NOT ~)

a book about violins {NOT

Wolin 9991r)

a manJromthe bank (NOT til h,ludr man)
signs oj anger (NOT Q,Rgef Sf8n8)
the girl ,in the corner (NOT the 6fJFRergirl)

corner table

1 Eight of these ideas can oatmally be expressed by 'uoun + noun Wbl~h are they? Relmte them,.
1 2 3 4 5 6 a cake made of chocolate a child in the garden a 'Cupboard in the kitchen a box for matches paste for cleaning teeth discussions about lurntture 7 8 the door to the kitchen a bottle designed (or wine

9 a tuneeable oftra.ins 10 a book about the moon 11 chairs for the garden
12 a man with a knife

2 Look at the labels. Can you think of some more names of food that use the noun + noun structure?

Juice Drink

Blackcu rre nt


Newspaper headlines often save space by using the noun + noun structure instead of the preposition structure. Strings of three 01" four nouns are


Channel ferry safety drilI leaves 18 injured

Decision day in rail dispute

.Football club burglars cut home phones


noun + noun and possessive's
We use the DOIIII + 110IIII ~ to name common kinds oftbinaThe first noun is often like an oIJjeer (of a verb or ,preposition). .......... .................. til s,h.oeshop::; a shop thaI sdls shoes 11 war film ,a,jilm a_lit Il'ID"




that heIonas to a particular penon. group. organ,lsatioo. country or animal. The first noun Is often like a subject (usually of the verb have). Ann's iIlea: A,nn Ir"d an:idetl:

We use. the possesshre .. structure most often to talk about something

1 Choose the correct nonn sroo:p.

a bus's station

or a bus station.


5 6 7 8 9 10

a toys· shop or a. toy shop the teacher's office or the teecaer office computer's disks OT computer dWks my mother's chair or my mother chair car's papers or car papers Tom's plan or the Tom. plan a telepbone's box or B. telephone box thedog's toy or the dog toy a horse's race or a horse race

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 lOa

vegetabtes' soup or vegetable soup, Cbina's history Dr the China hi"story a cowboys' f],Il.m a cowboy or street's lamps or street lamps the firm's office or the fum oflloe a. bath's towel or a bathtowel that cat' s tall or that cat tail a teacher trainer or a teachers' trainer the paper's editor or the papereditor glass's faetory or B. glass factory


2 Complete the cartoon ca,ptiOD .•

·Hai.d 67.000 eggs last year, and in don't teceive a -_, there'll be trouble: Mother Day card I Mother's Day card

Mother Day's card Mother's Day's card



possessive's or the of structure
We use the possessive 's structure especlaDy when the 8rst noun Is the

name of a PQ"SOD, IJ'OUP ofpeople.
my father's name theJirm~sstructflre

Inother cases we generally prefer a structure with 0/. Compare: the nQme 0/ tire ."ook
the structure qf pltlsti~ the influence 0/ alcohol

(JI'IIIIlIsat:k COIUItry

or aDImaI.

.A.merlmts in.jluence

the dog' B leg

the legojthe tallie

We also use the possessive 's structure with common ltime wbent espresssons, and in expressions of measurement rudme. todDY's paper tomorrow's weather Yeslerilay·s news II monthts 'holid:ay three hours' delay .\ ] Rewrite these using ·8, ' or of the. Examples:: the dub + its monthly meeting lh(' du/,'s momlrl1' ntl"t'Cilf9 his parents + their car IJisJUln'ms' far the world + its end lire eml o_f~/l{'worfd Angela + her leg the trees + their highest branches my suitcase + lts lock your dog + its leg the bank + its braaeh in Paris your office + its floor the table + Us leg my family + its name the town+ Its atmosphere our company + its best sales manager the pollee force + its rollin problem next week + its timetablel!ast nigl'll.+ its party today + its news





groups £rom. each. set of words. E:s:ample:
legal documents:

_file:your secretary.

secretary 'sfife. ti«..JUe af lc'ffHl,du('w1U!lUS · 6 ideas: modern physics, my sou 7 rules: the dub, football 8 v.ie;w:the commjtzee, the lake 9llead: !thecat, the queue 10 arm: the chajr, JOM

1 2 3 4 5

story: Helen, the French Revolution bed: the stream, the patient poUey; full employment, the company style: my favourite author, the 1930s place: language education, women


Put together the, expressions frUM the I.eft-ha.nd box. and three or the. el1j)ressioQS from the right-baud box, to make captions fol:'the


your tests' results,
the resu]ts of your tests.

He doesn't bow

the word's meaning.
the meaniog of the word.


Let's go. fvegot IDght.lir ,"VUOOD.

somebody e.l!se· car s
the car of somebody else

parked outside.


adjectives and adverbs

kind, shy. cold, angry. wouderful, bad. unusual, mad ADVERBS: kindly. shyly. coldly. angIily. wonderinl1y, bailly. unusua1Jy. ID"ailly

We use adfectlves to say how something Is. seems, beromes.lookst feels, sounds. tastes or smells. She is kind. She sums/appears shy. It's getting mId. Helelt tlllfJr"IJ. (NOT ReliHt ~.) 1luztsmells IVIJIIdBrful. We useadwerbs

with other verbs to say how something happeusor

is done.

She sptJke Jdndly but shyly. {NOT ~ Sp8lie 1fHHI... ) He answered me mlAJy. He closed the dnor IllIfIriJJj. I Complete the sentenceswitb answer may be correct. words .&om the box. More than one

beautiful/beautifully calm/calmly cheap/cheaply dear/dearly slow/slowly so.ft/softly terrible/terribly unhappy/unhappily I suppose [ should be nervous, but I've Il),everfdt sc __ in my life. 'I suppose we'll never see each. other again,' she said __ . .~ haven'tgot much money: in travel this year. I'll have to do it _ The house is small and rather simple. but Anne has decorated. it __ . This soup tastes __ . He spoke very __ •but she beard every worn. like a shoot, Good computers are getting quite __ now. The tramwas very __ ; perhaps they were working on the line. She sat there ~_lying about everyth.lng she had done. This is a __ house. I enjoy looking at it every time I walk past. Her hair is so lovely and __ -like a. baby's heir. This bandwriting iSD.'t very _~; can you read it ooy better than me? The team played __ last Saturday .. 1'ime seemed to go so __ . When would he arrive? He looks really __ : I wonder what's wrong. 16 Mary doesn't speak very __ = I often have trouble understanding her, 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 [4 15



We also use adverbs before adjectiws. and pl'elMJ8idonal. npressIoDs.

past participles, other


ICs krribfg mId. «NOT ... IBRIW e914.) T1m is very badly coohd. You Ore dm~ingIUlUAltdlll/ast. .He was MatHy iD .Iove with her.

Choese the right word.

I Angela is (a.ma.zinglamuzingJy)! good l\ritb animals. 2As soon as] saw bim I was (sure/surely) he bad been drinking. 3 Do you think that's a (r:ea1/reaJiy) mamond tnher ring? 4: He was weartng a (frue/frulyJastoIDshing tie. 5, I felt her rum (gentle/gently) to see if any bones were broken. 6 I read 00. (amaziny/«mazinyly) thing in the newspaper thts mornlng . ., [ohn was (wondeTfulln~ol1.deifu1ly) kind to me when I came to this country. 8 Keith seemed ,(gentle/gently). but. there was something eruel undemeath. 9' One leg or the cbaawas (sli!lfttlsligluly) damaged. lO Sarah chives a (reaJlrrtilly) beautiftillyrestored 1914 sports car. 11 She ~ooked at me (kind/kindly). butrudn't say ,anything. 12 The doorwas (ba.d/,badly) painted. 13 The ~ood was (,wom1'trfuJJwonderjidly). but the service was (awfttl/awJuUy). 14 The room. is (dever/del'erly) orgenisedsothreecf'us am work there, 15 Tbe job was (surprisirw/surpruingly)' easy, ]16 He's acted (unbeli.evable/unbelievtibly) stupidly in the past year.

Some verbs are used "with both adjectives and adverbs. with dUJerent mean1ngs.

You 1m" IUIfIJ1l. ( ;;; You sean angry.) He .loobtf tm.griJg lit the fflantrg£r. ( = He tumd llis ega ... )
His phmllJ'PElUW impossibJeo. She sudtknIy appeAred in tbe window.

H a thing is worthdoingr it is worth doing well.

Speak softly and can')' abigstick~
"'resident Theodore RC~SCl'dt

IYDU are) incrodibly, inordinately, devastatingly, immortally,

H a thing Is worth doing, it is worth doing badly.
C Ie Che$l'£fitml

Power tends to corrupt
and absolute power corrupts absolutely.
Lon! A.eMII


adorably bealltifili.
The poet. Rupert llroake to !he actress Cathl.oorl NesblJt




confusing adjectives and. adverbs
.1 Are the wo.rds in. the box adiectives:. adverbs or both? L.ook 8.t th.e sen.tences and dcc.i.de.
dally/weekly jmontMy Jyeady cowardly fast frienilly hard late J.ike~y loud lovely sUly ugly well


early lonely

1 Jt·s getting late,


The Times is a daily paper, She's a.loveJyl' friendly'. Uvely

If you want me to work hard. you'll. have to pay me more. 1:1 Milk is de~jvel'.etl daily.


person, But she seems lonely.
It doesn't seem likely that your children will be U~f. 5 The postman's early. 6 She speaks English very well. 7We have DlontbJ.y meetings, 8 Don't talk so loud. 9 If you've got a fast car, why don't you drive fast?

12 The train arrtvedlate. 13 I can't stand, loud noises. 14 Don't be 80 silly.
15 16 17 19 She's becoming hard to Itve with.

I'm very well. thanks. That was a. cowardly thiD.g to do, 18 Cur,are is a deadly poison. 20
I get paid monthly. Try to come horne early_

2 whicb or the wom.s from E;,J[el'cise could golD each blank? 1 1 a fO\\'unlin 'd('lull!lllm'ely/~iUy
2 3 expression iL_ magazine __ music
9 _._. flowers:

4 5 6
7 8

She sings too __ He visi.ts us -~. . a_ thing to say
_. _faces very _~ to rain

10 3 __ bouse 11 Weleft_. l2 tryins13 l4



a __ Hlness __ work a _~l_ife __ phone calls

Say it loud, I'm black
ami proud ..
1jt1-e OJ.S:DtllJ hy /anm .B.rown

People teU melhel'e

are a lot of guys like me, which doesn'lt explain why Itemlonely ..
Mort Sah.'

This universe i. not hostile, nor is it
friendly .." is simply

tn Holme"s

Once the tootftpaste is out of the tube, it is awfuHy hard to get it IJBd(in ..
H Ii: H.aildemaJl

Give us this day our daily bread.
The .Lard's f'ra,yfr

It is better fe be beautiful than to be good. But ....It is better to be good than to be ugly..
()s.(lt1r Wilde

and with adjectives
When adjectives come art. a yerb. we ~a.HYp=ut ~.~~
Brforta D8UD. lUll. is hiss ~ He was taR. dLrrk4IDld.~. a Wi. ibIrk. hlllfUlSOlJ;R cowboy
a following noun. we use and. Q gdjuw mtd WAd: dress I'm r:old~tired and hUHflI"Y. a tired (und; hUlIgry child parts of the last.

Bu.twhen at'ljec:ti.ves(or other descrtptive words), refer to diffennt
a~ fBld glass ,f)ulldi.ny


Put.hI and H necessary.
The "ri~l: H"dS r, )l(l/h ~mdrmk. hot/blieezy weather urntidy/red hait The man was you.ng/bearded . The sea was cold/rough. a quiet/tense woman yellowlgrey sand The badges were red/bhre,

1 The brick was rougblpin:k.
2. 3

4 .5 6 The church was oM/ugly.


9 lOa

narrow/brown room


In the softest, lightest sandals the 'world is somehow brlghter,




adjectives without nouns

the old

tile rich

thehandiMpped the homeless
I'm collecting money jor the bnmf. D(I!you know the b'.ind person ne:xt door? (NOT •. lite wmlffWIidea.r.:') I met II blind on the troin~(NOT ... ~ml ...)



We can't use all adjectlves in this way: we don't normally talk about the

fOYiei911 or the greedy. for example. 1 CompJet.edte sentences with expressions from the the blind (twice) the living I( twice) the dead the old the rich (twice) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

the poor (twice)1 the young (twice]

Jean-Paul Sartre

In the country o.f~_ the one-eyed man is king. A.nonymous Love, like youth. is wasted on Smn.my cann When the ri.ch make war on each other. it's __ who rue.

It's all that __ can do for to shock them and keep them up to date. George Bernard Shaw 'Let me tell you about __ . They are different from you and me.' 'Yes, they have more money.' F Scott FiLzyertild and Ernest Hemingw(jY We owe respect tothe dead; to __ we owe only truth.Vo.ltrure __ have more children. but ~_ have more relatives, Anonymous Pray (or __ and fight like hell for _~. Mother Janes Does it matter: - [osing your sight? There's such splendid work for __ ; And people will always be kind, As you si.ton the terrace remembering And turning your [ace to the light. S.iegfried Sessoon


adjectives: order before nouns
Tills is at compltcated point of grammar. The following rules have exceptions. Words for eoIear. oftIIn/pIace. .aterial and purpose go In that order. Other adjectives come before these.








Opiuions oftencomebefore ~dons.

funny a terrible





hoy clothes

froID a :newspaper., a.journal, a 'biograpby ilD.da novel. Rewrite each description in the right onler ..Exampie:
Here are descriptions

books: old. terrible
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

rerribl ...(del books (opinion .,..description) '9

.Belgian. beautiful. iUttle dub: jazz, local dinner: excellent, cold .;J.a1 .nwgs. omiod Iem, mcustn . b·uU" l.l:~ dress: evening. red. silk eyes: narrow. colourless frame: flat. g:Olld
0 •• 0 o· • 0 .0 ··0.


ink: drawing. Swiss laeket: sbort. leather
squares: brick, little


boots: French. ski
tie: blue. woollen trousers: cotton. grey trunks; black, nylon, swtmmtng

14 15


Ru-nitw"e: old, lovely

WOfI)ERFU..,. tall era:gebt:guy, 44 gOOlg 00 .32, W()ur~ ICive to meet m'at speda.J lady to sllare Ire \Wh. cal ~ box 53124

600d~ slim..·!kiOO. cheerful. mature, non-smoking Welshman. .15, inrerested if! evel}'lhing e~J;epl vpem: and f01ilics, sooks atIn1.Cuve, 'l.\1min. se'mUhte, oinrelligem WCIIlWl. i:n.30s: rOf friwdlship'. love. who ~"S? Pk:lise wri:re ·tttBm. No.nl.

'Single green male. 214 _ ..'

First and last usuaUy come before nUBlbers~

theJJnI. tlJra weeks (NOT ~Jte fllNepFtlf.weelE5) my last ON hofit:lays Note the word order in smuetltJ.ng Ili£e; nothing new.


word order: adverbs with the verb
... ..." •. oJUnt us .... lIy. never) and certainty (e.g. drJInfIldy, proIur6",). Note the exact position:

AdvedJs that go with the 'I'ft'b include words expressing freQlIeIIeY (e.g•


You are usually righL It .. as ~JJ1y cohl~

Sht hils prolHrblg /or:gotten. Imil never wake up in time.

He RlWtly. forgot my bir1hday.
Ioften pt heada.ches.

He/IwtJM IIIW11f1fi ~.". lBe"l eJ-£eu ItN~

All. bmh and ellch cam also go with. theverb,

You're all wrony. They are both studying maths.

We each gave a five-minute talk.


Make ten ~elltences from the box. Example:



always usually often sometimes not often



happy late tired friendly bad-tempered depressed worded

in lave

in troubl.e


2 .Mak.eten sentences beginning llunle D[t£n/nner ~ •• Examples:
"i'Ve'I" S('t'" lin


3 Say how often you do some of the (oUowingtbings.


sta.y in bed late get headaches

have bad dreams eat chocolate play tennis read poetry fail to love

go to concerts

play the piano

forget people's DW11CS
write leners feel happy

go to the cinema cook go skiing go swimming

go to the doctor get depressed



Uyou ca.u.'Wor.k.,Yitb another student: • ask .bhn/ber how often be/s.he does the things .in .Exercise 3 • report hisJb.eranswer.

I. Hou·,,_ifli?ndo you go to com:€rtsT .2 .•faria ,U'\'('r goes to .fOlrftrLS. \

'Sever .'

S These senten.ces are aU.taken from ..eal recorded couve:r-sati.ons.
CaD.you )Jut the iI.dverbs in the rigbtpla.ces?

1 You are here wben something happens, (usually)
1 3

5 6 7


11 13 14 15 17 18 19

Hermumcooks a meal in. the evening. (alwoys)! "\Ie book tbat.April holiday in January. (usually) 'rhey think that we bave got bread. (pynoobly) You should ~ookwhere you're going. (alui'ays) She is going to stay overnight. (pr:IJlmhly) Chocolate cakes are the best. (dejinUely) I ,,..-:ill able to get it cheaper. (probably J be I have had an illness in my .Me.(never)

io We saw sweets in those days. (...,.,...) :ur remember bUyU1g some. (definitely)
Do you read upside dO~\Il1.? (usually) Ecoo. manage to get there, (.usually) She has done that befor-e. (n.ever) Something is burning, (dtjlruUlyJ I fed cold in your house. (never) Th.eywere against me. (always) We we going to win. (definiteI8) February is the worst. (usuaJ1y) Itisvery difficult. (snmetimes) ] buy them in boxes. (always) I have tried tollnd it. (often) They are fighting. (<<"vays) She saw this ghost. (o/len) Yon are right. (proOOflIy)

U.... .I.IJl3 .... -.:~·.·.
. ._

16 She has been nervous ..(alurays)

.21 22 23 24 25


'Yoo Dever tell me you bate JDe"'1Y more:


Ifthere ismoce than oneawdliary verb, adverbs ofli-equen£y and certainty usnally go after' the first auxiliary ..
The roo/hs Rtver been repaired. 1 will de}inJtely (,e seeing him tonight.
Adverbs go before or after not. dependin.g on the meaning. Compare;

She"s"Bt o/ten late.

It's tl8j1niuly nol raining.




focusing adverbs: even and only
Bwn and onIfI often go with tile verb when they focus on words later in the sentence .

.He's rude to everybody. Hets
(NOT BvM-=fl~~'IiHHB.)

r;v:enul rude I ro~1

.He[wen - 'plays tennis! In the rain.) I ~

I! o""!u /.liked the I first par.' o~the ct'mcc.rt. ! They'!jf,C I D~I liwd here'[for a/et; \veeks·1
1 PD.t in. even


1 She talks to her brother. SII(, onI!) talks ta 11fT brother. 2 I am. doing this because I love you. '~ She gets up at stx on Sundays.


He wears a suit on holiday. S She ate a piece of dry toast. 6 I can phiY ve.ry easy music. 7 He can It write his own.name. S They make you p~y for a carrier bag,
] was thinking


or you.

10 You can ski there in summer. Bwn aDd DIIlB can also go just beIore the words that they emrftaslse.

lIe eats any.thing- even mwpotlltoe&. Even II chlld could understand it. They'\'f lived here onJlI aJew wales.
Onl" you could do a thing like thilt.
Even does not normally go between the verb and the object . .He can wen speak CItiHeSe. (NOT .1113 51"" eVeN ChiJfes.e.) 6fOi

He plays tennis nell in tire min.

2 Join the begiu.nmgs and euds.andput iuewn or mdy.


[ work. every d.a:y my mother They do everything together

really understands me.
It's me! knewtbat dunks you're stupid.

be wasil.

Hellol the car She .Hk.esall animals the dock his wife his children
You can borrow it

bated. Wm.. but for a few minutes. broke the silence. they brush their teeth. together. on Sundays.



adverbs at the end of a sentence
At the ~"a """Ieune we often put words and expressions whIch say 1Htw. where and when. They most often go In that order .. She SilIlfJ ftrlI wdl 1ft Ore etJnt%rt lllst. tUgJd. He works in tlte 911rtfge on Tu.esdays. (."IOT ... 9R ~!f& iR ~hegtilMge.) He's worldl!9 dta-e now. The t:hilJren \Yere playing quiftly in tM ganlm. let's go to bed mrly. (SOT eQrfs 16 bed.)

We do not normally put adverbs between a verb and its object. You 5pedEnglish 'PUll we:U. (NOT1'9N Spell" ~wftJ JiJlBljsll.) Om YOIl npuJr my .aull DOlfi?
(NOT ~NpIllif!IHf""8


1 Put the words in brackets into tbe sentences (n.ot beltwe the verb) .. 1 2 3 4 5 6
7 ,8

I work atn:ight. (best) I paid at once. (the bill) He always moves very slowly- (in the mOnHnQ) Sbe speaks Japanese. (fluenUy) I tb.ink we'd better apen theparcel, (now) She was crying ill her room. (quietly) W,f:talked about it briefly. (at lunchtime)

I'm going to break the eggs into tbebowl, (carefully) '9 Ann works at the village shop. (0#1 Saturdays) 10 I can't explatn m:y ferilmgs. (clearly) 11 'the team played yesterday. (brilliantly)

12 13

I a]w,ays worked at school. (very hard) Sbepractises the piano here, (,every evening) 14 00on't think she plays tennts, {\lery well) d 15 Be read every worn. (slowly) 16 Put the butter ill the fridge. {at once}

.After verbs oflllOVellleDt. the order can be different: we most often put eQlretIIIIlGDI ~pIace He lWII.t upstairs quietlg.




stiU, yet and already
We use.uH to talk about sltuadoos eootilUd .... We use pt to ask if sometblng eqteded bas bappeoed, or to say that it hasn't. IdH USl1aUy goes ~ _IJId8Uy goes 01 the ead rime smtenoe. ~~--~~_...

She's still.as1eep. Do you stHllOlle me? lBtfU don't understand. Hus the postmnn come get? .tllice hwm't phoned yet.
We use 111,."" to say that something has happened earIieI- than eapet:ted. or earlter than somebody thought. AlnMy usually goes with the verb.

'Mum's your mother coming?' 'Shets aJrmdy here. •


'You must go to Sco.t.land.' fWe've already been.• She's only been ltere a week and sbe already knows a11the neighbours.

m Put ~nstill. yet or alr-eadll'
1 Are you in the same job?

2 He'sseventeen, but he's married. 3 Has Susan ani.voo}
4 5 6 7 8 I've finished! 9' a.m., and it's dark I! 4 p.m., and it's darkl Have you bad breakfast? Look - it's raimag,

9 10 11 13 14

Our old car runs OK. Is the rice cooked? She's gone to bed. Why are you in bed? I'm bored Mth my new lob,

12 Is she in that little fiat? 15 It's not time to stop, 16 Have you written that letter?

'It's thewalter at the rcstaurenr where we ate tonlght, He wants to know if everythlngts still all right."
OmwjlJ:!l by \I[e!nr:

el99 J

TtI.c Nt-'ll' Yorken';.illgmll~.

1 Write three or more sentences about yourseUusing ,havm't ... yet 01" I have aJretldy •••






comparatives and superlatives
eo.p..thre ad;ectives are forms like lfOIIIIIIW. ItIOre apensln. Saperladw: adjectlves are forms like JIOunsat. most upatslK .

1 Look at die examples and mateh the beginni.ogs and ends ofth.e
rules, more/most beautiful mUTe/most Cll17{{nf more] most distant E'4lSier. easiest fas.tiT,ffJStesl happier. happiest later,latest
more/most intelJigent nicer. nicesf older.oldesf

Rules To make dte comparative and superlative of:

one-syllable adjectives ending.lD-e

oilier one-syllable adjeenves

m"o-,sylJable adjectives eoding in -9 oilier h\fo-.syUable adjectives longer adjectives

put more and most in front. change y to i and add -er.-.esL add -er.-esc put more and most in front" add -r,rsL


2" Look at the examples and cemple.te ale rule correctly. bigger longest fatter shortest meaner sweeter hottest

oldest Rule



Before -er and -est, we double the nast letter of:

1 ~ adjectives.
2 3 4 S ,6 1 adiectives that a.djectives that adjective.s that adjectives that adjectives that have three letters, have one vowel. end in one vowel + one consonant. end In one consonant, end in -g or -to

Check your answers to Exercises :I and. 2 mtlite key. Then write the comparative"and superlative of: : boring hard safe violent fine full mteresting honest silly sorry stupid wet cheap funny [azylight handsome nervous




irregular comparison
good/wen ,_better- best bad - worse - worst far - farther/further - farth.est/furthest ow.- older/elder - oldest/eldest .llittle - less +Ieast much/many ~ more - most

Fartlter/furtltn and/arthe.tJJgrdJat are both used to talk about dtstaoce. We use/uFtltBr to mean 'addItimud' in some expressIons.
Sheli~es three miles /urtherlj'urtJter away from the office than I do. ,Iurt'ller educatio.n furtber ir:ljonnatfon jurthu dlscu.ssi,on

the page.

Bld£r and ellht are used With Iwofhw~~



ter. gnmlhm .

John's my dderbrot.her. (I have one brother older than me.) Sarah's myel.thst sister. (I have more than one slster.)

1 Answer the questions, using tbewords from the

nst at tbe top of

If l'm not lmppywitb the pen I've got and. money is not a problem. what should I do? Hu,l)(! bella pen 2 Three thousand peopleenteredapoetry competition. Max's poem won. Why? 3 FlveIrtends all arrived for lunch at the same time. Allee had. left home an hour before anyon.e else. 'Wby? 4 I had a cold. I went to work. but left early and went borne to bed. Why? 5 I wanted to make a pear tart. but I realised all the pears were gOing bad. J used parts of some of the pears. Wbkh three pears didI throwaway? 6 Jill was born in 1970. Her sisters Liz and Sue were born in 1972 and 1973. and her brothers Ted and joe were bomta 1971 and 1'974. What can liz call JiU?Wha:t call Joe call Ted?Wha:t can Sue call. Jill? 7 My cousin has a medlcal problem. The doctors have done some tests. but they stllJ]can't decide what the problem is. What are they going to do? 8 Seven different plants need different amounts of water. Which enewnl grow best in. a dry sunny place? 9 the Blacks have got a big house and three expensive cars. TbeBrowns have got a small flat and one inexpensive car. Why?
(Answer in two Lvays )


Why does it take IOllger for me to walk to the post ofllce than to the park?


FOt' explanatlonal of the word. that we





!..I" to talk

i!I!bout IlnnrMf.

- --





pagn. 2,98-302.


---- -



comparative and superlattve adverbs
Compaadweaod supertaIive a8ab8 normally have Could you drive nron slow'.; (NOT ••• slewBePJ) French is the language he speaksdlemostmsi1g.
But the following adverbs have .... -est. like adjectives: early lam hard late near soon Beuer,
rnoN and I'IIDIt.

be.st. worst and worst can be used as adverbs.

1 Writetb.e ctJmpamtiveJsuperlathre ora. word from the box (or each blank.
1 Ifwe don't walk __ , we'lIm never arrive on. tune,

2 3 4 5

She sings __ than anyone else I've ever heard. Andy's the most intelligent. but Sue works __ " Eight is late -could you possibly get here any ___) Of all the children. Helen writes __ . 6 I would, sleep __ ,in weren't womed about Tom. 7 For the 10.20 tram ~~, we canleave hemeis lO.
Mark spe--ctks ,Pren.ch __ of aJ] the boys

beaunful early fast fluen.~y



hard late I peacefully


1: Hyco are in, a dus, find] out some of the foDowing things and

write sentences. Wbo: sings best, sings worst. cooks better than y10U. cooks worse than you, can run fastest. gets up earliest. goes to bed later than you. works hardest?

3 Complerethe captioDSwith comparati'fc adverbs.

1 She ought to drive


2 He ought toUrive,_


€~ ~,J




3 Sile should bave got up _-,

4: He ought to work __



much etc with comparatives
Be£ore comparatives, we can use rnHell,/ar. wryllUldJ. a 1lttJe. a: bit (lnfonnal). a lot/lots nnronnal)~ Imy. no andnen. He's mucll/far older than her. (NOT lie's 'fIBfj 9I1kr ...) She's very happier ill ~henewjob. 1feel Q little I II. bitlretur·. These grapes are a lot sweeter than the others. The train's no IjIIicJrer than the .bus. / •.• .isn't any qWCMr •.• You look ellen more beautiful than. usual


1 Write ten or more sentences €:ompariog some oftbe thiogs iothe box. Try and usemJlch Il1ery much I Jar I a little I" bit I a lot I ev.m I
no I dn!l.Ex:amp~e!
"1'11('THt ,\-lalwi
b mnrll oldc!" Hum the

n'l!iu' Houst'.

the Taj Mahal the Great Pyramid the White House a Ferrari a Ford a Volvo the Amazon the T.ham"es the Rhone a pen a type1ivrUer a computer a dog a cat a parrot a horse livmg in the country living in the city the Mediterranean the Atlantic Europe Africa. Asia North America South America you your mother/father/frlend/boss/teacber

'How about a little more coffee?"
[);-awlng by Ofilmn V!llw .. ,.c 19'93

The New '(or!QerMq.mnli:.




comparative or superlative?
We use a c:omparatiwe to compare oae person. thing. acnon or group with
auotber person. thing etc.
\Ve use a 5IIpt!I'IatlI'e to compare

that he/she/ll belongs to. Compare:

person. thing etc with the whole puup
Mary's th.e tallnt

Your acce"t ,islPOrR than mine.
Some people use a comparative

tall,-,. thanItu111m si5kr-s.

of the four girls.

Your accent ,is tJr~ worst in the closs.

instead of a superlative when the whole group

bas two members. lUke them both. bllt Afuud ·st. nif!l!l'lniu.st,of die tmJ. You MH hllP€ tlt~ "jgg~r/"fggntsltJlk if you like - tnt nO.t very hwrgrII.
1 Make two sentences [o.r each item. Example: a ti.ger
Is d tiger


I a. leopard?
II kV1Jilrd.;

large I anm, the big cats?

Is" li9.t'r'nru..r limn
1 this box

lar9fsl of allrhe bi~lnus;'

3 ':I 5


state o[Aiaska tbiswine Al'sparty

I anyone else I class big I other states I US expensive I that one good I Pat's party


I that


strong I you 've got? tall! the class big /IIS expensive I the world good I I'veever been to

.2 COlDpare Cour..wbeel drive cars: bere are some facts from an article about theee rea1 cars. Write at lea.st ten SCU.teUCe5. Examples:
CRr Z '''' ItlSr~'rdum (_'ar X, ('"r y ~stbe (asU.sll~t !.U

d,e drf,!·(',.


£23.382 £35.889£36.911 16.7 miles/gallon

106 mph


109mph l5.8 miles/gaJlon

20.1 nti1es/gallon


1.100 lUres

. 1,020 lltres



comparatives: other points
We can

double comparadves to say that things aremanlln ..

It's getting colder .ntl uMer.

We went more anti more slowly. {NOT ... mep:e sJe·.Wy men sl6wl;!fs} QM


Complete the sentences..


She's driving _.~.


She's getting __


It's getting __ ..


The maths lessons are getting _.

5 Tbat eat's getting __ .

6 I'm getting _. 7 Bread's getting ~_.

2 Write sentences with. .. .er and ...er or DfDl"eRnd more ••• Example:

My daughter's maths homework/ difficult to understand.
My daugfiur"s mnths homework is getting mo.!"ennd more d~fJifult to UllaeT'SlImd.

1 1

4 5 6 7 8

driving I dangerous as the years go by. I heard Jeremy practising the piano yesterday -/good. It seems as .upolice officers I young. My temper I bad. hard I to :find time for everything you want to do. Professional tennis j borina. Restaurants I expensive. Her holidays /Iong.

My mother's



We use Ilk •••lIIe VIItheomparatlses

to say that things change or vary

TIll' older I get 1M happier I am. (NOT OWH 1get.---ffII.W8.f~ Thr mon dJJ.ngnuus it is. Oremon I Uke it.

rht 1R81'e il: is ....

IrI6n money

he has. t1te mort useless things he buys.



:1 Complete the senteuceswirh lise the ... the. Example:
_. _ Mark gets. _._

expressions .&a.m.he box. t

he looks like bis grandfather, The older \lark !lcts. the mort' 11(: (_~tJks his graml.{{rther. 1 likf'




more/angrier faster/more more/less

1 2 3 __ __ __

he drove, __

we laughed,

4 __ 5 __
6 7 S __ __ __

.llive here. __ I like .it. m get. __ my hair gets. mooe:y he lost, __ it made him.

learn, __ I forget and _~ [know. I get. to know you.. __ I understand you.

clothes she buys, __
it got. __

clothes she wants to buy.

tane we spent on the beach. the ooeiD.the example ..

4 Circu1a:rs'ituatiooS! make seotenceslike He Wi.ves fast: he gets nervous.
Tilt' (asfer he dri, ..-s, th« "lOre zl,r/tlstrr hr dri\·I'S.

IIi' (Jt'~s; mId 11M'mar ...W,,.VOIIS /1(' !/!·ls. ,

1 He eats ice cream: he gets fat. (The more ice cream ....J

2 He reads: he forgets. 3 Sheignores him; he Doves her.

.5 6 7 (Make your own setttence.) 8 (Make your own sentence.)

She buys shoes: she wants shoes, (Mind dw word order.) 'Ve spend money; we have friends. I sleep; rm tired.

Why study?

111emore I study, the more I know. The mor-e I know, the nlore • forget. Ttle more I forget, the les5 I know. SO why study?



superlatives: other points
After superlatives.

we do Dot use ofwith 8 slDauJa,r word (or 3




l'm the happiest rnan j'n the WDrltl. (NOT ••• 9;,1' the vl6Fltl.) She's the /a.stestplayerin the temn. (BUT .,. the Jastestpla.yer of "rem. all.) 1 OJor in after a superlative? 1 2 3 4 all of us oj aU (!f the Army the books I own the-class

the four men. 8 the gitrls in her school
7 9 the office 10 the paintings in the gallery



11 Rosne 12 the school.

We nonnally use tire before superlative + noun, when we are compar\ng one personjthio.;/group with others, Re~sthe mDst handsome m.rlJ1 l.know. It's the IORsest dtql oj the year. We do not use the betore superlative withOD.t Doun. when we are oomparing somebody or somethlng with himjher!itself in other situations. He"s Ilieest wITen he's had a few drinks. (NOT Jle~-the mees' ~rheR •••) England is best ill spring.

.. 2 IOl1ent suitable beginDings Forthese sentences ..The or .•()t? l


3 __ 4 __ 5 __ 6 __

most beautiful city in my country. most dangerous when t[hey're huc.gry. best modern writer. most interesting person I've ever mee, quietest in the early morning. most elficfent way to learn a language,



most coInformble when there aren't too many people around.

1 Complete these sentences.
1 2 _~

I'm. happiest when I __ . ~s happiest when he/she ~~ ..



than, as and that
1'fHIn is used alter ~ At is used in the structures ...... _ and 1M IIIllHIfI. I'fud is 8 coaJund:itm used. for example. a.ftec words of saying
andthinking. 11ud is also a relative JnBIDIID.1ike which and who.

She's tIIller dum me. (~OT

fllShIfIIt me.) Tm OJiB thlln her. Ii:'s lIS mId IU ict. The rneelin.g·s tM same time as last week. I told them arat Idisagreed. There's lhe flOuse that I told you about.
••• ..".

We can often leave out that (seepage 243) • .1 told ,hem 1disagre£d. There's the house I told you


1 7hlln~lIS, or tluIIJ 1 It's __
,"f31"m __

toastIn here,

2 It's later __ Ithougnt, 3 I think __ she's Czech.
4 5 6 I feel stronger _ I did. Can't you eat faster __ that? He's as funny __ toothache.

7 8 9 10

It'D cost the same __ before, The car __ I saw was 100 small. The cat seems worse __ yesterday_ there's the boy __ broke the window.

11 It's not as colrl__ yesterday. 12 She's got the samejob __ me.

2 Compl.ete the a.ptioo.

1'here. dear! I think we'veleJft the world

ili. better

place __

we found ttl'




as ... as
We use ••... as to say that prople or things are equaJ.ln some way.
She's as taU

her brother.

Is it as good liS you expected?

She speaks F.rmch as wefllls the rest

Alter nat, we can. use so ... as instead or as ... as.


.lWt so/as SlJ.CC€s.sJril

as .his./athe:r.

Other useful stmctnres: I haven't got liS mum time as J thought. We need as mBUli people as possible. She earns twice as maw money as 1M las I' cIo. He went to the same school as me I as .1did.
(NOT ... b1'i~-6¥lme--56~~

... )


Look at the information about Jake and Susi.e, 3nd.th.eu. write sentences comparing them using as ... as. llQt. so/as ... os and

tire slime ... as. Examples:

went to tile same school as /l1ke,

.IakJ.>'snot as old as her.

SUSiE fAKE. ~----~---+------------~----------


Manchester LeedsH. S. L92m


LeedsH. S.

56 kg

87kg accountant
27.7.64 Leeds £26,000


31.3.64 Leeds




IBM 5wee.ks
3 Ross Street Manchester 2 Fluent French,



3 weeks 8 Ross Street Manchester


!Pluent French.
fluent Germ.an Newspapers, magazlnes, nca-fiction

some German


'There goes a car with exactlJy

the same numberas oars,'



2 Here are the beginnings and ends of some tradi.tional. expressions 'With as ... as. S'et!: bow maoy you can pot togetber corra'tly.


black good

cold green
pretty tbin


1 a beetroot gold bard grass the grave
ice won night (II pancake a. picture a rake a sheer roast the ruRs



quiet warm

Some colou.dul an.d UD.usual,oomparlsou5:

as slow _ a IIroken down _
as dirty as a dustbin lid _ thick _ two short planks (.


as black as two o'clock in the morning as ugty as home-made soap

as happy as a dog with
.. poor _ a cUch

mr. biIs

as crooked as a dog's hind leg _ crooked_ a ban'8I of fish h.... as nervous .. a brick wall

as brave _the .......

wIIo ate

_ cold as an ex.-wHe's heart

as big .. the IHIe end of 1NJ16.
as welcome as a wet shoe _ aotay _ two skeIetens. dmc:q
an • tin roof as dark as the inside of a wolf •
'How d'yon mean. I'm as fit as a man of thirzy -I am thirty!'

_ scaJce _ hen's teeth _ exdtiq _ watdring



like and as
We can use lib and as to say that things are sllDllar. £life Is a preposition. used before a noun 01' pronoun. As is a conjunction •. sed before subled + verb or a p-ep:lIltlonai expressIoo.. u

He nmsliJre the wind. Nobo.dy krun.vs her asl do.

She looks lib me. On F.rWay. II'IS on .Momlll".

we meet at efgJlt.

Note the common expressions as I said. as you know. as you see, as usual.
1 Lik£orasr 1

He died __ .be lived. figbting. Being in love is __ _ an illness, .


3 It's mended. __
4 In Paris, ~_

you can see. knives.

7 8

in Rome •.traflic


is heavy. 5 His eyes are __

me, She left __ she came. silently. You're shy, __ me, Your smUeis ~_ your sister's. __ .1 said, you're too late.

My brother isn't at aU __

In informal speecb (but not writing). many people use likI! as a conjunction .
Nobody loves you Dire I do.

.I.ilml said. she wasn't there.

We use as as a preposition before a noun or pronoun to talk: about the jobs. roles and functions of people and things.

He \vorked as Ilwmwr./or a year.

.Don't use your

plate liS an


Compare: A.s Hour "roth:er,l must lmrn you to be careful. U am your brother.] Like 1I6Hr brtJther. I must warn you '" (We both warn you.) Z Choose an item from, the box for each hlank and wri,te it with like or as.
1 Susan slngs li/{f
lUI (/Ilgei.

a person

I worked ~_ for five years. 3 Henry uses the dining roam __ _. 4 'Thateat snores just __ .
5 6 __ , next Tuesday is a_ bollday. I've come to this meeting __ .


a secretary a dessert a unlon representative anangel

7 This bread tastes __ . 8 James speaks __ = carefully and precisely _
9 10 She's clever and passionate -_. _. \Vhy don't we have ice cream __ ?

cardboard , he wrttes
her mother you know



so and such.
loVeuse _ before an


(without a noun).


an adverb.

loVe se'" u
Shi' 's SO'

that I could eat Q horst . ... your country .. ,,,,h.ich is 50 lJeautijW. (SOT ., • Jl6H1' 1ifI hwild}ii:l MHIIR!f.) • 1"risi. you R'Olddn or drive 118/ast. She"s SlK'It II baby. I didn',. brO"' you had sum mn friends .. It.vas surh • oorrd'ortabk W thatl went slr«ig(tllo skep.
lPu1: 1 2 3 4: 5 6
in. suih 01' so.

rm so hunfl'll


before (adJedIve +) DOIUJ,. AI ... comes after audI.

The weather was ~_ cold tha.t all the football marches were cancelled. It was __ hotweather that nobody could. 00 auy \VOr:K._ The boo.kwas __ boriDgtbat I stopped reading it. It was __ a good Illm that (went to see itt.h.ree times. Tbey~t'e got __ a nice house: that I always love staying there, And their garden Is.; ..~ be.auliful~ I His voice hi;~_ pleasant that m could listen to him all day, 8: I donOt know ,"vbyshe talks. in _~ a loud voice . .2 Re1Nritethe sentences in ~ereise 1. usiua sum instead of so or so instead ofsu£It,8nd making allY o:ther n.ecessary changes .. 3 Complete. the sentences, using expressions \vi.th. such or so.


crt WRS_.


that Mcoul.d.n't see my hand in front of my face..

The canteen served ~_ food th.at nobody could eat it. 3 It was _~.~. car that the ponce couldn't catca .it. 4 The case was _. _ that nobody CQunrllill:· it. S It was __ lecaure that I couldn't keepmy eyes open. 6 Tbis language is _._ [bat foreigners can't learn it. 7 He was __ person tbat everybody liked him. 8 I was __ that I went to sleep standing up. 9 .1wisb.my_. _._ wasn't/weren'tso_. IDO I V!o1sh[ hadm't got_

Such and


emphasise. To talk about similarity. we prefer Him this/that. t.hat. (NOT

Look o\lfr t'hen~ III low to have a car lib

SIKIa Il.eaf'.)




very and too
IDo you know the dUlerence between very an.d too? Put th.e ri.ght expressions with thepicb.u:'es.

very hot
too small

too expensive too hot very slow very tall too tall

very fast

too fast
very small

too slow






I, ~










very (much) with past participles
We use WIllI ....


She "~QSwry mud! ftdm..iftd by her students. (NOT ", ·"PRfl"rlM:Irwl .. J The bridge \\'45 Yr'1lmuch wmbned by t.ht jInods. Vnw is common with past participles that are used as adjecUves. especially to say how people £eeI- for example ...".,....,. sIiodcaf. etIfI/IBIred........... tIUI'pl'UaI. jsoJated. dluppoiJItM.


dlrfIW ..........

J.\"e~rt' ·.aywortied about Sam. (~OT. We'F~ I was ""Il shoeluJ to hem tlbtmt the accident


weFRed .n)

She's l'ftllJrightmed of spiders. ... lPo:t
1 2 3 4; 5 6 7 8 9 inP~ry or wry much,.

Her plans have been __ simplified since I last tali! you about them. [can see that .you are __ warned about something. I get __ confused whenpeople shout at me. I'll be _. _ surprised if you can't answer !this. I'm __ annoyed because I can't open the safe. His ideas ,,\'e~re __ i:mifca.ted by other writers. Many AIDS patients feel __ isolated. My book was __ improved by your suggestions. Sbe's been __ pborograpbed.,\\'1itten about and talked about, but nobody .really knows her. 10 She's __ respected by bel' colleagues. 11 The pollee have beell-_ criticised recently. 12 They weren't __ amused when you told iliat Joke. 13 When .1.bad mOIl~y problems [ was _. _ helped by my uncle. 14 will. she be __ wsapPQ'intoo in can't comes 15 You don't sound __ thrilled about seeing me.

Vft'IIlIIlIdI is used with mJ.tllbn. Thilt's Bill"s car, unlese I'mrvery mlU'h mistRken. (NOT ... ft'ty MiRaha)



be: progressive forms; do be
We use,,1ft 1Id.... ..-e bdng etc for actkJas and beIuniour. but not feelings. Colhpiltt:: You're being stupid. ( ;; You're cluing stupid things.)

I was being c-areful. ( == J WllS doing some'thing carefu11y"

She was Jfteryoheer/ul'yesterday.

rm depressedjust



h;iRIJ depFtSS&lJHst Rtf"').)
(NOT She INS ieiR.fI ...)

For tbe use of em being etc ill passi.t'e verbs, see pa.ge 176.

2 3 4 S


Put in the eorrect [orm of be.. very good today.
I __ a bftlonely these days. John __ difficu.lt about money again. Really! The children __ abs(llutely impossible thIs morning. I don't know why] __ so tired. You __ very careless with those glasses. I didn't really mean what I said. I __ silly. She __ excited about her birthday.

1 The baby __

7 8

DB is used with be to make emphatic i.mpemdves and nep.tiwe lmperatlv~ (see page 218). but rrt usually In. other cases.
Do be careJult
BUT tm nllt

Dmatt lie silly!

often ill. (NOT

1"'' '



'Tbe dog's being inl~hle



be: age, colour etc
Note the use of IN to talk about pbysical cbaradBlstks and condilloos..


flo,,, old is she? IWlS my age. (NOT He IIH my Q{#&.) He must iIJe six}at taU. She is the same bright as her father. I '\tish Iwas afew Woo lighter. The r:oomis tell metres by six.Mwl she an your shoes; I.V'haf colour are his eyes? Pm hungry. An you thirsty? The baby is sleepy. 11't W«e too warmlhol~rol1L L\1n~t e afraid. b


Note also: to be righl./wrorw/.lurkyjashameJ... 1 Complete the sentences. talI. 2, [ __ the same height as ~._ . .3 Myeyes~ 4 My ,eyes~.~ the same oolour as ~~.~_ 5 1-iy hair __ . 6 &tv shoes __ size._~

1 fm __

1. Write a sentence giving tb.e sbe ofthenmmtbat you aretn DOW. IfYOD are in 3. class. write senteoces ai»outsome of tbe other

stndents. 3 'Write live or more sentences to say bow yOQ fee.llow.Use some of

the words in the box. cold well 4
hot hrmgry wide awake



Write three or more senteD.US begi:nnin,g l'tn. (no.) afraid oj ..•

People can have it In an)'

colour -as long as it"s
R~nry Ford. bdking 'A~ITForJCtu

races are reali,
pinko-grey- ..
.E M f'o:rstu

TIle so-called wtlHe

Eyes too expressive tm be blue, too lovely to be grey.
MaUhew A;rnold


1be future is black.

I am black, but O! my soul is white.

111eEast is red .. C/unest rommUl~t s.logan


do: emphatic auxiliary
Emotive emphasis: we can use'" Do s.it down. I

to make an expression sound stronger.
J did enjoy our talk.

You do .look nice todayl

Join the

beginnings and ends; make tb.e sentences mnre empbatiic

by using do/does/did. Example:

r do fl'd ill!

sxns a lot. eggs and bacon. he's really bappy.

Iagree I apologise

I feel
I hare

I like [need
Peter enjoyed She looks


You talk.
. I wonder-if

cooking. tired. with you. your party . a iob. for disturbing you .

'Do come out. Rover. Susan won'( bite.'

Contrastive emphasis: we can use'" to show a contrast - between faIse and true, appearance and reality, or a general atatement and an exceptioo. She thinks Idon't love her, but J do love her. It looks ·c·asy. but it dues need qlAiU" a bit DJpractice. Tlltre wasn't much time for shopping. but J did buy a couple oj blous"ts.
We can also use dO'to compare what is expected with what actually happens. 1 S(rM I was gOing to win. and I did win.

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