You are on page 1of 16

America: Land of the Deprived

Government control of information within the United States of America

Carlo Oxxxxx


Senior Research Paper

Ben Franklin, one of America's founding fathers, said that “without freedom of thought, there

can be no such thing as wisdom; and no such thing as public liberty without freedom of speech...”

(Thoughts). If he were alive today, Ben Franklin would find that wisdom and public liberty are

currently in decline. The American government has begun to pick what information people receive and

has begun to assail free speech. Recently, the organization “Reporters without Borders” ranked the U.S.

20th out of 178 countries in terms of its freedom of press (Press). Even though the U.S. constitution

placed explicit protection against “abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press...”, the U.S. still

restricts speech and the press more so than 19 other countries. For some, this restriction might be

shocking, but for those who have read Brave New World by Aldous Huxley, this restriction might be

expected. In the book, the reader finds a utopian society that has accepted happiness over knowledge.

The citizens of the society have all been created in test tubes and modified during their growth to fit

into a certain caste. Each person, whether of low caste or high, is taught through hynopaedia and

schooling to think that he is part of the best caste. Instead of valuing liberal spirits and ideas, this

society closely monitors people’s actions and scientific discoveries while it bans the teaching of certain

material. These actions ensure stability throughout the castes, which in turn ensures stability in the

society. One character from outside this caste system, John, is an outcast from society who grew up and

lived in Malpais, the part of the world not controlled by this utopian society. He is brought into the

utopian society as an experiment by Bernard Marx, a member of the highest caste of the society.

Bernard enjoys showing off John because the rest of society finds John’s beliefs in religion and love

ridiculous. In the end, the world controller Mustapha Mond sends Bernard and his friends away from

society because of their interests in knowing more than what society shows them. As for John, he ends

up killing himself because he cannot fit into the society. This Brave New World society showcases a

higher authority that hides away information for the good of society. Through past and current events,

America has shown policies that reflect the information hiding that is shown in the book. American

society has begun a transformation into a society similar to that in Brave New World because of its

government’s ability to control critical information and its government’s willingness to distort the truth.

Controlling the flow of knowledge helps any governmental regime stay in power. Recently,

controlled information has allowed governments to control the way people feel about certain topics.

Brave New World predicts that the flow of information will ultimately be controlled by some

totalitarian organization. The American Government has ensured that it can control the information that

it lets people receive, a significant attribute portrayed by the Brave New World government.

In Brave New World, the government chooses the information it would like its people to see and

educates its people with the ideas it wants them to have. The Brave New World’s government screens

research and controls the knowledge that people get as children. At one point in the book, the world

controller Mustapha Mond sits down to review a new scientific research paper. After reading and

analyzing the paper, Mustapha Mond finds the paper to be “novel and highly ingenious, but heretical,”

and decides that since it is “potentially subversive,” it should not “be published” (Huxley 177). The

world controller's decision to not publish the paper shows the significant control that the government

has over information. The world controller solely decides whether scientific research will help society

or hurt it. By reviewing all research, the Brave New World government is making sure that its utopian

society will only be exposed to ideas that fit the government's ideas. This education control is also

shown earlier in the book through a process called hypnopaedia. In the Brave New World society,

hoards of children are exposed to propaganda during their sleep, having certain phrases “repeated forty

or fifty times” as a “moralizing and socializing force” (Huxley 28). This extreme tactic is used to instill

moral values into each child. Again, the Brave New World government uses a tactic to control the

information that people receive. In this instance, children are being exposed to the messages that the

government wants them to accept. By forcing these morals on to children, the Brave New World

government is hand-picking the scruples that each child grows up with. These moralizing tactics are

taken even further through other governmental procedures.

The Brave New World government uses electric shock and conditioning to instill moral values

into the people of the society. One instance of this conditioning occurs when newborns begin to crawl.

The government takes these babies and puts them in a room with roses and books. These babies begin

to “grasp” and “touch” these items until a nurse presses “down a lever” that starts a loud “siren”. While

the children scream, the lesson is rubbed in with a “mild electric shock” (Huxley 21). The government

uses a “siren” and a “shock” in order to associate terror with nature and books. These early childhood

“lessons” impart a lifelong feeling of disgust towards learning and being outdoors. By doing this, the

government is controlling how these children will feel about certain topics in the future. This control of

feelings is continued through the process of death conditioning. Each child of the society “spends two

mornings a week in a hospital for the dying” (Huxley 164). Through this death conditioning, the

government is making each child numb to the fear and mystery of death. The government is making

each child accustomed to the horror of death so that the children will never be concerned by it. This

indifference to death is another example of emotion control by the Brave New World government.

Although not as intense as the tactics demonstrated by the Brave New World government, the American

government has shown instances of information control, an indication that it may be on the path toward

becoming like Brave New World.

The American government controls the flow of information by keeping information classified,

by releasing confidential information to hurt its enemies, and by passing laws that could hinder its

citizen’s ability to get information. The American Government has withheld information regarding

national security from its citizens while also releasing critical information to intimidate opponents of

its war efforts. During a “Doha debate” over the usefulness of the group Wikileaks, Carl Ford, the

former head of the Bureau of Intelligence and Research, said that “if there are things that would

undermine [America’s] national security, [the government] sometimes says it's better to keep it a

secret” (House). Mr. Ford is explaining that if the U.S. Government does not want information released

to the public because it thinks it could be detrimental, it often classifies the information. Although it

sounds reasonable to allow the government to control this information, there is danger that lies within

this ability. This process of classifying information gives absolute power of certain information to only

a few in the U.S. Government. Although not as controlling, this unchecked power acts similar to the

unchecked power that the world controller in Brave New World has over what information is released

to the public. The government official in charge of information could label any information about the

U.S. as classified because it would “undermine...national security”. The classification would affect

each citizen of the U.S. by keeping each one somewhat uneducated on a certain topic. While this

holding of information is a serious concern, the reverse, the releasing of certain sensitive information,

can also be used by the government to control others thoughts. The Valerie Plame incident occurred in

the 2000s and included a government attempt at silencing opposition by releasing information. Valerie

Wilson was a CIA operative who was working undercover for the U.S. At the same time, the New York

Times “published an Op-Ed article by her husband” that asserted that the “Bush White House had

willfully distorted intelligence about Iraq's efforts to acquire Uranium in Africa”. These criticisms

“alarmed and angered Bush administration officials” who critics say went on to leak “Ms. Wilson's

identity as a C.I.A. punish her husband” (Lewis). This release of information by the

American government reveals how it controls its information. The release shows that confidential

information can be released if it will hurt critics of the government. The American government's

determination in hurting its critics reveals the large amount of power the government has over certain

information. This control is similar to the control in Brave New World because the information that was

released was given to the public solely to help the government at the expense of someone with a

different opinion. In a later interview, Mr. Wilson insisted that the government “ratted out his wife” and

destroyed “her career as an undercover operative” in order to “intimidate anybody in the future who

might disagree with the Bush administration” (Justice). Even though Valerie Wilson was a informant

that was helping the U.S. government, it still compromised her “career as an undercover operative” for

selfish reasons. This fact shows desperation and carelessness on the part of the U.S. government. Like

the Brave New World government that stops helpful research if it is against the government ideas, the

U.S. stops the helping hand of Valerie Wilson in order to attack her and her husband. This issue opened

“questions about the freedom of the press, the rights of reporters to protect the anonymity of their

sources, and the ethics of using anonymous sources to report on matters possibly affecting national

security” (Lewis). The U.S. government hoped that it would have protection against being outed as the

source of the disclosure. The hypocrisy of this hope lies in the American government's insistence that

groups such as Wikileaks release their sources of classified information. In this instance, the U.S.

government is trying to distort laws in ways that will help its case. On one hand, the government is

protecting its ability to give information to the people. On the other hand, its trying to stop others from

giving information away. The government is slowly but effectively trying to create a scenario where

only it can control the information given to people. Although this control is nowhere near as tight as

shown in Brave New World, the government is planting a seed that can possibly lead to more power and

restrictions over the press.

The American Government has also put restrictions and is working to put more restrictions on a

citizen's ability to get information. Currently, the U.S. government has a law from 1934 that says that in

a “state of public peril or disaster or other national emergency...the president may authorize the use or

control of any...station or device” (McCullagh). What this law is saying is that if there is some “national

emergency”, the government can take control of any communication device including phone lines and

the internet. Unfortunately, this vague law allows for the total control of access to information by the

government if it sees it is necessary. Since a national emergency has a broad definition, the government

has the power to fully control people's access to information through mediums like the internet. Again

this control parallels that found in Brave New World because both governments have control over the

information its people can get. Recently, new legislation proposed in the U.S. Congress would create an

internet kill switch for the president that would “not be subject to judicial review” (McCullagh). This

bill, if passed, would grow upon the already passed law and give more power to the government in

controlling information. The bill would allow the president to control or shut down parts of the internet

without any review from the courts. Again, this example of unchecked power on the government shows

a move towards becoming like the Brave New World government. In the book's government, people's

access to information was controlled by the world controller. In America, people's access to

information might soon be at the mercy of the president. While this legislation is still being debated,

there are other restrictions being put on people's ability to access information. The group Wikileaks, a

whistle-blowing organization that publishes classified information from countries around the world, is

currently under attack from the U.S. government. The government is attempting to “install a system

that can block unclassified computers from accessing Wikileaks documents” (Weinberger). The U.S.

government is actively trying to stop the information released by Wikileaks from reaching the general

population. Even though Wikileaks received the documents anonymously and has the right to publish

them under the U.S. constitution’s first amendment, the government is still trying to block access to the

information. Again the U.S. government is working like the government in Brave New World because

both are blocking information they don't want citizens to see. In continuing with this blockage of

Wikileaks, there are even efforts to block news websites that re-post the articles. Since the information

from Wikileaks have been copied across different mediums, “the air force” has even taken the step to

block “news media websites such as The New York Times” (Weinberger). This is again a direct

demonstration of the government's control of information. Since the government does not want its

military seeing any of the articles posted by Wikileaks, it has taken the drastic step of blocking the

whole New York Times Website. This attack goes even further then just blocking Wikileaks, but

effectively blocks the whole newspaper. This attack on the freedom of the press by the American

government, although only within a small part of the army, shows a small step in the direction towards

becoming a Brave New World.

Although controlling information is very important for the Brave New World government, it

also relies on lying to its citizens. America has shown that it has the ability to hide the truth and is not

afraid to do so. By keeping information from its citizens, governments hope to keep their people

uneducated on certain issues so that there is never a debate against the central government. Like the

government in Brave New World, the American government has distorted the truth in order to ensure

stability and to save itself from public criticism.

In A Brave New World, the government attempts to keep stability by not telling the whole truth

and keeping people uneducated. The Brave New World society allows its government to withhold

information. During a conversation between John and Mustapha Mond, the world controller says that

“it’s curious” to see that people in the past “imagined that” scientific progress could “go on

indefinitely”. He continues to say that ever since the “Nine Year’s War,” people were ready to give up

their appetite for knowledge in return for a “quiet life”. He ends by saying that the government has

controlled science “ever since,” and that even though it has not been “good for truth,” it has “been very

good for happiness” (Huxley 238). In this discussion, Mustapha Mond is stating that the government

has been controlling information because the people want it controlled. The people of Brave New

World feel that happiness and stability must be maintained to have their “quiet life”. The government is

allowed to hide information from people because this will only help the citizens towards their goal of a

“quiet life”. Earlier in his description of the new society, Mustapha Mond reiterates why his

government restricts knowledge. He reveals that his society “has chosen machinery…medicine and

happiness”, and so he must “keep…books locked up” because they are “smut” (Huxley 234). Mond is

again showing that his government literally hides away knowledge and information to keep society

happy. He has locked away these books to repress free thinkers and to settle the minds of any who

might be volatile. By choosing “happiness”, the Brave New World society has chosen to allow the

government to do whatever is necessary to keep stability. Whether it’s hiding away information or

keeping knowledge secret, the society and government have chosen to do whatever they must to attain

this goal of stability. To further its effectiveness in maintaining stability, the government partakes in

selective learning for each citizen.

In A Brave New World, children are kept uneducated on certain topics in order to keep them

from having independent thoughts. During a stroll through his department, Mustapha Mond is greeted

by a group of young students learning about how children are created. He gathers the students and

begins to tell them that although “[they’re] taught no history”, the time to learn some had “come”. At

this point, the teacher in charge of the students started to look at Mustapha Mond “nervously” because

the teacher believed Mond was in possession of “old forbidden books”. After seeing this, Mond

comforted the teacher by ensuring that he wouldn’t “corrupt [the children]” (Huxley 35). The profound

response from the teacher exemplifies the society's fear of knowledge. Teachers are supposed to

encourage knowledge and learning, but this one shows a concern over certain “books”. By having this

concern, we see that this teacher feels that not all knowledge and books should be open for the public to

read. Even more, the world controller's response to the teacher shows that the government won't

educate past what it wants to. By assuring he wouldn't “corrupt the children”, the world controller is

showing a restraint in releasing educational information. He is showing that he knows that his society

restricts learning, so he must only reveal certain information that the government accepts. This

government blockage is continuously shown throughout Brave New World. At one point, John and

Bernard tour a school and stop to observe a class lesson. This lesson spoke about the religious and

spiritual beliefs of the people of Malpais, John's home. John watched in confusion as the children

“shouted with laughter” He wondered aloud why the students laughed at his religion. While snickering,

the teacher in charge told John that the children laughed because the beliefs were “extraordinarily

funny” (Huxley 162). The children's laughter at religion shows how uneducated they are about spiritual

beliefs. In this society, the idea of religion is considered a joke. Instead of learning about the histories

and beliefs of religions, this society has decided to remove religion and teach it as an old, ridiculous

idea. By doing this, the government makes sure that everyone holds the same beliefs, thus ensuring

stability throughout the community. This teaching, which works to make religion look ridiculous, is a

form of information hiding. The society keeps the reasons as to why there is religion away from people

and instead makes them believe that religious people are stupid. Through selective teaching and

holding information, the Brave New World society was able to hold back information from its

population in order to help itself. In America, this holding back of information can be seen in many


The American government has shown an altering of facts with regard to wars and foreign

relations in order to protect itself. American Society was specifically deceived by its government and

other governments when they spoke about the Iraq War. During the aforementioned debate about

Wikileaks, Tim Sebastian, the host, and Carl Ford, the former head of the Bureau of Intelligence and

Research in the U.S, exchanged words:

Tim Sebastian: Isn’t it also instructive that we now know that contrary to their assurances that
they didn’t keep any record of civilian casualties in Iraq, we now know that out of 109,000
casualties, 65,000 belonged to non-combatants. That’s also something that Wikileaks has told
us, that’s worth knowing too, isn’t it?....They said they didn’t have them.
Carl Ford: They knew what they were, they kept close…
Tim Sebastian: So they lied, they lied? (House)

Tim Sebastian is referring to the leaked information from Wikileaks that proved that contrary to what it

said, the American government had kept record of casualties in Iraq. By releasing this information,

Wikileaks showed that the American government had specifically lied to its people. Since these records

showed exactly how many enemy and civilian casualties there were in Iraq, America worried that these

statistics might anger citizens. In order to save itself from bad publicity, the government tried to keep

the records secret by telling its people that the records did not exist. This lie proves that the American

government is willing to cloud the truth if it will help its motives. This willingness to lie infuriates

many supporters of the group Wikileaks. During the same debate as mentioned before, an audience

member said that Wikileaks should be protected because it is “telling the truth...not lying”. This

prompted Carl Ford to respond in defense of America, stating that “being wrong is not a lie” because

“people make mistakes” (House). Carl Ford is expressing an American ideal that Wikileaks should not

release truthful information because it might be exposing mistakes. He argues that release of

information from Wikileaks is simply showing mistakes by certain people rather than fundamental

flaws in America's policies. As the former head of the Bureau of Intelligence and Research for the U.S,

Carl Ford is expressing views that he had as a government official, views that are reciprocated among

other government officials. It is this excuse that is used to protect America from criticism. Instead of

releasing information about operations to the public, this idea allows the government to keep secrets

until a problem arises, at which point it blames it on a specific person or organization. It is this secrecy

that prompted Tim Sebastian from the debates to ask “If Wikileaks doesn't leak, what other

opportunities have we got?”. The opposition of Wikileaks started to respond by saying “Absolutely”,

but were cut off when Mr. Sebastian exclaimed that they “admit it” (House). What this small portion of

the debate shows is that both sides agree that all governments, including America's, lie about certain

topics. It is this lying that Wikileaks works to expose, and it is this exposing that American government

hates. In addition to America trying to keep Americans away from certain information, other countries

work in conjunction with America to achieve a common goal. This seems to be especially true in the

case of entering into the Iraq War. During the Doha Debates, Carne Ross revealed that as a “British

diplomat working on Iraq”, he knew that his government “did not tell the truth to its own people” and

“exaggerated the case for war” (House). As a diplomat, Mr. Ross knew that governments were lying to

push to go to war with Iraq. This lying undoubtedly helped push America towards entering the Iraq

War, a move with which many disagree. It is this government twisting of knowledge that makes

governments, specifically America's, look as though they are moving towards a Brave New World. Just

like that society which withheld certain knowledge about chemical and social sciences, America looks

as though it is beginning to also stop certain knowledge from reaching the public. These recent attacks

on knowledge seem to be expected given the history of America. In the past, its government worked

hard to keep the public away from information about different operations.

The American government tried to cover up the losses it sustained in the Vietnam war and later

also attempted to cover-up the selling of weapons to Iran. It was the release of the Pentagon Papers that

revealed devious tactics on the part of the American government. These papers suggested that the

American people “had been intentionally misled by their government” which had “consistently said

that the Vietnam War was proceeding well” (Pentagon). These papers demonstrated a lack of moral

aptitude by the American government. Instead of keeping Americans educated about the Vietnam War

and showing them the atrocities of it, the government used propaganda to spread inaccuracies about

how the war was progressing. In addition to this, officials stated that they “never intended for the

Pentagon Papers to be released to the public” (Pentagon). The U.S. government planned to keep

information about the Vietnam War secret for as long as possible. Had the information never been

leaked, the war might have raged on indefinitely and would have never exposed the wrongdoings of

Americans in North and South Vietnam. This government cover-up is just another example of how

desperate the U.S. government is to protect itself from criticism. Instead of accepting that the fact

money and lives were wasted on this unnecessary war, American government tried to convince its

people that it was winning so that it could continue fighting for what it felt was right. Although this

major scandal seemed surreal, another incident fifteen years later would again outrage the American

people. The Iran-Contra scandal involved the American government allegedly selling weapons to

groups in Iran in return for hostages. At first, former president Reagan stated that the government “did

not trade weapons or anything else for hostages”. Less than a week later he retracted his statement

because he “based his earlier claims on a false chronology” (Henry). In this case, the American

government was willing to do shady business transactions until information about the operations were

released to its people. The Iran-Contra scandal details another event in American history where the

government kept information hidden from the public until it was exposed. Once exposed, an

investigation began which launched a “cover-up” attempt by the Reagan administration. The

investigation concluded that the “Reagan Administration officials deliberately deceived the Congress

and the public about the extent of official knowledge...and support for [the Iran-Contra] operations”

(Gilman). The president and his administration attempted to make its actions look like a small mistake

of judgment. Unfortunately for them, it was concluded that they had been hiding this information

purposely in order to stop any criticism from helping the Iranian groups. The Iran-Contra incident

marks another major scandal carried out by the American government that exemplifies its willingness

to hide information to help its cause. This power to stretch the truth and influence a huge population of

people is what makes the American government so dangerous.

Even though it is heralded as the most free country in the world, the United States of America

still faces many problems with information sharing. Its government firmly believes that some

information must be kept away from the public's eyes no matter what the cost. Throughout the past fifty

years, the U.S. government has shown its ability to spread propaganda and stretch the truth to sway the

views of public opinion. Unfortunately, these abilities have caused a restriction on information and

education for the masses.

With America's continuing effort to control and hinder knowledge, it is only a matter of time

until it continues past the point of no return. Through the classifying of documents, regulating of the

internet, and restricting of free speech, America may eventually end up with a government that controls

intelligence. Without government transparency or reform, America's government could ultimately

become like Brave New World's. This change would not come quickly, but would rather emerge as

America's government slowly expanded its power over information. The repercussions of this

transformation would be felt throughout American society. Truth and knowledge would no longer be

valued by the public or government. One set of policies would rule all of the inhabitants of this new

society, creating a new breed of person more interested in himself than in the actions of his

government. Although Brave New World showcased a utopian society that benefited happiness, this

would probably only occur with the necessary medical and scientific progression that was shown

within the book. If these advancements are not made, America would most likely dissolve because

there would be no way to quell the outcries for freedom from intellectuals. Assuming that America does

not rebel and continues to let its government grab power, then the new society might find some

comfort. With a community no longer involved or interested in controversial research and discovery,

American society would be able to focus on happiness and well-being rather than education. The

American government could tell the people whatever it thinks they need to know and keep away

information that could cause anger or disappointment. The controlling of information could lead to

every person being content because it could limit conflicts among citizens. With uniform knowledge

and information, these people would all have similar ideas and little to argue about. Of course, this

harmony would come with the caveat that citizens would never know or understand the ideas of liberal

thinkers. These citizens would never know what true freedom of speech, thought, or expression is.

They might live under the idea that they have these rights, yet their ideas and words would constantly

be controlled and manipulated by the government. It is only through a major government overhaul that

this transformation from free society to Brave New World society can be stopped. The American

government must first adopt transparency throughout its ranks, releasing critical information that could

inform and educate society on domestic and foreign topics. It is this release of government controlled

knowledge that will allow free thinkers to trump the pleasure seekers; by giving the public the ability to

access information, the government will be creating an informed, educated society that can make

rational decisions based on facts, not government propaganda. This propaganda must also stop so that

the public is not misled by its own government. A well-informed public is the best weapon to combat

this shift towards a Brave New World because it will not only check the power of the government, but

will also fight for truth and knowledge. In his book Brave New World Revisited, Aldous Huxley states


In their propaganda today's dictators rely for the most part on repetition, suppression and
rationalization -- the repetition of catchwords which they wish to be accepted as true, the
suppression of facts which they wish to be ignored, the arousal and rationalization of passions
which may be used in the interests of the Party or the State. As the art and science of manip-
ulation come to be better understood, the dictators of the future will doubtless learn to combine
these techniques with the non-stop distractions which, in the West, are now threatening to
drown in a sea of irrelevance the rational propaganda essential to the maintenance of individual
liberty and the survival of democratic institutions.

Mr. Huxley believes that propaganda will only become more effective in influencing the minds of

society. If the American government would stop propaganda from being released to its people, it could

effectively stop its movement towards becoming a Brave New World. Unfortunately for truth and

knowledge, it continues to look as though the U.S. government will carry on using propaganda until it

can create a society that agrees with its views. When that time comes, Americans will no longer be

focused on freedom and liberty, but rather on happiness and entertainment. America will be a Brave

New World.


Gilman, Larry. "Iran-Contra Affair." Encyclopedia of Espionage, Intelligence and Security. Vol. 2.
Detroit: Gale, 2004. Gale U.S. History In Context. 4 Feb. 2011. < >.

Goldsborough, Reid. “The New Age of Investigative Journalism?” Teacher Librarian. Vol 38, Iss. 2.
Seattle: Dec 2010. Proquest. 3 Feb. 2011. <>.

Hay, Jeff. “Pentagon Papers”. The Greenhaven Encyclopedia of. Gale U.S. History In Context. San
Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2004. Gale U.S. History In Context. 4 Feb. 2011.

Henry, David. "Iran-Contra Affair." Dictionary of American History. 3rd ed. Vol. 4. New York: Charles
Scribner's Sons, 2003. Gale U.S. History In Context. 4 Feb. 2011. <>.

“This House Believes the World is Better Off with Wikileaks.” The Doha Debates. 21 Jan. 2011. 7 Feb
2011. <>.

Huxley, Aldous. Brave New World. New York: Harper Perennial, 1932.

Huxley, Aldous. Brave New World Revisited. New York: Harper & Row, 1965. Web.

"Justice Department Orders Investigation of CIA Leak,” September 29, 2003." Historic U.S. Events.
Detroit: Gale, 2004. Gale U.S. History In Context. 14 Feb. 2011. <>

Lewis, Neil "Libby, Ex-Cheney Aide, Guilty of Lying in C.I.A. Leak Case." New York Times 7 Mar.
2007. Gale U.S. History In Context. 14 Feb. 2011. <>

McCullagh, Declan. “Internet ‘kill switch’ bill will return.” Cnet News. 24 Jan. 2011. 14 Feb. 2011.

“Press Freedom Index 2010.” Reporters Without Borders. 4 Mar. 2011. <>

“Thoughts on the Bussiness Life.” 4 Mar. 2011. <>

Weinberger, Sharon. “Feds Seek Computer Firewall to Block Wikileaks ‘Pollution’.” AOL News. 20
Dec. 2010. 1 Mar. 2011. <>