Solar panel | Battery Charger | Thin Film Solar Cell

Solar panel

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Solar Arrays) Jump to: navigation, search "Photovoltaic module" redirects here. For the heat collectors, see Solar thermal collector.

An installation of solar panels in rural Mongolia

A solar panel, or photovoltaic module, is composed of individual PV cells. This crystalline-silicon panel has an aluminium frame and glass on the front. A PV module on the ISS. A solar panel (photovoltaic module or photovoltaic panel) is a packaged interconnected assembly of solar cells, also known as photovoltaic cells. The solar panel can be used as a component of a larger photovoltaic system to generate and supply electricity in commercial and residential applications. Because a single solar panel can only produce a limited amount of power, many installations contain several panels. This is known as a photovoltaic array. A photovoltaic installation typically includes an array of solar panels, an inverter, batteries and interconnection wiring. Photovoltaic systems are used for either on- or off-grid applications, and on spacecraft.

Contents

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1 Theory and construction 2 Crystalline silicon modules 3 Thin-film modules o 3.1 Rigid thin-film modules o 3.2 Flexible thin-film modules 4 Module embedded electronics 5 Module performance and lifetime 6 Production o 6.1 Top ten 7 Price 8 Mounting Systems o 8.1 Trackers o 8.2 Fixed Racks 9 Standards 10 Devices with photovoltaic modules 11 See also 12 References 13 External links

[edit] Theory and construction
See also: Photovoltaic cell

PV cells connected together in a solar panel.

Solar panels use light energy (photons) from the sun to generate electricity through the photovoltaic effect. The structural (load carrying) member of a module can either be the top layer (superstrate) or the back layer (substrate). The majority of modules use waferbased crystalline silicon cells or thin-film cells based on cadmium telluride or silicon. Crystalline silicon is a commonly used semiconductor. In order to use the cells in practical applications, they must be:
• •

connected electrically to one another and to the rest of the system protected from mechanical damage during manufacture, transport, installation and use (in particular against hail impact, wind and snow loads). This is especially important for wafer-based silicon cells which are brittle. protected from moisture, which corrodes metal contacts and interconnections, and for thin-film cells the transparent conductive oxide layer, thus decreasing performance and lifetime.

Most solar panels are rigid, but semi-flexible ones are available, based on thin-film cells. Electrical connections are made in series to achieve a desired output voltage and/or in parallel to provide a desired amount of current source capability. Separate diodes may be needed to avoid reverse currents, in case of partial or total shading, and at night. The p-n junctions of mono-crystalline silicon cells may have adequate reverse current characteristics that these are not necessary. Reverse currents are not only inefficient as they represent power losses, but they can also lead to problematic heating of shaded cells. Solar cells become less efficient at higher temperatures and so it desirable to minimize heat in the panels. Very few modules incorporate any design features to decrease temperature, but installers try to provide good ventilation behind solar panels.[1] Some recent solar panel designs include concentrators in which light is focused by lenses or mirrors onto an array of smaller cells. This enables the use of cells with a high cost per unit area (such as gallium arsenide) in a cost-effective way.[citation needed] Depending on construction, photovoltaic panels can produce electricity from a range of frequencies of light, but usually cannot cover the entire solar range (specifically, ultraviolet, infrared and low or diffused light). Hence much of the incident sunlight energy is wasted by solar panels, and they can give far higher efficiencies if illuminated with monochromatic light. Therefore another design concept is to split the light into different wavelength ranges and direct the beams onto different cells tuned to those ranges.[2] This has been projected to be capable of raising efficiency by 50%. The use of infrared photovoltaic cells has also been proposed to increase efficiencies, and perhaps produce power at night.[citation needed] Sunlight conversion rates (solar panel efficiencies) can vary from 5-18% in commercial production, typically lower than the efficiencies of their cells in isolation. Panels with

g. the cell and the module are manufactured in the same production line. The cell is created on a glass substrate or superstrate. [edit] Crystalline silicon modules Main article: Solar Cell Most solar modules are currently produced from silicon PV cells. [edit] Rigid thin-film modules In rigid thin film modules. [edit] Thin-film modules Main articles: Thin film solar cell. or a-Si. [edit] Flexible thin-film modules Flexible thin film cells and modules are created on the same production line by depositing the photoactive layer and other necessary layers on a flexible substrate. polyester or polyimide film) then monolithic integration can be used. Amorphous silicon has a sunlight conversion rate of 6-12%. The cells are assembled into modules by laminating them to a transparent colourless fluoropolymer on the front side (typically ETFE or FEP) and a polymer suitable for . The main cell technologies in this category are CdTe.conversion rates around 18% are in development incorporating innovations such as power generation on the front and back sides.[citation needed] The Energy Density of a solar panel is the efficiency described in terms of peak power output per unit of surface area. These are typically categorized into either monocrystalline or multicrystalline modules. usually another sheet of glass. commonly expressed in units of Watts per square foot (W/ft2). The substrate or superstrate is laminated with an encapsulant to a front or back sheet. or CIGS (or variant). or a-Si+uc-Si tandem. a so called "monolithic integration". They produce high-efficiency conversion at low cost. and Low-cost photovoltaic cell Third generation solar cells are advanced thin-film cells. If the substrate is an insulator (e. Third generation solar cell. and the electrical connections are created in situ. If it is a conductor then another technique for electrical connection must be used. The energy density of the most efficient mass produced solar panels are over 13 W/ft2.

a DC to DC converter technology developed to maximize the power harvest from solar photovoltaic systems. peak power. temperature and load conditions change.000 W/m². The actual voltage output of the panel changes as lighting. Some of these solutions make use of Power Optimizers. inverter and voltage sensing transfer switch still need to be compacted and unitized for residential use.bonding to the final substrate on the other side. So-called inverted metamorphic (IMM) multijunction solar cells made on compoundsemiconductor technology are just becoming commercialized in July 2008. this is a leftover term from the days when solar panels were used only to charge batteries. and module efficiency (%). maximum power current (IMPP). The requirements for residential and commercial are different in that the residential needs are simple and can be packaged so that as technology at the solar cell progress. and the measurement of performance data for monitoring and fault detection at module level. despite caution in the overall PV industry. so there is never one specific voltage at which the panel operates. open circuit voltage (VOC). at a glance. kWp. The global flexible and thin-film photovoltaic (PV) market. is expected to experience a CAGR of over 35% to 2019. to make sure the panel is compatible with a given system. surpassing 32GW according to a major new study by IntertechPira. Nominal voltage allows users. Nominal voltage refers to the voltage of the battery that the module is best suited to charge. measured in amperes).[3] [edit] Module embedded electronics See also: Microinverter Several companies have begun embedding electronics into PV modules. [edit] Module performance and lifetime Module performance is generally rated under Standard Test Conditions (STC) : irradiance of 1. This enables performing Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) for each module individually. and more complex parabolic reflectors and solar concentrators are becoming the dominant technology. maximum power voltage (VMPP). The only commercially available (in MW quantities) flexible module uses amorphous silicon triple junction (from Unisolar). the other base line equipment such as the battery. Commercial use.5 and module temperature at 25°C. measured in W). short circuit current (ISC. . depending on the size of the service will be limited in the photovoltaic cell arena. The University of Michigan's solar car that won the North American Solar challenge in July 2008 used IMM thin-film flexible solar cells. solar spectrum of AM 1. Electrical characteristics include nominal power (PMAX.

Shipments exceeded installations due to the record amount of modules shipped in the final quarter of the year to serve installations completed in the first quarter of 2010 in booming European markets such as Germany. Over the long term—and only in the long-term—there is clearly a systematic reduction in the price of cells and modules. Many crystalline silicon module manufacturers offer a warranty that guarantees electrical production for 10 years at 90% of rated power output and 25 years at 80% [5] [edit] Production 7. Sanyo Electric [edit] Price See also: Grid parity Average pricing information divides in three pricing categories: those buying small quantities (modules of all sizes in the kilowatt range annually). IMS Research estimates that shipments of PV modules were far higher. Sunpower Corporation 7. For example in 1998 it was estimated that the quantity cost per watt was about $4. Canadian Solar 9. First Solar 2. Italy. which was 33 times lower than the cost in 1970 of $150. kWp. SolarWorld AG 10. France and Czech Republic[6] [edit] Top ten Top ten suppliers (by power) in 2009 were:[6] 1. Sharp 4.50. VOC can be measured with a meter directly on an illuminated panel's terminals or on its disconnected cable. Trina Solar 6. mid-range buyers (typically up to 10 MWp annually). cold. rain and hail for many years. Suntech 3.Open circuit voltage or VOC is the maximum voltage that the panel can produce when not connected to an electrical circuit or system. Solar panels must withstand heat. Yingli 5.[4] The peak power rating. and large quantity buyers (self explanatory—and with access to the lowest prices). is the maximum output according to STC (not the maximum possible output).[7][8] . Kyocera Corporation 8.5 GW of installations were completed and connected in 2009.

EST-22H. The fixed rack sets the angle at which the panel is held. EST-22V. standardizing technologies could encourage greater adoption of solar panels and. this is. 61646 (thin film performance) and 61730 (all modules. [edit] Fixed Racks Fixed racks hold panels in a single location as the sun moves across the sky. [edit] Standards Standards generally used in photovoltaic panels: • • • • • IEC 61215 (crystalline silicon performance). UL 1703 CE mark Electrical Safety Tester (EST) Series (EST-460. safety) ISO 9488 Solar energy—Vocabulary. Tilt angles equivalent to an installation's latitude is common. economies of scale.[9] Solar lamp Solar notebook: IUNIKA makes the first Solar Powered Netbook. Also. non-module cost of nonmicroinverter solar panels (as wiring. Balance-of-System (BoS) elements.[10] Solar-pumped laser Solar vehicle Solar plane . [edit] Devices with photovoltaic modules Further information: Solar panels on spacecraft and Solar charger Electric devices that includes solar panels: • • • • • • Solar cell phone : Sharp announced that its first solar-powered cell phone would be released in summer. converters. racking systems and various components) make up about half of the total costs of installations. in turn. EST-110).[citation needed] [edit] Mounting Systems [edit] Trackers Solar Trackers increase the amount of energy produced per panel. the Gyy. 2009.Following to RMI.

Kpsec.AltE". altestore. • • • • Soyuz spacecraft International Space Station Skylab space laboratory Mir space station This section requires expansion.htm.com/howto/Getting-Started-Renewable- . http://www.reports by IntertechPira study". applications Photovoltaic system List of photovoltaics companies Sky footage Smart grid Solar roadway Superstrate UV degradation Solar pond [edit] References 1.g.kpsec.com/components/diode.freeuk. [edit] See also Renewable energy portal Energy portal • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV). Cleaning event (Mars Exploration Rover phenomenon) Distributed inverter architecture Domestic energy consumption.freeuk. Globalsolartechnology. http://globalsolartechnology.php? option=com_content&task=view&id=3981&Itemid=9. ^ "Diodes". 2009-09-11. ^ "Introduction to Solar Electricity and Residential Solar Panels . Retrieved 2010-10-18. ^ "Global flexible and thin-film PV market expected to reach US$58b in 2019.Space stations and various spacecraft employ. 2. or have employed photovoltaic panels to generate power.com. ^ STO: Very High Efficient Solar Cells 3.com/index. supplies energy requirement numbers for private homes which is needed for anyone thinking of installing their own PV solar panels Insulated glazing Moore's Law Photovoltaics e.altestore.com. 4. http://www.

Retrieved 2010-10-18. cti-solar.pvmarketresearch. 7.pcworld.ctisolar. ^ "Meet Gyy. 8.com/press-details.org/wiki/Solar_panel" Categories: Photovoltaics | Solar powered devices Hidden categories: All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements from October 2010 | Articles with unsourced statements from November 2010 | Articles to be expanded from December 2009 | All articles to be expanded Personal tools • Log in / create account Namespaces • • Article Discussion Variants . Setenergy.Energy-Sustainable-Living/Introduction-to-Solar-Electricity/a89/. http://www.nap. Pvmarketresearch. Retrieved 2010-10-18.renewableenergyworld.com. The First Solar Powered Netbook". 6. ^ Paula Mints (24 September 2009).com.com/article/164943/meet_gyy_the_first_solar_powered_netb ook. National Research Council. PCWorld. ^ Harnessing Light. ^ a b "IMS Market Research .com/rea/news/article/2009/09/module-pricingrational-or-just-plain-nuts?cmpid=WNL-Friday-September25-2009.org/2009/04/21/transitionfrom-coal-to-solar-powered-cell-phones-this-summer/. 2009-05-15. http://www. Retrieved September 3. 2010-05-05. Photovoltaics World Magazine.edu/catalog. 9.to Solar-powered cell phones this summer « SET Energy". 10. [edit] External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Photovoltaics • • The Next Solar Frontier: Distributed Inverter Architecture Solar Power Calculator Retrieved from "http://en. 2010. http://www. 162.com/userfiles/file/brochlet%20CTI-SOLAR%20vers%20EN. "Module Pricing: Rational. 1998.pdf. http://www. http://www. Retrieved September 3.php?id=18. p.php?record_id=5954. Retrieved 2010-1018. Or Just Plain Nuts?". 2010.Press". ^ "CTI Solar sales brochure". http://setenergy.html.wikipedia. 2009-04-21.org. ^ "Transition from Coal. 5.

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The charge current depends upon the technology and capacity of the battery being charged. A simple charger equivalent to a AC/DC wall adapter. search This unit charges the batteries until they reach a specific voltage and then it trickle charges the batteries until it is disconnected. It applies 300mA to the battery at all times. A battery charger is a device used to put energy into a secondary cell or (rechargeable) battery by forcing an electric current through it. the current that should be applied to recharge a 12 V car battery will be very different from the current for a mobile phone battery. which will damage the battery if left connected too long. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. For example. Contents [hide] • 1 Types of battery chargers .From Wikipedia.

a battery left in a simple charger for too long will be weakened or destroyed due to over-charging. In larger applications. Depending on the technology of the trickle charger. These types of battery chargers are also used to maintain larger capacity batteries (> 30 Ah) that are typically found on cars.6 Pulse 1.4 Use in experiments 4 Prolonging battery life 5 See also o o o o o o o o o 6 References [edit] Types of battery chargers [edit] Simple A simple charger works by supplying a constant or DC pulsed DC power source to a battery being charged.4 Intelligent 1. Battery chargers that can be left connected to the . RVs and other related vehicles. is typically a low-current (500– 1.9 Solar chargers 2 Charge rate 3 Applications o 3.3 Battery electric vehicle o 3. These chargers can supply either a constant voltage or a constant current to the battery.8 USB-based 1.• • • • • 1. [edit] Trickle Main article: Trickle charging A trickle charger. but there is a tradeoff in quality. a simple charger takes longer to charge a battery to prevent severe over-charging.1 Simple 1.2 Battery charger for vehicles o 3.7 Inductive 1. also known as a battery trickle charger. it can be left connected to the battery indefinitely. the current of the battery charger is sufficient only to provide a maintenance or trickle current (trickle is commonly the last charging stage of most battery chargers).1 Mobile phone charger o 3. A trickle charger is generally used to charge small capacity batteries (2–30 Ah).5 Fast 1.2 Trickle 1. This simplicity means that a simple charger is inexpensive. Typically.3 Timer-based 1. The simple charger does not alter its output based on time or the charge on the battery. Even so. boats.500 mA) battery charger.

the magnitude of "delta-V" can become very small or even non-existent if (very) high[quantify] capacity rechargeable batteries are recharged. "delta-V. an old timer charger would only partly charge the newer batteries. temperature and/or time under charge to determine the optimum charge current at that instant.battery without causing the battery damage are also referred to as smart or intelligent chargers. and if batteries of higher capacity were charged they would be only partly charged. For Ni-Cd and NiMH batteries. then switches to trickle charging. Charging is terminated when a combination of the voltage. would result in over-charging.[1] . [edit] Timer-based This section does not cite any references or sources. Timer based chargers also had the drawback that charging batteries that were not fully discharged. charger. Timer chargers were the most common type for high-capacity Ni-Cd cells in the late 1990s for example (low-capacity consumer Ni-Cd cells were typically charged with a simple charger). A typical intelligent charger fast-charges a battery up to about 85% of its maximum capacity in less than an hour. With the trend for battery technology to increase capacity year on year. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. even if those batteries were of the correct capacity for the particular timed charger. Such chargers are often labeled as a ΔV. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. An intelligent charger may monitor the battery's voltage. until the battery is fully charged. After that. The problem is. temperature and/or time indicates that the battery is fully charged. the voltage decreases. If batteries of lower capacity were charged then they would be overcharged. [edit] Intelligent Output current depends upon the battery's state. However. Often a timer charger and set of batteries could be bought as a bundle and the charger time was set to suit those batteries. and continue charging. indicating that they monitor the voltage change. many so called intelligent chargers employ a combination of cut off systems. (June 2010) The output of a timer charger is terminated after a pre-determined time. Overcharging of the batteries will result in some cases. which indicates to an intelligent charger that the battery is fully charged. which should prevent overcharging in the vast majority of cases.[citation needed] This can cause even an intelligent battery charger to not sense that the batteries are actually already fully charged. the voltage across the battery increases slowly during the charging process. which takes several hours to top off the battery to its full capacity." or sometimes "delta peak".

[edit] Fast
Fast chargers make use of control circuitry in the batteries being charged to rapidly charge the batteries without damaging the cells' elements. Most such chargers have a cooling fan to help keep the temperature of the cells under control. Most are also capable of acting as standard overnight chargers if used with standard NiMH cells that do not have the special control circuitry. Some fast chargers, such as those made by Energizer, can fast-charge any NiMH battery even if it does not have the control circuit.

[edit] Pulse
Some chargers use pulse technology in which a pulse is fed to the battery. This DC pulse has a strictly controlled rise time, pulse width, pulse repetition rate (frequency) and amplitude. This technology is said to work with any size, voltage, capacity or chemistry of batteries, including automotive and valve-regulated batteries.[2] With pulse charging, high instantaneous voltages can be applied without overheating the battery. In a Lead– acid battery, this breaks down lead-sulfate crystals, thus greatly extending the battery service life.[3] Several kinds of pulse charging are patented.[4][5][6] Others are open source hardware.[7] Some chargers use pulses to check the current battery state when the charger is first connected, then use constant current charging during fast charging, then use pulse charging as a kind of trickle charging to maintain the charge.[8] Some chargers use "negative pulse charging", also called "reflex charging" or "burp charging".[9] Such chargers use both positive and brief negative current pulses. There is no significant evidence, however, that negative pulse charging is more effective than ordinary pulse charging.[10][11]

[edit] Inductive
Main article: Inductive charging Inductive battery chargers use electromagnetic induction to charge batteries. A charging station sends electromagnetic energy through inductive coupling to an electrical device, which stores the energy in the batteries. This is achieved without the need for metal contacts between the charger and the battery. It is commonly used in electric toothbrushes and other devices used in bathrooms. Because there are no open electrical contacts, there is no risk of electrocution.

[edit] USB-based

Pay-per-charge kiosk, illustrating the variety of mobile phone charger connectors Since the Universal Serial Bus specification provides for a five-volt power supply, it is possible to use a USB cable as a power source for recharging batteries. Products based on this approach include chargers for cellular phones and portable digital audio players. They may be fully compliant USB peripheral devices adhering to USB power discipline, or uncontrolled in the manner of USB decorations.

[edit] Solar chargers
Further information: Solar charger and energy harvesting Solar chargers convert light energy into DC current. They are generally portable, but can also be fixed mount. Fixed mount solar chargers are also known as solar panels. Solar panels are often connected to the electrical grid, where as portable solar chargers as used off-the-grid (i.e. cars, boats, or RVs). Although portable solar chargers obtain energy from the sun only, they still can (depending on the technology) be used in low light (i.e. cloudy) applications. Portable solar charger are typically used for trickle charging, although some solar charger (depending on the wattage), can completely recharge batteries. Although Portable wind turbines are also sold. Some, including the Kinesis K3, can work either way.

[edit] Charge rate
This section does not cite any references or sources.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2010)

Charge rate is often denoted as C or C-rate and signifies a charge or discharge rate equal to the capacity of a battery in one hour.[12] For a 1.6Ah battery, C = 1.6A. A charge rate of C/2 = 0.8A would need two hours, and a charge rate of 2C = 3.2A would need 30 minutes to fully charge the battery from an empty state, if supported by the battery. This also assumes that the battery is 100% efficient at absorbing the charge.

[edit] Applications
Since a battery charger is intended to be connected to a battery, it may not have voltage regulation or filtering of the DC voltage output. Battery chargers equipped with both voltage regulation and filtering may be identified as battery eliminators.

[edit] Mobile phone charger

Micro USB mobile phone charger Most mobile phone chargers are not really chargers, only adapters that provide a power source for the charging circuitry which is almost always contained within the mobile phone.[13] They are notoriously diverse, having a wide variety of DC connector-styles and voltages, most of which are not compatible with other manufacturers' phones or even different models of phones from a single manufacturer. Users of publicly accessible charging kiosks must be able to cross-reference connectors with device brands/models and individual charge parameters and thus ensure delivery of the correct charge for their mobile device. A database-driven system is one solution, and is being incorporated into some designs of charging kiosks. Mobile phones can usually accept relatively wide range of voltages[citation needed], as long as it is sufficiently above the phone battery's voltage. However, if the voltage is too high, it can damage the phone. Mostly, the voltage is 5 volts or slightly higher, but it can sometimes vary up to 12 volts when the power source is not loaded. There are also human-powered chargers sold on the market, which typically consists of a dynamo powered by a hand crank and extension cords. There are also solar chargers. China and other countries are making a national standard on mobile phone chargers using the USB standard.[14] in June 2009, 10 of the world's largest mobile phone manufacturers signed a Memorandum of Understanding to develop specifications for and support a microUSB-equipped common External Power Supply (EPS) for all data-enabled mobile phones sold in the EU.[15][16] On October 22, 2009, the International Telecommunication Union announced a standard for a universal charger for mobile handsets (Micro-USB).[17]

Public EV charging[18] heads (aka: stations) provide 6 kW (host power of 208 to 240 VAC off a 40 amp circuit). where a modular charger is used.A.5 times the battery's capacity. These typically employ some form of Inductive charging. and worldwide[18] Project Better Place is deploying a network of charging stations and subsidizing vehicle battery costs through leases and credits. [edit] Battery electric vehicle These vehicles include a battery pack. Charge stations Main article: Charging station There is a list of public EV charging stations in the U. A 10 Ampere-hour battery could take 15 hours to reach a fully charged state from a fully discharged condition with a 1 Ampere charger as it would require roughly 1.[edit] Battery charger for vehicles Further information: Charging station There are two main types of charges for vehicles: • • To recharge a fuel vehicle's starter battery. Some isolated chargers may be used in parallel. Rapid charging results in even faster recharge times and is limited only by available AC power and the type of charging system. Non-isolated chargers cannot be used in parallel. • Power Factor Correction (PFC) chargers can more closely approach the maximum current the plug can deliver.S. The battery has a maximum current rating that cannot be exceeded Non-isolated: the battery charger has a direct electrical connection to the A/C outlet's wiring. 6 kW will recharge an EV roughly 6 times faster than 1 kW overnight charging. This allows for an increased charge current and reduced charging times. shortening charging time. To recharge an electric vehicle (EV) battery pack. so generally use series charger.[19] On board EV chargers (change AC power to DC power to recharge the EV's pack) can be: • Isolated: they make no physical connection between the A/C electrical mains and the batteries being charged. .

which may be thought of as a DC voltage plus a "ripple" voltage added to it. These batteries last longest if the battery is frequently charged. Note that there may be an internal resistance connected to limit the short circuit current. OLEV) where the vehicles get their power needs from cables underneath the surface of the road via noncontact magnetic charging. and most electric vehicles use Lithium-ion batteries. Degradation also occurs faster at higher temperatures. As a possible solution to traffic congestion and to improve overall efficiency by minimizing air resistance and so reduce energy consumption. [edit] Prolonging battery life What practices are best depend on the type of battery.[citation needed] This extends the life of the battery since memory effect is prevented while avoiding full charge cycles which are known to be hard on all types of dry-cell batteries. fully discharging them will degrade their capacity relatively quickly. however. such as NiMH and NiCd.[21] When storing however. or else the battery loses capacity over time in a phenomenon known as "memory effect". lithium batteries degrade more while fully charged than if they are only 40% charged. and the value of that internal resistance may have to be taken into consideration in experiments. (where a power source is placed underneath the road surface and power is wirelessly picked up on the vehicle itself. It may. Most modern cell phones. Nickel-based cells. laptops. Once a month (once every 30 charges) is sometimes recommended.Auxiliary charger designed to fit a variety of proprietary devices Non-contact magnetic charging Researchers at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) have developed an electric transport system (called Online Electric Vehicle. the test vehicles followed the power track in a convoy formation[20] [edit] Use in experiments A battery charger can work as a DC power adapter for experimentation. eventually resulting in a permanent decrease in battery capacity. need to be fully discharged occasionally. require an external capacitor to be connected across its output terminals in order to "smooth" the voltage sufficiently. Degradation in lithium-ion batteries is caused by an .

^ Dave Etchells. [edit] See also • • • • • • • • • • • Battery eliminator Battery holder Battery management system List of battery sizes Carport Charge controller Lithium-ion battery Recharging alkaline batteries Solar energy Solar lamp Underwriters Laboratories (UL) certification.html. preventing sulfate from forming. cars. http://www.int/pctdb/en/wo. 2. and more use lead–acid batteries. Linear. these batteries should be recharged immediately in order to prevent sulfation. Proper temperature compensated float voltage should be used to achieve the best results. ^ "AN913: Switch-Mode.org/web/20070402140958/http://www. though sulfation (a chemical reaction in the battery which deposits a layer of sulfates on the lead) will occur over time.wipo.maximic. trucks. When discharged. These sulfates are electrically insulating and therefore interfere with the transfer of charge from the sulfuric acid to the lead. motorcycles.com/appnotes.archive. ATVs. and Pulse Charging Techniques for Li+ Battery in Mobile Phones and PDAs". Keeping the electrolyte level in the recommended range is necessary. Sulfated lead acid batteries typically need replacing. 4. 3. Maxim. [edit] References 1. This decreases the efficiency of the battery.cfm/appnote_number/913/. http://web. such as boats. 2003.dallas. This prevents the battery from ever being below 100% charge. http://www. http://www. .increased internal battery resistance due to cell oxidation. These batteries employ a sulfuric acid electrolyte and can generally be charged and discharged without exhibiting memory effect.com/ACCS/BATTS/BATTS. resulting in less net current available to be drawn from the battery. resulting in a lower maximum current than can be drawn from the battery. Lead–acid batteries will experience substantially longer life when a maintenance charger is used to float the battery. RVs.imagingresource. ^ "Lead–acid battery sulfation". Archived from the original on 2007-04-02.[citation needed] Internal combustion engine vehicles. ^ ""fast pulse battery charger" patent".jsp?wo=2003088447. "The Great Battery Shootout".net/~jvpoll/Batter y/aaPictures.HTM. 2001.

^ Oct 22. ec. ^ China to work out national standard for mobile phone chargers 15.eu. ITU press release Universal charger for mobile phone handsets 18.batteryuniversity.org/wiki/Battery_charger" Categories: Energy conversion | Battery chargers Hidden categories: Articles needing additional references from June 2010 | All articles needing additional references | All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements from October 2010 | Articles with unsourced statements from September 2010 | Articles with unsourced statements from October 2008 | Articles with unsourced statements from January 2011 | Articles with unsourced statements from June 2010 Personal tools • Log in / create account Namespaces • • Article Discussion Variants . http://www. ^ a b EV Charger News .html Pulse-charger/desulfator circuit schematic 8.gizmag. 16. ^ "Cellphone charger harmonization".htm. ^ [1] A Guide to Understanding Battery Specifications. ^ "The pulse power(tm) battery charging system" 10.com/kaist-olev-electric-vehicle/12557/ 21. ^ Tech Brief: Negative Pulse Charging Myths and Facts and Negative Pulse Charging: Myths and Facts 12. MIT Electric Vehicle Team.wikipedia. 2009.dallas. ^ "Battery charger with current pulse regulation" patented 1981 United States Patent 4355275 6. ^ Green Car Congress: Fuji Heavy Speeds Up Recharging of R1e EV 20.htm. ^ PC World:Universal Chargers are a Good Start Jan 2009 17.com/parttwo-34. Retrieved November 21. December 2008 13. 2009.net/~jvpoll/Battery/aaPictures.europa. or "Burp" Charging: Fact or Fiction?" 11.5. ^ http://www. ^ "Pulse-charge battery charger" patented 1997 United States Patent 5633574 7. ^ http://www.Home 19.eu/enterprise/sectors/rtte/chargers/index_en. ^ Mobile phone battery care 14. Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Battery charger Retrieved from "http://en. ^ "Pulse Maintenance charging. http://ec.europa. ^ "How to prolong lithium-based batteries". September 2006. Retrieved 201101-21." 9. ^ "Negative Pulse Charge.

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Contact us Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers • • • • • • Battery charger From Wikipedia. Inc. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation. search . a nonprofit organization. See Terms of Use for details. additional terms may apply..• • • • • • • • • • • • Беларуская (тарашкевіца) Deutsch Español Français Gaeilge Bahasa Indonesia Italiano Nederlands Polski 中文 This page was last modified on 16 February 2011 at 05:12. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.

Contents [hide] • 1 Types of battery chargers o 1. The charge current depends upon the technology and capacity of the battery being charged. which will damage the battery if left connected too long. It applies 300mA to the battery at all times.1 Simple o 1. the current that should be applied to recharge a 12 V car battery will be very different from the current for a mobile phone battery. For example. A simple charger equivalent to a AC/DC wall adapter.2 Trickle . A battery charger is a device used to put energy into a secondary cell or (rechargeable) battery by forcing an electric current through it.This unit charges the batteries until they reach a specific voltage and then it trickle charges the batteries until it is disconnected.

This simplicity means that a simple charger is inexpensive. Even so. is typically a low-current (500– 1.3 Battery electric vehicle o 3. These types of battery chargers are also used to maintain larger capacity batteries (> 30 Ah) that are typically found on cars.7 Inductive 1. These chargers can supply either a constant voltage or a constant current to the battery.1 Mobile phone charger o 3. a battery left in a simple charger for too long will be weakened or destroyed due to over-charging.• • • • • 1. Battery chargers that can be left connected to the battery without causing the battery damage are also referred to as smart or intelligent chargers. .6 Pulse 1. also known as a battery trickle charger. A trickle charger is generally used to charge small capacity batteries (2–30 Ah). boats.500 mA) battery charger.8 USB-based 1.4 Intelligent 1.2 Battery charger for vehicles o 3. a simple charger takes longer to charge a battery to prevent severe over-charging. RVs and other related vehicles.9 Solar chargers 2 Charge rate 3 Applications o 3. but there is a tradeoff in quality. it can be left connected to the battery indefinitely.4 Use in experiments 4 Prolonging battery life 5 See also o o o o o o o 6 References [edit] Types of battery chargers [edit] Simple A simple charger works by supplying a constant or DC pulsed DC power source to a battery being charged. The simple charger does not alter its output based on time or the charge on the battery.3 Timer-based 1. Depending on the technology of the trickle charger.5 Fast 1. [edit] Trickle Main article: Trickle charging A trickle charger. In larger applications. the current of the battery charger is sufficient only to provide a maintenance or trickle current (trickle is commonly the last charging stage of most battery chargers). Typically.

the voltage across the battery increases slowly during the charging process. and if batteries of higher capacity were charged they would be only partly charged. and continue charging. A typical intelligent charger fast-charges a battery up to about 85% of its maximum capacity in less than an hour. would result in over-charging. After that. charger. an old timer charger would only partly charge the newer batteries. temperature and/or time indicates that the battery is fully charged. For Ni-Cd and NiMH batteries. An intelligent charger may monitor the battery's voltage." or sometimes "delta peak".[1] [edit] Fast . "delta-V. Charging is terminated when a combination of the voltage. which takes several hours to top off the battery to its full capacity. However. temperature and/or time under charge to determine the optimum charge current at that instant.[edit] Timer-based This section does not cite any references or sources. which indicates to an intelligent charger that the battery is fully charged. even if those batteries were of the correct capacity for the particular timed charger. then switches to trickle charging.[citation needed] This can cause even an intelligent battery charger to not sense that the batteries are actually already fully charged. If batteries of lower capacity were charged then they would be overcharged. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. [edit] Intelligent Output current depends upon the battery's state. With the trend for battery technology to increase capacity year on year. Overcharging of the batteries will result in some cases. Often a timer charger and set of batteries could be bought as a bundle and the charger time was set to suit those batteries. which should prevent overcharging in the vast majority of cases. Timer based chargers also had the drawback that charging batteries that were not fully discharged. the magnitude of "delta-V" can become very small or even non-existent if (very) high[quantify] capacity rechargeable batteries are recharged. Timer chargers were the most common type for high-capacity Ni-Cd cells in the late 1990s for example (low-capacity consumer Ni-Cd cells were typically charged with a simple charger). The problem is. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. (June 2010) The output of a timer charger is terminated after a pre-determined time. until the battery is fully charged. the voltage decreases. indicating that they monitor the voltage change. many so called intelligent chargers employ a combination of cut off systems. Such chargers are often labeled as a ΔV.

thus greatly extending the battery service life. Most are also capable of acting as standard overnight chargers if used with standard NiMH cells that do not have the special control circuitry.[4][5][6] Others are open source hardware. In a Lead– acid battery.[7] Some chargers use pulses to check the current battery state when the charger is first connected. This technology is said to work with any size. high instantaneous voltages can be applied without overheating the battery. A charging station sends electromagnetic energy through inductive coupling to an electrical device. capacity or chemistry of batteries. then use pulse charging as a kind of trickle charging to maintain the charge.[2] With pulse charging. voltage. pulse width.Fast chargers make use of control circuitry in the batteries being charged to rapidly charge the batteries without damaging the cells' elements. can fast-charge any NiMH battery even if it does not have the control circuit.[9] Such chargers use both positive and brief negative current pulses. [edit] Pulse Some chargers use pulse technology in which a pulse is fed to the battery. This is achieved without the need for metal contacts between the charger and the battery. which stores the energy in the batteries.[8] Some chargers use "negative pulse charging". It is commonly used in electric toothbrushes and other devices used in bathrooms.[10][11] [edit] Inductive Main article: Inductive charging Inductive battery chargers use electromagnetic induction to charge batteries. then use constant current charging during fast charging. such as those made by Energizer.[3] Several kinds of pulse charging are patented. Because there are no open electrical contacts. Most such chargers have a cooling fan to help keep the temperature of the cells under control. Some fast chargers. however. This DC pulse has a strictly controlled rise time. that negative pulse charging is more effective than ordinary pulse charging. there is no risk of electrocution. There is no significant evidence. this breaks down lead-sulfate crystals. also called "reflex charging" or "burp charging". pulse repetition rate (frequency) and amplitude. [edit] USB-based . including automotive and valve-regulated batteries.

They may be fully compliant USB peripheral devices adhering to USB power discipline. boats. although some solar charger (depending on the wattage). illustrating the variety of mobile phone charger connectors Since the Universal Serial Bus specification provides for a five-volt power supply. they still can (depending on the technology) be used in low light (i. cloudy) applications. . Some. This also assumes that the battery is 100% efficient at absorbing the charge. Fixed mount solar chargers are also known as solar panels.6A.Pay-per-charge kiosk. Portable solar charger are typically used for trickle charging. or RVs). it is possible to use a USB cable as a power source for recharging batteries. including the Kinesis K3. C = 1. if supported by the battery. but can also be fixed mount.[12] For a 1. and a charge rate of 2C = 3. cars. where as portable solar chargers as used off-the-grid (i. A charge rate of C/2 = 0. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. They are generally portable. Solar panels are often connected to the electrical grid. Although Portable wind turbines are also sold. can work either way. (June 2010) Charge rate is often denoted as C or C-rate and signifies a charge or discharge rate equal to the capacity of a battery in one hour. or uncontrolled in the manner of USB decorations.e. Although portable solar chargers obtain energy from the sun only.6Ah battery. [edit] Charge rate This section does not cite any references or sources. Products based on this approach include chargers for cellular phones and portable digital audio players. [edit] Solar chargers Further information: Solar charger and energy harvesting Solar chargers convert light energy into DC current. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. can completely recharge batteries.e.2A would need 30 minutes to fully charge the battery from an empty state.8A would need two hours.

A database-driven system is one solution. which typically consists of a dynamo powered by a hand crank and extension cords. it may not have voltage regulation or filtering of the DC voltage output. the voltage is 5 volts or slightly higher. if the voltage is too high. it can damage the phone.[13] They are notoriously diverse. as long as it is sufficiently above the phone battery's voltage. but it can sometimes vary up to 12 volts when the power source is not loaded. only adapters that provide a power source for the charging circuitry which is almost always contained within the mobile phone. Battery chargers equipped with both voltage regulation and filtering may be identified as battery eliminators.[edit] Applications Since a battery charger is intended to be connected to a battery. Mobile phones can usually accept relatively wide range of voltages[citation needed]. There are also human-powered chargers sold on the market. There are also solar chargers. 2009. However.[15][16] On October 22. and is being incorporated into some designs of charging kiosks. the International Telecommunication Union announced a standard for a universal charger for mobile handsets (Micro-USB). [edit] Mobile phone charger Micro USB mobile phone charger Most mobile phone chargers are not really chargers. 10 of the world's largest mobile phone manufacturers signed a Memorandum of Understanding to develop specifications for and support a microUSB-equipped common External Power Supply (EPS) for all data-enabled mobile phones sold in the EU. Users of publicly accessible charging kiosks must be able to cross-reference connectors with device brands/models and individual charge parameters and thus ensure delivery of the correct charge for their mobile device. China and other countries are making a national standard on mobile phone chargers using the USB standard. having a wide variety of DC connector-styles and voltages. Mostly. most of which are not compatible with other manufacturers' phones or even different models of phones from a single manufacturer.[14] in June 2009.[17] .

6 kW will recharge an EV roughly 6 times faster than 1 kW overnight charging.A. This allows for an increased charge current and reduced charging times. Charge stations Main article: Charging station There is a list of public EV charging stations in the U.5 times the battery's capacity. Some isolated chargers may be used in parallel.S. • Power Factor Correction (PFC) chargers can more closely approach the maximum current the plug can deliver. where a modular charger is used. Non-isolated chargers cannot be used in parallel. and worldwide[18] Project Better Place is deploying a network of charging stations and subsidizing vehicle battery costs through leases and credits.[edit] Battery charger for vehicles Further information: Charging station There are two main types of charges for vehicles: • • To recharge a fuel vehicle's starter battery. so generally use series charger.[19] On board EV chargers (change AC power to DC power to recharge the EV's pack) can be: • Isolated: they make no physical connection between the A/C electrical mains and the batteries being charged. To recharge an electric vehicle (EV) battery pack. shortening charging time. Rapid charging results in even faster recharge times and is limited only by available AC power and the type of charging system. The battery has a maximum current rating that cannot be exceeded Non-isolated: the battery charger has a direct electrical connection to the A/C outlet's wiring. Public EV charging[18] heads (aka: stations) provide 6 kW (host power of 208 to 240 VAC off a 40 amp circuit). [edit] Battery electric vehicle These vehicles include a battery pack. These typically employ some form of Inductive charging. A 10 Ampere-hour battery could take 15 hours to reach a fully charged state from a fully discharged condition with a 1 Ampere charger as it would require roughly 1. .

[21] When storing however. the test vehicles followed the power track in a convoy formation[20] [edit] Use in experiments A battery charger can work as a DC power adapter for experimentation. however. These batteries last longest if the battery is frequently charged. It may. which may be thought of as a DC voltage plus a "ripple" voltage added to it. Degradation in lithium-ion batteries is caused by an . lithium batteries degrade more while fully charged than if they are only 40% charged. and most electric vehicles use Lithium-ion batteries. Most modern cell phones. or else the battery loses capacity over time in a phenomenon known as "memory effect".Auxiliary charger designed to fit a variety of proprietary devices Non-contact magnetic charging Researchers at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) have developed an electric transport system (called Online Electric Vehicle. Once a month (once every 30 charges) is sometimes recommended. Nickel-based cells. and the value of that internal resistance may have to be taken into consideration in experiments. [edit] Prolonging battery life What practices are best depend on the type of battery. laptops. need to be fully discharged occasionally. Note that there may be an internal resistance connected to limit the short circuit current. (where a power source is placed underneath the road surface and power is wirelessly picked up on the vehicle itself. Degradation also occurs faster at higher temperatures. OLEV) where the vehicles get their power needs from cables underneath the surface of the road via noncontact magnetic charging.[citation needed] This extends the life of the battery since memory effect is prevented while avoiding full charge cycles which are known to be hard on all types of dry-cell batteries. require an external capacitor to be connected across its output terminals in order to "smooth" the voltage sufficiently. such as NiMH and NiCd. eventually resulting in a permanent decrease in battery capacity. As a possible solution to traffic congestion and to improve overall efficiency by minimizing air resistance and so reduce energy consumption. fully discharging them will degrade their capacity relatively quickly.

Sulfated lead acid batteries typically need replacing. [edit] References 1. http://www.increased internal battery resistance due to cell oxidation. such as boats. These batteries employ a sulfuric acid electrolyte and can generally be charged and discharged without exhibiting memory effect. Archived from the original on 2007-04-02. resulting in a lower maximum current than can be drawn from the battery. http://www.wipo.com/appnotes. 3. and Pulse Charging Techniques for Li+ Battery in Mobile Phones and PDAs".maximic. This decreases the efficiency of the battery. 2001.jsp?wo=2003088447. ^ "Lead–acid battery sulfation". cars. "The Great Battery Shootout".[citation needed] Internal combustion engine vehicles. 4. http://www.archive. Maxim.com/ACCS/BATTS/BATTS.org/web/20070402140958/http://www. .HTM. these batteries should be recharged immediately in order to prevent sulfation. Keeping the electrolyte level in the recommended range is necessary. These sulfates are electrically insulating and therefore interfere with the transfer of charge from the sulfuric acid to the lead. http://web. 2003. [edit] See also • • • • • • • • • • • Battery eliminator Battery holder Battery management system List of battery sizes Carport Charge controller Lithium-ion battery Recharging alkaline batteries Solar energy Solar lamp Underwriters Laboratories (UL) certification.dallas. ^ Dave Etchells.html. resulting in less net current available to be drawn from the battery.net/~jvpoll/Batter y/aaPictures. ^ "AN913: Switch-Mode. When discharged. Linear. and more use lead–acid batteries. though sulfation (a chemical reaction in the battery which deposits a layer of sulfates on the lead) will occur over time. ^ ""fast pulse battery charger" patent". RVs. Lead–acid batteries will experience substantially longer life when a maintenance charger is used to float the battery. motorcycles. Proper temperature compensated float voltage should be used to achieve the best results. trucks. 2. preventing sulfate from forming. This prevents the battery from ever being below 100% charge.imagingresource. ATVs.int/pctdb/en/wo.cfm/appnote_number/913/.

gizmag. ^ PC World:Universal Chargers are a Good Start Jan 2009 17. Retrieved 201101-21. December 2008 13.net/~jvpoll/Battery/aaPictures.wikipedia. ^ "The pulse power(tm) battery charging system" 10. ^ "Cellphone charger harmonization". ^ China to work out national standard for mobile phone chargers 15.europa. 2009. Retrieved November 21. ^ "Pulse Maintenance charging.5. Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Battery charger Retrieved from "http://en. ^ "Negative Pulse Charge.eu. ITU press release Universal charger for mobile phone handsets 18.com/kaist-olev-electric-vehicle/12557/ 21." 9.html Pulse-charger/desulfator circuit schematic 8. http://ec. MIT Electric Vehicle Team. ^ "Pulse-charge battery charger" patented 1997 United States Patent 5633574 7.htm.Home 19. ^ Oct 22. ^ Mobile phone battery care 14. 16. ^ "Battery charger with current pulse regulation" patented 1981 United States Patent 4355275 6. 2009. ^ "How to prolong lithium-based batteries".europa. ^ http://www.batteryuniversity. ^ http://www.org/wiki/Battery_charger" Categories: Energy conversion | Battery chargers Hidden categories: Articles needing additional references from June 2010 | All articles needing additional references | All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements from October 2010 | Articles with unsourced statements from September 2010 | Articles with unsourced statements from October 2008 | Articles with unsourced statements from January 2011 | Articles with unsourced statements from June 2010 Personal tools • Log in / create account Namespaces • • Article Discussion Variants . ^ Green Car Congress: Fuji Heavy Speeds Up Recharging of R1e EV 20.eu/enterprise/sectors/rtte/chargers/index_en. ^ Tech Brief: Negative Pulse Charging Myths and Facts and Negative Pulse Charging: Myths and Facts 12. ^ a b EV Charger News . ec. September 2006.com/parttwo-34.htm. http://www. or "Burp" Charging: Fact or Fiction?" 11.dallas. ^ [1] A Guide to Understanding Battery Specifications.

Views • • • Actions Search þÿ Read Edit View history Navigation • • • • • • Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Interaction • • • • • Toolbox • • • • • • Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact Wikipedia What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Cite this page Print/export • • • Create a book Download as PDF Printable version Languages .

Inc.3 Weather forecasting 6 See also 7 References 8 External links ..2 Mechanical systems o 4.1 Energy consumption o 5.4 The Dell-Winston School Solar Car Challenge o 1.1 Support o 1.4 Aerodynamics o 4. Contact us Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers • • • • Contents [hide] • • • Solar car racing From Wikipedia. search Solar car racing refers to competitive races of electric vehicles which are powered by solar energy obtained from solar panels on the • • • • • • • 1 Distance races o 1.8 Race route considerations 5 Race strategy o 5.1 Electrical system o 4.6 Rolling resistance o 4.• • • • • • • • • • • • Беларуская (тарашкевіца) Deutsch Español Français Gaeilge Bahasa Indonesia Italiano Nederlands Polski 中文 This page was last modified on 16 February 2011 at 05:12. a nonprofit organization.6 Other races 2 Solar drag races 3 Speed Record 4 Vehicle design o 4.2 Race route o 5. additional terms may apply.5 South African Solar Challenge o 1. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation.2 World Solar Challenge o 1. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation.5 Mass o 4. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.3 Solar array o 4.3 North American Solar Challenge o 1. See Terms of Use for details.7 Performance equation o 4.

Here tactical decisions will be made based on Wi-Fi information from the solar car and environmental information about the weather and terrain. In a long distance race each solar car will be preceded by a lead car that can identify problems or obstacles ahead of the race car. Corporate teams participate in the races to give their design teams experience of working with both alternative energy sources and advanced materials. These races are often sponsored by government or educational agencies[citation needed].surface of the car (solar cars). . The mission control car could be able to remote control the vehicle power/speed using adaptive cruise control leaving the driver only to do the steering. Behind the mission control there might be one or more other vehicles carrying replacement drivers and maintenance support as well as supplies and camping equipment for the entire team. Distance races The two most notable solar car distance (overland) races are the World Solar Challenge and the North American Solar Challenge. The solar car will travel escorted by a small caravan of support cars. Support The cars require intensive support teams similar in size to professional motor racing teams. and businesses such as Toyota[1] keen to promote renewable energy sources. Such challenges are often entered by universities to develop their students' engineering and technological skills. Behind the solar car there wil be a mission control vehicle from which the race pace is controlled. but many business corporations have entered competitions in the past. A small number of high school teams participate in solar car races designed exclusively for high school students. USA and Australia. University teams participate in order to give their students experience in designing high technology cars and working with environmental and advanced materials technology. The first solar car race was the Tour de Sol in 1985 which led to several similar races in Europe. This is especially the case with the World Solar Challenge where sections of the race run through very remote country. They are contested by a variety of university and corporate teams.

which could easily exceed the speed limit (110 km/h) in previous years. The winner again was the Nuna 4 team averaging 90.Dutch Nuna 3 team during testing in 2005.03 km/h). to build a new generation of solar car. The winner in the Adventure Class (driving under old rules) was the Ashiya University Solar Car Project team averaging 93.03 km/h) and the University of Michigan (90.57 km/h. previously known as the 'American Solar Challenge' and 'Sunrayce USA'. which with little modification could be the basis for a practical proposition for sustainable transport and intended to slow down cars in the main event.75 km/h over a distance of 3000 km. In 2005. World Solar Challenge Main article: World Solar Challenge This race features a field of competitors from around the world who race to cross the Australian continent. followed by the Australian Aurora (92. The 20th Anniversary race of the World Solar Challenge ran in October 2007. . the Dutch Nuna 3 team won this challenge for a 3rd time in a record average speed of 102.[2] North American Solar Challenge Main article: North American Solar Challenge The North American Solar Challenge. The increasingly high speeds of the 2005 race participants has led to the rules being changed for future solar cars starting in the 2007 race.87 km/h. features mostly collegiate teams racing in timed intervals in the United States and Canada. Major regulation changes were released in June 2006 for this race to increase safety.

Eco-marathon Americas Solar drag races . Suzuka. The race was won by the University of Michigan Solar Car Team. The 2008 race proved that this event can attract the interest of the public. the race is a road course that starts at the Dell Diamond in Round Rock. bi-annual. and the NASC 2007 was cancelled. but mostly from American high schools. Late in September. Dell has sponsored the event since 2002. The North American solar racing community worked to find a solution. However.The North American Solar Challenge was sponsored in part by the US Department of Energy. The race was first held in 1995. In 2008 the event was endorsed by International Solarcar Federation (ISF).[1] South African Solar Challenge Main article: South African Solar Challenge The South African Solar Challenge is an epic. a yearly track race in Turkey. design their own engineering systems and race those same machines through the most demanding terrain that solar cars have ever seen. then drive along the coast to Durban. two-week race of solar-powered cars through the length and breadth of South Africa. Alberta. bringing in Toyota as a primary sponsor for a 2008 race. and that it has the necessary international backing from the FIA. On even-numbered years. The Dell-Winston School Solar Car Challenge Main article: Dell-Winston School Solar Car Challenge The Dell-Winston School Solar Car Challenge is an annual solar-powered car race for high school students. Other races • • • • • Formula-G. Texas to Calgary. 2008. Phaethon[2]. funding was cut near the end of 2005.[3][4] The last North American Solar Challenge was run from July 13-21. part of the Cultural Olympiad in Greece prior to the 2004 Olympics. from Dallas. Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA). On odd-numbered years. Teams will have to build their own cars. the race is a track race around the Texas Motor Speedway. Texas. Each event is the end product of a two year education cycle launched by the Winston Solar Car Team. before climbing the escarpment on their way back to the finish line in Pretoria 10 days later. the end of the course varies from year to year. all entrants will take off from Pretoria and make their way to Cape Town via the N1. a yearly track race in Japan. The event attracts teams from around the world. World Wildlife Fund (WWF) making it the first Solar Race to receive endorsement from these 3 organizations. World Solar Rally.

rolling resistance and electrical efficiency are paramount. The world record for this event is 29. breaking the record previously held by The General Motors car Sunraycer of 78. bicycle. e. with 3 wheels. other configurations are viable and easier to construct. covering available surfaces of existing electric vehicles with solar cells or fastening solar canopies above them. USA. solar cars are designed with severe energy constraints imposed by the race regulations. solar dragsters do not use any batteries or pre-charged energy storage devices. was set on the 7th of January 2011 at the HMAS Albatross in Nowra. Before. entirely covered in cells. Some vehicle classes also allow human power input. with less powerful arrays. At lower speeds.3 km/h.8 km/h. As a result optimizing the design to account for aerodynamic drag. The record takes place over a flying 500m stretch. albeit starting with a full charged battery pack. This record is currently held by the University of New South Wales with the car Sunswift IV[6].g. The record of 88. and is the average of 2 runs in opposite directions.[5] Sunswift IV and control vehicle during speed record attempts at the HMAS Albatross. These rules limit the energy used to only that collected from solar radiation. Currently. Vehicle design Solar cars combine technology used in the aerospace. a solar drag race is held each year on the Saturday closest to the summer solstice in Wenatchee. . the cockroach style with a smooth nose fairing into the panel was more successful. Washington. 2007. Speed Record Guinness world records recognize a land speed record for vehicles powered only by solar panels. Unlike most race cars. vehicle weight. Unlike long distance solar races. Racers go headto-head over a straight quarter kilometer distance.5 seconds set by the South Whidbey High School team on June 23.Solar drag races are another form of solar racing. A usual design for today's successful vehicles is a small canopy in the middle of a curved wing-like array. alternative energy and automotive industries.

i.e. electronically commutated.g. The maximum power tracker adjusts the operating point of the solar array to that voltage which produces the most power for the given conditions. The battery manager protects the batteries from overcharging. an ampere-hour meter multiplies battery current and rate.[7] Cheaper alternatives are asynchronous AC or brushed DC motors. The battery pack stores surplus solar energy produced when the vehicle is stationary or travelling slowly or downhill. nickel-metal hydride batteries (NiMH). In order to judge the range available with varying solar production and motive consumption. . while basic cars show battery voltage and motor current. nickel-cadmium batteries (NiCd). and Litz wire for the windings. Power electronics may be used to optimise the electrical system. Solar cars use a range of batteries including lead-acid batteries. e. power is fed back into the battery during decceleration. thus providing the remaining vehicle range at each moment in the given conditions. with a Halbach array configuration for the neodymium-iron-boron magnets. Many controllers allow regenerative braking. Some solar cars have complex data acquisition systems that monitor the whole electrical system. These are brushless three-"phase" DC. lithium ion batteries and lithium polymer batteries.Race vehicles head toward the finish line in the 2005 North American Solar Challenge. The most efficient motors exceed 98% efficiency. wheel motors. The motor controller controls the desired motor power. temperature. Electrical system The electrical system controls all of the power entering and leaving the system. A wide variety of motor types have been used.

titanium and composites to provide a structure that meets strength and stiffness requirements whilst being fairly light. Steering systems for solar cars also vary. and equally easy to lose two hours due to reliability issues. Disc brakes are the most commonly used due to their good braking ability and ability to adjust. Solar array . Four wheel vehicles are set up like normal cars or similarly to three wheeled vehicles with the two rear wheels close together. Mechanical systems The mechanical systems are designed to keep friction and weight to a minimum while maintaining strength and stiffness. It is easy to spend a hundred thousand dollars to gain a two hour advantage. on leading cars.A test chassis at Ford Proving Grounds in 1992. The most common front suspension is the double wishbone suspension. Mechanical and hydraulic brakes are both widely used. The rear suspension is often a trailing-arm suspension as found in motor cycles. All the top teams now use wheel motors. Solar cars have a wide range of suspensions because of varying bodies and chassis. eliminating belt or chain drives. Solar cars usually have three wheels. Solar cars are required to meet rigorous standards for brakes. The popularity of solar car racing has led to some tire manufacturers designing tires for solar vehicles. reliability and precision alignment to minimize tire wear and power loss. Steel is used for some suspension parts on many cars. This has increased overall safety and performance. The brake pads or shoes are typically designed to retract to minimize brake drag. Three wheelers usually have two front wheels and one rear wheel: the front wheels steer and the rear wheel follows. Testing is essential to demonstrating vehicle reliability prior to a race. Designers normally use aluminium. The major design factors for steering systems are efficiency. but some have four.

correctly aligned.[9] Mass The vehicle's mass is also a significant factor. so their race regulations allow this practice. At noon on a bright day. The aerodynamic drag of a vehicle is the product of the frontal area and its Cd. Performance equation . To design against this. The main aim is to get as much cell area in as small a space as possible. Panels normally have voltages close to the nominal battery voltage.3 m2. array designers use by-pass diodes in parallel with smaller segments of the string of cells. and by minimising the weight of the vehicle. The power produced by the solar array depends on the weather conditions. Cars can use a variety of solar cell technologies. Another consideration is that the battery itself can force current backwards through the array unless there are blocking diodes put at the end of each panel. most often polycrystalline silicon. Rolling resistance Rolling resistance can be minimised by using the right tires. the position of the sun and the capacity of the array.[8] Many races. or gallium arsenide.75 to 1. The problem is that if a single cell is in shadow it acts like a diode. Designers encapsulate the cells to protect them from the weather and breakage. For most solar cars the frontal area is 0. This needs a great deal of attention to detail. A light vehicle generates less rolling resistance and will need smaller lighter brakes and other suspension components.The solar array consists of hundreds (or thousands) of photovoltaic solar cells converting sunlight into electricity. a good array can produce over 2 kilowatts (2. While Cd as low as 0. allowing current around the non-functioning cell(s). blocking the current for the entire string of cells. monocrystalline silicon.10 have been reported.6 hp). The cells are wired together into strings while strings are often wired together to form a panel.13 is more typical. consider wind energy to be solar energy. including the WSC and NASC. 0. A solar array acts like many very small batteries all hooked together in series. inflated to the right pressure. The total voltage produced is the sum of all cell voltages. Some cars have employed free-standing or integrated sails to harness wind energy. Aerodynamics Aerodynamic drag is the main source of losses on a solar race car. A 6 m2 array of 20% cells will produce roughly 6 kW·h (22 kJ) of energy during a typical day on the WSC. Designing a solar array is more than just stringing a bunch of cells together. This is the virtuous circle when designing lightweight vehicles.

00 (LiPoly) 1.The design of a solar car is governed by the following work equation: [10] which can be usefully simplified to the performance equation for long distance races.0060 3. The parameters include: Computer simulation of a solar car body design. aerodynamic drag.007e6 2950 3000 2400 0. and values seen in practice.2e7 918 3e6 2690 0.80 0.8e7 1050 0. controller and drive train efficiency (decimal) Ford Aurora Aurora Aurora Australia 1987 1993 1999 2007 0.0050 0.8e7 972 η ηb E P x W Crr1 Watt-hour battery efficiency (decimal) 0. Briefly.0027 .007e6 3.97 1.92 1.8e7 902 0.0027 0. the left hand side represents the energy input into the car (batteries and power from the sun) and the right hand side is the energy needed to drive the car along the race route (overcoming rolling resistance. going uphill and accelerating). Symbol Description Year Motor.82 0.82 1.007e6 3.97 0. Everything in this equation can be estimated except v.82 Energy available in the batteries (joules) Estimated average power from the array (1) (watts) Race route distance (meters) Weight of the vehicle including payload (newtons) First coefficient of rolling resistance 1.

and appear to move in the direction of the vehicle's movement. In an east-west race route alignment. the sun would rise over the driver's right shoulder and finish over his left (due to the east-west apparent motion of the sun).5 Actual race speed km/h 44. Thus. Using the power equation as the arbiter.81 27. This is significant to designers. which in turn affects the energy input to the vehicle.Crr2 N ρ Cd A h Na g v (non-dimensional) Second coefficient of rolling resistance 0 (newton-seconds per meter) Number of wheels on the vehicle 4 (integer) Air density (kilograms per cubic meter) 1.76 0 4 9.81 variable (meters per second squared) Calculated average velocity over the 16. • • • In a south-to-north race route alignment.9 73 0 3 1. A hybrid route alignment includes significant sections of south-north and eastwest routes together.75 0 4 9. vehicle designers can compare various car designs and evaluate the comparative performance over a given route.70 Total height that the vehicle will climb 0 (meters) Number of times the vehicle will 4 accelerate in a race day (integer) Local acceleration due to gravity 9. who seek to maximize energy input to a panel of solar cells (often called an "array" of cells) by designing the array to point directly toward the sun for as long as possible during the race day.22 0. Solving the long form of the equation for velocity results in a large equation (approximately 100 terms).8 0 3 1.3 73.81 27. for example.133 0.10 0.1 0 3 1.1 70.22 0. Combined with CAE and systems modeling.1 97. the sun would rise behind the vehicle. Race route considerations The directional orientation of a solar car race route affects the apparent position of the sun in the sky during a race day.8 route (meters per second) Calculated average speed in km/h 60.81 20.26 Frontal area (square meters) 0.22 0.10 0. a south-north race car designer .75 0 4 9.6 85 Note 1 For the WSC the average panel power can be approximated as (7/9)×nominal power. setting in the front of the car.2 97. the power equation can be a useful tool in solar car design.22 Coefficient of drag (non-dimensional) 0.

Some teams employ telemetry that relays vehicle performance data to a following support vehicle. elevation changes over a race route can dramatically change the amount of power needed to travel the route.might increase the car's total energy input by using solar cells on the sides of the vehicle where the sun will strike them (or by creating a convex array coaxial with the vehicle's movement). Elevation (in meters) of a race route that crossed the Rocky Mountains. which can provide the vehicle's driver with an optimum strategy. Race strategy Energy consumption Optimizing energy consumption is of prime importance in a solar car race. In addition. In contrast. . most cars in that event had flat arrays to match the change to an east-west route." above). Therefore it is useful to be able to continually monitor and optimise the vehicle's energy parameters. because the apparent position of the sun in the sky will vary depending various factors which are specific to the vehicle's orientation (see "Race Route Considerations. and thus might encourage design of a flat array. Race route The race route itself will affect strategy. Given the variable conditions. by 1997. the 1990 and 1993 Sunrayce USA events were won by vehicles with significantly convex arrays. most teams have race speed optimization programs that continuously update the team on how fast the vehicle should be traveling. and because arrays do not usually move in relation to the rest of the vehicle (with notable exceptions). this race-route-driven. however. For example. the 2001 and 2003 North American Solar Challenge route crossed the Rocky Mountains (see graph at right). an east-west race alignment might reduce the benefit from having cells on the side of the vehicle. from Illinois to California. flatpanel versus convex design compromise is one of the most significant decisions that a solar car designer must make. corresponding to the south-north race alignments. Because solar cars are often purpose-built. For example.

Inc. Storey. Eric Slimko. ^ Roche. 6..Weather forecasting A successful solar car racing team will need to have access to reliable weather forecasts in order to predict the power input to the vehicle from the sun during each race day. Humphris & Guelden. p. Speed of Light. 4. Robert Bently. Dr. Tamai. Schinkel. 1991 External links . December 1. ^ Toyota Sponsors World's Longest Solar Car Race ^ WSC 2007 Final Results ^ Official NASC2008 Announcement ^ Official NASC Website ^ solar drag ^ [1] ^ In-wheel motor for solar-powered electric vehicles: technical details (Publication . 2. 5. ISBN 0 7334 1527 X 10. 7. 3. Goro. See also • • • • • List of solar car teams Race the Sun South African Solar Challenge Tour de Sol Hunt-Winston School Solar Car Challenge References 1.Technical) 8. Measured array power for Aurora's Christine in the 2008 WSC. 137 9. ^ Solar Vehicle Performance. ^ The Leading Edge. 1999.

org/wiki/Solar_car_racing" Categories: Electric vehicles | Solar powered vehicle racing Hidden categories: All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements from January 2009 Personal tools • Log in / create account Namespaces • • Article Discussion Variants Views • • • Actions Search þÿ Read View source View history Navigation .about.usna.wikipedia.Z The Dell-Winston Solar Challenge South African Solar Challenge http://web.edu/~bruninga/APRS-SPHEV.html Retrieved from "http://en.Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Solar-powered automobiles • • • • • • • • • • Howstuffworks. Solar cars in inventors.com: How solar cars work Solar Decathlon Web site.ew.com American Solar Challenge on solar cars article World Solar Challenge website North American Solar Challenge 2005 International Solar Car A . D. o DOE announced that the third Solar Decathlon competition will be held from 2007-October 12th through the 20th in Washington.C.

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Sustainable energy Renewable energy Anaerobic digestion Hydroelectricity · Geothermal Microgeneration · Solar Tidal · Wave · Wind Energy conservation Cogeneration · Energy efficiency Geothermal heat pump Green building · Passive Solar Sustainable transport Plug-in hybrids · Electric vehicles Environment Portal v·d·e A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV or PHV).• Disclaimers • • Plug-in hybrid From Wikipedia. also known as a plug-in hybrid. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. search The Chevrolet Volt is the first mass production plug-in hybrid available in the United States. is a hybrid vehicle with rechargeable batteries that can be restored to full charge by connecting a plug to an external electric power source (usually simply a normal electric .

and Audi A1 e-tron. and by financing research and development of advanced batteries and other related technologies. Other benefits include improved national energy security. including the United States and several European countries.[5] and the most prominent PHEVs are conversions of 2004 or later Toyota Prius.[16] Several countries.[12][13] General Motors officially launched the Chevrolet Volt PHEV-35 (PHEV-100 km) in the U.S. buses. which have had plug-in charging and more batteries added and their electric-only range extended.[4][5][6] Plug-in hybrids use no fossil fuel during their all-electric range and produce lower greenhouse gas emissions if their batteries are charged from renewable electricity.1 Powertrains o 3.[7][8] Chinese battery manufacturer and automaker BYD Auto released the F3DM PHEV-62 (PHEV-100 km) to the Chinese fleet market on December 15. fewer fill-ups at the filling station. Most PHEVs on the road today are passenger cars. the convenience of home recharging. The cost for electricity to power plug-in hybrids for all-electric operation has been estimated at less than one quarter of the cost of gasoline. scooters.4 Electric power storage .3 Modes of operation o 3. opportunities to provide emergency backup power in the home.[14][15] Other plug-in vehicles ongoing demonstration trials or slated to the market for 2011 and 2012 are the Fisker Karma. Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid. 2008[9][10][11] and began sales to the general public in Shenzhen in March 2010.2 Charging systems o 3.wall socket). have enacted laws to facilitate the introduction of PHEVs through grants and tax credits. PHEVs may reduce greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to global warming.[1] Compared to conventional vehicles. 2010. giving PHEVs driving range comparable to other vehicles with gasoline tanks. and military vehicles. Contents [hide] • • • 1 Terminology 2 History 3 Technology o 3. also having a plug to connect to the electrical grid. emissions mandates. Until 2010 most PHEVs on the road in the US are conversions of conventional hybrid electric vehicles. motorcycles. PHEVs also eliminate the problem of range anxiety associated to all-electric vehicles. but there are also PHEV versions of commercial vehicles and vans. because the combustion engine works as a backup when the batteries are depleted. utility trucks.[2][3] compared with conventional vehicles. Suzuki Swift Plug-in. on November 30. PHEVs reduce air pollution locally and dependence on petroleum. A PHEV shares the characteristics of both a conventional hybrid electric vehicle. having an electric motor and an internal combustion engine. trains. Ford Escape Plug-in Hybrid. and of an all-electric vehicle. and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) applications. Volvo V70 Plug-in Hybrid.

2 Canada  7.5 NiMH battery patent encumbrance 8 See also 9 References 10 External links o 10.5 Conversions of production vehicles  3.1 Past conferences and events o 10.2 News o 10.3 Emissions shifted to electric plants in some countries o 5.2 Germany  7.3 European Union  7.1 Current production models o 7.1 United States  7.1 Cost of batteries o 5.3.3 Government support and public deployment  7.2 Fuel efficiency o 4.3.3.4 United Kingdom o 7.4 Supportive organizations o 7.1 Conversion of fossil-fuel vehicles  3.4 Books [edit] Terminology .1 Energy resilience and petroleum displacement o 4.5 Smog o 4.3.3 Video o o 10.• • • • • • • 3.3.3 Spain  7.4 Range anxiety elimination o 4.3 Operating costs o 4.5.3.1 France  7.2 Recharging outside home garages o 5.2 Conversions of gas-only hybrids 4 Advantages o 4.5.4 Tiered rate structure for electric bills o 5.3.5 Lithium availability and supply security 6 Greenhouse gas emissions 7 Production and commercialization o 7.3.3.6 Vehicle-to-grid electricity 5 Disadvantages o 5.3.2 Future production o 7.3.

Hybrids Plus plug-in hybrid Toyota Prius conversion with PHEV-30 (30 mile or 48 km all-electric range) battery packs A plug-in hybrid's all-electric range is designated by PHEV-[miles] or PHEV[kilometers]km in which the number represents the distance the vehicle can travel on battery power alone. and is a light-. medium-.[20] [21][22] General Motors is calling its Chevrolet Volt series plug-in hybrid an "ExtendedRange Electric Vehicle". This distinguishes PHEVs from regular hybrid cars mass marketed today. a PHEV-20 can travel twenty miles (32 km) without using its combustion engine.[17] The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 defines a plug-in electric drive vehicle as a vehicle that: • • • draws motive power from a battery with a capacity of at least 4 kilowatt hours. can be recharged from an external source of electricity for motive power. but also requires that the hybrid electric vehicle can drive at least ten miles (16 km) in allelectric mode (PHEV-10. so it may also be designated as a PHEV32km.[23] [edit] History Further information: History of plug-in hybrids . The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) defines PHEVs similarly. or heavy-duty motor vehicle or nonroad vehicle. PHEV16km). For example. "Gas-Optional Hybrid Electric Vehicle" (GO-HEV) or simply "gas-optional hybrids".[19] Other popular terms sometimes used for plug-in hybrids are "grid-connected hybrids". while consuming no gasoline or diesel fuel. which do not use any electricity from the grid.[18] The California Air Resources Board uses the term "off-vehicle charge capable" (OVCC) to mean having the capability to charge a battery from an off-vehicle electric energy source that cannot be connected or coupled to the vehicle in any manner while the vehicle is being driven.

Renault began selling the Elect'road. The on-board 3.5 kW at 132 volts at 5000 rpm.5 kilowatt charger could charge a depleted battery pack to 95% charge in about four hours from a 240 volts supply.2 imp gal) and was housed within the right rear wheel arch. each of which supplied up to 5. in Europe. Early hybrids could be charged from an external source before operation. the term "plug-in hybrid" has come to mean a hybrid vehicle that can be charged from a standard electrical wall socket. gal. The right side car is a Prius + converted by CalCars with a fuel economy of over 100 miles per gallon. Palo Alto.S. 16 kilowatt liquid-cooled gasoline "rangeextender" engine. After selling . Hybrid vehicles were produced as early as 1899 by Lohner-Porsche.Lithium-ion battery pack. It was sold alongside Renault's "Electri'cité" electric-drive Kangoo battery electric van. It powered two high voltage/high output/low volume alternators. However. The Elect'road had a 150 km (93 mi) range using a nickelcadmium battery pack and a 500 cc (31 cu in). The range extender function was activated by a switch on the dashboard. In 2003. with cover removed.[26] Passenger compartment heating was powered by the battery pack as well as an auxiliary coolant circuit that was supplied by the range extender engine.6 U. a plug-in series hybrid version of their popular Kangoo. 2. The July 1969 issue of Popular Science featured an article on the General Motors XP-883 plug-in hybrid. in a CalCars "PRIUS+" plug-in hybrid converted Toyota Prius converted by EnergyCS. The fuel tank had a capacity of 10 liters (2. The concept commuter vehicle housed six 12-volt lead-acid batteries in the trunk area and a transverse-mounted DC electric motor turning a frontwheel drive.[25] The operating speed of the internal combustion engine—and therefore the output delivered by the generators— varied according to demand. Several plug-in hybrid converted Toyota Prius at Professorville.[24] The car could be plugged into a standard North American 120 volt AC outlet for recharging.

Japan's Ministry of Land."[28] Toyota has said it plans to migrate to lithium-ion batteries in future hybrid models. 2006.[34] On July 25.[32] GM has said that they plan on introducing plug-in and other hybrids "for the next several years". Norway and the UK. The plug-in Prius was said to have an all-electric range of 13 km (8 mi).about 500 vehicles. Toyota announced that it "plans to develop a hybrid vehicle that will run locally on batteries charged by a household electrical outlet before switching over to a gasoline engine for longer hauls. CalCars converted a 2004 Toyota Prius into a prototype of what it called the PRIUS+.[31] In January 2007. or hydrogen fuel cell power to supplement the vehicle's battery. expected in fall 2008. diesel. making it the first automobile to attain such approval. the PRIUS+ achieved roughly double the fuel economy of a standard Prius and could make trips of up to 15 km (9 mi) using only electric power. which is owned by CalCars technical lead Ron Gremban. as battery technology improves.[30] Lithium-ion batteries are expected to significantly improve fuel economy. but cost more to produce. In September 2004. is used in daily driving."[36] . as well as a test bed for various improvements to the system.[29] but not in the next-generation Prius. Toyota plans to conduct road tests to verify its all-electric range. GM unveiled the prototype of the Chevrolet Volt. 2006. General Motors envisions an eventual progression of E-Flex vehicles from plug-in hybrids to pure electric vehicles.[35] But later prototypes shown at the 2008 Paris Auto Show had an electric-only range of "just a little over six miles. The vehicle.[30] On November 29. and raise safety concerns due to high operating temperatures. and have a higher energy-to-weight ratio. which was expected to feature a plug-in capable. at a price of about €25. battery-dominant series hybrid architecture called E-Flex. GM announced plans to introduce a production plug-in hybrid version of Saturn's Greenline Vue SUV with an all-electric range of 10 mi (16 km). With the addition of 130 kg (300 lb) of lead-acid batteries.[27] On July 18.[30] and GM announced in January 2007 that contracts had been awarded to two companies to design and test lithium-ion batteries for the vehicle. primarily in France. Infrastructure and Transport certified Toyota's plug-in hybrid for use on public roads.000.[31] The model's sale is anticipated by fall 2009.[33] Future E-Flex plug-in hybrid vehicles may use gasoline. [25] the Elect'road was redesigned in 2007.

[37] The Volt has an all-electric range of 40 mi (64 km). LLC announced the launch of a joint venture in Fisker Automotive. Chinese manufacturer BYD Automobile Company (which is owned by China's largest mobile phone battery maker) announced that it would be introducing a production PHEV-60 sedan in China in the second half of 2008.000 luxury PHEV-50. the Fisker Karma. They plan to produce both an electric 2e and a plug-in series hybrid 2h with a common three-wheeled. 2007.[40] On October 9.[39] In September. 2007. General Motors vice-president Robert Lutz announced that GM is on track for Chevrolet Volt road testing in 2008 and production to begin by 2010.[42] As part of this demonstration program Ford also developed the first ever flexible-fuel plug-in hybrid SUV. composite body design.[38] Fisker intends to build a US$80.President Bush with A123Systems CEO on the White House South Lawn examining a Toyota Prius converted to plug-in hybrid with Hymotion technology. Lutz said GM would like to have their planned Saturn Vue plug-in on the roads by 2009. over two thousand hybrid pre-orders have been accepted. and can be recharged to 70% of capacity in just 10 minutes. Michigan. and production of the hybrid configuration is expected to begin in 2010. Aptera Motors announced their Typ-1 two-seater. Demonstration Ford Escape plug-in hybrid in New York City. Announcing an agreement with A123Systems. As of 2009. On September 5.[41] On December 2007 Ford delivered the first Ford Escape Plug-in Hybrid of a fleet of 20 demonstration PHEVs to Southern California Edison. On August 9. anticipated in late 2009. BYD exhibited it January 2008 at the North American International Auto Show in Detroit. Based on BYD's midsize F6 sedan. which was delivered in June 2008. Quantum Technologies and Fisker Coachbuild.[43] This demonstration fleet of plug-ins has been in field testing . it uses lithium iron phosphate (LiFeP04)-based batteries instead of lithium-ion. President Barack Obama behind the wheel of a Chevy Volt plug-in during his tour of the General Motors Auto Plant in Hamtramck.

000 members.[46] Dr. The legislation provided tax credits for the purchase of plug-in electric vehicles of battery capacity over 4 kilowatt-hours. the U.[48][49] On January 7.000 miles. and an all-electric Dodge sports car. Volkswagen announced that they would be introducing production plug-ins based on the Golf compact.000 plug-in hybrids during 2012 through 2014. Volkswagen uses the term 'TwinDrive' to denote a PHEV.[64] . [54] This requirement is an asked-for alternative to an earlier mandate to produce 25. the fleet has logged more than 75.000. "The electrification of the automobile is inevitable. Mazda was reported to be planning PHEVs. both PHEV-40s with series powertrains.[45] Sales of the Escape PHEV are scheduled for 2012.[57] On September 23. Chrysler announced that they had prototyped a plug-in Jeep Wrangler and a Chrysler Town and Country mini-van.S. was started one year prior. Toyota announced they would start sales of lithium-ion battery PHEVs by 2010.[44] and during the first two years since the program began. and Canada."[50] On January 14. enacted the Energy Improvement and Extension Act of 2008. requiring automobile manufacturers to produce 58. Bob Lutz. the California Air Resources Board modified their regulations.000 pure zero-emissions vehicles. a privately run waiting list to purchase the Chevy Volt reached 10.S.[58][59][60][61] The Chevrolet Volt concept car at North American International Auto Show 2007.with utility company fleets in the U.[45] On August 2009 Ford delivered the first Escape Plug-in equipped with intelligent vehicle-to-grid (V2G) communications and control system technology. but now the battery capacity must be over 5 Kwh and the credit phases out after the automaker has sold at least 200. On October 3.S.[51][52] but later in the year Toyota indicated they would be offered to commercial fleets in 2009. Yi Cui and colleagues at Stanford University's Department of Materials Science and Engineering[47] have discovered that silicon nanowires give rechargeable lithium ion batteries 10 times more charge. reducing that requirement to 5. the Vice Chairman of General Motors said. administered by Lyle Dennis.[62][63] The federal tax credits were extended and modified by the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009.000 vehicles in the U. The list. and said that one of the three vehicles would go in to production. [53] On March 27.[56] In September. and Ford plans to equip all 21 plug-in hybrid Escapes with the vehicle-to-grid communications technology.[44] In January 2008.[55] On June 26.

a plug-in series hybrid concept car designed for flex-fuel operation on ethanol. based on the European test cycle.S.[74][75] GM officially launched the Chevrolet Volt PHEV-35 (PHEV-100 km) in the U.[65][66][67][68][69][70] Volvo Cars. 2010. began a demonstration project with two Volvo V70 Plug-in Hybrids in Göteborg. Canada. .[71][72] Volvo announced series production of plug-in diesel-electric hybrids as early as 2012.2-liter flex-fuel engine kicks in to allow to extend the range to more than 500 kilometres (310 mi). 2008 BYD Auto began selling its F3DM PHEV-60 in China.[9][10][11] Sales to the general public began in Shenzhen in March 2010. Germany. on November 30. in a joint venture with Vattenfall. the V70 Plug-in Hybrid demonstrators have an all-electric range between 20 kilometres (12 mi) to 30 kilometres (19 mi).88 L/100 km.[72][73] On October 2010 Lotus Engineering unveiled the Lotus CityCar at the 2010 Paris Motor Show. BYD expects subsidies from the local government to make the plug-in affordable to personal buyers. and the 1. Sweden since December 2009. 150 mpg-imp). the United Kingdom.[12] A global demonstration program involving 600 Toyota Prius Plug-in pre-production test cars began in late 2009 in Japan and by mid 2010 field testing had began in France.On December 15. The test plug-in hybrids were built with a button to allow test drivers to manually choose between electricity or diesel engine power at any time.[12][13] but because the F3DM nearly doubles the price of cars that run on conventional fuel. though initially was available only for corporate and government customers. As reported by the test drivers. becoming the first production plug-in hybrid sold in the world. a Swedish energy company.[74][75] The lithium battery pack provides an allelectric range of 60 kilometres (37 mi).[14][15] [edit] Technology [edit] Powertrains Further information: Hybrid vehicle drivetrains Toyota Prius plug-in hybrid demonstration program vehicle at the 2010 Washington Auto Show. or methanol as well as regular gasoline. and the United States. Volvo claimed that its plug-in hybrid could achieve 125 miles per US gallon (1.

most plug-in hybrid conversions of conventional hybrids utilize this architecture. while its electric motor drives the other axle and/or a generator used for recharging the batteries. (This type is called a road-coupled hybrid). Hybrid powertrains currently used by Ford. Toyota's Japan-only Coaster light-duty passenger bus. a parallel hybrid can also use its engine to drive one of the vehicle's axles.[78] Series-parallel hybrids have the flexibility to operate in either series or parallel mode.The Toyota Prius converted plug-in hybrid is a series-parallel hybrid. a DC charger must be utilized. Lexus. and Accord hybrids. both of which substantially increase fuel economy compared to a simple ICE vehicle. As is the case for other architectures. PHEVs are based on the same three basic powertrain architectures as conventional electric hybrids:[76] Series hybrids use an internal combustion engine (ICE) to turn a generator. or a combination of the two. As of 2007. and many diesel-electric locomotives. Nissan. which in turn supplies current to an electric motor.[79] [edit] Charging systems Batteries are DC devices while grid power is AC. A battery or supercapacitor pack. which some refer to as “series-parallel with power-split. the Opel Flextreme concept car. In order to charge the batteries. can simultaneously transmit power to their drive wheels from two distinct sources—for example. Parallel hybrids can be programmed to use the electric motor to substitute for the ICE at lower power demands as well as to substantially increase the power available to a smaller ICE. With an appropriate balance of components this type can operate over a substantial distance with its full range of power without engaging the ICE. The Audi Duo plug-in hybrid concept car is an example of this type of parallel hybrid architecture. an internal combustion engine and a battery-powered electric drive. Examples of series hybrids include the Renault Kangoo Elect'Road. such as Honda's Insight.” can operate in both series and parallel mode at the same time. The charger can be located in several locations: . Although most parallel hybrids incorporate an electric motor between the vehicle's engine and transmission. which then rotates the vehicle’s drive wheels. Daimler AG's hybrid Orion bus.[77] Parallel hybrids. and Toyota. the Chevrolet Volt production car. can be used to store excess charge. series hybrids can operate without recharging as long as there is liquid fuel in the tank. Civic.

[82] . As these components are already required on the car. This is the only mode that a battery electric vehicle can operate in. as the output of these chargers is DC. These vehicles can be designed to drive for an extended range in all-electric mode. This period is the vehicle's all-electric range. hence their limited range. However. a plug-in hybrid may be capable of charge-depleting and charge-sustaining modes. except during hard acceleration) on electric power until its battery state of charge is depleted to a predetermined level. Using electric motor's inverter allows the motor windings to act as the transformer coils.On-board chargers are mounted inside the vehicle. each battery system requires the output to be changed for that car. and their use has a direct effect on the size and type of battery required:[81] Charge-depleting mode allows a fully charged PHEV to operate exclusively (or depending on the vehicle. However. Off-board chargers can be as large as needed and mounted at fixed locations. almost exclusively. Built with dedicated wiring.[80] [edit] Modes of operation Regardless of its architecture. these charger can handle much more power and charge the batteries more quickly. and the existing high-power inverter as the AC-to-DC charger. Modern charging stations have a system for identifying the voltage of the battery pack and adjusting accordingly. they can be used to form a very powerful form of on-board charger with zero additional weight or size. AC Propulsion uses this charging method. avoiding carrying a more powerful charger that can only be fully utilized at certain locations. which they refer to as "reductive charging". and are designed to handle any practical power capability. carrying the charger along with the vehicle ensures that power will be available anywhere a power connection can be found. either at low speeds only or at all speeds. Since the charger takes up space and adds weight. Combinations of these two modes are termed blended mode or mixed-mode. These modes manage the vehicle's battery discharge strategy. its power capacity is generally limited by practical considerations. at which time the vehicle's internal combustion engine or fuel cell will be engaged. like the garage or dedicated charging stations.

Conversely. as used by a conventional hybrid. However. Conversions of 2004 and later model Toyota Prius can only run without using the ICE at speeds of less than about 42 mph (68 km/h) due to the limits dictated by the vehicle's powertrain control software. Charge-sustaining mode is used by production hybrid vehicles (HEVs) today.The redesigned Renault Kangoo Elect'road operates in blended mode. Such a trip would be considered a mixed mode. Blended mode is a kind of charge-depleting mode. At this point the vehicle can revert back to a charge sustaining-mode for another 10 miles (16 km) until the final destination is reached. Once a plug-in hybrid has exhausted its all-electric range in charge-depleting mode. The Electri'cité and Elect'road versions of the Kangoo were charge-depleting battery electric vehicles: the Elect'road had a modest internal combustion engine which extended its range somewhat. this may . a PHEV-20 Prius conversion may begin a trip with 5 miles (8 km) of low speed charge-depleting. the portion of a trip which extends beyond the all-electric range of a PHEV would be driven primarily in charge-sustaining mode. A blended control strategy typically increases the distance from stored grid electricity compared to a charge-depleting strategy. Because the number of full cycles influences battery life. using engine and battery power simultaneously.[84] The battery in a HEV can thus be thought of as an energy accumulator rather than a fuel storage device. at faster speeds electric power can still be used to displace gasoline. as multiple modes are employed in one trip. using 10 miles (16 km) worth of all-electric range at twice the fuel economy.[85] For example. thus improving the fuel economy in blended mode and generally doubling the fuel efficiency. and combines the operation of the vehicle's two power sources in such a manner that the vehicle is operating as efficiently as possible without allowing the battery state of charge to move outside a predetermined narrow band. Mixed mode describes a trip in which a combination of the above modes are utilized. [edit] Electric power storage Further information: Electric vehicle battery.[83] The Renault Kangoo and some Toyota Prius conversions are examples of vehicles that use this mode of operation. Charging station PHEVs typically require deeper battery charging and discharging cycles than conventional hybrids. then get onto a freeway and operate in blended mode for 20 miles (32 km). it can switch into charge-sustaining mode automatically. It is normally employed by vehicles which do not have enough electric power to sustain high speeds without the help of the internal combustion portion of the powertrain. This contrasts with a charge-depleting trip which would be driven within the limits of a PHEV's allelectric range. Finally the driver might exit the freeway and drive for another 5 miles (8 km) without the internal combustion engine until the full 20 miles (32 km) of all-electric range are exhausted. Over the course of a trip in a HEV the state of charge may fluctuate but will have no net change.

more expensive batteries. because of their larger. as in taxicab stands. At early 2007 gasoline and electricity prices.[94] EDF is also partnering with Elektromotive. General Motors (GM) has said it has been "approached by utilities interested in using recycled Volt batteries as a power storage system. However. If the cobalt is replaced with iron phosphates. Project Better Place began in October 2007 and is working with Renault on development of exchangeable batteries (battery swapping).[92] More recently. and safety need to be solved. Électricité de France (EDF) and Toyota are installing charging stations for PHEVs on roads. the cells will not burn or release oxygen under any charge. plug-in hybrids typically use larger battery packs than comparable conventional hybrids.[88] and battery life expectancy is expected to increase.[90] Nickel-metal hydride and lithium-ion batteries can be recycled. weight.[86] Design issues and trade-offs against battery life. Lithium iron phosphate batteries are one of three major types in LFP family.[91] However. the other two being nano-phosphate and nano-cocrystalline-olivine. with US$1200 or more of that being cost of lithium-ion batteries. The conventional hybrid premium could fall to US$2000 in five years. providing for a threeyear payback."[93] Lithium iron phosphate (LiMPO4) is a class of cathode materials used in lithium iron phosphate batteries that is getting attention from the auto industry. a secondary market that could bring down the cost of the Volt and other plug-in vehicles for consumers. capacity. promising greater energy densities by both mass and volume. some US$3000 of which is for their NiMH battery packs. The price premium for early 2007 conventional hybrids is about US$5000.[97] Ultracapacitors (or "supercapacitors") are used in some plug-in hybrids.[87] Advanced battery technology is under development. some authors argue that PHEVs will soon become standard in the automobile industry. their residual capacity still has significant value. for example.[89] The cathodes of some early 2007 lithium-ion batteries are made from lithium-cobalt metal oxide. They state that while these used batteries may be no longer usable in vehicles. has a recycling program in place under which dealers are paid a US$200 credit for each battery returned. Valence Technologies produce a lithium iron manganese phosphate (LiFeMgPO4) battery with LG Chem selling lithium iron phospate (LiFePO4) batteries for the Chevy Volt and A123 produces a lithium nano-phosphate battery. Toyota. This material is expensive. Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) has suggested that utilities could purchase used batteries for backup and load leveling purposes. that would mean a break-even point after six to ten years of operation. to store rapidly available energy with their high power . and thus require more resources. heat dissipation. The payback period may be longer for plug-in hybrids. streets and parking lots. and cells made with it can release oxygen if overcharged. Ltd.[95] to install 250 new charging points over six months from October 2007 in London and elsewhere in the UK. such as AFS Trinity's concept prototype. The most important merit of this battery type is safety and high-power.[96] Recharging points also can be installed for specific uses. costs.be less than in traditional HEVs which do not deplete their batteries as fully. In France.

every 20– 100 miles. PHEVs release fewer GHGs. a PHEV-10 conversion of a Toyota Prius Main article: Prius+ .000 credit for PHEV conversions (in addition to a federal 10% credit up to $4.[102] There are several companies that are converting fossil fuel non-hybrid vehicles (also called all-combustion engine vehicles) to plug-in hybrids:[103][104] Colorado is going to offer $6.density. in order to keep batteries within safe resistive heating limits and extend battery life. and regulators installed into WhiteBird.000 for qualifying vehicles).[105] This section requires expansion. Our results suggest that for urban driving conditions and frequent charges every 10 miles or less. This is called ACEV-to-PHEV conversion. [edit] Conversions of gas-only hybrids 15 lead-acid batteries. PFC charger. creating a hybrid car battery that lasts longer. costs less and is more powerful than current technologies used in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). cost. but HEVs are more cost effective. " [edit] Conversions of production vehicles Further information: Electric vehicle conversion [edit] Conversion of fossil-fuel vehicles See also: CalCars Retrofit electrification requires only one-fifth the energy required to build a new vehicle. and greenhouse gas emissions.[100] The optimum battery size varies depending on whether the aim is to reduce oil consumption. or emissions. For less frequent charging. but a recent study[101] concluded that "The best choice of PHEV battery capacity depends critically on the distance that the vehicle will be driven between charges. a low-capacity PHEV sized with an AER (all electric range) of about 7 miles would be a robust choice for minimizing gasoline consumption.[98][99] The UltraBattery combines a supercapacitor and a battery in a single unit. running costs.

of Petaluma. the CalCars Prius+. Inc. California offers components and assemblies to build the Prius+. The "PbA Battery Box Assembly" is also available without batteries. the plug-in conversion invented by CalCars. this is also referred to as Battery Range Extender Modules (BREMs).[98][99] The EAA-PHEV project was conceived by CalCars and the Electric Auto Association in October 2005 to accelerate efforts to document existing HEVs and their potential for conversion into PHEVs.[113] Their lead-acid battery box assembly forms a complete install package. providing access to the spare tire and containing twenty 12 volt lead-acid batteries and all high voltage components and control electronics.[27] EDrive Systems use Valence Technology Li-ion batteries and have a claimed 40 to 50 miles (64 to 80 km) of electric range.[106] Some of the systems have involved replacement of the vehicle's original NiMH battery pack and its electronic control unit. such as A123 Hymotion. piggyback an additional battery back onto the original battery pack.[114] Conversion time was reduced by plug-in supply to one day.[107] Within the electric vehicle conversion community this has been referred to as a "hybrid battery pack configuration". the vehicle's powertrain software would be reprogrammed to make full use of the battery pack's additional energy storage capacity and power output. Plug-In Supply.[109] Other companies offering plug-in conversions or kits for the Toyota Prius (some of them also for Ford Escape Hybrid) include Hymotion. It provides about 10 miles (16 km) of EV mode range.[111] It includes a "conversion interest" page.Aftermarket conversion of an existing production hybrid (a charge-maintaining hybrid) to a plug-in hybrid (called CHEV-to-PHEV conversion[102]) typically involves increasing the capacity of the vehicle's battery pack and adding an on-board AC-to-DC charger. Many members of organizations such as CalCars and the EAA as well as companies like Hybrids Plus. and to provide a common design that could demonstrate multiple battery technologies.[108] Early lead-acid battery conversions by CalCars demonstrated 10 miles (15 km) of EV-only and 20 miles (30 km) of double mileage blended mode range. The Motor Industry Research Association has announced a retrofit hybrid conversion kit that provides removable battery packs that plug into a wall outlet for charging. Hybrid Interfaces of Canada. Ideally. and the PiPrius.[112] The Electric Auto Association-PHEV "Do-It-Yourself" Open Source community's primary focus is to provide conversion instructions to help guide experienced converters through the process. Others. Many early plug-in hybrid electric vehicle conversions have been based on the 2004 or later model Toyota Prius.[115] Poulsen Hybrid is developing a conversion kit that .[110] AFS Trinity's XH150 claims that it has created a functioning plug-in hybrid with a 40 miles (64 km) allelectric range and that it has solved the overheating problem that rapid acceleration can cause in PHEVs and extend battery life. and Manzanita Micro participate in the development of the project. Hybrids Plus Manzanita Micro and OEMtek BREEZ (PHEV-30). Oemtek offers a Valence powered lithium iron phosphate conversion that should provide 50 miles (80 km) of all-electric range.

Longer range 4 kW·h model is also available for $1000 more. inversion. providing access to the spare tire and containing 16/32 lithium phosphate battery cells. A further advantage of PHEVs is that they have potential to be even more efficient than conventional hybrids because a more limited use of the PHEV's internal combustion engine may allow the engine to be used at closer to its maximum efficiency. it gives the greatest degree of energy resilience. depending on how it will be driven and the trips for which it will be used. battery charging/discharging. the motor controller and motor itself. electricity is multi-sourced and. It provides about 10 miles (16 km) of EV mode range for under $2000 (2 kW·h model). Michigan offers universal plugin conversion kits with components and assemblies to build two stage hybrid battery system invented by Enginer Inc. the way a vehicle is used (its duty cycle).[7] The furthest all-electric range in a PHEV planned for mass production is the PHEV-60 BYD F6e. [edit] Advantages [edit] Energy resilience and petroleum displacement Each kilowatt hour of battery capacity in use will displace up to 50 US gallons (190 l.[82] The actual efficiency achieved depends on losses from electricity generation.[119] The Toronto Atmospheric Fund . Conversion time was reduced to two/three hours. If no gasoline is used the MPG equivalent depends only on the efficiency of the electric system. The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) developed their recommended practice in 1999 for testing and reporting the fuel economy of hybrid vehicles and included language to address PHEVs. Their lithium-ion battery box assembly forms a complete install package. a DC/DC converter. While a Prius is likely to convert fuel to motive energy on average at about 30% efficiency (well below the engine's 38% peak efficiency) the engine of a PHEV-70 would be likely to operate far more often near its peak efficiency because the batteries can serve the modest power needs at times when the combustion engine would be forced to run well below its peak efficiency.[117] Also.[116] Enginer. 42 imp gal) of petroleum fuels per year (gasoline or diesel fuels). as a result. An SAE committee is currently working to review procedures for testing and reporting the fuel economy of PHEVs.[118] [edit] Fuel efficiency Main articles: Energy conversion efficiency and Well-to-wheel Claimed fuel economy for PHEVs depends on the amount of driving between recharges. and the opportunities to recharge by connecting to the electrical grid. of Troy. A 120 km (70 mi) range PHEV-70 may annually require only about 25% as much gasoline as a similarly designed PHEV-0.will add through-the-road plug-in hybrid capability to conventional vehicles by externally mounting electric motors onto two of the wheels. Inc. a BMS and a charger.

org. Unlike a conventional engine. government and industry researchers tried to determine the optimum all-electric range.[122][123] [edit] Operating costs Former President George W.019 per km). Moreover. which operates over a wide variety of power settings and operational conditions. 0.[127][129] One of the advantages of the PEV design is that the generator can be completely decoupled from the traction. For example.000-mile (27. 61 mpg-imp) in a 17. to provide electric power to the electric motor. the range extender can be operated under optimum conditions at all times.000. based on 0.000–11. as opposed to pure plug-ins. Bush is shown the PHEV Mercedes-Benz Sprinter van in the US Postal Service A 2006 research estimate in California found that the operating costs of plug-ins charged at night was equivalent to 75¢ US per US gallon (20¢/L) of gasoline. eliminate the range anxiety concerns because the gasoline engine serves as a back-up to recharge the battery.[127][128] Plug-in hybrids. some Prius PHEV conversions may not achieve much better fuel economy than HEVs.[126] [edit] Range anxiety elimination One of the main barriers for the general adoption of all-electric cars is the range anxiety factor. access to a regular fuel station guarantees similar driving ranges as conventional gasoline-powered automobile.[124][125] During 2008. the additional battery pack costs $10.58 MJ/km) and a cost of electricity of US$0. These include . which was considered below the technology's potential.26 kilowatt-hours per mile (0. the driver's fear of being stranded by a depleted battery before reaching the final destination.[1] The cost of electricity for a Prius PHEV is about US$0.[120] In "real world" testing using normal drivers.10 per kilowatt hour. or to provide propulsion directly. (4. In the case of the Volt.[121] and similar results with the same kind of conversion battery models at Google. each with a 30 miles (48 km) all-electric range.tested ten retrofitted plug-in hybrid vehicles that achieved an average of 5.16 kW·h/km.03 per mile (US$0.8 litres per 100 kilometre or 40.6 L/100 km. a plug-in Prius fleet.6 miles per gallon over six months in 2008. High-efficiency power sources that are not suitable for normal automotive use may be perfectly suitable for PEV use. averaged only 51 mpg-U.S.000 km) test in Seattle.

Even if such vehicles just led to an increase in the use of night time electricity they would even out electricity demand which is typically higher in the day time.e. [edit] Smog The Ontario Medical Association announced that smog is responsible for an estimated 9. indicating that the vehicle may have been a plug-in hybrid. five Toyota engineers and one Asian AW engineer published an IEEE technical paper detailing a Toyota-approved project to add vehicle-to-grid capability to a Toyota Prius. would not be given .. Wankel engines. as well. the vehicle was featured in a Toyota Dream House.e. much of which sits idle as operating reserve most of the time. and a brochure for the exhibit stated that "the house can supply electricity to the battery packs of the vehicles via the stand in the middle of the garage". and provide a greater return on capital for electricity infrastructure. This assumes that vehicles are charged primarily during off peak periods (i. for a normal house. stirling engines. By using excess battery capacity to send power back into the grid and then recharge during off peak times using cheaper power.[17] In the UK.[130] Plug-in hybrids in emission-free electric mode may contribute to the reduction of smog. However.[120] [edit] Vehicle-to-grid electricity Main article: Vehicle-to-grid PHEVs and fully electric cars may allow for more efficient use of existing electric production capacity. In October 2005.advanced close-cycle steam engines.500 premature deaths in its province every year. i. and microturbines due primarily to their light weight and small size. This is accomplished with vehicle-to-grid technology. which means that it would need an earth rod at the premises. at night). it did not state whether or not the experimental vehicle could be charged through the circuit. or equipped with technology to shut off charging during periods of peak demand. Another advantage of a plug-in vehicle is their potential ability to load balance or help the grid during peak loads.[131] Although the technical paper described "a method for generating voltage between respective lines of neutral points in the generator and motor of the THS-II (Toyota Hybrid System) to add a function for generating electricity".[132] . VTG would need to comply with generation connection standard "G59/2".to maintain a balance of load across the three phases). such vehicles are actually advantageous to utilities as well as their owners. and would be unable to export more than 17 kW without the network firm's permission (which feeding onto one phase.

which was sponsored by the American Public Power Association.[137] [edit] Disadvantages [edit] Cost of batteries Main article: Electric vehicle battery Disadvantages of plug-in hybrids include the additional cost. the California Air Resources Board held a Zero Emission Vehicle symposium that included several presentations on V2G technology. or regulations requiring consumers to disconnect from the grid when connected to non-grid sources will be required before such backup power solutions would be feasible. Pacific Gas and Electric Company showcased a PHEV at the Silicon Valley Leadership Alternative Energy Solutions Summit with vehicle-to-grid capability.[134] In April 2007. and demonstrated that it could be used as a source of emergency home power in the event of an electrical power failure. and considering that a PHEV-10 requires about 2. and during a break in the proceedings. and size of a larger battery pack.[135] Regulations intended to protect electricians against power other than from grid sources would need to be changed.0 kW·h and a PHEV-40 about 8 kW·h. Greg Hanssen and Peter Nortman of EnergyCS and EDrive attended the two-day session. The event.U. President Barack Obama examines hybrid vehicles in the Edison Electric Vehicle Technical Center in Pomona. also provided an opportunity for association members to plan strategies that public power utility companies could use to promote plug-in hybrid technology. in a vehicle-to-grid agreement. weight.S. In November 2005. the cost of a lithium-ion battery pack is about USD 1.[136] Federal Energy Regulatory Commissioner Jon Wellinghoff coined the term "Cash-Back Hybrids" to describe payments to car owners for putting their batteries on the power grid. California. more than 50 leaders from public power utility companies across the United States met at the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power headquarters to discuss plug-in hybrid and vehicle-to-grid technology.[133] In September 2006. Batteries could also be offered in low-cost leasing or renting or by donation (including maintenance) to the car owners by the public utilities.700/kW·h of usable energy. According to a 2010 study by the National Research Council. the manufacturer cost . made an impromptu display in the LADWP parking lot of their converted Prius plug-in hybrid.

000 for a PHEV-40. lifetime fuel savings are not enough to offset plugins high upfront costs. The Prius Plug-in estimated all-electric range is 14. market penetration is expected to be slow and therefore PHEVs are not expected to significantly impact oil consumption or carbon emissions before 2030.of the battery pack for a PHEV-10 is around USD 3. even though costs are expected to decline by 35% by 2020.100 55% 200 gallons Notes: (1) Considers the HEV technology used in the Toyota Prius with a larger battery pack.300 1.S.000 Annual Expected gasoline gasoline savings savings compared compared to a to a HEV HEV(2) PHEV.000.000 1.5 mi (23 km)[141] (2) Assuming 15.[139][140] Lithium iron phosphate batteries from Valence Technologies[142] were used in the first plug-in hybrids from CalCars[143] are providing a conversion for the Toyota Prius priced at $12. hundreds of billions of dollars in government subsidies and incentives are likely to be required to achieve a rapid plug-in market penetration in the U.300 20% 70 gallons PHEVChevy Volt 40 Series USD 18. unless a fundamental breakthrough in battery technologies occur.Prius Plug10 in(1) Parallel USD 6.000 More USD than USD 14. According to the 2010 NCR study.000 miles per year. despite the fact that a mile driven on electricity is cheaper than one driven on gasoline.[138][139][140] Cost comparison between a PHEV-10 and a PHEV-40[138][140] (prices for 2010) Manufacturer Cost of Plug-in additional cost Similar Cost of electric type by Type of compared to production battery system EV drivetrain conventional model pack upgrade range non-hybrid at home mid-size More USD than USD 3.[138][139] According to the same study. Hymotion also offers a conversion for $10.[144] [edit] Recharging outside home garages Main article: Charging station .[140] Furthermore.000 US but their conversion is only 5 kW where Oemtek's is 9 kW.000 and it goes up to USD 14. and it will take decades before the break even point is achieved.

or in commercial or public parking lots or streets or workplaces are required for these potential users to gain the full advantage of PHEVs.[146][147] Even house dwellers might need to charge at the office or to take . residents of cities.RechargeIT converted plug-in hybrids at Google's Mountain View campus. However. dormitories. and they might be less likely to buy plug-ins unless recharging infrastructure is developed. Three plug-in converted Toyota Prius recharging at San Francisco City Hall public charging station. The garage has recharging facilities powered by solar panels. and townhouses do not have garages or driveways with available power outlets.[145][146] Electrical outlets or charging stations near their places of residence. apartments. On-street electric charging unit located at the Hillsboro Civic Center in Hillsboro. Oregon. Many authors have assumed that plug-in recharging will take place overnight at home.

the "Experimental Timeof-Use Low Emission Vehicle rate.[148] However. but additional tiers are priced as high as $0."[153] Efficiency of plug-in hybrids is also impacted by the overall efficiency of electric power transmission. given emissions levels from most coal plants currently supplying power to the grid. For example. as well as some local private firms such as Google and Adobe Systems. Identifying."[158] That tariff gives people much cheaper rates if they charge at night. "Electric vehicles and grid-dependent (plug-in) hybrid vehicles showed somewhat higher nonclimate damages than many other technologies.[155] By life cycle analysis of air pollution emissions. but most areas will experience a decrease. regulating and upgrading single point pollution source such as a power plant—or replacing a plant altogether—may also be more practical. The net effect on pollution is dependent on the fuel source of the electrical grid (fossil or renewable. From a human health perspective. shifting pollution away from large urban areas may be considered a significant advantage.advantage of opportunity charging at shopping centers. such as overnight recharging.[150] A study by the ACEEE predicts that widespread PHEV use in heavily coal-dependent areas would result in an increase in local net sulfur dioxide and mercury emissions. already have deployed charging stations and have expansion plans to attend both plug-ins and all-electric cars. this infrastructure is not in place today and it will require investments by both the private and public sectors. the higher cost of the application of these technologies may increase the price of coal-generated electricity.30 per kW·h to customers without electric vehicles. . Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) normally charges $0. for example) and the pollution profile of the power plants themselves.[151] Although clean coal technologies could create power plants which supply grid power from coal without emitting significant amounts of such pollutants. [147] Several cities in California and Oregon.[149] [edit] Emissions shifted to electric plants in some countries Increased pollution is expected to occur in some areas with the adoption of PHEVs. and this pilot program is being monitored on a daily basis and performance results are published in RechargeIT website. discounted rate for plug-in and other electric vehicle customers.10 per kilowatt hour (kW·h) for the base tier.[156][157] Some utilities offer electric vehicle users a rate tariff that provides discounts for off-peak usage.5% in 2007.[152] According to a 2009 study by The National Academy of Science.2% in 1995[154] and 6.[147] In Google's case. PG&E offers a special. and particularly San Francisco and other cities in the San Francisco Bay Area and Silicon Valley. natural gas vehicles are currently the lowest emitter[citation needed]. especially during the summer months.[147][149] Solar panels are used to generate the electricity. Transmission and distribution losses in the USA were estimated at 7. [edit] Tiered rate structure for electric bills Electric utility companies generally do not utilize flat rate pricing. its Mountain View campus has 100 available charging stations for its share-use fleet of converted plug-ins available to its employees.

the main deposits of lithium are found in China and South America throughout the Andes mountain chain. The PG&E tariff would change those break-even gasoline prices to USD $1. heavy metals and other rare elements (such as neodymium.[159] Without an off-peak charging tariff.220/(kW·h) would see benefits if gasoline was priced above US$2. for the given PHEV and usage pattern in question. one study of a certain PHEV-20 model having an all-electric range of 20 miles.55 (USD/gal). boron and cobalt) required for the batteries and powertrain is expected to grow significantly due to the incoming market entrance of plug-ins and electric vehicles in the mid and long term.S. unstable governments or hostile to U. by using a timer to restrict charging to off-peak hours.80 per gallon.17 and $3.[166][167] Nearly half the world's known reserves are . gasoline-fueled efficiency of 52.S.. raising concerns about the risk of replacing dependence on foreign oil with a new dependence on hostile countries to supply strategic materials. [161][162] [edit] Lithium availability and supply security Current technology for plug-ins is based on the lithium-ion battery and an electric motor. The Salar de Uyuni in Bolivia is one of the largest known lithium reserves in the world. In 2008 Chile was the leading lithium metal producer. and all-electric efficiency of 4 mi/kW·h. those that consumed 201%–300% of baseline electricity at $0.[164][166] In the United States lithium is recovered from brine pools in Nevada.[160] Off-peak tariff rates can lower the break-even point. and the demand for lithium. China.346/(kW·h) would only see benefits if gasoline was priced above $4. respectively.98.96. $3.The additional electrical utilization required to recharge the plug-in vehicles could push many households in areas that do not have off-peak tariffs into the higher priced tier and negate financial benefits.[162][163][164][165] Currently. followed by Australia.7 mi/gal U. and households consuming over 300% of baseline electricity at $0.89/US gal. found that household electricity customers who consumed 131%–200% of baseline electricity at $0. for example. interests. Customers under such tariffs could see significant savings by being careful about when the vehicle was charged. an accurate comparison of the benefit requires each household to evaluate its current electrical usage tier and tariffs weighed against the cost of gasoline and the actual observed operational cost of electric mode vehicle operation.303/(kW·h) would only see benefits if gas was priced above $3. Some of the largest world reserves of lithium and other rare metals are located in countries with strong resource nationalism. Thus. and Argentina.

located in Bolivia. they usually produce slightly more greenhouse gas emissions than internal combustion engine vehicles. it does result in an appreciable increase in CO2 and PM emissions as this analysis has not assumed any limits on CO2 or PM emissions. From the perspective of a full life cycle analysis. The clean air benefit is usually local because depending on the source of the electricity used to recharge the batteries. but from the point of view of a well-to-wheel assessment. However. [170] The article concludes: "In summary.[164][166] Regarding rare earth elements.[169] There has been much debate over the potential GHG emissions reductions that can be achieved with PHEV. tailpipe and greenhouse emissions are lower in comparison to conventional cars because of their higher fuel economy.[162][166] Other important reserves are located in Chile. PHEVs do not emit greenhouse gases from the onboard source of power. or nuclear power for PEVs to have almost none or zero wellto-wheel emissions. air pollutant emissions are shifted to the location of the generation plants.[168] In the case of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle when operating in hybrid mode with assistance of the internal combustion engine. The addition of coal-fired generation to meet this need for more baseload generation does not result in any significant differences in annual emissions of SO2.[168] In the same way. and Brazil." .[165] [edit] Greenhouse gas emissions Main article: Greenhouse gas The effect of PHEVs on greenhouse emissions is complex. which can be used to make lithium batteries for hybrid and electric vehicles. NOx and Hg because of the caps on those pollutants. Bolivia's Salar de Uyuni desert has 5.8% increase in power generation needed as a result of PHEV. which controls the world market for these elements. solar. any reductions in emissions of SO2.[170] In the same report the EPRI also states that CO2 emissions could increase by 430 million metric tons. the addition of PHEVs as a significant transportation option adds approximately 6% to the total national electricity demand in 2030 compared to the base case with no PHEVs. hydroelectric . Due to the charging profile that results in most of this additional demand occurring during off-peak hours (late night/early morning) there is an increase in the need for baseload generation.[162][164] and according to the US Geological Survey. when PEVs are recharged from coal-fired plants. A study by the Electric Power Research Institute reports that a 338 TW·h or 5. Plug-in hybrid vehicles operating on all-electric mode do not emit harmful tailpipe pollutants from the onboard source of power. most reserves are located in China.[168][169] On the other hand. the extent of the benefit also depends on the fuel and technology used for electricity generation. Therefore. the electricity used to recharge the batteries must be generated from renewable or clean sources such as wind.4 million tons of lithium. NOx or Hg from non-electric generating sources would result in a net national decline in these emissions. China.

Three US regions were selected for the analysis. PHEVs can be viewed as an element in the "Pacala and Socolow wedges" approach which shows a way to stabilize CO2 emissions using a portfolio of existing techniques. The difference is such that overall carbon emissions would decrease if all internal combustion vehicles were converted to plug-ins. because subsidies can be structured according to relative costs between renewables and fossil fuel. net CO2 emissions associated with PHEVs will decrease correspondingly. a shift toward PHEV use could reduce GHG emissions by 3.[173] The Minnesota Pollution Control Agency found that if Minnesota's fleet of vehicles making lengthy trips were replaced by plug-in hybrids. a typical American driver is expected to achieve about a 15% reduction in net CO2 emissions compared to the driver of a regular hybrid. which is how most vehicles are used. In general. based on the 2005 distribution of power sources feeding the US electrical grid. and Illinois. on average. New York.[172] RAND also in 2008 studied the questions of a carbon tax. including efficient vehicles. The full cycle analysis results were also reported for the . A 2008 study at Duke University suggests that for PHEV's to reduce greenhouse gas emissions more than hybrids a carbon pricing signal that encourages the development of low carbon power is needed. However. replacing the vehicles with non plugin hybrids would engender a larger decrease in CO2 emissions. RAND found that subsidies were able to provide a smoother transition to new energy sources. California. considering different on-board fuels and different sources of electricity generation for recharging the vehicle batteries.4 billion metric tons. The magnitude of these reductions would ultimately depend on the level of PHEV market penetration and the carbon intensity of the US electricity sector. unless more than 40% of the electricity used to charge the vehicles were to come from non-polluting sources. and produce much less carbon dioxide in short commuter trips.[150] In 2009 researchers at Argonne National Laboratory adapted their GREET model to conduct a full well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles for several scenarios.A study by the American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ACEEE) predicts that. A 2007 joint study by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) similarly found that the introduction of PHEVs into America’s consumer vehicle fleet could achieve significant greenhouse gas emission reductions.[171] while for PHEVs recharged in areas where the grid is fed by power sources with lower CO2 emissions than the current average. especially in the face of energy source price volatility. and providing renewable energy subsidies under various economic conditions and vehicle type availabilities. local net CO2 emissions will increase. as these regions include major metropolitan areas with significant variations in their energy generation mixes. carbon cap and trade systems. while taxes and carbon trading schemes alone do not take relative prices of energy into account.[2] The EPRI-NRDC report estimates that. CO2 emissions per vehicle would likely decrease.4 to 10.[174] Plug-in hybrids use less fuel in all cases.[171] The ACEEE study also predicts that in areas where more than 80% of grid-power comes from coal-burning power plants. increasing gasoline tax. between 2010 and 2050.

(1) (as a % relative to an internal combustion engine vehicle that uses fossil fuel gasoline) Reformulated gasoline and Ultra-low sulfur diesel E85 fuel from corn and switchgrass Analysis Fuel cell hydrogen Petroleum energy use reduction GHG emissions reduction(2) 40–60% 70–90% more than 90% 30–60% 40–80% 10–100% Source: Center for Transportation Research. The following table summarizes the main results:[3] PHEV well-to-wheels Petroleum energy use and greenhouse gas emissions for an all-electric range between 10 and 40 miles (16 and 64 km) with different onboard fuels. electricity from renewable sources realized the largest reductions in petroleum energy use and GHG emissions for all PHEVs as the all-electric range increased.[175][176] The Argonne study found that PHEVs offered reductions in petroleum energy use as compared with regular hybrid electric vehicles. regions. respectively[3] This 2009 study showed a wide spread of petroleum use and GHG emissions among the different fuel production technologies and grid generation mixes.9 L/100 km.S. except when electricity used to recharged was dominated by coal or oil-fired power generation.[3] A 2008 study by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory analyzed oil use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of plug-in hybrids relative to hybrid electric vehicles under several scenarios for years 2020 and 2030. See Table 1. generally a combination of coal.US generation mix and renewable electricity to examine cases of average and clean mixes.[177] The study considered the mix of power sources for 13 U. As expected. (2) No direct or indirect land use changes included in the WTW analysis for bio-mass fuel feedstocks. More petroleum energy savings and also more GHG emissions reductions were realized as the all-electric range increased. Argonne National Laboratory (2009). natural gas and .[3] Notes: (1) Simulations for year 2020 with PHEV model year 2015. 48 mpg-imp). Each type of vehicle was assumed to run 20 miles (32 km) per day and the HEV was assumed to have a fuel economy of 40 miles per US gallon (5. The study also concluded that plug-in vehicles that employ biomass-based fuels (biomass-E85 and -hydrogen) may not realize GHG emissions benefits over regular hybrids if power generation is dominated by fossil sources.

NV. and WY. and to a lesser extend renewable energy. Natural gas Northwest Nuclear 84.3% -93.0% -99.0% .[177][178] A 2010 study conducted at Argonne National Laboratory reached similar findings.0% -99.4% -46.6% 11. -37. -16.7% -20. ME. Lower Midwest Natural gas Coal 88.6% UT.2% -47. concluding that PHEVs will reduce oil consumption but could produce very different greenhouse gas emissions for each region depending on the energy mix used to generate the electricity to recharge the plug-in hybrids.8% -25. MT. LA.5% MA.4% -11. and VT.S. WA. NH.0% California Natural gas Renewable Natural gas Natural gas Oil 99.3% -26.0% -25. SD.3% 15.4% Includes CT.[179][180] The following table summarizes the main results of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory study for the 2020 scenario: Comparison of carbon emissions and oil consumption by plug-in hybrids relative to hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) by U.5% -11.6% -96.5% -47. regional power generation sources on 2020[181] Carbon Oil emissions consumption relative to HEVs relative to HEVs Region(1) Share Main States total electricity included in the generation sources region(2) AllAll2020 Plug-in Plug-in electric electric hybrid hybrid mode mode Includes ID.0% 1.6% Florida -14.6% Texas -15.4% New England Natural gas Coal 70.nuclear energy.0% -99.4% Includes AR.3% -45. RI.3% 15. OR.4% -44.9% -99. -17. NM.1% 2.7% -47. KS.4% -15.0% 100% 96.

VA. [edit] Production and commercialization Further information: Automotive market . Includes AZ. New York Oil Natural gas 67.2% +6.6% Includes IA. Includes IA. Greater Illinois Coal Natural gas 75.4% +4. ME. -46.4% Includes AL. and TX.3% +19.4% 24. MI.8% +7. NM. ND. MT. -12.6% -10.7% +36.9% Greater Ohio Coal Natural gas 65.8% Includes IN.7% KY.6% 46.6% IL.6% 16.6% 37.6% -98.9% 44.1% -9. GA. MO. +11. NV.0% -0.9% -99.8% +7. Notes: (1) Regions as defined by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation. OH. NJ.OK.0% NE.9% +2.0% -1.2% 29. SC. LA.0% -46. MI.5% -98. and TN. MS. and TX.4% -46.7% -99. SD. and PE.7% -98.7% 32.0% -46. MN.40% MidAtlantic Natural gas Coal 60. +27.4% -95.1 Upper Midwest Natural gas Coal 47. and WI.0% -8. MD. Natural gas Southwest Coal 83. and WI.4% CO. (2) Some states appear in more than one region because parts of them belong to different regions.2% Coal Southeast Natural gas 51.8% -46. and WV. Includes DC. +14.9% DE. -45.9% NC.

900).[12] The F3DM is sold for 149. 2008.[182] [edit] Current production models The BYD F3DM became the world's first mass produced plug-in hybrid compact sedan as it went on sale in China to government agencies and corporations on December 15. Pike projects 1. with 17% willing to pay 20–50% more than a standard vehicle and half willing to pay 5-10% more.7 million PHEVs on the world's roads by 2015 and half a million annual sales.[9][10][11] Sales to the general public began in Shenzhen in March 2010[12][13] but because the F3DM nearly doubles the price of cars that run on conventional fuel.000 more for a plug-in hybrid car increased from 17% in 2005 to 26% in 2006. BYD Auto is counting on subsidies from the local government to make the plug-in attractive to personal buyers.800 yuan (about USD 21. A survey from Pike Research shows 22% of 1. Another 34% have some interest for a total of 82%.041 consumers extremely and 26% very interested in buying a PHEV-40-(like the Volt).Launched in December 2008.[11] and .S. The Bright IDEA plug-in hybrid delivery truck is available for fleet customers in the U. The number of US survey respondents willing to pay US$4. the BYD F3DM became the world's first mass produced plug-in hybrid automobile.

[188][186][187] In the United States.[183][184] The F3DM has a all-electric range of 100 kilometers (60 mi). Incentives for the development of PHEVs are included in the Energy Independence and .[195] and military vehicles. California. and Austin.[183] General Motors introduced the first Chevrolet Volt off the assembly line on November 30. New York. During the first quarter of 2011 the market will expand to Michigan.[196] Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technologies.[193][194] motorcycles.S.. 2010. the Toyota Prius can now be commercially converted (using aftermarket kits and tax incentives) to a plug-in hybrid by CalCars and a number of thirdparty companies. [198] including a modular kit car model (XR-3 Hybrid). Michigan. under contract for the Chicago Transit Authority. and Canada is scheduled to begin in late 2011 until mid 2012. Inc converts diesel buses to plug-in hybrids. the Aptera 2h. PHEVs have been sold as commercial passenger vans.[190] utility trucks.S.[191][192] general and school buses. Texas. [edit] Government support and public deployment See also: Government incentives for plug-in electric vehicles [edit] United States Plug-in hybrids were mentioned as an area of research in President George W. Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid.during its first year in the market the F3DM only sold 48 vehicles. which is expected to get about twice the mileage of a regular hybrid electric bus. New Jersey and Connecticut.[186] The first cars will be available in Washington D. Suzuki Swift Plug-in and the Ford C-Max Energi. A startup in California named Aptera Motors is creating a series drivetrain PHEV version of its concept electric car.[98][200] Other plug-in vehicles ongoing demonstration trials or slated to the market for 2011 and 2012 are the Fisker Karma.[14][15] The Volt will be sold initially only in California. the rest of Texas and to all of New York.[189] On a smaller scale.[199] Conversion kits and services are available to convert production model hybrid vehicles to plug-ins. in 2011. Volvo V70 Plug-in Hybrid.[186][187] Nationwide availability in the U.C. as GM planned production for 2011 is only 10. Fisher Coachworks is developing a plug-in hybrid. Ford Escape Plug-in Hybrid. scooters. Sales and deliveries are expected to begin in December 2010. New Jersey and Connecticut.[185] and is slated to go on sale in Europe and the U.[187] The restricted roll-out is due to limited production.[197] [edit] Future production Further information: List of modern production plug-in electric vehicles At least fourteen car companies of all sizes are exploring or planning to offer a plug-in. the New York City metropolitan region.000 units. Washington Metropolitan Area. the Fisher GTB-40. Texas. Bush's advanced energy initiative and mentioned in his 2007 State of the Union Address.

grants a tax break of $2. he announced programs directing $2. 2009.R.000 pounds (6. President Barack Obama's New Energy for America calls for deployment of 1 million plug-in hybrid vehicles by 2015.[202] and on March 19. and the maximum credit for vehicles between 10.[210] For the government's 600.[203] The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009[204] modifies the tax credits.500. 200.[207] The battery capacity shift may be an attempt to include the Chevy Volt while limiting the credit available to low all-electric range plug-in models of the Toyota Prius. and for agencies with 20 or more vehicles to reduce petroleum use by 2% annually through 2020.Security Act of 2007. it requires a 30% reduction in petroleum use by 2020.000 to $7. GVWR is reduced from $10. as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.000 to 200.000 units pot of money shared by all carmakers.000 pounds (4. credits for vehicles over 14.00 vehicle fleet.4 billion to electric vehicle development. In March 2009.000 plug-in hybrid vehicles.85 billion from 2010–2014.000 units (but instead of one 250. 39% for medium.[208] The United States House of Representatives passed H. 3246.and heavyduty commercial vehicles for retrofitting advanced vehicle technologies to existing vehicles and to existing truck fleets.500.[205] The ultimate total included in the Act that is going to PHEVs is over $6 billion. President Barack Obama signed Executive Order 13514 on Federal Leadership in Environmental.[211] Public deployments also include: • USDOE's FreedomCAR. but vehicles between 4–5 kW·h battery capacity only receive the minimum credit of $2. 2009. 2008. Energy. US Department of Energy announced it would dole out $30 million in funding to three companies over three years to further the development of plug-in hybrids[212] .500 per car for manufacturers of up to 250.500 and 6. the Advanced Vehicle Technology Act of 2009.000 units sizable funds are created for every carmaker). This announcement will also help meet the President Barack Obama's goal of putting one million plug-in hybrid vehicles on the road by 2015.400 kg). including a new one for plug-in electric drive conversion kits and for 2 or 3 wheel vehicles.500 to $7.[206] However the production phase-out trigger is decreased from 250.[182] On October 5.000 and 14. The battery capacity window of 4–16 kW·h is maintained. and Economic Performance to accelerate Federal agencies' efforts.400 kg) GVWR are eliminated (by redefining PHEVs to be less than this GVWR). signed into law on October 3.[201] The Energy Improvement and Extension Act of 2008. the US Department of Energy announced the release of two competitive solicitations for up to $2 billion in federal funding for competitively awarded cost-shared agreements for manufacturing of advanced batteries and related drive components as well as up to $400 million for transportation electrification demonstration and deployment projects.[209] $2.

supportive permitting and codes for vehicle charging. in the frame of the Green Car Initiative.[221] [edit] European Union Electrification of transport (electromobility) is a priority in the European Union Research Programme. Better Place and others are also advancing.[220] The Province of Ontario has announced plans to provide rebates of between $4.000 CAD for plug-in hybrids and battery electric vehicles. the Port of Seattle. It also figures prominently in the European Economic Recovery Plan presented November 2008.[222] [edit] France The French government kicked in $550M and sponsors partnership by Électricité de France with Renault-Nissan and with PSA Peugeot Citroën. that includes City's public fleet converted vehicles. Washington State PHEV Pilot Project[217] Texas Governor Rick Perry's proposal for a state $5. public and workplace charging infrastructure. and other incentives such as high-occupancy-vehicle (HOV) lanes access[219] [edit] Canada The City of Toronto is supporting public deployment of PHEVs. The first charging stations went up in San Jose[216] (more information in Plug-in hybrids in California). test. 2010 to the first 10. starting on July 1. consumer-friendly electricity rates and renewable electricity options. San Jose Mayor Chuck Reed and Oakland.000 tax credit for PHEVs in "non-attainment" communities Seattle. and deploy plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV) school buses."[215] and of the world[216] There are partnerships with Coulomb.S. California Mayor Ron Dellums announced a nine-step policy plan for transforming the Bay Area into the "Electric Vehicle (EV) Capital of the U.[223] [edit] Germany .• • • • • • • USDOE announced the selection of Navistar Corporation for a cost-shared award of up to $10 million to develop. King County and the Puget Sound Clean Air Agency[218] GM's roadmap for plug-in ready communities includes: consumer incentives to make this early technology more affordable. government and corporate vehicle purchases. DG TREN will support a large European "electromobility" n project on electric vehicles and related infrastructure with a total budget of around € 50million as part of the Green Car Initiative.000 purchases only.[213] DOE and Sweden have a MOU to advance market integration of plug-in hybrid vehicles[214] PHEV Research Center San Francisco Mayor Gavin Newsom.000 to $10.

the Alliance for Climate Protection.000 to reserve a plug-in car and the federal government would match each payment with $9. the Set America Free Coalition. increasingly.[235] FPL and Duke Energy has said that by 2020 all new purchases of fleet vehicles will be plug-in hybrid or all-electric. Rocky Mountain Institute (Project Get Ready). be powered by electricity. where buyers would pay $1.[224] [edit] Spain The MOVELE Plan gives funds to acquire plug-in vehicles. all of which would go to carmakers. Friends of the Earth.[227] On 21 June 2010. should.000. to be powered with a combination of electricity and hydrogen. [226] Transport for London is planning to include plug-in hybrids in the exemption to the London congestion charge previously available only to fully electric vehicles.[225] [edit] United Kingdom In November 2007 the then Prime minister Gordon Brown said that renewables will supply 15 per cent of the UK's energy mix by 2020 and emphasised the role that electric and plug-in hybrid cars will play as part of the government's carbon reduction strategy.. its International Director General James Leape remarked.. Toyota launched a three-year Prius Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle lease demonstration programme in the UK. the City of Hamburg's hydrogen fuel cell bus trial will be superseded with the current 6 buses to be grounded and replaced by 10 plug-in hybrid buses.[236] ."[229] Also National Wildlife Federation has done a strong endorsement of PHEVs. and provided 20 Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles to public organisations and business fleet users in the UK. the Rainforest Action Network.[232] Other supportive organizations are Plug In America. and the Plug-in Hybrid Electric School Bus Project.In 2011.[230] CalCars (with their PHEV news service and "What car makers are saying about PHEVs") is dedicated only to the PHEV and has proposed a Prepayment Plan. [edit] Supportive organizations Organizations that support plug-in hybrids include the World Wide Fund for Nature.[228] The programme was partly funded by the UK Government through the Office for Low Emission Vehicles (OLEV). "the cars of the future .[233] the San Francisco Bay Area Council.[231] CalCars is also promoting public funds for conversion of internal combustion engines to plug-in vehicles.[234] the Silicon Valley Leadership Group.[215] the Apollo Alliance.

Davis) Retrieved August 7.[edit] NiMH battery patent encumbrance Main article: Patent encumbrance of large automotive NiMH batteries Some battery formats and chemistries (nickel-metal hydride batteries) suitable for use in PHEVs are tightly patented and have not been licensed for use by PHEV manufacturers. Molburg. A. 3. J. "Well-to-Wheels Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions .. "What are Plug-In Hybrids?" Team Fate (University of California. and A. 2007. and Duvall. ^ a b c d e A. E. Rousseau (February 2009). M. ^ a b Knipping. Retrieved July 21. Wang. thereby slowing the development of electric cars and PHEVs. earlier version 2. 2007. particularly before the 2008 Oil Crisis.[5][237][238][239] [edit] See also • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Advanced Technology Vehicles Manufacturing Loan Program Alternative fuel vehicle Automotive industry crisis of 2008– 2009 CalCars Car Allowance Rebate System Clean Energy Bank Cleanova (a Kangoo derivative) Development mule Electric transportation technology Electric TM4 FreedomCAR Fuel economy-maximizing behaviors Funding Opportunity Announcement Genset trailer Glossary of automotive design Government incentives for plug-in electric vehicles Sustainable development portal Energy portal • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Hybrid tax credit Hymotion Hypercar Inductive charging List of modern production plug-in electric vehicles Low-carbon economy Low-carbon fuel standard Low-energy vehicle Mitigation of global warming Paul Werbos PHEV Research Center Plug In America Plug-in Conference Plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) Plug-in garage United States Council for Automotive Research [edit] References 1. Elgowainy. Burnham. ^ a b Frank. et al. (June 2007) "Environmental Assessment of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Volume 1: Nationwide Greenhouse Gas Emissions" Electric Power Research Institute and Natural Resources Defense Council. M. A..

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Idaho National Laboratory Plugin. List of Plug-in Vehicles (Plug In America). [edit] Past conferences and events • • • • The Brita Climate Ride 2009 September 26–30 (charity bike ride from New York City to Washington. explaining how PHEVs can help "break America's oil addiction and slow global warming" Energy Storage and Transportation . http://www. Beyond Oil: Transforming Transportation. Retrieved 2009-10-08. Motor City.theenergyroadmap. 194–207. M. Canada). (2008-10-14). Quebec. "The Edison of our Age: Stan Ovshinsky and the Future of Energy (Video Interview Part 1)".com/2003-05-15/features/dude-where-smy-electric-car/4. Orange County Weekly. Random House.237. pp. Romm and Peter Fox-Penner in the Progressive Policy Institute's March 2007 newsletter. o DoE Grant for Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Technology Acceleration And Deployment Activity. Comparisons. . http://www.Plugin cars. "Plugging into the Grid" by Joseph J. hybrids and electric vehicles Plug-In. 263– 264. Retrieved 2009-10-08. WA) . 239. Discussion.com/futureblogger/show/1030-stanford-ovshinskyand-the-future-of-energy-interview-part-1. [edit] External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Plug-in electric hybrid-powered vehicles Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Plug-in hybrid • • • • • • • How Plug-In Hybrid Cars Work at HowStuffWorks US Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy o Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study Final Report.com . ^ Greenberg J. DC) The Business of Plugging In 2009: October 19–21.Plug-in and Hybrid News. The Car That Could: The Inside Story of GM’s Revolutionary Electric Vehicle. The Energy Roadmap. ISBN 978-0-679-42105-4. "Dude.com . to be held at Microsoft's Redmond campus. Detroit. o Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles. (2003-05-15). 2009. Michigan PHEV '09 September 28–30. ^ Coker. October 23–24 (Redmond.ocweekly. Michael (1996-08-27). Wheres My Electric Car!?!". 2009 (Montreal.The sixth annual Cascadia Center for Regional Development TransTech Conference. 238. including list of books and publications. ^ Shnayerson. July 2010. o Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC).

Ann Arbor. Plug-In Electric Vehicles: What Role for Washington? (1st. Sandalow. Michigan Hybridfest Green Drive Expo: July 18–19. the US Department of Transportation. CBS News. California Beyond oil. Boschert. WI Plug-in 2008: July 22–24. Nevlin LLC. http://www. Hybridfest. 2008. ISBN 0865715718.com/plugin_and_more. ISBN 978-0-8157-0305-1. 2008) Daimler VideoCast: The new Sprinter Plug-In-Hybrid commercial van (19 February 2009) [edit] Books • David B. New Society Publishers. Transforming Transportation: September 4–5. 2008.org: Plug-In Hybrids & the Smart Grid: October 23.tv Ford Escape plug-in hybrid electric sport utility vehicle (Ford Environmental. October 2008) [edit] Video • • • • • Boschert. January 5. October 6. Long Beach. (March 12.. ed. Two Cents per Mile: Will President Obama Make it Happen With the Stroke of a Pen?. Washington DOT and the Puget Sound Clean Air Agency. San Jose. editor (2009). The Brookings Institution. 2007) "Plug-In Hybrids" Corte Madera. S.sherryboschert.• • • • • • • Plug-In Electric Vehicles 2008 by the Brookings Institution and Google. co-sponsored by Microsoft. 2009. http://www. Madison.com: July 19–20. • • . http://www. in Redmond. California [edit] News • • "High-tech vehicles growing more common in region: Plug-in cars give owners a real jolt of satisfaction" (Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Plug-in Hybrids: The Cars that will Recharge America (1st ed. California: fora.brookings.). Wisconsin Plug-in 2009: August 10–13. TechKnowForum. Madison. September 9. Fifth Annual Cascadia-Microsoft Conference on Transportation Technology.aspx. 2008. 2008) "The Plug-in Revolution :A grand plan for America’s energy woes" (Washington Monthly.com/Two-Cents-per-MilePresident/dp/0615293913/ref=sr_1_1? ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1248664558&sr=8-1. 2009. the Idaho National Laboratory. Nevres (2009). Cefo.org.). 2008. 2008) New Chevy Volt exterior wind tunnel testing (April 2008) The Race For The Electric Car (60 Minutes. Sherry (2007).amazon. PEMCO.html. ISBN 978-0615293912.edu/press/Books/2009/pluginelectricvehicles. Washington.

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