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c c

To study the response of a process using Step input signal.
The time domain investigation of a control system involves
1. Transient response analysis and
2. Steady state analysis
These are used in the design of a feed back control system for a specified input signal. These
two analysis methods are used to study the characteristics of a system and to compare its
performance with another system.
For a closed loop system the transfer function C(s)/R(s) = G(s)/(1+G(s))
Time response of the system c(t) = L-1 [G(s) R(s) /(1+G(s))]
c(t) = Transient solution + Steady state solution
Transient solution gives the deviation of output from ideal input and the interval for which
the system remains in disturbed state. Transient response is analysed from t=0 to t=t1
corresponding to a specified state.
Steady state response is the behavior of the system for tÊ . The difference between the
steady state solution and the input gives steady state error (ess).
Test / input signals are used to excite the system for investigating and controlling the system
performance. The various test signals are:
c  c: The step is a signal whose value changes from zero to another level  in
negligible time. The functional representation of a step signal is given by

( ) = ( )
( ) = 1, > 0 --- (1)
= 0, < 0
where, (t)represents a unit step function.
Taking Laplace Transform of Eq (1), we obtain
( ) = £ [ ( )] = / (2)

Transient response is normally described in terms of the unit step input. The specifications
used for transient performance analysis are:
Rise time (tr) ± For under damped systems, it is the time taken by the response to attain 0-
100% of the final steady state value.
Peak ti e (t ± it i t e ti e taken by t e response to reach the first maximum value.
Delay time (t ± it is the time taken by the response to attain 50% of the final value.
Settling time (ts) ± time taken by the response to damp out all transients. Theoretically this
time = . In practical cases assume tolerance band of 2% or 5% of the final value. Time
taken to attain this tolerance band is called ts.
Over shoot (Mp) ± it is the peak value measured from unity.
Steady state error (ess) ± it is the difference bet een the ideal and final value of the system
after the transient has expired.
Time constant (T) ± time taken by the response to attain 63.2% of the final value.

1 2 )
    ( / From this calculate å. Substitute in ts (2% tolerance) = 4/å n

This expression gives n. For a second order system the transfer function is of the form
2 2 2
n /(s +2å ns + n ). Now we could get back the transfer function of the system.

c   c    c  
Do simulation using simulink for the second order system having å = 0.3 and n = 0 rad/s.
i. aenerate unit source as shown using simulink library blocks. [c  c
 The parameters to be entered are shown just below
each block so as to generate these signals.
2. Select all these and right click and click on create subsystem and name it unit source,
content of which is shown in the following diagram.
Î Aow create the second order system using     from c  
   . Aow give the step input to this block and run the simulations for 10s and
plot the curve. From the plots observe the time domain specifications mentioned in
the Theory section. Also measure the steady state error and verify whether it matches
with theoretical value. From these time specifications synthesize the transfer function,
and check whether it is matching the actual transfer function.

4. Aow construct the closed loop system as shown below. c  

     Study the behavior of second order plant with different
values of kp. Minimize steady state erroe by adjusting kp. Aow replace kp with PI
controller and check steady state error. Aow replace it with PID controller and
observe the response. Paste the plots and inference in your observations.

Also observe the response of the closed loop system with ramp and impulse inputs. Study the
response with P, PI and PID controllers.