You are on page 1of 31

specialist in ex-proof electrical equipment

introduces :

The Quality Systems in


the field of Explosion
Proof Equipment
The Hazard Triangle

CO
MB
US
EN

TI
YG

BL
EXPLOSION
OX

E
GA
S
SPARK / IGNITION
Sources of Ignition
• A source of energy is all that is needed to touch off an explosion
when flammable gases or combustible dusts are mixed in the
proper proportion with air.

• Equipment :
switches
circuit breakers Can produce arcs or
sparks in normal
motor starters
operation when contacts
push button stations are open & close
plug/receptacles
What are Hazardous Locations
• The identification of a danger zone in a chemical or
petrochemical plant should be carried out by highly qualified
personnel. Normally process managers, who establish where
in the plant there is a presence of either a continuous or
occasional explosive atmosphere.
• The most frequent danger points are found where there is a
possibility of inflammable gas leaks, that can occur during
normal operation or due to a breakdown.
• The classification is determined by the quantity of gas present
in given zone.
Basic Principles
• To define the various hazard zones in the interior of a
plant (Zones/Groups)

• Flash point and self-inflammation temperature in ºc


for gases, self flammation temperature in layers or in
clouds for dust

• To select the choice of electrical equipments that can


be installed in that zone to ward off the danger of
explosions caused by accidental sparks or surface
overheating
The marking system
Example marking required by the new directive ATEX 94/9/CE

0081 II 2 G e/o D EEx-e T6 IP66

Method of Temperature IP protection


protection class degree
Gas and/or Dust
Equipment category (for Zone 1)
Equipment Group (used in surface industry)

Distinctive community marking


for equipment usable on potentially explosive atmosphere

Notified Body identification code (e.g. : 0081 = LCIE)

CE marking which certifies conformity


CENELEC
(European Committee for Electro Technical Standardization)

Some of specialized laboratories recognized by the


EEC in Europe :

• BASEEFA U.K.
• LCIE France
• CESI Italy
• DEMKO Denmark
• ISSeP (INIEX) Belgium
• KEMA Holland
• PTB Germany
Equipment Groups

Place of Use Group Areas Representative Gas

Mines I Gaseous mines Methane


susceptible to
firedamp
II A Surface Propane
Surface II B Ethylene
industries
II B + H2 Hydrogen

II C Hydrogen and or
Acetylene
Hazardous Areas Classification
Equipment Categories and
Hazardous Areas Classification

Gas / Vapour
equipment hazardous
description
category areas
An area in which the mixture of explosive gas is constantly
1G ZONE 0
present (ex. The inside of fuel tank).
An area in which a mixture of explosive gas may be
2G ZONE 1 present during the normal operation of the plant (max 10
hours / year)
An area in which the mixture of explosive gas is not
3G ZONE 2 normally present, but is only present for brief periods of
time. (max 1 hour / year)
Equipment Categories and
Hazardous Areas Classification

Dust

equipment hazardous
description
category areas
An area in which the mixture of explosive powder is
1D ZONE 20
constantly present (ex. Centrifugal dust separator).
An area in which a mixture of explosive powder may be
2D ZONE 21 present during the normal operation of the plant (max 10
hours / year)
An area in which the mixture of explosive powder is not
3D ZONE 22 normally present, but is only present for brief periods of
time. (max 1 hour / year)
Explosion-proof Standard
“Method of Protection”
General Rules Permitted in
Zone
Oil immersed Ex “o” Zone 1, 2
Inside Pressure Ex “p” Zone 1, 2
Construction under sand Ex “q” Zone 1 ,2
Explosion-proof housing Ex “d” Zone 1 ,2
Increased Safety Ex “e” Zone 1 ,2
Intrinsic Safety Ex “i” Zone 0, 1 ,2
Encapsulation Ex “m” Zone 1 ,2
Explosion-proof Standard
“Method of Protection”

EEx-i
Intrinsic Safety

Designed to limit
the ignition energy
of the circuit
Zone 0 – 20 – 1 – 21 – 2 - 22
Explosion-proof Standard
“Method of Protection”

EEx-d
Explosion-Proof Housing
-Contain internal explotion
-Explotion cannot transmitted outside enclosure
-Cabel fitting must have 5 treads engaged
Designed to contain the
explosion (flame) inside
the enclosure
Zone 1 – 21 – 2 - 22
Explosion-proof Standard
“Method of Protection”
EEx-e
Increased Safety
1.Must use high impact resistant materials
FRP/GRP will not hold static charge
2.Internal components cannot produce arcs or
sparks
3.Has special air and line leakage and creapage
distances
4.Control internal and external temperature.
External <= 85 deg Cel (T6).

Designed to prevent
any ignition from
arising
Zone 1 – 21 – 2 - 22
Explosion-proof Standard
“Method of Protection”
EEx-q
Powder Filling

EEx-m
Encapsulation

EEx-p
Pressurization

EEx-o
Oil Immersion
Designed to prevent the flammable
Mixture reaching a mean of ignition Zone 1 – 21 – 2 - 22
Explosion-proof Standard
“Method of Protection”

EEx-n
Restricted Breathing “n” Equipment (Non Sparking)
1.Equipment has no normally arcing parts
2.Enclosure restricts ingress of hazardous gases
3.Thermal effects incapable of ignition
Designed to prevent
any ignition from
arising
Zone 2 - 22
Temperatures
Temperature class T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6

Maximum Surface 450ºc 300ºc 200ºc 135ºc 100ºc 85ºc

HOT COOLER

Different temperature classification between U.E. and U.S.A. standards

T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6

T1 T2 T2 A T2 B T2 C T2 D T3 T3 A T3 B T3 C T4 T4 A T5 T6

450° 300° 200° 135° 100° 85°

450° 300° 280° 260° 230° 215° 200° 180° 165° 160° 135° 120° 100° 85°
Classification of the Hazardous Areas
American Standard

CLASS I Gas or Vapours (Groups A – B – C – D)


CLASS II Powders (Groups E – F – G)
CLASS III Fibers

Division 1 The danger can exist during normal operation


Division 2 The danger could exist only in case of breakdown
Differences between the European
and north America Methods
COSTANTLY INTERMITTENT BREAKDOWN
PRESENCE PRESENCE

ZONE 0 ZONE 1 ZONE 2


IEC / EUROPE
USA / CANADA
Division 1 – Class I Div. 2 – Class I

COSTANTLY INTERMITTENT BREAKDOWN


PRESENCE PRESENCE

ZONE 20 ZONE 21 ZONE 22


IEC / EUROPE
USA / CANADA
Division 1 – Class II Div. 2 – Class II

Note : The fibers – Class III – are still not specified by European Standards
Advantages & Disadvantages of
Ex “d” and Ex “e”
Advantages Disadvantages
EEx-d • capable of withholding a possible • maintenance more complicated
internal explosion and prevent its (e.g. difficult to change fluorescent tubes)
transmission to the atmosphere • piped plant (where requested)
outside the housing complicated
• higher class of protection
• easily available and cheaper
components

EEx-e • easy installation • high cost of spare parts (components


• pleasant appearance must be Ex type)
• safety cut-off switch • frequent and costant maintenance
(e.g. seal)
Examples of Explosion
Proof Equipment
EEx-d
ƒ Junction boxes

EJB Series GUB Series


Material: Aluminium Material: Aluminium
EEx-d
ƒ Distribution boards

Material: Aluminium – Stainless steel


EEx-d
ƒ Lighting fixtures

RCDE

EVAC
EVF EJB08
Material: Aluminium
EEx-e / EEx-i
ƒ Junction boxes

Materials: GRP – Stainless steel - Aluminium


EEx-ed
ƒ Lighting Fixture / Control Station

AVF
Material: GRP SA/C
Materials: GRP – Stainless steel - Aluminium
EEx-de
ƒ Lighting fixtures / Control stations / Distribution Boards

(detailed view)

SFDE
Material: Aluminium CCAC
Materials: GRP – Stainless steel - Aluminium
EEx-d / EEx-e / EEx-i
ƒ Cable glands

Materials :
Nickelplated brass – GRP
Stainless steel – Galvanized steel
Thank You for your kind attention !!!