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TITLE:INDUSTRIALISE BUILDING SYSTEM (IBS)
LECTURER: MADAM TUTI HARYATI BINTI JASIMIN STUDENTS: KHAIRUL UMAR HAMZAH BIN AHMAD FAUZI 1DDF (PROPERTY MANAGEMENT)
Introduction…………………………………………………….…………………1 Literature review: Definition………………………………………..……………………..……..…2-3 Application categories…………………………………………….………..…4-5 Development Of Existing Building Uses IBS……………………..………6-9 History of IBS in Malaysia …………………………………………….……..10 Malaysian Government Circular on IBS…………………………………11-12 Advantages and disadvantages of using IBS……………………….….13-14 What should be done to encourage use of IBS………………………….15-16 Pictures……………………………………………………………………..17-18 Examples of IBS components………………………………………..….19-22 Appendix…………………………………………………………………..…23-24
Industrialise Building System or IBS in short,is a system in which building components are made in factories, on-site or off site, transported and then assembled into a structure with a minimum work.Generally,IBS is implemented to achieve higher productivity or quality in terms of building construction and reduce construction defects. The Malaysian Government is very optimistic and excited to use this system in the construction industry in the country ini.This is because most of the developed countries in the world have adopted this system in their nation building aspects .This system is proven to save construction costs as well as expedite the completion of a construction projects. Use of IBS provides many advantages. But there are still obstacles that hinder these efforts to develop to a higher level .All the factors that hinder the wider use of IBS should be investigated and resolved to ensure the a better future of construction sector.
IBS is defined as a construction system in which components are manufactured in a factory, on or off site, positioned and assembled into structure with minimal additional site work (CIDB, 2003). Dietz, A.G.H(1971) earlier defined IBS as total integration of all subsystem and components into overall process fully utilizing industrialized production,transportation and assembly techniques. Lessing et al, (2005) defined IBS as an integrated manufacturing and construction process with well planned organization for efficient management, preparation and control over resources used, activities and results supported by the used of highly developed components. Trikha (1999) defined as a system in which concrete components prefabricated at site or in factory are assembly to form the structure with minimum in situ construction. IBS is also defined as a set of interrelated element that act together to enable the designated performance of the building (Warszawski, 1999). Parid Wardi (1997) defined IBS as a system which uses industrialised production techniques either in the production of components or assembly of the building or both. Esa and Nurudin (1998) asserted that IBS is a continuum beginning from utilizing craftsmen 62 for every aspect of construction to a system that make use of manufacturing production in order to minimize resource wastage and enhance value for end users. Junid (1986), identified IBS as a process by which components of a building are conceived, planned and fabricated, transported and erected at site. The system includes a balanced combination between software and hardware component. The software element include system design, which is a complex process of studying the requirement of the end user, market analysis and the development of standardized components. Perhaps the most comprehensive definition of IBS was clarified by Junid (1986). He mentioned that an IBS in the construction industry includes the industrialised process by which components of a building are conceived, planned, fabricated, transported and erected on site. The system includes a
balanced combination between the software and hardware components. The software elements include system design, which is a complex process of studying the requirement of the end user, market analysis, development of standardised components, establishment of manufacturing and assembly layout and process, allocation of resources and materials and definition of a building designer conceptual framework.The software elements provide a prerequisite to create the conducive environment for industrialised toexpand.Meanwhile, the hardware elements are categorised into three major groups. These includes frame or post and beam system, panel system, and box system. The framed structures are defined as those structure that carry the loads through their beams and girders to columns and to the ground whilst in panel system load are distributed through large floor and wall panels. The box systems include those system that employ threedimensional modules (or boxes) for fabrication of habitable units are capable of withstand load from various directions due to their internal stability.
SOURCE: Kamarul Anuar Mohamad Kamar, Ir. Dr. Zuhairi Abd. Hamid, Mohd Khairolden Ghani and Ahmad Hazim Rahim, Construction Research Institute of Malaysia URL: http://www.mbam.org.my/mbam/images/@IBS%20-%20Current %20Shortcomings%20And%20The%20Vital%20Role%20(62-65).pdf
This section focuses on the classification of IBS published in Malaysia as well as other parts of the world. Generally, there are four types of building systems currently available in Malaysia according to Badir-Razali building system classification (Badir et al. 1998), namely conventional, cast in-situ, prefabricated and composite building systems is shown in Figure 1.0. Each building system is represented by its respective construction method which is further characterised by its construction technology, functional and geometrical configuration. It is reported that currently at least 22 companies supplying building system in Malaysia (Badir et al.2002). Warszawski (1999) asserted that the building system could be classified in different ways, depending on the particular interest of their users or producers. Such classification use construction technology as a basis for classifying different building systems. In this manner four major groups can be distinguished namely, system with (1)timber, (2)steel, (3)cast in situ concrete, and (4)precast concrete as their main structural and space enclosing materials. These systems can be further classified according to the geometrical configuration of their main framing components as follows (1)linear or skeleton (beams and columns) system, (2)planar or panel systems, and (3) three dimensional or box systems. Majzub (1977) expounded that the relative weight of components should be used as a basis for building classification. The factor of weight has significant impact on the transportability of the components and also has influence on the production method of the components and their erection method on site. The classification by weight also has the advantage of distinguishing between the various basic materials used in the production of component which by itself could determine the characteristic of the system under study. However, Majzub’s classification method is found to be inadequate to incorporate other building system flourish recently. One of the distinct example is the interlocking load bearing blocks which was the brainchild of a group of researchers in Universiti Putra Malaysia. This new building system cannot be categorised according to frame, panel or even box system. On the other hand, the composite system that combines two or more construction method cannot also be categorised under the Majzub’s classification. Hence, the classification needs to be updated to reflect the current technological advancement.
Recently, changes have occurred in the category of application usage is due to the additional in the IBS.So,there are five main IBS groups identified in Malaysia, there are :
1) Pre-cast Concrete Framing, Panel and Box Systems – pre-cast columns, 2)
beams, slabs, 3-D components (balconies, staircases,toilets, etc), etc Formwork Systems – tunnel forms, EPS-based forms, beams and columns moulding forms, permanent steel formworks, etc; Steel Framing Systems – steel beams and columns, portal frames, roof trusses, etc; Prefabricated Timber Framing Systems – timber frames, roof trusses, etc; Block Work Systems – interlocking concrete masonry units (CMU), lightweight concrete blocks, etc.
With the advancement of technology and innovation, besides the five main types, various pre-fabricated materials have entered the market. It includes gypsum, wood wool, polymer, fiber glass, glass and aluminium based IBS components.
SOURCE: Leewp33.tripod.com URL:http://leewp33.tripod.com/sitebuildercontent/sitebuilderfiles/characterist ic-ibs.pdf
Development Of Existing Building Uses IBS
1. Custom, Immigration & Quarantine Complex, Johor Bahru
Function of Building
Custom, Immigration and Quarantine Complex and Government Offices.
Location IBS System Owner
Johor Bahru Precast concrete beams, columns and hollow core slabs Public Works Department, Malaysia.
This building uses IBS through the use of precast concrete beams, column and hollow core slabs. As is well known, the use of precast concrete beams is better because it is ten times more powerful than the conventional way using blocks. In addition, it also prevents water and moisture build inflation. Consequently, it also continues to maintain the building in warmer and drier condition.It’s also can last longer.
Columns helps to bear the heavy load of the building in better way. Hollow core slabs are promising excellent fire resistance and provides the
efficiency of a prestressed member for load capacity,span range,and deflection control. Sources: (Precast concrete beams) www.scribd.com URL: http://www.scribd.com/doc/18434132/Precast-Concrete (Columns) www.chestobooks.com URL: http://chestofbooks.com/architecture/Building-Trades-Pocketbook/Columns.html (Hollow Core) www.strescore.com
URL: http://www.strescore.com/www.strescore.com/Technical_Data_files/PCI% 20Manual% 20for% 20Design% 20of% 20Hollowcore.pdf Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA), Sepang Function of Building Location IBS System Owner
Airport Terminal Building Sepang, Selangor. Steel roof structure Malaysia Airport Berhad.
This building uses IBS through the use of steel roof structure. Steel roof structure is used because it is very strong and stable frame that is made of steel and is held together with the help of metal connector plates. Another advantage of steel roof structure is its color and durability; it also provides good protection for the assets that are using it. The stability of a roof is a matter of concern because the roof is often the least accessible part of a building for purposes of repair and renewal, while its damage or destruction can have serious effects. That’s why steel roof structure is the best option for our building design to get an extra benefit of durability. There are lots of steel roof structure design services providers available in market and they are providing extraordinary steel roof structure design services with the help of experienced structural detailers. Source: Web:www.articlesbase.com URL:http://www.articlesbase.com/business-articles/introduction-to-steel-roofstructure-design-services-1823056.html
Water Sports Complex, Putrajaya
Function of Building Location IBS System
Water Sport Complex Precinct 6 Promenade, Putrajaya. Tubular steel, steel decking for the floor system
This building uses IBS through the use of tubular steel and steel decking for the floor system.
Tubular steel assembled and located to support exterior undercover as well as the finished floor system. Finished subfloor of the structure to be steel plate. Area between the interior and exterior floors to have mineral fiber insulating material, securely fastened to the understructure of the finished floor system.
Steel deck is a cold-formed corrugated steel sheet supported by steel joists. It is used to support the concrete or insulating membrane of a roof. The steel deck sheets used for roofs and floors provide support for gravity loads between the joists and/or beams. Once installed, these sheets can also be used as a horizontal brace and the steel deck therefore acts as a diaphragm.
Sources: Tubular steel Web:www.cidbldgs.com URL:http://www.cidbldgs.com/power_control_room_specs.html
Steel deck Web : www.canaminternational.ws URL:http://www.canaminternational.ws/www/v4/ecanami.nsf/va_redir/inter_st eel
History of IBS in Malaysia
IBS began in early 1960s when Ministry of Housing and Local Government of Malaysia visited several European countries and evaluate their housing development program. (Thanoon et al, 2003). After their successful visit in the year 1964, the Government had launched pilot project on IBS to speed up the delivery time and built affordable and quality houses. Nearly, 22.7 acres of land along Jalan Pekeliling was dedicated to the project comprising seven blocks of 17-storey flats (3,000 units of low-cost flat and 40 shop lot). This project was undertaken by Gammon/ Larsen Nielsen using the Danish System of large panels in a pre-fabricated system. In 1965, the Government of Malaysia launched a second project, a six block of 17-storey flats and three blocks of 18-storey flats at Jalan Rifle Range. The project was awarded to Hochtief/ Chee Seng using French Estoit System (Din, 1984). Between 1981 and 1993, PKNS a state Government development agency acquired pre-cast concrete technologyfrom Praton Haus International based in Germany to build low-cost houses and high cost bungalows in Selangor (National IBS Survey, 2003). Today in the Malaysian construction industry, the use of IBS as a method of construction is evolving. More local manufacturers have established themselves in the market. As a result pre-cast, steel frame and other IBS were used as hybrid construction methods to build national landmarks such as Bukit Jalil Sport Complex, LRT and Petronas Twin Tower. It was reported that at least 21 manufactures and suppliers of IBS are actively promoting their systems in Malaysia. IBS move to the next step of the development through the establishment of IBS Centre at Jalan Chan Sow Lin, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur.
The obligation to implement IBS serves both to improve performance and quality in construction, as well as to minimize dependency on unskilled foreign labour in the construction market. Source: Web: www.mbam.org.my URL:http://www.mbam.org.my/mbam/images/@IBS%20-%20Current %20Shortcomings%20And%20The%20Vital%20Role%20(62-65).pdf
Malaysian Government Circular on IBS
In line with the target of IBS Roadmap 2003-2010, Budget 2005 declared that all new government building projects are required to have at least 50% IBS content. In order to attract private clients, the second announcement was on the levy exemption for housing projects that have minimum IBS Score of 50%. Since then and boosted by the Construction Industry Master Plan 2006-2015 and 9th Malaysia Plan 2006-2010, numerous activities have been executed by the Government. Two of the latest major initiatives are the release of the Treasury Circular Letter No. 7 Year 2008 (Surat Pekeliling Perbendaharaan Bil. 7 Tahun 2008) and the announcement of the Action Plan for IBS Implementation in Government Projects (Pelan Tindakan Pelaksanaan IBS dalam Projek-Projek Kerajaan). It replaces the earlier instruction released on 6th July 2005 by Treasury for the usage of 50% IBS content in all government projects. Released on 31st October 2008, the Treasury Circular Letter was issued to all Secretary Generals, Heads of Federal Department, State Secretaries, Heads of Federal Statutory Bodies as well as to all local authorities. The essence of the instruction is the usage of Open Building, MC design and 70% IBS Score for all projects. Agencies are required to submit periodical reports of IBS project implementation to ICU which acts as the central monitoring agency. Exemptions are offered for certain classes of projects and the IBS Centre will function as the main technical reference centre.
IBS Roadmap 2003-2010
A masterplan to facilitate the transformation of Malaysian construction sector was formulated with inputs from industry and endorsed by the cabinet back in October 2003. Known as the "Industrialised Building Systems (IBS) Roadmap 2003-2010", the Masterplan is based on the 5-M Strategy (Manpower / Materials-Components-Machines / Management-ProcessesMethods / Monetary / Marketing) with the target of having an industrialised construction industry as well as achieving Open Building by the year 2010. based on the IBS Roadmap 2003-2010, positive impacts from the fundamental proposal and new Government incentives are:
1. the industry will choose IBS which guarantees better quality, productivity
and safety. in the globalisation era, these are critical factors for the survival of malaysian construction players 2. the enforcement of using Modular Coordination (MC) through Uniform Building By Laws (UBBL) will encourage standardisation and subsequently increase the usage of IBS components. It also encourages participation from manufacturers and assemblers to enter the market, thus reducing the price of IBS components. This will create and sustain new sub-sectors in the manufacturing industry. In essence, MC will facilitate open industrialisation. 3. a screening and selection programme based on IBS standard components will ensure that low quality products are not marketed in the country. This aspect is important to avoid failures in IBS projects; and 4. by reducing wet-trades through IBS, the dependency on foreign workers will also diminish.
IBS Consultant Listing Programme
IBS Consultant Listing Programme is a scheme to list all IBS consultants mainly architect, civil and structural engineers, quantity surveyor, mechanical and electrical engineers which have involved in IBS projects and undergone certain IBS courses required. The objective of the listing is to facilitate the government or private project implementor in commencing IBS projects. The content of modules and criteria for each listing have been formulated with cooperation with various professional bodies representatives and government bodies; Ministry of Work, Architect Board of Malaysia, Quantity Surveyor Board of Malaysia, Engineers Board of Malaysia, Pertubuhan Arkitek Malaysia (PAM), Institute of Surveyor Malaysia (ISM), Institute of Engineers Malaysia (IEM), and The Association of Consulting Engineers Malaysia (ACEM). The courses that have to be fullfilled are as follows: 1) IBS 01: Introduction to IBS and MC 2) IBS 02: IBS Score Calculation & Submission 3) IBS 03: Precast Project Planning amd Execution 4) IBS 04: Analysis and Design Precast Concrete Structures 5) IBS 05: Analysis and Design Steel Frame Structures 6) IBS 06: Moodular Coordination Design 7) IBS 07: IBS Procurement System and Contraact Administration
Source: Web:www.ibscentre.com.my URL:http://www.ibscentre.com.my/ibsweb/index.php? option=com_content&view=article&id=23&Itemid=12
ADVANTAGES OF USING IBS.
The main benefits obtained through the use of this system are as follows: 1.High quality High quality products and a minimum wastage because working in factories more easily controlled. 2.Less work to do Elimination of conventional timber formwork and the reduction in the use of buffer through the use of prefabricated elements or systems of reference for on-site casting process. 3.Faster construction period Faster completion due to the introduction of substitute components in-situ construction. 4.Increase site safety and neatness Construction site more organized, clean and safe following a reduction of construction waste, labor and construction materials. 5.Overall total construction cost Total construction costs are lower due to the benefits achieved from the above factors. 6.Flexibility IBS provides flexibility in the design of precast element so that different systems may produce their own unique prefabrication methods.
Sources: CIDB FAQ URL: http://www.cidb.gov.my/v6/?q=ms/faq www.scribd.com URL:http://www.scribd.com/doc/28381106/Chapter-2-IBS
DISADVANTAGES OF USING IBS.
The problems usually encountered in the use of IBS are… 1.High initial capital cost The capital cost of applying IBS in the construction usually high. 2.Problems of joints Water leakage is often the major problem in building constructed using IBS. 3.Sophisticated plants and skilled operators IBS components have to be well coordinated and maintained by skilled operaters.Breakdown in any section would hold up the entire production line. 4.Site accessibility Site accessibility is one of the most important factors of the implementation of IBS requires adequate sit accessibility to transport IBS components from factory to the site. 5.Large working area Building construction using IBS requires a large working area for the factory,trailers,tower crane and storage for the IBS components.
Source: www.scribd.com URL:http://www.scribd.com/doc/28381106/Chapter-2-IBS
WHAT SHOULD BE DONE TO ENCOURAGE USE OF IBS
1. IBS Development will be led by the GLCs and this will ensure the participation of Bumiputera entrepreneurs to be given priority in all aspects of development To ensure that the Bumiputera contractors to explore this approach, including its research and design, preparation of standards, production and installation. 2. Offers consulting and training services to industry IBS, and also involved in the development of innovative products. 3. Capital expenditure on the purchase of molds for producing IBS components given accelerated capital allowance: This measure would reduce the cost of building components such as columns, beams, walls and floors. The Government will ensure that the IBS components used to comply with Malaysian Standard MS 1064. Use of these standards will ensure quality and to control construction costs. " 4. Incentive tax reduction provided in the form of accelerated capital allowances and the industry as a whole still needs support in this matter, it expanded to include all and not devoted to the Bumiputera as in the IBS Roadmap. 5. Instill the awareness and knowledge of IBS-mostly among the contractors and generally among the people in the country.This is compulsory to remove all doubts and misunderstandings of IBS which is considered as a high risk process and does not provide any benefit to the owner of the building. 6.Restructuring R&D focus on IBS - The inadequacy of corroborative scientific research undertaken to substantiate the benefit of IBS system as mentioned in Thanoon et al. (2003) require a new approach to be taken on board. A long term and strategic approach of conducting research on IBS shall be established including strong involvement of universities, companies, organizations right from the onset of any IBS R&D projects. 7. Improving ICT adoption - Industrialisation processes in construction method requires accurate and reliable information exchange. As compared to traditional method, Information Technology (IT) in IBS projects covers wide
and extensive range of processes, for example in customer interfacing, design, production, monitoring and integration. Extensive use of modern IT tools supports the different IBS processes by enabling more accurate documents and hence good conditions for an effective production where errors are discovered early and problems in the manufacturing and assembly phases can be avoided (Lessing et al. 2005).
8. Paradigm shifting on IBS through rebranding - IBS development in Scandinavian and Japan are well associated high customer focus and mass-customization. While in the UK, IBS promotes sustainability and green construction. This is the time for Malaysian construction industry to re-brand IBS construction. Current effort to brand IBS construction as cheap and fast construction solution is relatively poor strategy as it associated IBS with historical failure, poor workmanship and poor design to customers due to cost reduction mentality. The strategy now is rather to focus on customer pulls rather than technology push or cost reduction. 9. Reengineering the role of contractor - IBS implementation requires contractors to be system integrator and process coordinator managing process from production line to site. The process demanded new skills and knowledge such as integration, planning, and monitoring. This is due to a huge risk of uncoordinated error and tolerance during the construction tenure of IBS project. Reengineering contractor roles from traditional practice to IBS is inevitable. The contractors need new organization set-up, strategic direction and procedure that ‘favorable’ to IBS. Professionals should be train in integration role between design and product production using relevant IT tools.
Sources: www.innovacia.com.my URL: http://www.innovacia.com.my/download/knowledgesharing/sokongankerajaa n.pdf www.cream.com.my URL: http://www.cream.com.my/publications/whitepapers/Abstract111.pdf
5. Names of the buildings:
Custom, Immigration & Quarantine Complex, Johor Bahru
2. 3. 4. 5.
Open University formerly known as JPA, Kuala Lumpur Apartment for Government Staff, Putrajaya Serdang Hospital Government School
EXAMPLES OF IBS COMPONENTS
Hollow core slabs
Precast concrete beams
Steel roof structure
Precast concrete walls
Anuar Mohamad Kamar, Ir. Dr. Zuhairi Abd. Hamid, Mohd Khairolden Ghani and Ahmad Hazim Rahim, Construction Research Institute of Malaysia URL: http://www.mbam.org.my/mbam/images/@IBS%20-%20Current
Development Of Existing Building Uses IBS
(Precast concrete beams) www.scribd.com URL: http://www.scribd.com/doc/18434132/Precast-Concrete (Columns) www.chestobooks.com URL: http://chestofbooks.com/architecture/Building-Trades-Pocketbook/Columns.html (Hollow Core) www.strescore.com URL: http://www.strescore.com/www.strescore.com/Technical_Data_files/PCI% 20Manual% 20for% 20Design% 20of% 20Hollowcore.pdf
URL:http://www.articlesbase.com/business-articles/introduction-to-steel-roofstructure-design-services-1823056.html Putrajaya Water Sport Complex.
Tubular steel Web:www.cidbldgs.com
Steel deck Web : www.canaminternational.ws
HISTORY OF IBS IN MALAYSIA
Web: www.mbam.org.my URL:http://www.mbam.org.my/mbam/images/@IBS%20-%20Current
MALAYSIAN GOV CIRCULAR ON IBS
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF USING IBS
Advantages: CIDB FAQ URL: http://www.cidb.gov.my/v6/?q=ms/faq www.scribd.com URL:http://www.scribd.com/doc/28381106/Chapter-2-IBS Disadvantages: www.scribd.com Link:http://www.scribd.com/doc/28381106/Chapter-2-IBS
WHAT SHOULD BE DONE TO ENCOURAGE THE USING OF IBS
www.innovacia.com.my URL :http://www.innovacia.com.my/download/knowledgesharing/sokongankerajaan.pdf www.cream.com.my URL:http://www.cream.com.my/publications/whitepapers/Abstract111.pdf