Copyright Notice

The copyright in this manual and its associated computer program are the property of
Hyprotech Ltd. All rights reserved. Both this manual and the computer program have
been provided pursuant to a License Agreement containing restrictions on use.
Hyprotech reserves the right to make changes to this manual or its associated computer
program without obligation to notify any person or organization. Companies, names and
data used in examples herein are fictitious unless otherwise stated.
No part of this manual may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval
system, or translated into any other language, in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, magnetic, optical, chemical manual or otherwise, or disclosed to third
parties without the prior written consent of AEA Technology Engineering Software,
Hyprotech Ltd., Suite 800, 707 - 8th Avenue SW, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
© 1999 Hyprotech Ltd. All rights reserved.
Flarenet, HYSYS, HYSYS.Plant, HYSYS.Process and HYSIM are registered trademarks of
Hyprotech Ltd.
Windows, Windows 95, Windows NT are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.
Documentation Credits
Authors of the current release, listed in order of historical start on project:
Adeel Jamil,B.Sc.; Nana Nguyen, B.Sc.; Yannick Sternon, B.Ing.
Since software is always a work in progress, any version, while representing a milestone,
is nevertheless but a point in a continuum. Those individuals whose contributions
created the foundation upon which this work is built have not been forgotten. The
current authors would like to thank the previous contributors.
A special thanks is also extended by the authors to everyone who contributed through
countless hours of proof-reading and testing.
Contacting Hyprotech
Hyprotech can be conveniently accessed via the following:
Website: http:\\www.software.aeat.com
Technical Support: support@software.aeat.com
Information and Sales: Info@software.aeat.com
Detailed information on accessing Technical Support can be found in the Technical
Support section in the preface to this manual.
iii
Table of Contents
1 Introducing FLARENET..................................... 1-1
1.1 Use of Manuals ................................................................. 1-6
1.2 Technical Support ........................................................... 1-10
Technical Support Centres ....................................................... 1-11
Offices ...................................................................................... 1-12
Agents ...................................................................................... 1-13
2 Installing FLARENET........................................ 2-1
2.1 Basic Requirements .......................................................... 2-3
2.2 Installation ......................................................................... 2-3
2.3 Licensing ........................................................................... 2-5
2.4 Redundant License Servers............................................ 2-13
2.5 Commuter Licensing ....................................................... 2-16
2.6 License Server Environment Variables ........................... 2-17
2.7 License Server Tools....................................................... 2-25
2.8 User Options ................................................................... 2-38
2.9 Potential Problems Running FLARENET........................ 2-39
2.10 Glossary of Terms........................................................... 2-43
3 Get Started....................................................... 3-1
3.1 Data Requirements ........................................................... 3-3
3.2 Starting Flarenet................................................................ 3-6
3.3 Starting A New Model........................................................ 3-9
3.4 Saving The Model ........................................................... 3-13
3.5 Building The Pipe Network.............................................. 3-14
3.6 Defining The Scenarios................................................... 3-24
3.7 Defining The Sources...................................................... 3-27
3.8 Rating The Network......................................................... 3-33
3.9 Printing Data And Results ............................................... 3-38
4 Upgrading the Network.................................... 4-1
4.1 Data Requirements ........................................................... 4-3
iv
4.2 Starting Flarenet................................................................ 4-7
4.3 Opening the Old Model ..................................................... 4-8
4.4 Updating the Model ........................................................... 4-9
4.5 Defining The Scenarios................................................... 4-17
4.6 Defining The Sources...................................................... 4-19
4.7 Sizing The Network ......................................................... 4-25
4.8 Rigorous Rating............................................................... 4-30
4.9 Printing Data And Results ............................................... 4-32
5 Interface........................................................... 5-1
5.1 Terminology....................................................................... 5-3
5.2 Menu Bar........................................................................... 5-5
5.3 Tool Bar............................................................................. 5-6
5.4 Status Bar.......................................................................... 5-8
5.5 Editing Data Views ............................................................ 5-9
5.6 Setting Preferences......................................................... 5-12
5.7 Windows Menu................................................................ 5-16
5.8 Help Menu....................................................................... 5-16
6 Creating and Saving Cases .............................. 6-1
6.1 Creating A New Case........................................................ 6-3
6.2 Opening An Existing Case ................................................ 6-4
6.3 Saving A Case................................................................... 6-5
7 Components...................................................... 7-1
7.1 Selecting Components ...................................................... 7-3
7.2 Adding/Editing Components.............................................. 7-5
7.3 Organizing the Component List......................................... 7-9
8 Scenarios.......................................................... 8-1
8.1 Adding/Editing Scenarios .................................................. 8-5
8.2 Scenario Tools .................................................................. 8-8
9 Scenarios.......................................................... 9-1
9.1 Adding/Editing a Pipe........................................................ 9-3
9.2 Methods Tab ..................................................................... 9-8
9.3 Ignoring/Restoring Pipes................................................. 9-11
9.4 Arranging Display Order.................................................. 9-12
9.5 Pipe Tools ....................................................................... 9-13
10 Nodes.............................................................. 10-1
v
10.1 Node Manager................................................................. 10-3
10.2 Node Types..................................................................... 10-4
10.3 Sources ......................................................................... 10-18
10.4 Ignoring/Restoring Nodes.............................................. 10-32
11 Calculations.................................................... 11-1
11.1 Calculation Options ......................................................... 11-3
11.2 Starting The Calculations .............................................. 11-11
11.3 Efficient Modelling Techniquies..................................... 11-12
12 Databases....................................................... 12-1
12.1 Database Features.......................................................... 12-3
12.2 Setting The Password ..................................................... 12-5
12.3 Pipe Schedule Database Editor ...................................... 12-6
12.4 Fittings Database Editor .................................................. 12-7
12.5 Component Database Editor ........................................... 12-8
13 Viewing Data and Results.............................. 13-1
13.1 Components Data ........................................................... 13-3
13.2 Scenarios Data................................................................ 13-3
13.3 Pipes Data....................................................................... 13-4
13.4 Sources Data................................................................... 13-4
13.5 Nodes Data ..................................................................... 13-5
13.6 Messages........................................................................ 13-6
13.7 Pressure/Flow Summary................................................. 13-8
13.8 Compositions................................................................... 13-9
13.9 Physical Properties.......................................................... 13-9
13.10 Profile ............................................................................ 13-11
13.11 Flow Map....................................................................... 13-12
13.12 Scenario Summary........................................................ 13-13
13.13 Graph Control................................................................ 13-14
14 PFD.................................................................. 14-1
14.1 Overview ......................................................................... 14-3
14.2 Object Inspection............................................................. 14-5
14.3 Installing Objects............................................................. 14-8
14.4 Connecting Objects......................................................... 14-9
14.5 Manipulating the PFD...................................................... 14-9
14.6 Printing and Saving the PFD Image.............................. 14-11
14.7 Changing the PFD View Options................................... 14-12
vi
15 Exporting, Importing and Printing.................. 15-1
15.1 Printing ............................................................................ 15-4
15.2 Importing Source Data .................................................... 15-8
15.3 Exporting to Microsoft Access....................................... 15-17
A Theoretical Basis .............................................A-1
A.1 Pressure Drop ...................................................................A-3
A.2 Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium...............................................A-15
A.3 Physical Properties..........................................................A-19
A.4 Noise ...............................................................................A-27
B File Format .......................................................B-1
B.1 Access File........................................................................B-3
B.2 .FMT Files Format ...........................................................B-16
C References .......................................................C-1
D Glossary of Terms ............................................D-1
Index..................................................................I-1
Introducing FLARENET 1-1
1-1
1 Introducing FLARENET
1.1 Use of Manuals............................................................................................. 6
1.1.1 How This Manual Is Organized................................................................ 7
1.1.2 Conventions used in the Manuals ............................................................ 7
1.2 Technical Support ...................................................................................... 10
1-2
1-2
Introducing FLARENET 1-3
1-3
The design of flare and vent system piping is an important part of the
overall system design for any chemical process. Traditional methods for
the design of these flare and vent systems are often reliant upon the
experience of the engineer. He or she must make a number of decisions
in order to try to reduce the number of relief scenarios for evaluation
based upon tight project deadlines. Failure to evaluate a single scenario
due to "a lack of time" in the project design phase can have
catastrophic penalties once the process is in operation.
FLARENET has been designed to facilitate the design and rating of flare
and vent system piping throughout the entire design process. The
program interface uses a flow diagram for direct visualisation of the
piping network. This is supported by detailed tables of all pertinent
data and calculated results.
FLARENET can model the piping system topologies most commonly
found in flare systems.
• Convergent multiphase systems which comprise over 90% of
today's installations in chemical process plants ranging from
offshore production facilities to refineries and petrochemical
plants.
Figure 1.1
1-4
1-4
• Multiphase systems with two flare tips as commonly found on
offshore floating production facilities.
Figure 1.2
Introducing FLARENET 1-5
1-5
• Vapour phase ring mains.
Multiple relief scenarios such as "Plantwide Power Failure", "Plantwide
Cooling Water Failure" and "Localised Fire" cases, as well as the
individual relief valve loads can be maintained within a single file
model of the flare system. The following calculations can be done
simply from a consistent data set.
• Design of an entire new flare system for a single relief
scenario.
• Design of an entire new flare system for all relief scenarios.
• Debottlenecking design of an entire/partial flare system for a
single relief scenario.
• Debottlenecking design of an entire/partial flare system for all
relief scenarios.
• Rating of an entire/partial flare system for a single relief
scenario.
• Rating of an entire/partial flare system for all relief scenarios.
FLARENET has the option to calculate the pressure profiles using a
range of single and two-phase pressure drop calculation methods.
Figure 1.3
1-6 Use of Manuals
1-6
These methods may be used globally throughout the model or
specified at a local level. Robust multiphase thermodynamic models
back up the physical property predictions used by the pressure drop
models.
FLARENET automatically highlights calculated data that violates user
defined design constraints for the flare system:
• Relief valve allowable back pressure
• Fluid mach number
• Fluid velocity
• Fluid temperature
• Pipe noise
These violations are automatically colour highlighted on the tabular
results display. A graphical display of the pressure profile between any
relief source and the flare or vent tip is available to facilitate the rapid
determination of sections of the pipe network, which cause pressure-
related bottlenecks.
Extensive databases are provided for pipe schedule data, pipe fittings
loss coefficients and pure component properties. These databases may
be supplemented with user supplied data.
Experienced process design engineers with basic computer knowledge
can be expected to quickly acquire the skills necessary to make efficient
use of the program. It is recommended, however, that you read this
manual in order to fully understand the principles involved in the
construction and running of the computer models of the flare and vent
systems.
1.1 Use of Manuals
Your FLARENET documentation package consists of one main coil-
bound User’s Guide. The first three chapters contain the information
you need to install FLARENET, plus a Get Started example to get you up
and running with the software. The remainder of the manual provides
in-depth information on the FLARENET interface environments and
architecutre.
All FLARENET documentation is also available electronically on the
CD-ROM, which is included with your FLARENET package.
Since FLARENET is totally interactive, it provides virtually unlimited
Introducing FLARENET 1-7
1-7
flexibility in solving any simulation problem. Please keep in mind that
the approach used in solving each example problem presented in the
FLARENET documentation may only be one of the many possible
methods. You should feel free to explore other alternatives.
1.1.1 How This Manual Is Organized
This FLARENET User’s Guide is a comprehensive guide that gives
details of all the procedures you need to work with the program. To help
you learn how to use FLARENET efficiently, this manual describes all
areas of the program in a logical sequence.
For the more advanced user, the appendices contain a summary of the
database contents as well as details of the mathematical models used
within FLARENET.
1.1.2 Conventions used in the
Manuals
The following section lists a number of conventions used throughout
the documentation.
Keywords for Mouse Actions
As you work through various procedures given in the manuals, you will
be given instructions on performing specific functions or commands.
Instead of repeating certain phrases for mouse instructions, keywords
are used to imply a longer instructional phrase:
A number of text formatting conventions are also used throughout the
manuals:
The primary mouse button is
the one you use the most. For
most users of a standard two-
button mouse, the primary
mouse button is on the left,
and the secondary button on
the right.
Keywords Action
Select, choose,
press or click
Position the cursor on the object or button of interest,
and press the primary mouse button once.
Double-click
Position the cursor on the object of interest, and
press the primary mouse button twice, quickly in
succession.
Click and drag
Position the cursor on the object of interest, press
and hold the primary mouse button, move the cursor
to a new location, and release the primary mouse
button.
Object inspect
Position the cursor on the object of interest, and
press the secondary mouse button once.
1-8 Use of Manuals
1-8
Bullets and Numbering
Bulleted and numbered lists will be used extensively throughout the
manuals. Numbered lists are used to break down a procedure into
steps, for example:
1. Select the Segment Name cell.
2. Type a name for the pipe segment.
3. Press <Enter> to accept the name.
Bulleted lists are used to identify alternative steps within a procedure,
or for simply listing like objects. A sample procedure that utilizes
bullets is:
1. Move to the Splits tab by doing one of the following:
• Select the Splits tab
• Press <Alt><S>
2. Type a value for the rate.
3. Press <Enter> to accept the value.
Notice the two alternatives for completing Step 1 are indented to
indicate their sequence in the overall procedure.
A bulleted list of like objects might describe the various groups on a
particular view. For example, the Add Pipe property view (which is
opened by pressing the Add button on the Pipe Manager view) has a
Format Example
When you are asked to invoke a FLARENET
menu command, the command is identified by
bold lettering.
File indicates the File menu
item.
When you are asked to select a FLARENET
button, the button is identified by bold, italicized
lettering.
OK identifies the OK button
on a particular view.
When you are asked to select a key or keys to
perform a certain function, keyboard
commands are identified by bold lettering,
enclosed by angle brackets.
<F1> identifies the F1 key.
The name of a FLARENET view (or window) is
indicated by bold lettering
Component Manager view
The name of a group within a view is identified
by bold lettering,
Component Types group
The name of radio buttons and check boxes are
identified by bold lettering,
Halogen check box
When you are asked to provide keyboard input,
it will be indicated by bold lettering
"Type Pipe 25 for the
segment name."
Introducing FLARENET 1-9
1-9
group which contains four check boxes, namely:
• Resizeable
• Separate Liquids
• Tailpipe
• Allow Autocalc
Callouts
A callout is a label and arrow that describes or identifies an object. An
example callout describing a graphic is shown below.
Annotations
Text appearing in the outside margin of the page supplies you with
additional or summary information about the adjacent graphic or
paragraph. An example is shown to the left.
Shaded Text Boxes
A shaded text box provides you with important information regarding
FLARENET’s behaviour, or general messages applying to the manual.
Examples include:
The use of many of these conventions will become more apparent as
you progress through the manuals.
Figure 1.4
FLARENET Icon
Annotation text appears in the
outside page margin.
FLARENET allows you to select single objects as well as
multiple objects, but inorder to select an object, you must be in
Arrange mode.
Before proceeding, you should have read the introductory
section which precedes the example problems in this manual.
1-10 Technical Support
1-10
1.2 Technical Support
There are several ways in which you can contact Technical Support. If
you cannot find the answer to your question in the manual, we
encourage you to visit our Website at www.hyprotech.com, where a
variety of information is available to you, including:
• Answers to Frequently Asked Questions
• Example Cases and Product Information
• Technical Papers
• News Bulletins
• Hotlink to Support E-mail
You can also access Support directly via E-mail. The following listing of
Technical Support Centres includes the Support E-mail address. When
contacting us via E-mail, please include in your message:
• Your full name, company, phone and fax numbers.
• The version of FLARENET you are using (see Help, About...).
• The serial number of your FLARENET security key.
• A detailed description of the problem (attach a simulation case
if possible).
We also have toll free lines that you may use. When you call, please have
the same information available.
Introducing FLARENET 1-11
1-11
Technical Support Centres
Calgary, Canada
AEA Technology - Hyprotech Ltd.
Suite 800, 707 - 8th Avenue SW
Calgary, Alberta
T2P 3V3
support@software.aeat.com (e-mail)
(403) 520-6181 (local - technical support)
1-888-757-7836 (toll free - technical support)
(403) 520-6601 (fax - technical support)
1-800-661-8696 (information & sales)
Barcelona, Spain
AEA Technology - Hyprotech Ltd.
Hyprotech Europe S.L.
Pg. de Gràcia 56, 4th floor
E-08007 Barcelona, Spain
support@software.aeat.com (e-mail)
+34 93 215 68 84 (technical support)
+34 93 215 42 56 (fax - technical support)
+34 93 215 68 84 (information & sales)
Oxford, UK
AEA Technology Engineering Software
Hyprotech
404 Harwell,
Oxford, OX11 0RA
United Kingdom
support@software.aeat.com (e-mail)
0800 731 7643 (toll free technical support, UK only)
+44 1235 434284 (fax - technical support)
+44 1235 435555 (technical support, information &
sales)
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
AEA Technology - Hyprotech Ltd.
Hyprotech Ltd., Malaysia
Lot E-3-3a, Dataran Palma
Jalan Selaman ½, Jalan Ampang
68000 Ampang, Selangor
Malaysia
support@software.aeat.com (e-mail)
+60 3 470 3880 (technical support)
+60 3 470 3811 (fax - technical support)
+60 3 470 3880 (information & sales)
Yokohama, Japan
AEA Technology - Hyprotech Ltd.
AEA Hyprotech KK
Plus Taria Bldg. 6F.
3-1-4, Shin-Yokohama
Kohoku-ku
Yokohama, Japan
222-0033
support@software.aeat.com (e-mail)
81 45 476 5051 (technical support)
81 45 476 5051 (information & sales)
81 45 476 3055 (fax)
1-12 Technical Support
1-12
Offices
Calgary, Canada
Tel: (403) 520-6000
Fax: (403) 520-6040/60
Toll Free: 1-800-661-8696
Yokohama, Japan
Tel: 81 45 476 5051
Fax: 81 45 476 3055
Newark, DE, USA
Tel: (302) 369-0773
Fax: (302) 369-0877
Toll Free: 1-800-688-3430
Houston, TX, USA
Tel: (713) 339-9600
Fax: (713) 339-9601
Toll Free: 1-800-475-0011
Oxford, UK
Tel: +44 1235 435555
Fax: +44 1235 434294
Barcelona, Spain
Tel: +34 93 215 68 84
Fax: +34 93 215 42 56
Oudenaarde, Belgium
Tel: +32 55 310 299
Fax: +32 55 302 030
Düsseldorf, Germany
Tel: +49 211 577 933 0
Fax: +49 211 577933 11
Hovik, Norway
Tel: +47 67 10 6464
Fax: +47 67 10 6465
Cairo, Egypt
Tel: +20 2 7020824
Fax: +20 2 7020289
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Tel: +60 3 470 3880
Fax: +60 3 470 3811
Seoul, Korea
Tel: 82 2 3453 3144 or 82 23453 3145
Fax: 82 2 3453 9772
Introducing FLARENET 1-13
1-13
Agents
Internet
Website: www.hyprotech.com
Email: info@hyprotech.com
International Innotech, Inc.
Katy, USA
Tel: (281) 492-2774
Fax: (281) 492-8144
International Innotech, Inc.
Beijing, China
Tel: 86 10 6499 3956
Fax: 86 10 6499 3957
International Innotech
Taipei, Taiwan
Tel: 886 2 809 6704
Fax: 886 2 809 3095
KBTECH Ltda.
Bogota, Colombia
Tel: 57 1 258 44 50
Fax: 57 1 258 44 50
Kinetics Technology India Ltd.
New Delhi, India
Tel: 91 11 621 1815 or 91 11 621 1760
Fax: 91 11 644 6871 or 91 11 644 1984
Logichem Process
Sandton, South Africa
Tel: 27 11 465 3800
Fax: 27 11 465 4548
Process Solutions Pty. Ltd.
Peregian, Australia
Tel: 61 7 544 81 355
Fax: 61 7 544 81 644
Protech Engineering
Bratislava, Slovak Republic
Tel: +421 7 288286
Fax: +421 7 288286
PT. Danan Wingus Sakti
Jakarta, Indonesia
Tel: 62 21 567 4573 75 or
62 21 567 4508 10
Fax: 62 21 567 4507 or 62 21 568 3081
Ranchero Services (Thailand)
Co. Ltd.
Bangkok, Thailand
Tel: 66 2 381 1020
Fax: 66 2 381 1209
S.C. Chempetrol Service srl
Bucharest, Romania
Tel: +401 335 60 05 or 401 335 60 06
Fax: +401 331 3463 or 401 322 30 69
Soteica De Mexico
Mexico D.F., Mexico
Tel: 52 5 546 5440
Fax: 52 5 535 6610
Soteica Do Brasil
Sao Paulo, Brazil
Tel: 55 11 533 2381
Fax: 55 11 556 10746
Soteica S.R.L.
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Tel: 54 11 4555 5703
Fax: 54 11 4551 0751
Soteiven C.A.
Caracas, Venezuela
Tel: 58 2 264 1873
Fax: 58 2 265 9509
Taradis CAD/CAM Center
Tehran, Iran
Tel: 98 21 8754496 or 98 21 8758947
Fax: 98 21 8753352
ZAO Techneftechim
Moscow, Russia
Tel: +7 095 202 4370
Fax: +7 095 202 4370
1-14 Technical Support
1-14
Installing FLARENET 2-1
2-1
2 Installing FLARENET
2.1 Basic Requirements..................................................................................... 3
2.2 Installation .................................................................................................... 3
2.3 Licensing....................................................................................................... 5
2.3.1 Overview.................................................................................................. 5
2.3.2 Installing the Hardware key...................................................................... 7
2.3.3 Standalone Licensing............................................................................... 8
2.3.4 Network Licensing.................................................................................... 9
2.4 Redundant License Servers...................................................................... 13
2.4.1 Setting up Redundant License Servers.................................................. 14
2.5 Commuter Licensing.................................................................................. 16
2.6 License Server Environment Variables.................................................... 17
2.6.1 LSHost ................................................................................................... 17
2.6.2 LSERVOPTS.......................................................................................... 19
2.6.3 LSDEFAULTDIR..................................................................................... 22
2.6.4 LSERVRC.............................................................................................. 22
2.6.5 LSERVRCCNF....................................................................................... 23
2.6.6 LSPROTOCOL....................................................................................... 23
2.6.7 LSPORT................................................................................................. 24
2.7 License Server Tools ................................................................................. 25
2.7.1 WLMAdmin ............................................................................................ 25
2.7.2 lsmon ..................................................................................................... 28
2.7.3 Wrlftool ................................................................................................... 29
2.7.4 rlftool ...................................................................................................... 31
2.7.5 lspool...................................................................................................... 33
2.7.6 lsusage................................................................................................... 34
2-2
2-2
2.7.7 Wcommute............................................................................................. 35
2.7.8 lcommute ............................................................................................... 36
2.7.9 ipxecho................................................................................................... 37
2.7.10 lswhere................................................................................................. 37
2.7.11 lsdecode............................................................................................... 38
2.8 User Options............................................................................................... 38
2.8.1 Setting Group Reservations................................................................... 38
2.9 Potential Problems Running FLARENET................................................. 39
2.10 Glossary of Terms.................................................................................... 43
Installing FLARENET 2-3
2-3
2.1 Basic Requirements
The following system requirements will ensure satisfactory
performance by FLARENET on resonably sized simulation.
2.2 Installation
FLARENET may be run as a single user program, in which case a single
copy of the program is run from either a stand alone PC or from a
workstation on a network. The enforcement of the single user license is
by means of the security key attached to the computer or workstation
upon which the program is running. Workstation usage requires write
access to the program directory.
Optionally, FLARENET may be run as a multi-user program , in which
case the program is used in the same way as the single user version, but
has the maximum number of concurrent licenses enforced by means of
a single security key attached to a server on the network.
2.2.1 FLARENET Program
Installation
1. Shut down all other operating Windows programs on the computer
before starting the installation process.
2. Insert the FLARENET software CD into the CD-ROM drive of the
computer.
3. From the Start Menu, select Run
4. In the Run dialog box, type: d:\Server\setup.exe and click on the
OK button (where d: corresponds to the drive letter of the CD-ROM
drive).
System Component Requirement
Microprocessor
80486 DX or higher IBM PC type computer. Pentium
recommended.
Operating System Microsoft Windows release 3.1 or later.
Physical Memory 8 MB of memory. 16 MB recommended.
Disk Space
Approximately 12 MB of free hard disk space is
required.
Serial Port
A 25 pin parallel port with a female connector for
connection of the security key (do not plug in a serial
mouse behind the security key).
Keyboard Enhanced (101) keyboard.
Mouse
required. Note that a mouse cannot be plugged into
the back of the security key.
2-4 Installation
2-4
5. After several seconds the FLARENET welcome screen will appear.
Click Next to continue.
6. Specify your company name for registration and click Next.
7. Select the setup type you would like to install: Network or
Standalone. Click Next to continue.
8. Select the components you would like to install as well as select the
directory that Flarenet will be installed. Click Next to begin the
installation.
As the installation progresses, you will see a view showing the progress
of the installation. Note that some files are installed to the appropriate
Windows directory (the exact path may vary depending on your system
setup).
9. When the installation is complete, you will be prompted with a
dialogue box that tells you that you will need to restart you
computer to complete the installation.
2.2.2 Starting FLARENET
The FLARENET setup program automatically creates the FLARENET
program group which contains the FLARENET application icon.
Double click the FLARENET application icon. The following startup
dialog box will be displayed as FLARENET is being loaded; after several
seconds, you will be in the FLARENET environment.
Installing FLARENET 2-5
2-5
2.3 Licensing
2.3.1 Overview
Standard Licenses
Standard mode is based on setting a hard limit of users that are
licensed to use the application. In Standard mode, one license is
consumed per feature, decreasing the available licenses for that feature
by one. For example, a customer with 10 network licenses for Flarenet
and 5 network licenses for HYSYS can simultaneously run up to 10
copies of Flarenet and 5 copies of HYSYS. When a user is finished with
that feature, the license is released back to the license server allowing
other users access to launch it.
Optionally a system administrator can customise this process by
setting the license server to release specific licenses only to specific
users. See Section 2.6 - License Server Environment Variables for more
information.
Licenses can optionally define how many instances can run on a single
license. For instance, Flarenet licenses default to allow up to three
copies of Flarenet to be running on a single PC while only consuming
one Flarenet license from the server. If a fourth copy on that PC is
started a second license will be consumed.
Licenses can also be mixed between standalone and network (refer to
Section - License Modes). The License Manager will always look for a
standalone license first and failing that search for an available network
license.
Token Licensing
Token mode allows Hyprotech applications to be licensed in a slightly
different way then the Standard mode by setting an upper limit on
usage, but not defining specific license numbers. The license specifies
a maximum number of tokens and each product is assigned a token
value. Every time the application is run, it consumes a number of token
licenses until the limit is reached.This upper limit allows any
combination of products to be used up to the limit.
This makes token mode very flexible. You can setup any number of
application combinations within the framework of your license setting.
For example, say Flarenet has a token value of 10 and HYSYS a token
Most licenses are issued in
Standard mode.
2-6 Licensing
2-6
value of 4, with an upper limit of 50 tokens. With this configuration 5
users could run Flarenet. However, it also allows 4 users to run Flarenet
and with 2 runing HYSYS, or allow 3 HYSYS users.
Token mode is active in the your Com Security Server (CSS) object if the
AEATOKENMODE flag/name is set in the LSHOST Environment
variable or "lshost" file.
When the CSS object is in token-mode it will mutate the license request
(the Flarenet license is used for this example). The CSS object will
request a Descriptor license called AET_Flarenet (note the "T" in the
name). This license will be used to define the token value of the Process
feature (The token value is a number from 1 to 99).
When the CSS object finds the Descriptor license and extracts a valid
token value of "N" units. It will then request "N" units of the
AEA__Token license. Effectively this will check-out N AEA__Token
licenses at once. If this is successful, then the AEA_Flarenet check-out
will return to the application with a success.
If the CSS object cannot find the AET_XXX license for feature XXX then
you cannot check-out any tokens for that feature, so the entire check-
out fails.
Server error messages are slightly different compared to Standard
mode. This is to reflect the underlying fact that we are no longer
checking out an AEA_Flarenet license, but we are checking out
AET_Flarenet and AEA__Token licenses.
The error messages in token mode has the server names prefixed by
either D_ or T_ this means that when the check-out occurs, you may
receive an error which states "D_RHART733" with some failure code.
This means that the Descriptor license check-out failed. Similarly, an
error of "T_RHART733" and an error code indicating that the
Descriptor worked, but the AEA__Token check-out failed.
Installing FLARENET 2-7
2-7
License Modes
There are two methods that can be used to license Hyprotech
applications: Standalone licensing and Network licensing.
Standalone licensing is setup so that both the application and the
licenses are installed on the a single computer. This kind of
configuration is most often used when the application is only used by
an individual on a particular computer. Refer to Section 2.3.3 -
Standalone Licensing to configure the application to run with
Standalone licenses.
Network licensing is setup so that the application is installed on a users
computer and the licenses are installed on a network license server.
The license server consists of network licenses and the license server
application. The license server is used to manage all of the license
codes. Refer to Section 2.3.4 - Network Licensing to configure the
application to run with Network licenses.
2.3.2 Installing the Hardware key
Both the standalone and network mode of the application require the
use of a hardware key. A unique locking code is read from the hardware
key and used to generate license codes needed to run the software. This
code locks the hardware key to the licenses. When the application runs,
the locking codes must then match the hardware key’s locking code for
the licenses to be valid.
Please note that to avoid damage to the computer or key, the computer
should be powered down before installation of the key.
Key Types
Computer ID Keys
Computer ID keys (or CID keys) are beige Sentinel SuperPro keys,
manufactured by Rainbow Technologies. The Computer ID key is
installed on the parallel port (printer port) of your computer. An arrow
indicates which end should be plugged into the computer.
CID keys can be used for both standalone and network versions of the
software. Note that network licensing requires a Computer ID key be
installed on machines that will be used as license servers (refer to
Section - Setting up a License Server for additional information).
Standalone licensing requires a Computer ID key to be installed on
every machine that will be running the application.
2-8 Licensing
2-8
Hyprotech Green Keys
Hyprotech green keys are installed into either a 9-pin or 25-pin serial
port of your computer. The arrow on the label indicates the proper
orientation of the GreenKey (the arrow must point towards the
computer).
Hyprotech Green keys can only be used for standalone versions of the
software. Standalone licensing requires that a key is installed on every
machine that will be running the application.
2.3.3 Standalone Licensing
Once the application and the Hardware key have been installed on your
computer you need to install the license file. The license file contains
all of the license codes specifying all licensed features of the
application.
Locking Codes and License Files
A license code needs to be created that includes the information
required to identify a specific computer. The information used to
identify a computer is called its fingerprint. The fingerprint required by
the application comes from the attached hardware key.
FLARENET Purchases
If you have just purchased FLARENET, you will find included in your
package a FLARENET software CD, a Computer ID key and a diskette
with the license file associated with that key. Copy the license file in to
your FLARENET root directory, where the FLARENET executable is
located. Rename the license file to lservrc. You are now set up to run
FLARENET with Standalone licenses.
FLARENET Upgrades
If you are currently running a standalone version of FLARENET using a
Hyprotech Green Key and are upgrading to the SLM security, you will
have to perform the following steps.
1. Open the following directory; C:\Program Files\Common
Files\Hyprotech\SLM License Tools.
To install FLARENET refer to
Section 2.2.1 - FLARENET
Program Installation.
Note the license file does not
have an extension.
Installing FLARENET 2-9
2-9
2. Run the echoid32.exe application. The following window will
appear displaying six locking codes.
3. Email the locking code for your key(s) to Hyprotech at
licenses@hyprotech.com. In addition to the Lock Code please
include the following information in your message to ensure a
prompt reply:
• your name and title
• company name
• address
• key serial number
Once Hyprotech has received your Lock Code a license file will be
generated and sent back to you.
4. Place the license file in your FLARENET root directory, where the
FLARENET executable is located. Rename the license file to
lservrc. You are now set up to run FLARENET with Standalone
licenses.
2.3.4 Network Licensing
Network licensing is configured so that each user must install the
software on their computer and the licenses are installed on a separate
license server computer.
Setting up a License Server
A license server computer is made up of the following components.
• Computer ID key (refer to the Section 2.3.2 - Installing the
Hardware key)
• License Server software - follow the steps outlined below to
install the License Server on your license server computer.
• License file
Figure 2.1
Because the lock code is
unique to each key, you should
supply this information for
each key that requires an
update.
To install FLARENET refer to
Section 2.2.1 - FLARENET
Program Installation.
2-10 Licensing
2-10
Because the license server computer must be operational for
FLARENET users to run their software, the best choice for the license
server computer is one that is left on continually. The most trouble-free
installation will result from a license server computer used only for the
license server function. This avoids conflicts with other software.
Note that the license server computer does not need to be a powerful or
fast computer. The powerful personal computer of a FLARENET user is
one of the poorer choices for the license server computer. This
computer can be switched off behind locked doors for the weekend,
rebooted after lockup in another software program (terminating
FLARENET users), or require reconfiguration to suit the needs of a new
software program, causing difficulties for existing programs (like the
license server software).
Installing the License Server
The following instructions are written assuming installation on
Windows NT 4.0 (SP 5) or Windows 95/98.
The License Server installation program creates files only in the
directory specified to it during the installation setup procedure.
1. Shut down all other operating Windows programs on the computer
before starting the installation process.
2. Insert the FLARENET software CD into the CD-ROM drive of the
computer.
3. From the Start Menu, select Run
4. In the Run dialog box, type: d:\Server\Setup\setup.exe and click
on the OK button (where d: corresponds to the drive letter of the
CD-ROM drive).
5. Follow the on-screen instructions to proceed with installation.
Multiple license server
computers can be setup to
spread the load over multiple
computers.
Note the license server requires certain drivers to talk to the
Computer ID key. If you are having problems with the license
server ensure that these drivers are installed by running the
setup.exe program found in the Delivery Drivers directory on
the included disk.
Installing FLARENET 2-11
2-11
Locking Codes and License Files
A license code needs to be created which includes the information
required to identify a specific computer. The information used to
identify a computer is called its fingerprint. The fingerprint required by
FLARENET comes from the attached Computer ID key.
FLARENET Purchases
If you have just purchased FLARENET, you will find included in your
package a FLARENET software CD, a Computer ID key and a diskette
with the license file associated with that key. Copy the license file in to
your license server directory. The default license server directory is:
C:\Program Files\Rainbow Technologies\sentLM\Server\
Rename the license file to lservrc. Once you have copied the license file
to the license server directory you must stop and re-start the license
server. See Step 5. below for information on how this done for you
operating system.
FLARENET Upgrades
If you wish to upgrade your FLARENET licenses or you did not receive
your license file you must perform the following steps.
1. Open the following directory: C:\Program Files\Common
Files\Hyprotech\SLM License Tools.
2. Run the echoid32.exe application. The following window will
appear displaying six locking codes.
Figure 2.2
Note the license file does not
have an extension.
2-12 Licensing
2-12
3. Email the locking code for your key(s) to Hyprotech at
licenses@hyprotech.com. In addition to the Lock Code please
include the following information in your message to ensure a
prompt reply:
• your name and title
• company name
• address
• key serial number
Once Hyprotech has received your Lock Code a license file will be
generated and sent back to you.
4. Place the license file in your license server directory. The default
license server directory is:
C:\Program Files\Rainbow Technologies\sentLM\Server\
Rename the license file to lservrc.
5. You must then stop and then re-start the license server when ever
you change or make changes to the license file. This is done
differently depending on the operating system you are using.
Now that you have the proper license codes in place see the next
section on setting the system environment variable to point your
FLARENET user computers to your license server.
Because the lock code is
unique to each key, you should
supply this information for
each key that requires an
update.
Operating System Description
Windows 2000
The license server controls are accessed by opening
the Admin Tools folder, found in the Control Panel,
and then opening Services. The license server is
seen in the list as SentinelLM. Highlight SentinelLM
and click on the restart icon located in the toolbar at
the top of the window.
Windows NT (SP 5)
The license server controls are accessed by opening
the Services found in the Control Panel. The license
server is seen in the list as SentinelLM. To stop the
server highlight SentinelLM and click on the Stop
button. To re-start the server click on the Start
button.
Windows 95/98
The license server has its own window running that
allows you to access the license server controls.
Installing FLARENET 2-13
2-13
2.4 Redundant License
Servers
Redundant license servers and license balancing offer several
important benefits.
• You can acquire licenses even if a particular license server
goes down (license server backup).
• The speed that a you can acquire a license is optimized by
distributing license tokens among multiple license servers to
reduce the traffic for a particular license server (license
balancing).
All of the redundant license servers at your site form a license server
pool. Each of the license servers in the pool can take over for any other
if one of the l license servers goes down. Each license server runs on a
separate computer on the network.
License server computers do not have to be on the same subnet.
License servers can be in geographically separate locations on subnets
connected to one another via WAN, Internet, or dial-up connections.
You may also configure the license servers so that only one is active and
the others are solely backup license servers. In this case, all of the
license tokens should be allocated to just a single license server and
license balancing turned off. Then the other license servers would only
be used if the main license server went down.
The redundant license file (lservrlf) is used to define which license
servers make up the redundant license server pool as well as how many
token of which licenses are distributed among those license servers.
Each computer on which a redundant license server resides requires a
copy of this file.
All servers in a redundant license server pool can grant tokens.
However, only one of the license servers is designated as the leader. By
default, the leader is the first license server in the pool you start up.
However, Wrlftool can be used to set the priority order of the license
servers. If the leader goes down, the next highest priority server
becomes the leader in turn.
The leader synchronizes communication between the license servers in
the pool. The leader also makes sure that all the license servers in the
pool are using the same version of the redundant license file. If this file
is changed on one of the license servers, after one of the license servers
It is recommended that the leader
should be in an area of the network
with good bandwidth since the
leader must communicate with all
other redundant license servers.
2-14 Redundant License Servers
2-14
is stopped and restarted, the leader detects the change in the file and
automatically updates the rest of the license servers to the newer
version.
If a license server exhausts its token allocation, it will ask the leader to
borrow tokens from other license servers. If tokens are available from
any other license server, the leader will take away the unused tokens
and give them to the requesting license server. The auto-borrowing
mechanism helps in load balancing also. Based on requests, the tokens
get distributed among the license servers after some interval of time
into a pattern that reflects real token use, leading to a balanced system.
2.4.1 Setting up Redundant
License Servers
There are three aspects to setting up and using redundant license
servers.
• Decide how many redundant license servers to set up and
select the computers on which they will reside (you must define
at least three, but five is recommended). A Computer ID key
must be attached to each of these computers.
• Create the redundant license file, lservrlf, using the Wrlftool
utility to define the redundant license server pool.
• Bring up the license servers. To maintain the pool, use the
WlmAdmin utilities to dynamically reconfigure the redundant
license server pool and set license token allocation.
The following points will go through the steps required to setup a
redundant license server.
1. Install the license server on the computers selected to be
redundant servers (refer to Setting up a License Server).
2. Set each user to access the preferred license server by setting the
LSHOST or LSFORCEHOST environment variables on the users
computers (refer to Section 2.6 - License Server Environment
Variables).
3. Along with the application you will receive a Computer ID key for
each redundant license server. You will also receive a diskette that
contains a license file (lservrc) that is locked to each of the
Computer ID keys.
4. Install the protected application(s) on the users computers.
Redistribution of tokens only
occurs if license borrowing is
turned on.
Each computer on which a
redundant license server
resides must have a fixed IP
address.
If you are upgrading your
application licenses or you did not
receive a license file refer to section
Locking Codes and License Files.
Installing FLARENET 2-15
2-15
5. Use the Wrlftool or rlftool to add the license servers to the
redundant license server pool and set the preference number of
the license servers to set the order in which the leader will be
chosen if the license server goes down.
6. Then, still using the Wrlftool or rlftool utility, install the redundant
license codes you received with the application into the redundant
license file and set their initial token distribution among the
redundant license servers
7. Since this is the first time that the redundant license server pool
has been set up, you need to copy the redundant license file to
each of redundant license servers. After this, changes to any one of
the redundant license files will automatically be transmitted to
each redundant license server when one of the license servers is
stopped and restarted.
8. Bring up each of the license servers in the pool. Because the
redundant license file is in the same directory as each license
server, each license server will automatically start up as a
redundant license server.
Maintaining the Redundant License Server
Pool
Once the redundant license servers are set up, you can use lspool or
WlmAdmin from any computer on the network to change the license
distribution, view information about the redundant license server pool,
and turn borrowing on/off (refer to Section 2.7 - License Server Tools
for more information).
Make sure that any of the license
servers that you will be using as
redundant license servers are shut
down before using the Wrlftool or
rlftool to create the redundant
license file.
2-16 Commuter Licensing
2-16
2.5 Commuter Licensing
Commuter licensing allows you to temporarily use a protected
application on a portable computer (i.e. laptop) that is not connected
to the network. To check out a license the portable computer must first
be attached to the network and have access to a license server
containing licenses for that application. This application must also be
installed on the portable computer.
Since commuter licenses use the same license tokens as other types of
licensing you will want restrict the percentage of license tokens on a
specific license server that can be used for commuter licensing. you
must use the -com option with the LSERVOPTS environment variable.
This will ensure that all of your license tokens are not used up by
commuter licensing.
Before your users check out a commuter authorization the portable
computer must have:
• the protected application installed and ready to use.
Remember the application must be able to run off the network.
• network access to the appropriate license server.
• is connected to the network.
• access to the Wcommute or lcommute utility.
Refer to Section 2.7.7 - Wcommute and Section 2.7.8 - lcommute for
information on how to check out a commuter authorization.
You will want to encourage
your users to always check
authorizations back in as soon
as possible.
The commuter licensing user
must check an authorization
back into the same license
server from which the
authorization was checked
out.
Installing FLARENET 2-17
2-17
2.6 License Server
Environment Variables
If you choose to set any of the environment variables use the following
steps to help you if you are unfamiliar with the system tools for
Windows NT 4.0 or WIndows 2000.
1. Open the Start menu select Settings and then select Control Panel.
2. Double click on the System icon to open the System Properties
window.
3. Select the Environment tab.
4. In the Variable text box enter the name of the environment
variable. For example LSHOST.
5. In the Value text box enter the address, hostname of the server(s)
or variable options.
6. Click OK.
2.6.1 LSHost
When the application is started it first tries to identify a standalone
license. If this fails it will then (by default) attempt to obtain a license by
searching for license servers over the network. This broadcast search is
limited to the users local network subnet. If the License Server is
located outside the users local subnet then the address/hostname of
the server must be specified for the application to make the network
connection. There are three ways you can set the environment variable
to contact the proper license server. The following lists the steps the
application takes to look for a license server:
• If the LSFORCEHOST environment variable is set, the
application looks for the specific license server host listed in
that variable. If it cannot find that computer, an error message
is displayed, and the application will close.
• If no LSFORCEHOST environment variable is set, then the
application looks for the LSHOST environment variable. If this
variable has been set then the application looks for any of the
license server hosts listed.
• If LSHOST is not set, then a check is made for a file with the
name “lshost” in the applications root directory. If this file is
found, then the application looks for any of the license server
hosts listed in the file.
Note the lhost file does not
have an extension attached to
it and capitalization does not
matter. If you choose to use
this file you must place it in
the applications root
directory.
2-18 License Server Environment Variables
2-18
The LSHOST variable naming conventions are:
• Any valid hostname recognized by your network.
• Numeric names (IP address).
• NO_NET to disable the default broadcast mechanism from
searching the network.
LSFORCEHOST
The LSFORCEHOST environment variable is used to force the
application to look for only one license server computer. If the license
server listed in the variable cannot be found, the application stops
searching and returns an error. LSFORCEHOST overrides an LSHOST
environment variable or “lshost” file, and prevents a network broadcast
from being done.
LSHOST
The LSHOST environment variable is used to tell the application to
search for one or more license servers. When this variable is set the
application will work through the list of license servers beginning at the
first license server in the list to the last. If none of the specified license
servers is found, the application stops searching and returns an error.
LSHOST prevents a network broadcast from being done.
The “lshost” file works the same way as the LSHOST environment
variable. The following is an example of an “lshost” file.
This file will search for TESTSERV_1, TESTSERV_2, TESTSERV_3 and
TESTSERV_5, in that order. Notice that TESTSERV_4 has been
commented out. Anything that follows a number symbol (#) is treated
as a comment.
Figure 2.3
Note if you are using a
network system where the
DNS is variable, then you
cannot use the IP address for
this purpose.
Note when using multiple
server names you need to
separate the names, in both
the environment variable
string and “lshost “ file, with a
colon (:).
Installing FLARENET 2-19
2-19
2.6.2 LSERVOPTS
The LSERVOPTS environment variable is used to set license server
options. The options for this variable are found in the following table.
Some of the options that can be
set with LSERVOPTS can be set
with a specific environment
variable. It is recommended that
the specific environment variable
be used whenever possible
Option Description
-s license file
Specifies the name and location of the license code
file. By default, the license server will use the file,
lservrc, in the local directory. This can also be
specified by the LSERVRC environment variable.
-e license
configuration file
Specifies the name and location of the optional
license configuration file. This can also be specified
by the LSERVRCCNF environment variable.
-l usage log file
Enables usage logging by specifying the name and
location of the usage log file (note you can not
include any spaced in the path name). A typical log
file name is lserv.log. By default usage logging is
disabled.
-z usage log file size
Specifies the maximum size of the usage file. The
default value for the maximum size of the log file is 1
megabyte. The size can be specified in bytes,
kilobytes, or megabytes. For example, -z 2000
means 2000 bytes, -z 2k means 2 kilobytes and -z
2m means 2 megabytes. Once the maximum size of
the file is reached, the license server will create a
backup log file unless the -x option has been used.
The maximum number of backup files is 99.
However you can move existing backup log file to
another directory and the license server will begin
again.
-x
By default, on overflow of the usage log file, the file
contents will be moved into a backup file. New usage
records are then written to the original file until it
overflows again. If the -x option is specified, the file
will not be backed up on overflow. Instead the
license server will simply stop writing further records
to the file.
-port port number
The license server port number is used by the TCP/
IP protocol when transferring data between the
license server and the client. This can also be
specified by the LSPORT environment variable.
-com percentage
Commuter licensing uses the same license tokens
as other network licenses. To ensure that not all
license tokens are used up by commuter, set this
option to the percentage of license tokens you want
used for commuter licensing. Once that percentage
of tokens are used up on more will be made
available to commuters until tokens are returned.
2-20 License Server Environment Variables
2-20
Setting Usage Logging
If you activate the usage logging option the license server records all
license requests and returns in this file. Usage reports can be viewed by
using the lsusage tool (refer to Section 2.7.6 - lsusage on how to view
the log file). Information is recorded in the file one entry per line in the
following format.
-rlf redundant license
file
Starts the license server as a redundant license
server using the specified redundant license file. You
do not need to use this option to start the license
server as a redundant license server if a lservrlf
redundant license file is in the same directory as the
license server.
-lfe encryption level
Specifies the level of encryption that license
transactions will be written to the licenses server log
file, 1 to 4.
• 1 - No encryption
• 2 - No encryption. Transaction data will be
readable, but tampering with or deleting an
entry will be detected by lsusage. This is the
default encryption level if you do not specify
one.
• 3 - Encrypt usage only. Transaction data will be
readable except for license usage data. Such
entries will not be displayed by lsusage.
• 4 - Encrypt entire record. All transaction data
for the license code will be encrypted. Such
entries will not be displayed by lsusage.
-f error file
Specifies the name and location of the error file
where the license server will log occurrences of
unexpected conditions. By default, this is disabled
until the option is specified. Then the license server
will append the lservlog file in the current directory.
-u group reservations
file
Specifies the name and location of the optional
group reservations file. BY default, the license server
uses the lsreserv file in the current directory.
-b
For Windows 95/98, starts the license server as a
background service that will not be terminated when
the computer user logs off. The license server runs
without displaying a window or message. You must
use the lsrvdown command to stop the license
server.
Option Description
Element Description
Server-LFE
Customer defined log file encryption level as
specified by the license server -lfe option.
License-LFE
Vendor defined log file encryption level. If this is non-
zero, it overrides the Server-LFE.
Date The date the entry was made.
Installing FLARENET 2-21
2-21
Example
Time-Stamp The time stamp of the entry.
Feature Name of the feature.
Ver Version of the feature.
Trans
The transaction type. 0 indicates an issue, 1 a
denial, and 2 a release.
NumKeys
The number of licenses in use after the current
request/release. (Encrypted if encryption level is set
to 3 or 4)
Keylife
How long in second, the license was issued. Only
applicable after a license release.
User
The user name of the application associated with the
entry.
Host
The host name of the application associated with the
entry.
LSver The version of the license server.
Currency
The number of licenses handled during the
transaction. (Encrypted if encryption level is set to 3
or 4)
Comment The text passed in by the protected application.
Element Description
Figure 2.4
2-22 License Server Environment Variables
2-22
2.6.3 LSDEFAULTDIR
The LSDEFAULTDIR environment variable can be used to set the
default location of the license server file. It’s recommended that the
license server default directory not be changed. By default, the default
directory is set to the directory the license server executable is located
in.
Example
2.6.4 LSERVRC
The LSERVRC environment variable is used to set the name and
location of the license code file. It is recommended that the default
name and location are used for this file. By default, this file will be
called lservrc and reside in the license server default directory.
Example
Figure 2.5
Figure 2.6
Installing FLARENET 2-23
2-23
2.6.5 LSERVRCCNF
The LSERVRCCNF environment variable can be used to set the name
and location of the license server configuration file. This file is used in
setting up user alerts and other options. It is recommended that the
default name and location are used for this file. In most installations,
this file will be called lservc.cnf and reside in the license server default
directory. If LSERVRCCNF is not used to specify the configuration file
then the name and location of this file will be based upon the name and
location of the license code file. In this case the configuration file will
reside in the same directory as the license code file and have the same
base name as the license code file but with the extension.cnf.
Example
2.6.6 LSPROTOCOL
The LSPROTOCOL environment variable is used to specify the
communications protocol that will be used to communicate with the
license server. Specify IPX or UDP (for TCP/IP) to choose the protocol.
Example
Figure 2.7
Figure 2.8
2-24 License Server Environment Variables
2-24
2.6.7 LSPORT
The license server port number is used by the TCP/IP protocol when
transferring data between the license server and the client. Do not
change the port number unless your vendor has instructed you to do so
or conflicts are occurring between the license server and another
network application that is using the license server’s port number. (The
license server default port number is 5093). A symptom of such a
conflict would be license server communication errors.
Example
Figure 2.9
Installing FLARENET 2-25
2-25
2.7 License Server Tools
All of the license server tools are located in the following directory:
C:\Program Files\Common Files\Hyprotech\SLM License Tools
2.7.1 WLMAdmin
WLMAdmin is a network administration tool that provides you with
information on licensing activities, such as license servers detected,
detail on active licenses, and information on licensed users. Running
the WLMAdmin application will open the following window.
The View menu provides three ways to query license servers.
• Single Server - allows you to specify the host name, IP
address or IPX address of a single license server.
Note that when you
first open WLMAdmin
you will see a blank
screen. From then on
WLMAdmin will start
up with whatever view
mode was last used.
Figure 2.10
2-26 License Server Tools
2-26
• Server List - allows you to create a list of license servers you
would like to view. The list is created by choosing the Server
List option from the Edit menu. You will see the following
window.
Specify the host name, IP address or IPX address of the
license server into the text box and click Add. You can add as
many servers as you want. To delete a license server from the
list highlight the server and click Delete. Click Close when you
are done.
• All in Subnet - lists all of the license servers found on your
area of the network. This option may be slow since WLMAdmin
searches the entire subnet.
The list located in the left-hand pane displays all of the license servers
that could be found on the network. Beneath the license server name is
a list of the all the licenses associated with that license server. Beneath
the license name is a list of license users (users who are using the
license) and queue users (users who are waiting for the license).
As you can see in Figure 2.10 highlighting a license displays
information on the characteristics of the license in the right -hand
pane. You will see information such as:
• license type,
• how many concurrent users can use the license,
• when the license expires,
• what users currently are using the license, and
• whether or not the license can be used for computer licensing.
Clicking on the user name located under the license user or queue user
heading will display information about that user in the right-hand
pane.
Figure 2.11
Installing FLARENET 2-27
2-27
Maintaining a Redundant License Server
Pool
There are two menu sets that you can use to maintain your redundant
license servers: License Server specific and License specific.
To view the License Server specific menu click on a license server name
in the main display and then click the right mouse button. This will
display the following menu.
To view the License specific menu click on a license name in the left
hand pane of the main display and then click the right mouse button.
This will display the following menu.
Figure 2.12
Option Description
Add server to pool
Adds the selected license server to the license
server pool that is a member of.
Delete server from
pool
Deletes the selected license server from it redundant
license server pool.
Get leader server
name
Display the name of the leader of the redundant
license server.
Get pool server list
Display the list of all license servers in the redundant
license pool that this license server is a member.
Disable borrowing
for all features
Turn off all token borrowing for this license server.
Enable borrowing
for all features
Turn on all token borrowing for this license server.
Figure 2.13
2-28 License Server Tools
2-28
2.7.2 lsmon
Lsmon is a command line utility that retrieves information about all
features currently licensed by the license server and the clients using
those features. The following option may be supplied:
If Server-host is omitted, lsmon will attempt to talk to the license server
on the computer indicated in the LSHOST environment variable or in
the LSHOST file. If the variable or file does not exist, then it will attempt
to contact a license server using the broadcast mechanism. If lsmon
fails to find a license server, you will receive an error message and the
utility will exit.
Option Description
Change distribution
criteria
For this license, change how its tokens are
distributed among the redundant license servers.
When you select this command, you see a text box
that you may type the new distribution criteria. Use
the following format:
Server1:tokens1^Server2:token2... where Server is
the host name, IP address or IPX address that
identifies the redundant license server and tokens is
the number of tokens to allocate to that server.
Get distribution
criteria
See how the license tokens are currently distributed.
This is the dynamic allocation, not the initial
allocation set in the redundant license file. You see a
list of the license servers. Each server is followed by
three numbers, where the first number is the number
of tokens allocated, the second number is the tokens
in use, and the third number is commuter tokens in
use.
Disable borrowing
For this particular license, disables tokens borrowing
for this license server only.
Enable borrowing
For this particular license, enables token borrowing
for this license server only.
Option Description
Server-host
The name of the computer that the license server is
running.
Installing FLARENET 2-29
2-29
2.7.3 Wrlftool
Wrlftool is a Windows-interface program that allows you to create and
maintain a redundant license file.
Creating and Maintaining the Redundant
License Server Pool
To create a new redundant license file, select New from the File menu.
To edit an existing redundant license file, select Open from the File
menu then select the file.
To add a new license server to the pool, click Add Server. Specify the
host name and the IP or IPX address of the computer that runs the
license server. You are required to add at least 3 servers. Once you have
added more than one server to the pool you can use the Move Up or
Move Down buttons to adjust the order of the server in the pool. This
sets the preference order. Although the first license server in the pool to
be started up becomes the leader by default, the preference order
determines in what order the license servers will become the leader if
the license servers go down.
At any time you can select a license server and click Delete Server to
remove the server from the pool.
Figure 2.14
If you are editing an existing
redundant license file we
recommend you make your
changes to a copy of your file
under another name in order to
avoid synchronization problems
with someone trying to use the file
when you are editing it.
Remember to change the name
back to its original name when
you are done.
2-30 License Server Tools
2-30
Adding, Editing and Deleting Redundant
Licenses
To add a redundant license to the pool, click Add License. You will see a
screen that allows you to either add the license code or specify a file
containing the license code.
Once you have added the license code the license editing view will
appear.
Figure 2.15
Figure 2.16
Installing FLARENET 2-31
2-31
The license code, feature name, version number, number of license
servers that make up the redundant license server pool and number of
tokens available make up the License Attribute group box. Along with
displaying the license attributes you can specify the following
information for the license.
• Borrowing threshold - This is the percentage of license tokens
that, when consumed, will trigger borrowing from another
license server in the pool. For example, if this license has 100
tokens and the borrowing threshold is set to 90%, the when 10
license tokens are remaining on any license server, that license
server will borrow more tokens from another license server in
the pool
• License distribution - From a list of servers in the pool you can
choose which license servers will service this license by
selecting the appropriate Include check boxes. For each
license server you include you can select how many tokens will
initially be distributed to that license server.
For a license code with more than one license you can set up each
license differently by scrolling through each license using the Next
License button. If you would like all of the licenses set up to be identical
you can use the Accept All button.
After at least one license has been added to the pool, you can select an
existing license from the main screen and click Edit License to modify
the license or click Delete License to delete the license from the pool.
2.7.4 rlftool
Rlftool is a command line utility that allows you to create and maintain
a redundant license file.
To use rlftool in menu mode to create a new redundant license file,
from DOS type:
rlftool
Or, to modify an existing redundant license file, type:
rlftool -1 redundant-license-file
You then see a menu that lists the rlftool options. Type the number of
the option you want to use and press Return. To exit and save the file,
type 12 and press Return.
You may find using the
Windows-interface Wrlftool
utility more convenient than
this utility.
2-32 License Server Tools
2-32
Two options available when using rlftool in menu mode that are not
available as command line options are:
To use the rlftool as a command line utility, type rlftool followed by any
of the options below except -l (which will take you to the menu).
Option Description
Preference Order
The first redundant license server in the pool to be
started is by default the leader. However, by setting
the preference order, you set the order that the
license servers will be elected the leader if the leader
goes down.
View/Edit License
You can select an existing license to view, and may
change the token allocations for that license.
Option Description
-h Displays a list of the rlftool options
-l filename Load or create a redundant license file.
-a server-name
address
Add the license server specified by the host name
and IP or IPX address.
-d server-name Delete the license server specified by the host name.
-A license-code
Add the specified license code to the redundant
license file. Enclose the license code in quotation
marks. You will be prompted for token distribution
and for the threshold percentage. When this
percentage of the total number of tokens has been
consumed on any license server, token borrowing
will occur.
-F license-file-name
Add the license codes contained in the specified text
file to the redundant license file.
-D feature version
Delete a license code with the specified feature/
version from the redundant license file.
-p pool-name
Change the redundant license server pool name to
the one specified. May be 8 characters.
-s sequence-#
Change the sequence number of the redundant
license file. (A mismatch in sequence numbers
triggers transmission of the redundant license file to
the other redundant license servers when the license
server that this change is being made is stopped and
restarted. Not necessary except in extraordinary
circumstances, because this is handled for you
automatically.(
-t time-stamp
Change the time-date stamp of the redundant
license file. (A mismatch in time-date stamps triggers
transmission of the redundant license file to the other
redundant license servers when the license server
that this change is being made is stopped and
restarted. Not necessary except in extraordinary
circumstances, because this is handled for you
automatically.(
Installing FLARENET 2-33
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2.7.5 lspool
Lspool is a command line utility that performs the same functions the
WLMAdmin utility does.
You must set the LSHOST environment variable to point to one of the
redundant license servers. Some lspool options dynamically change
the redundant license server configuration, but do not write the
changes permanently to the redundant license file. When the
redundant license servers are restarted the changes are lost.
The lspool options are:
-R report-filename
Write the redundant license file contents to the
specified file.
-C conflict report
Write any conflicts between token allocation and
license servers to the specified file.
Option Description
When making changes to the
redundant license server pool
as a whole we recommend you
select the leader license server
to make the changes to.
Features and versions are
obtained from the license file
lservrc.
Option Description
-h Displays a list of lspool options
-a license server
Add the license server to the redundant license
server pool. You can specify the host name, IP
address, or IPX address to identify the new
license server.
Modifies the redundant license file.
-d license server
Deletes a license server from the redundant
license server pool. You can specify the host
name, IP address, or IPX address to identify the
new license server.
Modifies the redundant license file.
-l
Displays the host name of the leader redundant
license server.
-p
Displays a list of license servers in the redundant
license server pool.
-c feature name dist-
crit.
Changes the distribution criteria for the specified
feature/version tokens. The dist-crit format is:
server1:tokens1^server2:tokens2... where server
is the host name, IP address, or IPX address. If
the version is not specified, it must be replaced
with empty quotation marks: “ “.
Temporary change only in effect until the license
server is stopped and restarted. Does not modify
the redundant license file.
-g feature version
Displays the distribution criteria for the specified
feature/version. If the version is not specified, it
must be replaced with empty quotation marks: “ “.
2-34 License Server Tools
2-34
2.7.6 lsusage
Lsusage is a command line utility that displays a summary of
application usage, providing information on license transactions
contained in the license server usage file. At the command line enter
the following: lsusage logfile. Where logfile is the name you have given
to the log file. The log file will then be displayed with the following
information.
-b feature version
OFF|ON
DIsable or enable token borrowing for the
specified feature version for this license server. If
the version is not specified, it must be replaced
with empty quotation marks: “ “.
Temporary change only in effect until the license
server is stopped and restarted. Does not modify
the redundant license file.
-B OFF|ON
Disable or enable token borrowing for all
features/versions for this license server.
Temporary change only in effect until the license
server is stopped and restarted. Does not modify
the redundant license file.
-L event OFF|ON
Disable or enable logging for the specified event.
• 0 - log all events
• 1 - log license server up. On by default
• 2 - log election of leader license server
• 3 - log heart beat
• 4 - log borrowing related event
• 5 - log usage information event
• 6 - log distribution change
• 7 - log license information synchronization
• 8 - log redundant license file transfer
• 9 - log license server down
• 10 - log license server addition/deletion
• 11 - log license addition deletion
Option Description
Element Description
Feature name/Version
Identifies the license for which this entry was
made.
%age Denied
The percentage of requests for this license that
were denied (usually because the hard limit of
the license had already been reached).
%age Issued
The percentage of requests for this license that
were granted.
Ttl Keys Issued
The number of tokens for this license that were
issued.
Installing FLARENET 2-35
2-35
2.7.7 Wcommute
Wcommute is a Windows-interface utility used for checking commuter
authorizations in and out. When you first open Wcommute you will see
the following window.
%age Queued granted
The percentage of queued license requests that
were granted.
%age Qreq.
The percentage of license requests that were
placed in the license queue. (License requests
are queued only if license queuing is enabled for
this license.)
Min. App. Duration
The minimum number of minutes the application
for this license was in use.
Avg. App. Duration
The average number of minutes the application
for this license was in use.
Max. App. Duration
The maximum number of minutes the application
for this license was is use.
LOG REPORT FOR
Sessions: x
The session numbers for this license server that
were logged in this file.
Element Description
Figure 2.17
Object Description
Check Out Checks out an authorization for a specific license
Check In Checks in an authorization for a specific license
2-36 License Server Tools
2-36
Perform the following steps to check out an authorization for a license.
1. Click Search Subnet or Single Server to display the commuter
licenses available for authorization.
2. Click once on a commuter license, that you would like to check
out, to select it. This activates the Please enter the number of days
until the authorization expires text box. Enter a number between 1
to 30 to specify the number of days this license will be checked out.
3. Click Check Out. A read check mark will then appear next to the
license indicating that it has been checked out.
4. To check in an authorization, look for the license under the license
server that you checked the license out of (There should be a red
check mark beside it, indicating it has been checked out). Click
once on the license name to select it and then click Check In.
2.7.8 lcommute
Lcommute is a command line utility used for checking commuter
authorizations in and out. The lcommute options are:
Search Subnet
Searches for and displays all of the license servers
on your subnet.
Single Server
Searched for and displays a specified license server.
Requires you to specify the license server’s
computer hostname, IP address or IPX address.
Object Description
Figure 2.18 Remember the name of the
license server that you
obtained the authorization.
You will need to check the
authorization back into the
same license.
Note if you do not supply any
command line options
lcommute will ask you for the
information it needs.
Option Description
-h Displays list of options.
-c:i Check in an authorization for a commuter license.
-c:o Check out an authorization for a commuter license.
-s:license server
Host name, IP address or IPX address of the license
server servicing the commuter license.
Installing FLARENET 2-37
2-37
Example
lcommute -s:QATEST -c:o -f:AEA_BDK -d:30
In this case, the license server to be contacted is QATEST, the
authorization is being checked out, the feature name identifying the
commuter license is AEA_BDK, the license does not have a version
number, and the authorization is being checked out for 30 days.
2.7.9 ipxecho
Displays the IPX network address. When using the IPX network
protocol, the license server host name must be the IPX address of the
computer on which the license server resides. The address is returned
in the form of four hexadecimal bytes (network-node address) followed
by six hexadecimal bytes (IPX-address).
2.7.10 lswhere
Lswehere is a command line utility used to display the network names
of the computers running the license server. By default the address of
the computer that the license server is running as well as its host name
is displayed. You can specify the following options:
-f:feature
Name of feature. This identifies the license you want to
use.
-v:version
Version. This also identifies the license you want to use. If
the license does not have a version, this can be omitted.
-d:days
Number of days the authorization will be checked out,
from 1 to 30. Only use when you are using the -c:o option.
Option Description
Option Description
-d
Displays details on the license servers found on the
network. This is the default setting.
-r
Displays just the IP or IPX addresses of the license
servers found on the network.
2-38 User Options
2-38
2.7.11 lsdecode
Lsdecode is a command line utility used to decrypt parts of the
information in license code strings. This utility can be useful in
determining the details of licensing agreements. It also enables you to
decipher unknown codes. You can specify the following options:
2.8 User Options
2.8.1 Setting Group Reservations
Group reservations allows you to associate user groups with each
feature and reserving for each group a pool containing a certain
number of licenses. Any licenses not specifically reserved fall into the
general pool.
A group specification consists of the following:
• The name of the feature for which the reservation applies,
• The name of the group,
• The number of licenses reserved for that group,
• And the login names of users or host IDs of computers that
belong to that group.
The groups must be mutually exclusive. Different groups for the same
feature should not have common users or computers. The number of
licenses reserved for a feature cannot exceed the number of concurrent
copies specified in the license code for that feature.
When the license server receives a request, it checks whether the user
making the request belongs to a group. If so, and licenses are available
for that group, the license server will issue the license(s) and remove
Option Description
-s license-file
The name of the license file. If this is not specified
the default file name, lservrc, is used. You cannot
use lsdecode to read a redundant license file
(default name lservrlf), but you can use it to read a
redundant license code file containing un-installed
redundant license code.
-e license-config-file
The name of the configuration file that may be
needed in case readable license strings have been
customized by re-mapping of fixed strings. By
default, lsdecode looks for license-file.cnf (for
example, lservrc.cnf).
Installing FLARENET 2-39
2-39
them from that group’s pool. Otherwise, requests will be serviced with
licenses from the general pool until no licenses are available.
Group reservations should be entered according to the following
format, with one group per line:
feature_name[ ,ver ]:group_name:num_of_licenses:{ user_name |
computer}
One or more user_name and or computer may be specifies, but at least
one value must be specified in the last field. The version number is
optional. If no version number is specified, only the feature name is
used.
2.9 Potential Problems
Running FLARENET
The following table provides descriptions of some possible error
returns from the system.
The path and file name of the
reservation file is defined by
the LSERVRC environment
variable.
The characters $ and ! have
special meaning. $ indicates
the computer name, and !
indicates a logical NOT.
Error Description
aLS_BADHANDLE
Handle used on call did not describe a valid
licensing system context
aLS_INSUFFICIENTUNITS
Licensing system could not locate enough
available licensing resources
aLS_LICENSESYSNOTAVAILABLE
No licensing system could be found with which
to perform the function invoked
aLS_LICENSETERMINATED
The licensing system has determined that the
resources used to satisfy a previous request
are no longer granted to the calling software.
aLS_NOAUTHORIZATIONAVAILABLE
The licensing system has no licensing
resources that could satisfy the request.
aLS_NOLICENSESAVAILABLE
The licensing system has licensing resources
that could satisfy the request, but they are not
available at the time of the request.
aLS_NORESOURCES
Insufficient resources (such as memory) are
available to complete the request.
aLS_NO_NETWORK The network is unavailable.
aLS_NO_MSG_TEXT
A warning occurred while looking up an error
message string for the LSGetMessage()
function.
aLS_UNKNOWN_STATUS
An unrecognized status code was passed into
the LSGetMessage() function.
aLS_BAD_INDEX
An invalid index was specified in
LSEnumProviders() or LSQuery License.
2-40 Potential Problems Running FLARENET
2-40
aLS_NO_MORE_UNITS No additional units are available.
aLS_LICENSE_EXPIRED
The license associated with the current context
has expired. This may be due to a time-
restriction on the license.
aLS_BUFFER_TOO_SMALL Input buffer is too small, need a bigger buffer.
aLS_NO_SUCCESS No success in achieving the target.
aVLS_NO_LICENSE_GIVEN
Generic error when a license is denied by a
server. If reasons are known, more specific
errors are given.
aVLS_APP_UNNAMED Application has not been given a name.
aVLS_HOST_UNKNOWN
Unknown host (Application is given a server
name but that server name doesn’t seem to
exist).
aVLS_NO_SERVER_FILE
No FILE giving license server name
(Application cannot figure out the license
server.
aVLS_NO_SERVER_RUNNING
On the specified machine, license server is not
RUNNING.
aVLS_APP_NODE_LOCKED
This feature is node locked but the request for a
key came from a machine other than the host
running the SentinelLM server.
aVLS_NO_KEY_TO_RETURN
LSrelease called when this copy of the
application had not received a valid key from
the SentinelLM server.
aVLS_RETURN_FAILED
Failed to return the key issued to this copy of
the application.
aVLS_NO_MORE_CLIENTS End of clients on calling VLSgetClientInfo.
aVLS_NO_MORE_FEATURES End of features on calling VLSgetFeatureInfo.
aVLS_CALLING_ERROR General error by vendor in calling function etc.
aVLS_INTERNAL_ERROR Internal error in SentinelLM.
aVLS_SEVERE_INTERNAL_ERROR Irrecoverable Internal error in SentinelLM.
aVLS_NO_SERVER_RESPONSE
On the specified machine, license server is not
responding. (Probable cause - network down,
wrong port number, some other application on
that port etc.).
aVLS_USER_EXCLUDED User// excluded.
aVLS_UNKNOWN_SHARED_ID Unknown shared id.
aVLS_NO_RESPONSE_TO_BROADCA
ST
No servers responded to client broadcast.
aVLS_NO_SUCH_FEATURE No such feature recognized by server.
aVLS_ADD_LIC_FAILED Failed to add license.
aVLS_DELETE_LIC_FAILED Failed to delete license.
aVLS_LOCAL_UPDATE Last update was done locally.
aVLS_REMOTE_UPDATE
Last update was done by the SentinelLM
server.
Error Description
Installing FLARENET 2-41
2-41
aVLS_VENDORIDMISMATCH
The vendor identification of requesting
application does not match with that of the
application licensed by this system.
aVLS_MULTIPLE_VENDORID_FOUND
The server has licenses for the same feature,
version from multiple vendors, and it is not clear
from the requested operation which license the
requester is interested in.
aVLS_BAD_SERVER_MESSAGE
An error has occured in decrypting (or
decoding) a network message. Probably an
incompatible or unknown server, or a version
mismatch.
aVLS_CLK_TAMP_FOUND
The server has found evidence of tampering of
the system clock, and it cannot service the
request since the license for this feature has
been set to be time tamper proof.
aVLS_NOT_AUTHORIZED
The specified operation is not permitted -
authorization failed.
aVLS_INVALID_DOMAIN
The domain of server is different from that of
client.
aVLS_UNKNOWN_TAG_TYPE The server does not know of this tag type.
aVLS_INVALID_TAG_TYPE
A tag’s type is invalid for the operation
requested.
aVLS_UNKNOWN_TAG The server doesn’t know this tag.
aVLS_UPDATE_TAGGED_KEY_ERROR Attempt to update a tagged key.
aVLS_TAGS_NOT_SUPPORTED Server does not support tags.
aVLS_LOG_FILE_NAME_NOT_FOUND ???????
aVLS_LOG_FILE_NAME_NOT_CHANG
ED
???????
aVLS_FINGERPRINT_MISMATCH ???????
aVLS_TRIAL_LIC_EXHAUSTED
Trial License Usage Exhausted or Trial License
Expired.
aVLS_NO_UPDATES_SO_FAR No Updates have been made so far.
aVLS_ALL_UNITS_RELEASED
Even though the client asked VLSreleaseExt
API to return a specific number of units, it
returned all the issued units.
aVLS_QUEUED_HANDLE The LS_HANDLE = is a queued handle.
aVLS_ACTIVE_HANDLE The LS_HANDLE = is an active handle.
aVLS_AMBIGUOUS_HANDLE The status of LS_HANDLE = is ambiguous.
aVLS_NOMORE_QUEUE_RESOURCES
Could not queue the client because the queue
is full.
aVLS_NO_SUCH_CLIENT No client as specified, found with the server.
aVLS_CLIENT_NOT_AUTHORIZED
Client not authorized to make the specified
request.
aVLS_BAD_DISTB_CRIT Distribution Criterion given is not correct.
aVLS_LEADER_NOT_PRESENT
Processing not done because current leader is
not known.
Error Description
2-42 Potential Problems Running FLARENET
2-42
aVLS_SERVER_ALREADY_PRESENT
Tried to add a server to pool which is already
there.
aVLS_SERVER_NOT_PRESENT
Tried to delete a server who is not in pool
currently.
aVLS_FILE_OPEN_ERROR File can not be open.
aVLS_BAD_HOSTNAME Host name is not valid or can not be resolved.
aVLS_DIFF_LIB_VER
Different API version. Client server version
mismatch.
aVLS_NON_REDUNDANT_SRVR
A non-redundant server contacted for
redundant server related information.
aVLS_MSG_TO_LEADER Message forwarded to leader. It is not an error.
aVLS_CONTACT_FAILOVER_SERVER
Update fail. may be Contact server died or
modified.
aVLS_UNRESOLVED_IP_ADDRESS IP address given can not be resolved.
aVLS_UNRESOLVED_HOSTNAME Host name given is unresolved.
aVLS_INVALID_IP_ADDRESS Invalid IP address Format.
aVLS_SERVER_FILE_SYNC Server is synchronizing dist table. Not an Error.
aVLS_POOL_FULL
Pool is already having max. no. of servers it can
handle.
aVLS_ONLY_SERVER Pool will not exist if this only server is removed.
aVLS_FEATURE_INACTIVE The feature is inactive on the requested server.
aVLS_MAJORITY_RULE_FAILURE
The token cannot be issued because of
majority rule failure.
aVLS_CONF_FILE_ERROR Error related to configuration file operation.
aVLS_NON_REDUNDANT_FEATURE
A non-redundant feature given for redundant
feature related operation.
aVLS_NO_TRIAL_INFO No Trial usage info.
aVLS_TRIAL_INFO_FAILED Trial usage query failed.
aVLS_ELM_LIC_NOT_ENABLE elan License not enabled.
aVLS_NOT_LINKED_TO_INTEGRATED
_LIBRARY
Commuter related error code not linked to
integrated library.
aVLS_CLIENT_COMMUTER_CODE_DO
ES_NOT_EXIST
Client commuter code does not exist.
aVLS_CLIENT_ALREADY_EXISTS Client already exist.
aVLS_NO_MORE_COMMUTER_CODE
End of features on calling
VLSgetCommuterInfo API.
aVLS_GET_COMMUTER_INFO_FAILED Failed to get client commuter info.
aVLS_UNABLE_TO_UNINSTALL_CLIE
NT_COMMUTER_CODE
VLSuninstallAndReturnCommuterCode() API
failed.
aVLS_ISSUE_COMMUTER_CODE_FAIL
ED
VLSgetAndInstallCommuterCode() failed.
aVLS_UNABLE_TO_ISSUE_COMMUTE
R_CODE
Server is not allowed to issue commuter code
for the requested feature and version.
Error Description
Installing FLARENET 2-43
2-43
2.10 Glossary of Terms
aVLS_NOT_ENOUGH_COMMUTER_KE
YS_AVAILABLE
Not enough key available to check out
commuter code.
aVLS_INVALID_INFO_FROM_CLIENT Invalid lock Info provided by client.
aVLS_CLIENT_ALREADY_EXIST
Server has already check out one commuter
code for this client.
aVLS_COMMUTER_CODE_DOES_NOT
_EXIST
No commuter code exit with this feature /
version.
aVLS_COMMUTER_CODE_ALREADY_
EXIST
Client has already had commuter code with this
feature version.
aVLS_SERVER_SYNC_IN_PROGRESS
Server synchronization in progress. Please
wait...
Error Description
Term Description
License
Permission granted to program/application/
component to use a specific feature.
License Code
Encrypted/Checksummed/TamperProtected Alpha-
Numeric text string, used to define a single licensed
feature. Each code is licked to a hardware key
(Computer ID key or GreenKey).
License File
File containing License Codes for the specific
features licensed to the user.
Standalone License License granted local to the users machine.
Network License
License granted/obtained from a network license
server.
Network License
Server
Program/Service running on a computer which is
attached to the LAN. Grants Licenses to the
application which is running on network user
machines.
Hardware Key Physical hardware device used to secure Licenses.
2-44 Glossary of Terms
2-44
Get Started 3-1
3-1
3 Get Started
3.1 Data Requirements....................................................................................... 3
3.2 Starting Flarenet........................................................................................... 6
3.3 Starting A New Model .................................................................................. 9
3.4 Saving The Model....................................................................................... 13
3.5 Building The Pipe Network........................................................................ 14
3.6 Defining The Scenarios ............................................................................. 24
3.7 Defining The Sources ................................................................................ 27
3.8 Rating The Network.................................................................................... 33
3.9 Printing Data And Results......................................................................... 38
3-2
3-2
Get Started 3-3
3-3
This Get Started tutorial shows the fundamental principles involved in
using FLARENET to design and rate a new flare system. This "guided
tour" will expose you to most of the major features of FLARENET.
This tutorial assumes that you are familiar with the use of Windows and
have some prior experience in the design of flare systems.
This example consists of the following main parts:
1. Building The Pipe Network - Pipes and nodes will be added using
either the PFD or the Manager views.
2. Defining the Scenarios - Different scenarios will be set up to
simulate various process conditions.
3. Defining The Sources - Relieving sources will be added to each
scenario.
4. Sizing the Network - Finally, the pipe network will be simulated
and results will be viewed both in textual and graphical form.
3.1 Data Requirements
Before you can start to build a computer model of the flare header
system, you must first define all the data that will determine your
system.
Pipe Segment Data
Data Description
Connectivity
You would normally have prepared a system
sketch that defines the nodes to which the pipe
segments are connected.
Length and fittings
loss coefficients for
each pipe segment
These will be based upon either a preliminary or
detailed isometric drawing of the piping.
Diameter and pipe
schedule for each pipe
segment
If you are rating an existing network, these will
normally be taken from the flare system P&ID. If
you are sizing a new flare system, the pipe
diameters that you define are relatively
unimportant since they will be overwritten by the
sizing algorithms. It is recommended that
reasonable diameters be defined, so that the
sizing algorithm initialises to a condition that will
give faster convergence.
When you are sizing a flare
system, the initial pipe
diameters may affect the
solution when there is a liquid
phase and the liquid knockout
drum is modelled. You should
initially size a network using
vapour phase methods.
3-4 Data Requirements
3-4
The following diagram shows the connectivity of the system that you
will be designing in this example.
The pipe segments in the network diagram are detailed in the following
table.
The flare tip is assumed to be a simple opened ended piece of 18" pipe.
It will not be resized. Fittings loss coefficients exclude pipe
enlargement and junction losses which will automatically be
calculated, assuming standard tees for the junctions.
Figure 3.1
Segment Name Length (m)
Internal
Diameter
(mm)
Wall
Thickness
(mm)
Fittings
Loss
Elevation
Change (m)
Flare Tip 0 876.3 3.0 0
Stack 100 876.3 19.05 0 100
Header 3 50 876.3 19.05 0 0
Tail Pipe 1 25 428.65 14.275 0 0
Tail Pipe 2 25 428.65 14.275 0 0
Get Started 3-5
3-5
Relief Source Data
The following data must be specified for the sources:
In this example, you will consider three scenarios that represent one
fire case and two single blocked discharge cases. The following tables
define the source data for each scenario.
Default Source Data
Data Description
Flow and Composition
These may vary for each scenario that you
are evaluating. If a relief source is not used
in a particular scenario the flowmay be set to
zero. The Flow refers to the quantity of fluid
that the source valve must pass as a
consequence of the plant upset condition.
The Rated Flow refers to the quantity of fluid
that the source valve will pass due to its
physical construction. Rated flow must
always be greater than or equal to flow.
Maximum Allowable Back
Pressure (MABP)
This is the maximum pressure that can exist
at the outlet of the device (source) without
affecting its capacity.
Downstream temperature
This temperature is used as the pressure
independent temperature at which the
source enters the network. This temperature
is used when ideal gas enthalpies are used
to calculate the heat balance, or as an initial
guess when any other enthalpy method is
used.
Upstream pressure and
temperature
These are only used if the Ideal Gas
enthalpies are not used for the heat balance.
These may vary for each scenario that you
are evaluating. With relief valves, the flowing
pressure should be used.
Discharge flange size
This will normally be determined from the
relief valve sizing calculations.
Source
Name
Flowrate
(kg/hr)
Flange
Size
(mm)
Mol. Wt.
US
Temp
(C)
DSTemp
(C)
US Pres.
(bar abs)
MABP
(bar abs)
Source 1 100000 300 20 15 15 10 5.0
Source 2 100000 300 25 15 15 10 5.0
3-6 Starting Flarenet
3-6
Source 1 Only Data
Source 2 Only Data
For each source, it will be assumed that the rated flow is equal to the
maximum flow for the source from the two scenarios +20%.
System Design Constraints
In this case, the following data is used for both Scenarios:
• Maximum allowable mach number - 0.50 for both main headers
and tailpipes.
3.2 Starting Flarenet
The installation process creates a shortcut to Flarenet in the Start Menu
under Programs...AEA Technology. To Start Flarenet,
1. Select the Start Menu.
2. Move from the Programs to AEA Technology to Flarenet 3.0.
Source
Name
Flowrate
(kg/hr)
Flange
Size
(mm)
Mol. Wt.
US
Temp
(C)
DSTemp
(C)
US Pres.
(bar abs)
MABP
(bar abs)
Source 1 100000 300 20 15 15 10 5.0
Source 2 0 300 25 15 15 10 5.0
Source
Name
Flowrate
(kg/hr)
Flange
Size
(mm)
Mol. Wt.
US
Temp
(C)
DSTemp
(C)
US Pres.
(bar abs)
MABP
(bar abs)
Source 1 0 300 20 15 15 10 5.0
Source 2 100000 300 25 15 15 10 5.0
Get Started 3-7
3-7
3. Select Flarenet 3.0.
Now you are ready to begin working with Flarenet.
Figure 3.2
3-8 Starting Flarenet
3-8
When you start Flarenet, the Flarenet Desktop will appear:
Note that this view has been resized; your Desktop view should appear
larger than this when initially opened. To re-size the view, click and
drag the outside border. To make the view full size, press the Maximize
button in the upper right hand corner.
Before setting up the Get Started case, you should choose the Flarenet
unit set for displaying information. You can check your current unit set
by accessing the Preferences Editor:
1. Select the Preference from the Flarenet File menu, the Preferences
Figure 3.3
Get Started 3-9
3-9
Editor view will open.
2. The current unit set is shown in the Units drop down menu. The
Flarenet defualt is Metric, which will be used for this example. Also
confirm that the Edit Objects on Add checkbox is active(checked).
This option will open the object editor view each time a new object
is added.
3. Press the OK button to close the Preferences Editor view.
3.3 Starting A New Model
To start a new case, do one of the following:
• Select New from the File menu on the main program menu
bar.
Figure 3.4
Figure 3.5
New Case Button
3-10 Starting A New Model
3-10
• Press the New Case button.
The Description Editor view appears.
Enter the appropriate data (as shown in Figure 3.6) into the User Name,
Job Code, Project, and Description fields, and then click the OK button.
The Component Manager view then appears.
There are number of ways to select components for your simulaion.
One method is to filter the database for a certain component type. In
this model, we will be using the following components: Methane,
Ethane and Propane. To add methane using the filter option:
1. Ensure that the HC checkbox in the Component Type group is
Figure 3.6
Figure 3.7
The Selected list box is empty,
indicating that no
components have yet been
installed in the case.
Initially, all the checkboxes in
the Component Types group
are active. You can deactivate
them by pressing the Invert
button.
Get Started 3-11
3-11
activated.
2. Start typing methane in the Selection Filter edit box. Notice that as
you are typing, the Database list box will be filtered out to show
only the matching components.
3. Double click Methane in the Database list box. Methane will now
have been selected and will be shown in the Selected list box.
Repeat the previous step with Ethane and Propane. As an alternative
method, you may scroll through the Database list box until you see the
desired component. Highlight the component by single clicking on it
and then click Add to place it in the Selected list.
Figure 3.8
3-12 Starting A New Model
3-12
This Component Manager view will now appear as follows:
Click OK to close the Component Manager view and accept the list of
components.
Open the View menu and then the Data sub-menu. Select Components
from the sub-menu. The Components data view will be displayed:
Figure 3.9
Notice that now all the
required components are
shown in the Selected list box,
indicating that they have been
installed in the case.
You can use the horizontal
scroll bar at the bottom of the
view to view all of the
component properties.
Figure 3.10
Get Started 3-13
3-13
3.4 Saving The Model
It is good practice to periodically save your case by doing one of the
following:
• Press the Save button on the button bar.
• Select Save from the File menu.
• Press <Ctrl><S>.
As this is the first time you have saved your case, the Save Flarenet
Model view will be displayed:
After selecting an appropriate disk drive and directory in the Save in
drop-down menu, enter the name of the file to which you wish to save
the case in the File name field. Note that you do not need to include the
.fnw extension; FLARENET will add it automatically.
Click Save to close the dialog box and save the file.
Figure 3.11
Save button
3-14 Building The Pipe Network
3-14
3.5 Building The Pipe
Network
Since all scenarios have a common pipe network, you should first build
the pipe network model via the PFD.
Press the Open PFD View button on the button bar. The PFD view will
be displayed with its own button bar.
At this point the view should be blank, since we have not added a single
object yet.
The desired objects can be added with any of the following features:
• Pressing the Toggle Palette Display button on the PFD
view or the F4 key will open the Toolbox view, which
dislays all the objects available in Flarenet. You can add an
object by clicking on it.
• Objects can also be added via the Pipe Manager and the
Node Manager views. These are accessible through
Pipes... and Nodes... in the Build menu, respectively.
Open PFD Button
Figure 3.12
Before proceeding any further,
make sure that the Edit
Objects on Add checkbox on
the General tab of the
Preferences Editor view is
checked.
Get Started 3-15
3-15
For the Flare Tip, press the Flare Tip button on the Toolbox view. Since
the Edit Objects on Add checkbox is selected, The Flare Tip Editor view
will be displayed:
By default the Flare Tip has been named as 1, which can be changed to
a more appropriate name as follows:
1. Click in the Name field on the Flare Tip Editor view.
2. Delete the default name and type Flare Tip as the new name.
Since this example is of smaller size, therefore the Location field will be
left blank. This field is only useful for larger case with multiple sections
(areas) within a same plant. Now you need to specify the pipe, which
will be simulated as a flare stack, and it is attached to the Tip.
3. Enter the name Stack in the Inlet field.
4. In the At drop down box, select Downstream as the pipe end
connected to the Tip.
In order to complete the Flare Tip Editor view, you need to specify the
Diameter and the Fitting Loss values on the Calculations tab.
Figure 3.13
Flare Tip Button
3-16 Building The Pipe Network
3-16
5. On the Calculations tab, enter 876.3 as the diameter and 3 as the
fitting loss in the appropriate fields.
Now you have provided all the necessary information about the Tip.
6. Press OK to close the view.
Notice that two new objects have been added to the PFD view. You can
either manually arrange them by clicking and dragging the object icons
or let Flarenet auto-arrange the icons by selecting Regenerate from the
PFD menu under the View drop down menu.
7. Open the Stack property view and move to the Dimensions tab.
8. Specify the Length as 100 m and the Elevation Change as 100 m.
This will result in a vertical pipe measuring 100 m tall.
Figure 3.14
Get Started 3-17
3-17
9. Select the Nominal Diameter as 36 inch and the Pipe Schedule as
40.
10. On the Methods tab, confirm that Vertical Pipe and VLE Method
are set as default models.
In this example, every pipe segment uses the default models which are
specified on the Methods tab of the Calculation Options Editor view.
11. Press OK to close the Stack property view.
Now you need to add another pipe segment which will be added using
the Pipe Manager view.
12. Select Pipes from the Build menu on menu bar. The Pipe Manager
view will be displayed.
Figure 3.15
Figure 3.16
The default methods, as
defined in the Calculation
Options Editor view, are
Isothermal Vapour Pressure
Drop, and Compressible Gas
VLE.
3-18 Building The Pipe Network
3-18
13. Click the Add button.
The Pipe Editor property view will be displayed.
14. Change the default name to Header 3.
15. Move to the Dimensions tab and enter the following data in the
appropriate fields:
16. Click OK to close the Pipe Editor view.
17. Close the Pipe Manager view by pressing the OK button.
You need to attach Header 3 with Stack using a node. Flarenet allows
you to choose between a variety of nodes, since you need a simple
connection between the two pipes, a Connector node will be used.
18. On the PFD Toolbox view, click on the Connector button.
Figure 3.17
Field Value
Length (m) 50
Nominal Diameter (inch) 36
Pipe Schedule 40
Connector Button
Get Started 3-19
3-19
This will open the Connector Editor view.
19. On the Connections tab, Enter the new name as Con 1.
20. In the Downstream drop down box, select Stack and specify the
connection at Upstream (of Stack) in the At drop down box.
21. In the Upstream drop down box, select Header 3 and specify the
connection at Downstream (of Header 3) in the At drop down box.
22. Move to the Calculations tab.
Notice that by default the Theta has a value of 90 deg and the Fitting
Loss Method is set as Calculated. You can leave the default value for
this example.
23. Press the OK button to close the Connector Editor view.
Now, a tee will be added, using the Node Manager, to combine the flow
from the two sources.
Figure 3.18
Figure 3.19
3-20 Building The Pipe Network
3-20
24. Select Nodes from the Build menu on menu bar. The Node
Manager view will be displayed.
25. Click the Add button and Select Tee from the pop up list.
The Tee Editor will be displayed.
26. Change the default name to Tee 1 in the Name field.
27. Specify the Downstream connection to be Header 3 and select
Upstream from the At drop down menu.
28. Move to the Calculations tab and change the Fittings Loss
Methods setting to Miller in the drop down menu.
29. Close the Tee Editor property view by pressing Ok button.
30. Press Ok to close the Node Manager view.
Figure 3.20
Figure 3.21
Get Started 3-21
3-21
Now, you can add two pipe segments to the upstream and branch
section of Tee 1 using the Pipe Manager view.
31. Open the Pipe Manager view by selecting Pipes from the Build
menu.
32. Press the Add button to add a new pipe segment.
33. Change the default pipe name to Tail Pipe 1.
34. Specify Tee 1 as the Downstream connection and select Branch in
the At drop down box.
35. Move to the Dimensions tab and specify the Length as 25 m.
36. Set Nominal Diameter as 18 inch from the drop down box.
37. Press Next to add another pipe segment.
Figure 3.22
Figure 3.23
3-22 Building The Pipe Network
3-22
Notice that Tail Pipe 1 has been added to the Pipe Manager list.
38. Change the new pipe segment default name to Tail Pipe 2.
39. Specify Tee 1 as the Downstream connection and select Upstream
in the At drop down box.
40. Move to the Dimensions tab and specify the Length as 25 m.
41. Set Nominal Diameter as 18 inch from the drop down box.
42. Press the OK button to close the Pipe Editor property view.
43. Close the Pipe Manager view by pressing the OK button.
Select Data-Pipes from the View drop down menu on the menu bar.
The Pipes view displays the data for all of the pipe segments:
Figure 3.24
Figure 3.25
Get Started 3-23
3-23
You could also check the PFD to ensure that the proper connections
have been made. A portion of the PFD is displayed below:
Figure 3.26
3-24 Defining The Scenarios
3-24
3.6 Defining The
Scenarios
You now need to define the data for all the scenario, the Default
Scenario, Source 1 Only and Source 2 Only scenarios. Since each case
must contain at least one scenario, a set of default scenario data is
created when you start a new case. We need to modify this data.
44. Select Scenarios from the Build menu on the menu bar.
The Scenario Manager dialog box will be displayed.
45. Double click on Default Scenario in the Scenario list box.
Figure 3.27
Get Started 3-25
3-25
The Scenario Editor dialog box will be displayed. Alternatively, you
could single-click Default Scenario in the Scenario list box then click
Edit.
46. Enter the data for the Default Scenario scenario as shown in
Figure 3.28, then click OK to close the Edit Scenario dialog box and
return to the Scenario Manager.
Now we should add the data for the Source 1 Only scenario.
47. Click Add on the Scenario Manager. The Clone Scenario From
dialog box will be displayed.
48. Select the only entry in the dialog box, i.e. Default Scenario
scenario.
Figure 3.28
Figure 3.29
3-26 Defining The Scenarios
3-26
49. Change the default name to Source 1 Only and enter the data for
the Source 1 Only scenario as shown in Figure 3.30.
50. To add a new scenario press Next on the Scenario Editor and select
the Source 1 Only scenario from the Clone Scenario From dialog
box.
51. Change the default new for the new scenario to Source 2 Only.
52. Enter the data for the new scenario as shown in Figure 3.30.
53. Click OK to close the Scenario Editor view and return to the
Scenario Manager, then click OK to close the Scenario Manager.
Figure 3.30
Figure 3.31
Get Started 3-27
3-27
3.7 Defining The Sources
You will now enter the source data for the sources in all scenarios. Since
for the first part of the example you will be defining the source
compositions in terms of molecular weight, the program preferences
must be set to accept the compositions on this basis.
54. Select Preferences from the File drop down menu on the menu
bar. The Preferences view will be displayed.
Ensure that Mol. Wt. is selected in the Composition Basis drop down
list box.
55. Click OK to close the Preferences Editor view.
Figure 3.32
Figure 3.33
3-28 Defining The Sources
3-28
Before defining a set of source data, You must select the scenario which
corresponds to this data. You will start by defining the data for the
Default Scenario.
56. Select the Default Scenario scenario. Any open data views would
now display data for this scenario.
You can now add the data corresponding to this scenario for each
source.
Figure 3.34
Get Started 3-29
3-29
57. Select Nodes from the Build menu on the main menu bar (<Alt>, B,
S). The Node Manager dialog box will be displayed:
58. Click Add and select Control Valve from the pop up list.
Figure 3.35
Figure 3.36
The Mole Fractions are
automatically estimated from
the Molecular Weight. Because
HC is selected from the drop
down, only hydrocarbon
components will be used to
match the Molecular Weight.
3-30 Defining The Sources
3-30
The Control Valve Editor view will be displayed:
59. Change the default name to Source 1. Select Tail Pipe 1 in the
Outlet drop down down box and set connection to be at Upstream
(of Tail Pipe 1).
60. Move to the Conditions tab and set the Mass Flow as 100000 kg/hr.
61. On the Composition tab, specify the Mol. Wt. to be 25.
62. Click Next to add a new source. The node pop up list will again be
displayed.
Figure 3.37
Figure 3.38
Get Started 3-31
3-31
63. Again select Control Valve from and the Control Valve Editor view
will be displayed.
64. Name the new source as Source 2 on the General tab.
65. Select Tail Pipe 2 in the Outlet drop down down box and set
connection to be at Upstream (of Tail Pipe 2).
66. Repeat step# 60-62 to add all the information required by the
scenario.
67. Press the Ok button to close the Control Valve Editor view.
The Node Manager dialog box will now appear as follows:
Figure 3.39
Figure 3.40
The source name appears as
the source name preceded by
the plant identifier.
3-32 Defining The Sources
3-32
68. Close the Node Manager view by pressing the OK button.
69. Select Data-Sources from the View drop down menu on the menu
bar.
The Sources data view for the Default Scenario will be displayed:
You must now add the source data for the other two scenarios.
70. Select the Source 1 Only scenario from the Scencario Selector
drop down menu on the tool bar (to the right of the buttons). Any
open data views will now display data for this scenario.
71. Make the following changes to the flowrates in the Source 1 Only
Scenario (all other information remains the same):
• Source 1 - 100000 kg/hr
• Source 2 - 0 kg/hr
72. Next, select the Source 2 Only scenario from the Scencario
Selector drop down menu on the tool bar (to the right of the
buttons) and make the following changes to the Source 2 Only:
• Source 1 - 0 kg/hr
• Source 2 - 100000 kg/hr
Figure 3.41
Get Started 3-33
3-33
3.8 Rating The Network
We have now entered all the model data and can now make the sizing
calculations. We will need to set the calculation options before starting
the calculations.
73. Select Options from the Calculation menu on the menu bar. The
Options dialog box will be displayed:
74. Enter the data as shown above, then click OK.
The options are explained below:
Figure 3.42
Option
Default
Setting
Description
Max Iterations
25 The maximum number of iterations.
The calculations will stop if this limit is
reached.
Pressure
Tolerance
0.01% When the difference in pressure
between successive iterations is less
than this tolerance, convergence is
assumed.
Mass Balance
Tolerance
1% This is the solution tolerance for the
iterative mass balance performed
during looped system calculations.
Damping
Factor
1 The damping factor used in the iterative
solution procedure.
Atmospheric
Pressure
1.01325 bar
abs
Specify the atmospheric pressure.
3-34 Rating The Network
3-34
Ambient
Temperature
15
o
C The Ambient temperature must be in
the range -100
o
C to 100
o
C.
Wind Velocity 10 m/s The average wind velocity.
Length
Multiplier
1 The length of the pipe is multiplied by
this value to determine the equivalent
length used for the pressure drop
calculation.
Calculation
Mode
Rating Select the Calculating Mode from the
drop down menu. The available options
are:
• Rating - It is used to check the existing
flare system in a plant. This method
calculates the pressure profile for the
existing pipe network.
• Design - It is used to design new flare
system for the plant. During calculation
it adjust the diameters of all pipes until
all the design constraints of MABP,
velocity and etc have been meet. These
diameters can be smaller than the
initially defined data.
• Debottleneck - It is used to determine
areas of the flare system that must be
increased in size due to either the
uprating of the existing plant and hence
flare loading, or the tie-in of new plant.
Loop Solver
Newton-
Raphson
These algorithms provides globally
convergent methods for nonlinear
systems of equations. The methods
available are:
• Broyden - It provides a quicker solution
since it does not have to calculate
Jacobian matrix. You need to provide
better guesses for the tear pipe flows.
• Newton-Raphson - It works more
reliably if default initial guesses are
used but takes a longer time.
Rated Flow for
Tailpipes
OFF If checked, the rated flow will be used
in the sizing calculations for the
taipipes (as opposed to the actual
flowrates). The API guide for Pressure-
Relieving and Depressuring Systems
recommends that tailpipes be sized
based on the rated capacity
Enable Heat
Transfer
OFF If checked, heat transfer can take place
between the pipe segment and the
surroundings for pipe segments which
have Heat Transfer with Atmosphere
enabled.
Option
Default
Setting
Description
Get Started 3-35
3-35
You can now start the calculations.
75. Select Calculate from the Calculation drop down menu on the
menu bar (<Alt><C><C> or <Ctrl><R>). Alternatively, you could
select the Calculations button.
All Scenarios
OFF If checked, the calculations will be
made for all the scenarios defined in
the model, otherwise the calculations
will be made only for the scenario
which is currently displayed.
When sizing calculations are made for
a number of scenarios simultaneously,
a single network is calculated that will
satisfy the desigh constraints for all
scenarios.
Choked Flow
Check
ON If left unchecked, velocities will not be
limited to the sonic condition. This is
useful in sizing calculations since the
mach number limitations will still be met
by the time the final solution is reached.
Calculation speed is greater at the risk
of numerical instability and
convergence failure.
Echo Solver
History
OFF When checked, it should enable
printing of much more intermediate
information during calculations. This
should be left unchecked unless you
have convergence problems.
Force
Convergent
Solver
OFF Check if you are modelling a
convergent flare system, but with 2
flare tips as commonly found on
offshore floating production facilities.
Option
Default
Setting
Description
Figure 3.43
Calculations button
3-36 Rating The Network
3-36
Note that the current calculation is shown on the status bar:
Once the calculations are complete you can review the results.
76. Select Data-Sources from the View drop down menu on the menu
bar.
The Sources view shows the data for all the sources in the current
scenario.
77. Select Results-Messages from the View drop down menu on the
menu bar.
Figure 3.44
Figure 3.45
Get Started 3-37
3-37
The Messages data view will be displayed.
This window contains general information and warning messages
regarding the calculations. Note that the Problem tab list two mach
number violations for Tail Pipe 1 and Tail Pipe 2. These problems can
be fixed by doing detail design for the network. But for this example you
can ignore them and concentrate more on the features available in
Flarenet.
78. Press Pressure/Flow Summary button on the button bar.
The Pressure/Flow Summary view will be displayed:
Figure 3.46
Pressure/Flow Summary
button
Figure 3.47
3-38 Printing Data And Results
3-38
3.9 Printing Data And
Results
To print data and results:
79. Select Print from the File drop down menu on the menu bar. The
Print dialog box will be displayed.
80. Click on the appropriate check boxes to select the items that you
wish to print. Also check the All Scenarios box to print the results
for all of the scenarios instead of just the current scenario. If you
want to print to a file, check the Print To Text File box, then select
the file type from the Text File Type drop down.
81. Click OK.
This case is available for review in Step1.fnw (model before
calculations) and Step1c.fnw (model after calculations) which are
stored in the qstart sub-directory under the main program directory.
Upgrading the Network 4-1
4-1
4 Upgrading the
Network
4.1 Data Requirements....................................................................................... 3
4.2 Starting Flarenet........................................................................................... 7
4.3 Opening the Old Model ................................................................................ 8
4.4 Updating the Model ...................................................................................... 9
4.5 Defining The Scenarios ............................................................................. 17
4.6 Defining The Sources ................................................................................ 19
4.7 Sizing The Network .................................................................................... 25
4.8 Rigorous Rating ......................................................................................... 30
4.9 Printing Data And Results......................................................................... 32
4-2
4-2
Upgrading the Network 4-3
4-3
In this Get Started tutorial you will change the network designed in
Chapter 3 - Get Started to model the tie-in of two new control valves
into our current system. The modified system will be simulated for two
new scenarios, one each for the new sources.
This tutorial assumes that you are familiar with the use of Windows and
have some prior experience in the design of flare systems.
This example consists of the following main parts:
1. Building The Pipe Network - Pipes and nodes will be added using
either the PFD or the Manager views.
2. Defining the Scenarios - Different scenarios will be set up to
simulate various process conditions.
3. Defining The Sources - Relieving sources will be added to each
scenario.
4. Sizing the Network - Finally, the pipe network will be simulated
and results will be viewed both in textual and graphical form.
4.1 Data Requirements
Before you can start to upgrade a computer model of the existing flare
header system, you must first define all the data that will determine
your system.
Pipe Segment Data
Note that this tutorial is a
continuation of the one in
Chapter 3 - Get Started and
requires that you complete
that tutorial before continuing
with this one.
Data Description
Connectivity
You would normally have prepared a system
sketch that defines the nodes to which the new
pipe segments are connected.
Length and fittings
loss coefficients for
new pipe segment
These will be based upon either a preliminary or
detailed isometric drawing of the piping.
Diameter and pipe
schedule for each pipe
segment
If you are rating an existing network, these will
normally be taken from the flare system P&ID. If
you are sizing a new flare system, the pipe
diameters that you define are relatively
unimportant since they will be overwritten by the
sizing algorithms. It is recommended that
reasonable diameters be defined, so that the
sizing algorithm initialises to a condition that will
give faster convergence.
When you are sizing a flare
system, the initial pipe
diameters may affect the
solution when there is a liquid
phase and the liquid knockout
drum is modelled. You should
initially size a network using
vapour phase methods.
4-4 Data Requirements
4-4
The following diagram shows the connectivity of the system which
includes the new sources you will be adding in this example.
The pipe segments in the network diagram are detailed in the following
table.
The new pipe segments Header 1, Header 2, Tail Pipe 3 and Tail Pipe 4
will be added.
Figure 4.1
Segment Name Length (m)
Nominal
Diameter
(inch)
Schedule
Fittings
Loss
Elevation
Change (m)
Stack 100 36 40 0 100
Header 1 50 28 30 0 0
Header 2 50 32 40 0 0
Header 3 50 36 40 0 0
Tail Pipe 1 25 18 40 0 0
Tail Pipe 2 25 18 40 0 0
Tail Pipe 3 25 12 40 0 0
Tail Pipe 4 25 18 40 0 0
Upgrading the Network 4-5
4-5
Relief Source Data
The following data must be specified for the sources:
In this example, you will consider five scenarios that represent one fire
case and four single blocked discharge cases. The following tables
define the source data for each scenario.
Default Source Data
Data Description
Flow and Composition
These may vary for each scenario that you
are evaluating. If a relief source is not used
in a particular scenario the flow may be set to
zero. The Flow refers to the quantity of fluid
that the source valve must pass as a
consequence of the plant upset condition.
The Rated Flow refers to the quantity of fluid
that the source valve will pass due to its
physical construction. Rated flow must
always be greater than or equal to flow.
Maximum Allowable Back
Pressure (MABP)
This is the maximum pressure that can exist
at the outlet of the device (source) without
affecting its capacity.
Downstream temperature
This temperature is used as the pressure
independent temperature at which the
source enters the network. This temperature
is used when ideal gas enthalpies are used
to calculate the heat balance, or as an initial
guess when any other enthalpy method is
used.
Upstream pressure and
temperature
These are only used if the Ideal Gas
enthalpies are not used for the heat balance.
These may vary for each scenario that you
are evaluating. With relief valves, the flowing
pressure should be used.
Discharge flange size
This will normally be determined from the
relief valve sizing calculations.
Source
Name
Flowrate
(kg/hr)
Flange
Size
(mm)
Mol. Wt.
US
Temp
(C)
DSTemp
(C)
US Pres.
(bar abs)
MABP
(bar abs)
Source 1 100000 300 20 15 15 10 5.0
Source 2 100000 300 25 15 15 10 5.0
Source 3 100000 300 30 15 15 10 5.0
Source 4 100000 300 35 15 15 10 5.0
4-6 Data Requirements
4-6
Source 1 Only Data
Source 2 Only Data
Source 3 Only Data
Source 4 Only Data
For each source, it will be assumed that the rated flow is equal to the
maximum flow for the source from the two scenarios +20%.
Source
Name
Flowrate
(kg/hr)
Flange
Size
(mm)
Mol. Wt.
US
Temp
(C)
DSTemp
(C)
US Pres.
(bar abs)
MABP
(bar abs)
Source 1 100000 300 20 15 15 10 5.0
Source 2 0 300 25 15 15 10 5.0
Source 3 0 300 30 15 15 10 5.0
Source 4 0 300 35 15 15 10 5.0
Source
Name
Flowrate
(kg/hr)
Flange
Size
(mm)
Mol. Wt.
US
Temp
(C)
DSTemp
(C)
US Pres.
(bar abs)
MABP
(bar abs)
Source 1 0 300 20 15 15 10 5.0
Source 2 100000 300 25 15 15 10 5.0
Source 3 0 300 30 15 15 10 5.0
Source 4 0 300 35 15 15 10 5.0
Source
Name
Flowrate
(kg/hr)
Flange
Size
(mm)
Mol. Wt.
US
Temp
(C)
DSTemp
(C)
US Pres.
(bar abs)
MABP
(bar abs)
Source 1 0 300 20 15 15 10 5.0
Source 2 0 300 25 15 15 10 5.0
Source 3 100000 300 30 15 15 10 5.0
Source 4 0 300 35 15 15 10 5.0
Source
Name
Flowrate
(kg/hr)
Flange
Size
(mm)
Mol. Wt.
US
Temp
(C)
DSTemp
(C)
US Pres.
(bar abs)
MABP
(bar abs)
Source 1 0 300 20 15 15 10 5.0
Source 2 0 300 25 15 15 10 5.0
Source 3 0 300 30 15 15 10 5.0
Source 4 100000 300 35 15 15 10 5.0
Upgrading the Network 4-7
4-7
System Design Constraints
In this case, the following data is used for both Scenarios:
• Maximum allowable mach number - 0.50 for both main headers
and tailpipes.
4.2 Starting Flarenet
To Start Flarenet,
1. Select the Start Menu.
2. Move from the Programs to AEA Technology to Flarenet 3.0.
3. Select Flarenet 3.0.
Now you are ready to began working with Flarenet.
Figure 4.2
4-8 Opening the Old Model
4-8
When you start Flarenet, the Flarenet Desktop will appear:
Note that this view has been resized; your Desktop view should appear
larger than this when initially opened. To re-size the view, click and
drag the outside border. To make the view full size, press the Maximize
button in the upper right hand corner.
You do not need to change the setting on the Preference Editor view
since the stored case has its own setting.
4.3 Opening the Old Model
To open the previously stored case:
• Select Open from the File menu on the main program menu
bar.
• Press the Load An Existing Model From Disk button.
• Press <Ctrl><O>.
Figure 4.3

Maximize button
Upgrading the Network 4-9
4-9
The Open Flarenet Model view will appear.
4. Use the Look in drop-down menu to select the appropriate disk
drive and directory.
5. Next select the file named step1c.fnw from the list and press the
Open button.
This will open the Step1c.fnw case and any open view will display the
case data.
4.4 Updating the Model
Before proceeding any further, you need to do the following
modifications to the pipe network:
A large pipe diameter is selected to adjust the network for flow from the
new sources.
Figure 4.4
Segment Name
Diameter
(mm)
Length (m)
Nominal
Diameter
(inch)
Schedule
Fittings
Loss
Elevation
Change (m)
Header 3 50 36 40 0 0
Stack 100 36 40 0 100
Tip 876.3 3
4-10 Updating the Model
4-10
Now you need to add the new pipe segments to the existing model. But
first delete the connection between Tee 1 and Header 3 as follows:
6. Press the Toggle Connect/Arrange Mode button to switch to
connect mode and select the connection between Tee 1 and
Header 3.
7. Press the Delete button on the keyboard.
To add a tee section after Header 3:
8. Open the Node Manager view.
9. Press the Add button and select the Tee from the pop up list.
Figure 4.5
Figure 4.6
Toggle Connect/Arrange Mode
button (Connect Mode)
Toggle Connect/Arrange Mode
button (Arrange Mode)
Upgrading the Network 4-11
4-11
The Tee Editor view will be displayed:
10. Change the default name to Tee 3 in the Name field.
11. Specify the Downstream connection to be Header 3 and select
Upstream from the At drop down menu.
12. Move to the Calculations tab and change the Fittings Loss
Methods setting to Miller in the drop down menu.
13. Close the Tee Editor property view by pressing Ok button.
14. Press Ok to close the Node Manager view.
Now, you can add two pipe segments to the upstream and branch
section of Tee 3 using the Pipe Manager view.
15. Open the Pipe Manager view by selecting Pipes from the Build
menu.
Figure 4.7
Figure 4.8
Since this example is of
smaller size, therefore the
Location field will be left
blank. This field is only useful
for larger case with multiple
sections (areas) within a same
plant.
4-12 Updating the Model
4-12
16. Press the Add button to add a new pipe segment.
17. Change the default pipe name to Tail Pipe 4.
18. Specify Tee 3 as the Downstream connection and select Branch in
the At drop down box.
19. Move to the Dimensions tab and specify the Length as 25 m.
20. Set Nominal Diameter as 18 inch from the drop down box.
21. Press Next to add another pipe segment.
22. Change the new pipe segment default name to Header 2.
23. Specify Tee 3 as the Downstream connection and select Upstream
in the At drop down box.
24. Move to the Dimensions tab and specify the Length as 50 m.
25. Set Nominal Diameter as 32 inch from the drop down box.
Figure 4.9
Figure 4.10
After pressing Next, you will
noticed that Tail Pipe 4 has
been added to the Pipe
Manager list.
Upgrading the Network 4-13
4-13
26. Press the OK button to close the Pipe Editor property view.
27. Close the Pipe Manager view by pressing the OK button.
Notice that three new objects have been added to the PFD view. You
can either manually arrange them by clicking and dragging the object
icons or let Flarenet does the auto-arrangement by selecting
Regenerate from the PFD menu under the View drop down menu.
Now you will add a tee section using the PFD Toolbox.
28. Open the PFD Toolbox view (if it is not displayed) by pressing the
Toolbox button
29. Press the Tee button on the Toolbox view.
Since the Edit Objects on Add checkbox is selected, The Tee Editor view
will be displayed:
By default the Tee has been named as 7 (or whichever name you see in
the Name field), which can be changed to a more appropriate name as
follows:
30. Click in the Name field on the Tee Editor view.
31. Delete the default name and type Tee 2 as the new name.
32. Specify Header 2 as the Downstream connection and select
Upstream in the At drop down box.
33. Close the Tee Editor view by pressing the OK button.
Now, you can add two pipe segments to the upstream and branch
section of Tee 2 using the PFD Toolbox view.
Figure 4.11
PFD Toolbox button

Tee button
4-14 Updating the Model
4-14
34. Press the Pipe button to add a new pipe segment.
35. On the Pipe Editor view, change the default pipe name to Tail Pipe
3.
36. Specify Tee 2 as the Downstream connection and select Branch in
the At drop down box.
37. Move to the Dimensions tab and specify the Length as 25 m.
38. Set Nominal Diameter as 12 inch from the drop down box.
39. Close the Pipe Editor property view by pressing the OK button.
40. Press the Pipe button again to add another pipe segment.
41. Change the new pipe segment default name to Header 1.
42. Specify Tee 2 as the Downstream connection and select Upstream
in the At drop down box.
43. Specify Tee 1 as the Upstream connection and select Downstream
in the At drop down box.
44. Move to the Dimensions tab and specify the Length as 50 m.
Figure 4.12

Pipe button
Upgrading the Network 4-15
4-15
45. Set Nominal Diameter as 28 inch from the drop down box.
46. Press the OK button to close the Pipe Editor property view.
Select Data-Pipes from the View drop down menu on the menu bar.
The Pipes view displays the data for all of the pipe segments:
You could also check the PFD to ensure that the proper connections
Figure 4.13
Figure 4.14
4-16 Updating the Model
4-16
have been made. A portion of the PFD is displayed below:
Figure 4.15
Upgrading the Network 4-17
4-17
4.5 Defining The
Scenarios
You now need to define the data for the new scenarios, the Source 3
Only and Source 4 Only scenarios. The existing model already contains
three scenarios which you still be using in this example. To add the new
scenarios:
47. Select Scenario from the Build menu on the menu bar.
The Scenario Manager dialog box will be displayed.
48. Click Add on the Scenario Manager. The Clone Scenario From
dialog box will be displayed.
Figure 4.16
Figure 4.17
4-18 Defining The Scenarios
4-18
49. Select the Source 2 Only scenario from the list.
50. Change the default name to Source 3 Only and enter the data for
the Source 3 Only scenario as shown in Figure 4.18.
51. To add a new scenario press Next on the Scenario Editor and select
the Source 3 Only scenario from the Clone Scenario From dialog
box.
52. Change the default name for the new scenario to Source 4 Only.
53. Enter the data for the new scenario as shown in Figure 4.18.
54. Click OK to close the Scenario Editor view and return to the
Scenario Manager, then click OK to close the Scenario Manager.
Figure 4.18
Figure 4.19
Upgrading the Network 4-19
4-19
4.6 Defining The Sources
You will now enter the source data for the sources in all scenarios. Since
for the first part of the example you will be defining the source
compositions in terms of molecular weight, the program preferences
must be set to accept the compositions on this basis.
55. Select Preferences from the File menu on the menu bar. The
Preferences view will be displayed.
Ensure that Mol. Wt. is selected in the Composition Basis drop down
list box on the Defaults tab.
56. Click OK to close the Preferences Editor view.
Figure 4.20
Figure 4.21
4-20 Defining The Sources
4-20
Before defining a set of source data, you must select the scenario which
corresponds to this data. You will start by defining the data for the
Default Scenario.
57. Select the Default Scenario scenario. Any open data views would
now display data for this scenario.
You can now add the data corresponding to this scenario for the new
sources.
58. Select Nodes from the Build drop down menu on the main menu
bar (<Alt>< B>< S>).
Figure 4.22
The Mole Fractions are
automatically estimated from
the Molecular Weight. Because
HC is selected from the drop
down, only hydrocarbon
components will be used to
match the Molecular Weight.
Upgrading the Network 4-21
4-21
The Node Manager dialog box will be displayed:
59. Click Add and select Control Valve from the pop up list.
Figure 4.23
Figure 4.24
4-22 Defining The Sources
4-22
The Control Valve Editor view will be displayed:
60. Change the default name to Source 3. Select Tail Pipe 3 in the
Outlet drop down box and set connection to be at Upstream (of
Tail Pipe 3).
61. Move to the Conditions tab and set the Mass Flow as 100000 kg/hr.
62. On the Composition tab, specify the Mol. Wt. to be 30.
Figure 4.25
Figure 4.26
Upgrading the Network 4-23
4-23
63. Press the Normalise button to calculate an appropriate binary
composition.
64. Click Next to add a new source. The node pop up list will again be
displayed.
65. Again select Control Valve from and the Control Valve Editor view
will be displayed.
66. Name the new source as Source 4 on the General tab.
67. Select Tail Pipe 4 in the Outlet drop down box and set connection
to be at Upstream (of Tail Pipe 4).
Figure 4.27
Figure 4.28
4-24 Defining The Sources
4-24
68. Repeat Step 61 - 63 to add all the information required by the
scenario. Specify Mole Wt. to be 35 on the Composition tab.
69. Press the Ok button to close the Control Valve Editor view.
The Node Manager dialog box will now appear as follows:
70. Close the Node Manager view by pressing the OK button.
71. Select Data-Sources from the View drop down menu on the menu
bar.
The Sources data view for the Default Scenario will be displayed:
Figure 4.29
The source name appears as
the source name preceded by
the plant identifier.
Figure 4.30
Upgrading the Network 4-25
4-25
You must now add the source data for the other four scenarios.
72. Select the scenarios from the selector on the tool bar. Any open
data views will display data for the selected scenario.
73. Make the following changes to the flowrates in all scenarios:
For each scenario, ensure that the sources which have a flowrate of zero
are ignored (i.e. select the Ignore check box for the source).
4.7 Sizing The Network
You have now entered all the model data and can now make the sizing
calculations. You will need to set the calculation options before starting
the calculations.
74. Select Options from the Calculation drop down menu on the
menu bar. The Options dialog box will be displayed:
75. Enter the data as shown above, then click OK.
Scenarios Source 1 (kg/hr) Source 2 (kg/hr) Source 3 (kg/hr) Source 4 (kg/hr)
Source 1 Only 100000 0 0 0
Source 2 Only 0 100000 0 0
Source 3 Only 0 0 100000 0
Source 4 Only 0 0 0 100000
Figure 4.31
4-26 Sizing The Network
4-26
The options are explained below:
Option
Default
Setting
Description
Max Iterations
25 The maximum number of iterations.
The calculations will stop if this limit is
reached.
Pressure
Tolerance
0.01% When the difference in pressure
between successive iterations is less
than this tolerance, convergence is
assumed.
Mass Balance
Tolerance
1% This is the solution tolerance for the
iterative mass balance performed
during looped system calculations.
Damping
Factor
1 The damping factor used in the iterative
solution procedure.
Atmospheric
Pressure
1.01325 bar
abs
Specify the atmospheric pressure.
Ambient
Temperature
15
o
C The Ambient temperature must be in
the range -100
o
C to 100
o
C.
Wind Velocity 10 m/s The average wind velocity.
Length
Multiplier
1 The length of the pipe is multiplied by
this value to determine the equivalent
length used for the pressure drop
calculation.
Calculation
Mode
Rating Select the Calculating Mode from the
drop down menu. The available options
are:
• Rating - It is used to check the existing
flare system in a plant. This method
calculates the pressure profile for the
existing pipe network.
• Design - It is used to design new flare
system for the plant. During calculation
it adjust the diameters of all pipes until
all the design constraints of MABP,
velocity and etc. have been meet.
These diameters can be smaller than
the initially defined data.
• Debottleneck - It is used to determine
areas of the flare system that must be
increased in size due to either the
upgrading of the existing plant and
hence flare loading, or the tie-in of new
plant.
Upgrading the Network 4-27
4-27
Loop Solver
Newton-
Raphson
These algorithms provides globally
convergent methods for nonlinear
systems of equations. The methods
available are:
• Broyden - It provides a quicker solution
since it does not have to calculate
Jacobian matrix. You need to provide
better guesses for the tear pipe flows.
• Newton-Raphson - It works more
reliably if default initial guesses are
used but takes a longer time.
Rated Flow for
Tailpipes
OFF If checked, the rated flow will be used
in the sizing calculations for the
tailpipes (as opposed to the actual
flowrates). The API guide for Pressure-
Relieving and Depressuring Systems
recommends that tailpipes be sized
based on the rated capacity
Enable Heat
Transfer
OFF If checked, heat transfer can take place
between the pipe segment and the
surroundings for pipe segments which
have Heat Transfer with Atmosphere
enabled.
All Scenarios
OFF If checked, the calculations will be
made for all the scenarios defined in
the model, otherwise the calculations
will be made only for the scenario
which is currently displayed.
When sizing calculations are made for
a number of scenarios simultaneously,
a single network is calculated that will
satisfy the design constraints for all
scenarios.
Choked Flow
Check
ON If left unchecked, velocities will not be
limited to the sonic condition. This is
useful in sizing calculations since the
mach number limitations will still be met
by the time the final solution is reached.
Calculation speed is greater at the risk
of numerical instability and
convergence failure.
Echo Solver
History
OFF When checked, it should enable
printing of much more intermediate
information during calculations. This
should be left unchecked unless you
have convergence problems.
Force
Convergent
Solver
OFF Check if you are modelling a
convergent flare system, but with 2
flare tips as commonly found on
offshore floating production facilities.
Option
Default
Setting
Description
4-28 Sizing The Network
4-28
You can now start the calculations.
76. Select Calculate from the Calculation drop down menu on the
menu bar (<Alt>< C>< C> or <Ctrl><R>). Alternatively, you could
select the Calculations button.
Note that the current calculation is shown on the status bar:
Once the calculations are complete you can review the results.
Figure 4.32
Calculations button
Figure 4.33
Note that red text is used for
non resizable pipe segments,
and magenta is used for
resized pipe segments.
Upgrading the Network 4-29
4-29
77. Select Results-Problems from the View drop down menu on the
menu bar. The Messages data view will be displayed.
This window contains general information and warning messages
regarding the calculations. In this case the mach number exceeds the
design value of 0.5, which was defined for each scenario, for Tail Pipe 1
and Tail Pipe 3. It also shows both upstream and downstream pipe
segment mach number for each violation. It is due to smaller pipe
segments causing very high fluid velocities across the pipe segment.
At this point, it is a good idea to save your case before doing detail
design.
78. Select Save As from the File menu and save the file as Get Started 2
Rating.fnw
Figure 4.34
4-30 Rigorous Rating
4-30
4.8 Rigorous Rating
The system will now be rated taking into account the appropriate pipe
sizes.
79. Select Options from the Calculation drop down menu on the
menu bar. The Calculation Options Editor dialog box will be
displayed:
80. Change the Calculation Mode to Design and press the OK button
to close the Calculation Options Editor view.
You can now start a detail design calculation.
81. Select the Start Calculation button on the button bar.
Notice that the status bar will display the current calculation.
Figure 4.35
Figure 4.36
Upgrading the Network 4-31
4-31
After the calculation have been completed, you can review the new
results.
82. Press the Open Pipe Tabular View button on the button bar.
The Pipes view shows the data for all the pipe segment in the current
scenario.
Notice that Flarenet has selected the appropriate nominal diameter for
the pipe segments in the network.
83. Select Results - Pressure/Flow Summary from the View menu on
the menu bar.
The Pressure/Flow Summary view will be displayed:
Notice that the upstream and downstream mach number are now
within the design specification for the given scenario. You can use the
bottom scroll bar to move across the columns.
84. Press <Ctrl><A> to save the case. as a new file.
85. Enter the new file name as Get Started 2 Design.fnw on the Save
Flarenet Model view and press the Save button.
Open Pipe Tabular View
button
Figure 4.37
Figure 4.38
4-32 Printing Data And Results
4-32
4.9 Printing Data And
Results
To print data and results:
86. Select Print from the File drop down menu on the menu bar. The
Print dialog box will be displayed.
87. Click on the appropriate check boxes to select the items that you
wish to print. Also check the All Scenarios box to print the results
for all of the scenarios instead of just the current scenario. If you
want to print to a file, check the Print To Text File box, then select
the file type from the Text File Type drop down.
88. Click OK.
This case is available for review in Get Started 2 Rating.fnw (model
before detail design) and Get Started 2 Design.fnw (model after detail
design) which are stored in the \Samples sub-directory under the main
program directory.
Interface 5-1
5-1
5 Interface
5.1 Terminology.................................................................................................. 3
5.2 Menu Bar ....................................................................................................... 5
5.3 Tool Bar ......................................................................................................... 6
5.4 Status Bar ..................................................................................................... 8
5.5 Editing Data Views ....................................................................................... 9
5.5.1 Changing Column Width .......................................................................... 9
5.5.2 Changing Column Order ........................................................................ 10
5.6 Setting Preferences.................................................................................... 12
5.6.1 General Tab............................................................................................ 12
5.6.2 Defaults Tab ........................................................................................... 14
5.6.3 Databases Tab ....................................................................................... 15
5.6.4 Reports Tab............................................................................................ 15
5.6.5 Import Tab.............................................................................................. 16
5.7 Windows Menu ........................................................................................... 16
5.8 Help Menu ................................................................................................... 16
5-2
5-2
Interface 5-3
5-3
The FLARENET interface has been designed to give you a great deal of
flexibility in the way in which you enter, modify and view the data and
results which comprise your model of a flare system. This chapter
describes the various components of the FLARENET interface. If you
need help with any particular task, the on-line help can give you step-
by-step instructions.
5.1 Terminology
The following view of the FLARENET screen shows most of the
interface components that you will encounter. The terminology used to
describe these components throughout this manual is given here.
Figure 5.1
Menu Bar
Tool Bar
Scenario Selector
Data View
Check box
Edit Box
Title Bar
Button
FLARENET
Desktop Area
Status Box
DropDown
List Box
Scroll Button
Dialog Box
Scroll Bar
Tool Tip
Modal/Non-Modal
View
5-4 Terminology
5-4
Term Definition
Button
Most views contain buttons. They perform a
specific action when selected (either by clicking
the left mouse button or via the appropriate hot
key combination).
Check Box
Data items or settings that have an On/Off status
are indicated by Check Boxes. Selecting the box
will turn it on, selecting it again will turn it off.
Data View
A window that contains a non-editable view of
the model data and/or the calculation results.
Dialog Box
A modal window which allows you to enter the
model data. You cannot access any other
element in the model until this form has been
closed.
Drop Down List Box
A drop down list is indicated by a down arrow
next to a field. If you click on this arrow, a list of
available options for that field will be displayed.
Edit Box
Data items that are alphanumeric in nature are
entered into an Edit Box. In general, the data that
is entered in an Edit Box is checked for validity
before you can continue.
Menu Bar
The Menu Bar displays all of the program
functions, which can be accessed by clicking on
the appropriate menu item. This is described in
more detail later in the chapter.
Modal/Non-Modal View
When a view is modal, you cannot access any
other element in the simulation until you close it.
Non-modal views do not restrict you in this
manner. You can leave a non-modal view open
and interact with any other view or menu item.
Scenario Selector
This drop down list box shows the current
scenario selected for the case. On clicking the
down arrow, located beside the field, a list of all
the scenarios will be displayed.
Scroll Bar
Whenever the information associated with a view
or list exceeds what can be displayed, you may
move through the view or list by using the scroll
bar.
Scroll Button
Part of the Scroll Bar, allowing you to slide the list
up or down, or left or right.
Status Bar
This displays the current model status. For more
information, see Section 5.4 - Status Bar.
Title Bar Indicates the Flarenet file currently loaded.
Tool Bar
The Tool Bar contains a number of controls
(buttons) which give shortcut access to the most
commonly used program functions. This is
described in more detail later in this chapter.
Tool Tip
Whenever you pass the mouse pointer over one
of the buttons on the Tool Bar, a Tool Tip will be
displayed. It will contain a summary description of
the action that will take place if you click on that
button.
Note that throughout this
manual whenever any
reference is made to clicking
on a button or menu item,
unless otherwise specified it
refers to the left mouse button.
A modal view is characterised
by a single border and the
absence of the minimise/
maximise buttons in the
upper right-hand corner of the
view. A non-modal view has a
double border, and has the
minimise/maximise buttons.
Interface 5-5
5-5
5.2 Menu Bar
The menu bar allows access to all the program functions via menus and
sub-menus.
The menu bar contains commands for each of the main areas of
program functionality:
Figure 5.2
Menu Sub-menu
Menu Description
File
Work with files (New, Open, Save), supply Case
Description, import/export files, print, adjust
printer setup, and set preferences. Also a list of
previously opened cases are displayed at the
bottom of the drop down menu.
Build
Access the Managers for Components,
Scenarios, Pipes and Nodes.
Tools
Access various FLARENET utilities (see Section
8.2 - Scenario Tools, Section 9.5 - Pipe Tools,
and Section 10.3.2 - Source Tools).
Calculations Set calculation options and start calculations.
Database
Manage the pipe schedule, pipe fittings, pure
component databases and allows you to set a
password.
View
Look at summaries of the Data, the Results, and
the Process Flow Diagram (PFD).
5-6 Tool Bar
5-6
As an alternative to using the mouse to click on the menu item, you can
hit the <Alt> key, then the underlined letter key. For example, to import
source data from the HYSIM process simulator as shown above you
would hit the <Alt> key, and then while holding down the <Alt>, hit the
<F>, <I> and <H> keys in sequence (abbreviated as <Alt><F><I><H>).
5.3 Tool Bar
The Tool Bar contains a set of controls which give shortcut access to
some of the program functions without the need to navigate through a
series of menus and/or sub-menus.
Windows
Arrange the display of windows (Cascade, Tile,
etc.)
Help
Access on-line help and program version
information.
Menu Description
Button View Description
New Case
Starts a new case.
Load Case
Opens a case that has been
previously saved to disk.
Save Case

Saves a case to disk using the
current file name. If you wish to
save the case with a different file
name, use the Save As command
in the File menu.
Print Data and
Results

Opens a Print view, which allows
you to print the entries from the
Database, Data and Results
groups. You can either print to a
printer or to a file.
Display Metric
Units
Displays data and results in Metric
units.
Display British
Units
Displays data and results in British
units.
Display PFD
Displays the Process Flow
Diagram.
Interface 5-7
5-7
Display Pipe
Data View
Displays the Pipe data view.
Display Source
Data View
Displays the Source data view.
Display Node
Data View
Displays the Node data view.
Open Pressure/
Flow Summary
View
Displays the Pressure/Flow
Summary view.
Open Profile
Graphical View
Displays the graphical Profile view.
Start
Calculations
Starts the FLARENET calculations.
Stop
Calculations
Stops the FLARENET calculations.
Scenario
Selector
This drop down list box show the
current scenario selected for the
case. On clicking the down arrow,
located beside the field, a list of all
the scenarios will be displayed.
Button View Description
The Tool Bar can be hidden by unchecking the Show Toolbar
check box in the Preferences view.
5-8 Status Bar
5-8
5.4 Status Bar
The status bar displays the current status of the model. There are two
general regions in the status bar:
• The first region displays the program status - If Edit is
displayed, you can make changes to your model. During
calculations, this field will display Calc.
• The second region displays important information during
calculations, such as the iteration error and the current pipe
being solved.
Figure 5.3
Status Bar
(first region)
Status Bar (second region)
The calculation time can be
reduced by hiding the status
bar, which is particularly
useful for large cases.
The Status Bar can be hidden by unchecking the Show Status
Bar check box in the Preferences view.
Interface 5-9
5-9
5.5 Editing Data Views
You can change the position and width of some of the columns in each
of the data views such as the Pressure/Flow Summary view.
5.5.1 Changing Column Width
To change the width of a column, move the mouse pointer until it is
over the vertical column separator line to the right of the column that
you wish to resize (e.g. - Flowrate). The mouse pointer will change to a
double-headed arrow.
Click and hold down the primary mouse button, then drag the
separator line to the new position.
The column width set here remains in effect for the duration of the
current session and is saved when you exit FLARENET.
Figure 5.4
Figure 5.5
Mouse pointer turned
double-headed arrow.
5-10 Editing Data Views
5-10
5.5.2 Changing Column Order
To reposition columns, first select the columns by positioning the
mouse pointer in the column heading(s) (you will see a down arrow),
then clicking. The column heading will now be shaded.
Now click anywhere in the shaded region and hold down the primary
mouse button. The move column cursor will be shown, and there will
be a heavy vertical line to the left of the column which contains the
cursor. While holding down the mouse button, drag the column(s) to
their new position. The heavy vertical line will move as you drag the
column(s) and indicates where the selected column(s) will be
transferred. In this case, the Mass Flowrate and the Molar Flowrate
columns will be positioned between the Rated Flowrate and the
Pressure Drop columns.
Release the mouse button. The selected column(s) will remain in their
Figure 5.6
Figure 5.7
Select column cursor
Column move
cursor
Heavy Vertical
Line
Interface 5-11
5-11
new location within the data view.
The change in column order remains in effect for the duration of the
current session and is saved when you exit FLARENET.
Figure 5.8
Note that you can highlight multiple columns by clicking and
dragging the mouse over the adjacent columns you wish to
select. Alternatively, you could hold the <Shift> key and click
on the additional adjacent columns you wish to select.
5-12 Setting Preferences
5-12
5.6 Setting Preferences
The Preferences view allows you to specify default information for the
simulation case.
To access the Preferences view, select Preferences from the File menu
(<Alt>, F, P). The Preferences view will be displayed.
The information on the preference view is divided into different tabs:
General, Defaults, Databases, Reports and Import tab.
5.6.1 General Tab
The following options are available on the General tab.
Figure 5.9
Options Description
Show Status Bar Select this check box to display the Status bar.
Show Tool Bar Activate this checkbox to display the Tool bar.
Timed Backup
Select this check box to activate a periodically
backup of the current case. File is saved back to
the directory as Backup.fnw.
Backup Frequency
This edit box is only accessed if the Timed
Backup check box is selected. The default value
is 10 minutes.
Compress Files
If checked, the data files will be saved in a
compressed format that can reduce the file size
of the saved cases by a factor of up to 50.
Interface 5-13
5-13
Edit Objects On Add
On activating this checkbox, the editor view will
be displayed as the nodes/pipes are added to the
PFD.
Units
Specify the units set to be used for the
simulation. The available unit sets are Metric and
British.
Work Directory
Specify the directory for temporary files, which
should be writable.
Auto Flash Source
Nodes
Activate the Auto Flash Source Nodes check
box to automatically flash the source fluid when it
is edited. Otherwise sources are flashed during
the calculation.
Display Total Pressure
Select this check box to display the total
pressure, which is a sum of the static pressure
and the velocity pressure, instead of the static
pressure.
Save Phase Properties
Phase properties can be saved by activating this
checkbox. The disk space/memory requirements
are significantly effected by this option, specially
for large cases. It is advised to select this option
only if you have a high specification PC.
Options Description
5-14 Setting Preferences
5-14
5.6.2 Defaults Tab
The options available on this tab are:
Figure 5.10
The default data values given
on the Default tab applies
only to new instances of pipe
class of pipes and nodes. The
value for each instance may be
freely edited at any stage.
Options Description
Composition Basis
Select composition basis for each of the relief
sources:
• Molecular Weight - The molecular weight of
the fluid is given. Mole fractions are
estimated by FLARENET, based upon the
list of installed components.
• Mole/Mass Fractions - A full component-
by-component composition must be given
for the fluid.
Tee Type
Select the tee type to be set as a default for all
the tees in the model. The available tee types are
90
o
, 60
o
, 45
o
and 30
o
tee.
Pipe Material
This is the default material to be used in new
pipes. The two material available for selection are
Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel.
Use Pipe Class
Activate this check box to use the pipe class to
restrict the available uses for pipes.
CS/SS Roughness
Set the material roughness to be used in
calculation. The default CS Roughness is
0.04572 mm and SS Roughness is 0.02540 mm.
CS = Carbon Steel
SS = Stainless Steel
Interface 5-15
5-15
5.6.3 Databases Tab
You can specify the directories where the Components, Pipe Schedules
and Pipe Fittings database are stored.
5.6.4 Reports Tab
You can specify the directories in which to save the report definition for
each of the entries in the Report list. This allows you to maintain a
range of alternative report definitions for each type of report.
Figure 5.11
Figure 5.12
5-16 Windows Menu
5-16
5.6.5 Import Tab
Specify the sizing factor to be used by the FLARENET to scale the PFDs
created in earlier versions.
5.7 Windows Menu
This is a general Windows application function. The options are:
5.8 Help Menu
The options under the Help menu are:
Figure 5.13
Option Description
Cascade Cascade all currently-open windows.
Tile Horizontally Tile all currently-open windows horizontally.
Tile Vertically Tile all currently-open windows vertically.
Arrange Icons Organise icons at the bottom of the screen.
Open All
Open all the windows, which can be accessed
through the View menu bar
Close All Close all windows.
Option Description
Contents Displays the FLARENET Help contents.
Using Help
Displays the general Windows Help on using
Help.
Technical Support
Displays a list of world wide Technical Support
offices.
About Provides information about FLARENET.
Creating and Saving Cases 6-1
6-1
6 Creating and Saving
Cases
6.1 Creating A New Case ................................................................................... 3
6.2 Opening An Existing Case .......................................................................... 4
6.3 Saving A Case .............................................................................................. 5
6-2
6-2
Creating and Saving Cases 6-3
6-3
6.1 Creating A New Case
To start a new case, do one of the following:
• Select New from the File menu in the menu bar.
• Use the hot key combination <Alt><F><N>.
• Click on the New Case button in the button bar.
The Case Description view will be displayed.
Enter appropriate data into the User Name, Job Code, Project, and
Description fields and then click the OK button.
After you enter the case description information, the Component
Manager view appears as shown on the next page.
Figure 6.1
Figure 6.2
When you start FLARENET, a
new case is automatically
created.
New Case Button
The case description can later be modified by selecting
Description from the File menu.
6-4 Opening An Existing Case
6-4
Select the desired components as described in Chapter 7 -
Components and click OK. You can now set up the simulation.
6.2 Opening An Existing
Case
When you open a case that has previously been stored on disk, all data
from the current case is cleared; however, the arrangement of any
windows that are already open is maintained.
To open an existing case, do one of the following:
• Select Open from the File menu.
• Use the hot key combination <Alt><F><O>.
• Press the Load Case button on the button bar.
The File Open view appears.
Select the file to be opened by doing one of the following:
• Type the file name (including exact directory path if necessary)
into the Filename field and click the OK button.
• Search the directory using the Look in drop-down menu and
upon finding the file, click once on the file name to highlight it
and then click the OK button.
• Search the directory using the Look in drop-down menu and
upon finding the file, double click on the file name.
Figure 6.3
Load Case Button
Creating and Saving Cases 6-5
6-5
6.3 Saving A Case
Cases may either be saved using the current case name or under a new
name.
To save a case using the current file name, do one of the following:
• Select Save from the File menu.
• Use the hot key combination <Alt><F><S>.
• Click on the Save Case button on the button bar.
To save a case using a new name, do one of the following:
• Select Save As from the File menu.
• Use the hot key combination <Alt><F><A>.
When you’re saving the case for the first time or with a new name, the
Save Flarenet Model view will appear as shown on the next page.
Clear the Filename field, type in the file name you want to give to the
case in and click on the OK button. Note that you do not have to
include the .fnw extension. FLARENET will add it on automatically.
Figure 6.4
Save Case Button
Select the file to be saved by
directly entering it, or selecting
the appropriate file in the list
box in the view which
contains all the files and
folders. The Save in drop-
down menu can be used to
change the directory and/or
drive.
6-6 Saving A Case
6-6
Components 7-1
7-1
7 Components
7.1 Selecting Components ................................................................................ 3
7.1.1 Component Types .................................................................................... 3
7.1.2 Component List ........................................................................................ 4
7.1.3 Matching the Name String ....................................................................... 4
7.1.4 Removing Selected Components............................................................. 5
7.2 Adding/Editing Components....................................................................... 5
7.2.1 Add Hypothetical Component/Edit Component View............................... 5
7.2.2 Estimating Unknown Properties............................................................... 8
7.3 Organizing the Component List.................................................................. 9
7.3.1 Sorting the Component List ..................................................................... 9
7.3.2 Swapping two components ...................................................................... 9
7.3.3 Changing the Components ...................................................................... 9
7-2
7-2
Components 7-3
7-3
Data for all components that will be used in the simulation must be
selected before the sources are defined. These components may be
taken from the standard component library, or you may define your
own components (hypothetical).
You may select components from the Component Manager, which can
be accessed by selecting Components from the Build menu.
The Component Manager view will be displayed:
This view displays all of the Database and Selected components, and
provides various tools which you can use to add and edit database and
hypothetical components.
7.1 Selecting Components
7.1.1 Component Types
You may filter the list of available components to include only those
belonging to a specific family. The All and None buttons turn all of the
filters on and off, respectively, while the Invert button toggles the status
of each check box individually. As an example, if only the Hydrocarbons
(HC) and Misc options were on, and you pressed the Invert button,
then these two options would be turned off, and the remaining options
would be turned on.
Figure 7.1
7-4 Selecting Components
7-4
7.1.2 Component List
Components can be chosen from the Database list, and added to the
Selected group, using one of the following methods:
• Arrow Keys - The <D DD D> or < > arrow keys move the highlight
up one component, and the < > or < > arrow keys move the
highlight down one component.
• PageUp/PageDown - Use these keyboard keys to advance an
entire page forward or backward.
• Home/End - The <Home> key moves to the start of the list and
the <End> key moves to the end of the list.
• Scroll Bar - With the mouse, use the scroll bar to move up and
down through the list.
• Enter a character - When you type a letter or number, you will
move to the next component in the list which starts with that
character. If you repeatedly enter the same character, you will
cycle through all of the components which start with that
character.
To add a component, you must first highlight it (by moving through the
list until that component is highlighted), then transfer it by double-
clicking on it or selecting the Add button.
7.1.3 Matching the Name String
Another way to add components is through the Selection Filter feature.
The Selection Filter cell accepts keyboard input, and is used to locate
the component(s) in the current list that best matches your input.
You may use wildcard characters as follows:
• ? - Represents a single character.
• * - Represents a group of characters of undefined length.
• Any filter string has an implied '*' character at the end.
Some examples are shown here:
Note that you cannot highlight
multiple components to add to
the Selected list.
The interpretation of your
input is limited to the
Component Types which are
checked.
As you are typing into the
Selection Filter cell, the
component list is updated,
matching what you have
presently typed. You may not
have to enter the complete
name or formula before it
appears in the component list.
Filter Result
methan methanol, methane, etc.
*anol methanol, ethanol, propanol, etc.
?-propanol 1-propanol, 2-propanol
*ane methane, ethane, propane, i-butane, etc.
Components 7-5
7-5
7.1.4 Removing Selected
Components
You can remove any component from the Selected component list:
1. Highlight the component(s) you wish to delete. Note that you may
select multiple components by using the <Shift> and <Ctrl> keys.
2. Press either the Delete button on the Component Manager view, or
the <Delete> key.
Once the component(s) are removed from the list, any source
compositions that used this component will be normalised.
7.2 Adding/Editing
Components
To edit a component, highlight it in the Selected Component list, and
click the Edit button.
To create a new component (hypothetical), select the Hypothetical
button. Hypothetical components are set up in the same manner as
database components.
To clone a component, edit it, then change its name. Be careful not to
enter a component name that is already in the database.
7.2.1 Add Hypothetical Component/
Edit Component View
Upon clicking either the Hypothetical button or the Edit button the
Component Editor view opens up. This view is similar between adding
a new hypothetical component and editing an existing component.
The Component Editor view for Methane is shown in Figure 7.2:
7-6 Adding/Editing Components
7-6
Identification Tab
You can enter the following information on this tab:
Figure 7.2
Input Field Description
Name
An alphanumeric name for the component (e.g. -
Hypo -1). Up to 15 characters are accepted.
Type
The type of component (or family) can be
selected from the drop-down menu provided.
There is a wide selection of families to choose
from, which allows better estimation methods to
be chosen for that component.
ID
The ID number is provided automatically for new
components and cannot be edited.
Mol. Wt.
The molecular weight of the component. Valid
values are between 2 and 500.
NBP The normal boiling point of the component.
Std. Density
The density of the component as liquid at 1 atm
and 60 F.
Watson K The Watson characterisation factor.
Component Types:
• Hydrocarbon
• Miscellaneous
• Amine
• Alcohol
• Ketone
• Aldehyde
• Ester
• Carboxylic Acid
• Halogen
• Nitrile
• Phenol
• Ether
Components 7-7
7-7
Critical Tab
The following fields are available on the Critical tab:
Figure 7.3
Input Field Description
Critical Pressure
The critical pressure of the component. If the
component represents more than a single real
component, the pseudo critical pressure should
be used. Valid values are between 0.01 bar abs
and 500 bar abs.
Critical Temp.
The critical temperature of the component. If the
component represents more than a single real
component, the pseudo critical temperature
should be used. Valid values are between 5 K
and 1500 K.
Critical Volume
The critical volume of the component. If the
component represents more than a single real
component, the pseudo critical volume should be
used. Valid values are between 0.001 m3/kg and
10 m3/kg.
Acentric Factor
The acentric factor of the component. Valid
values are between -1 and 10.
Acentric Factor (SRK)
The Soave-Redlich-Kwong acentric factor of the
component (also called the COSTALD
Acentricity).
7-8 Adding/Editing Components
7-8
Other Tab
You can specify the following information:
7.2.2 Estimating Unknown
Properties
If any of the above data is unknown, then click Estimate to fill-in the
unknown properties.
Supply as many properties as are known, so that the estimation can be
as accurate as possible.
Figure 7.4
Input Field Description
Hi A, Hi B, Hi C, Hi D, Hi
E, and Hi F
The coefficients for the ideal gas specific
enthalpy equation:
H
i
= A + BT + CT
2
+ DT
3
+ ET
4
+ FT
5
Entropy Coef. The coefficient for the entropy equation.
Vicosity A and
Viscosity B
Viscosity coefficients used in the NBS Method
(Ely and Hanley, 1983).
At the very minimum, you
need to specify the Molecular
Weight. However, it is a good
practise to specify at least two
of the following properties
defined:
• Molecular Weight
• Normal Boiling Point
• Standard Density
Components 7-9
7-9
7.3 Organizing the
Component List
The Selected Components list can be organized in different ways. You
can either swap any two components or sort the whole list by Name,
Molecular Weight, NBP or Group.
7.3.1 Sorting the Component List
Components can be sorted in the following ways:
7.3.2 Swapping two components
In the Component Manager view, select the first component in the
Selected Component list by clicking on it. Then select the second
component either using the <Shift> key if the two are in sequence or
pressing the <Ctrl> key and then clicking on the component. Swap the
two components by pressing the Swap button.
7.3.3 Changing the Components
You can switch the components in the Selected Component list with
the ones in the Database list while maintaining the source mole
fractions.
In the Component Manager view, select the components in both the
Selected Components and the Database lists. Press the Change button
to switch the two components.
Sorting Option Description
Name
Arranged components alphabetically in
descending order.
Molecular Weight
Components are listed according to increasing
molecular weight.
Normal Boiling Point
(NBP)
Select this to arrange components in increasing
NBP value.
Group Group the components by type.
7-10 Organizing the Component List
7-10
Scenarios 8-1
8-1
8 Scenarios
8.1 Adding/Editing Scenarios............................................................................ 5
8.1.1 General Tab.............................................................................................. 5
8.1.2 Headers and Tailpipes Tabs..................................................................... 6
8.1.3 Sources Tab ............................................................................................. 7
8.1.4 Estimates Tab........................................................................................... 7
8.2 Scenario Tools.............................................................................................. 8
8.2.1 Adding Single Source Scenarios ............................................................. 8
8-2
8-2
Scenarios 8-3
8-3
A scenario defines a set of source conditions (flows, compositions,
pressures and temperatures) for the entire network. The design of a
typical flare header system will be comprised of many scenarios for
each of which the header system must have adequate hydraulic
capacity. Typical scenarios might correspond to:
• Plantwide power failure.
• Plantwide cooling medium or instrument air failure.
• Localised control valve failure.
• Localised fire or Depressurisation.
The scenario management features within FLARENET allow you to
simultaneously design and rate the header system for all of the possible
relief scenarios.
As well as having different source conditions, each scenario can have
unique design limitations that will be used either to size the pipes or to
highlight problem areas if any existing flare system is being rated. For
example, a Mach number limit of 0.30 might be applied for normal
flaring compared to a Mach number limit of 0.50 or greater at the peak
flows encountered during plant blowdown.
Scenarios are managed via the Scenario Manager view. This view has
buttons that allow you to add, edit or delete scenarios as well as to
select the current scenario for which scenario specific data is displayed.
All cases have at least one scenario.
To access the Scenario Manager view, select Scenarios from the Build
menu.
Although the major relief scenarios will normally constrain the
size of the main headers, care should be taken in the evaluation
of velocities in the individual relief valve tailpipes and sub
headers. When looking at relief valves which might operate
alone, lower back pressures in the main headers may lead to
localised high velocities and consequently choked flow in the
tail pipes.
Scenarios can also be selected
by selecting the scenario in the
scenario selector on the tool
bar.
8-4
8-4
The Scenario Manager view will be displayed.
The Scenario Manager view displays all Scenarios in the case, and
indicates the Current Scenario. Several buttons are available:
Figure 8.1
Button Description
Add
Adds a new scenario (See Adding/Editing
Scenarios below).
Edit
Edits the highlighted scenario (See Adding/
Editing Scenarios below).
Delete
Removes the currently highlighted scenario (note
that there must always be at least one scenario in
the case).
Sort
Arrange the scenario list alphabetically in
descending order.
Up and Down Arrow
Move the highlighted scenario up and down the
Scenario list.
Swap Swap the two selected scenarios in the list.
Current
To make a scenario the current one, highlight the
appropriate scenario, and then click on the
Current button.
OK Closes the Scenario Manager view.
Scenarios 8-5
8-5
8.1 Adding/Editing
Scenarios
To add a scenario, click the Add button on the Scenario Manager view.
If there is already a scenario present in the Scenario list, pressing the
Add button will show a Clone Scenario Form dialog box. You can select
an existing scenario from the list to be used to initialise the flows,
compositions, pressures and temperatures of all the sources in the new
scenario.
To edit a scenario, highlight it, then click the Edit button. For adding
and editing a scenario, the views are similar except for the Next button
on the Scenario Editor view for adding a scenario.
8.1.1 General Tab
You may provide the following information on the General tab:
Figure 8.2
FLARENET has no pre-
programmed limits on the
number of scenarios which
can be defined within a single
case.
The Next button allows you to
continue adding scenarios
without returning to the
Scenario Manager.
Data Description
Name
An alphanumeric description of the scenario (e.g.
Power Failure). Up to 40 characters are
accepted.
System Back Pressure
The system back pressure at the flare tip exit.
This will normally be atmospheric pressure, but
can be set to represent system design conditions
at the exit point. If left empty, the value on the
Calculation Options Editor view will be used.
The minimum value is 0.01 bar abs.
8-6 Adding/Editing Scenarios
8-6
8.1.2 Headers and Tailpipes Tabs
The Headers and Tailpipes tabs required the following information:
Figure 8.3
Data Description
Mach Number
The maximum allowable Mach number for all
pipe segments. Calculated values that exceed
this number will be highlighted in the results.
Vapour Velocity
The maximum allowable vapour velocity.
Calculated velocities that exceed this value will
be indicated in the results.
Liquid Velocity
The maximum allowable liquid velocity.
Calculated velocities that exceed this value will
be indicated in the results.
Rho V2
It is the density times the velocity square. This
value is normally used as a limiting factor to
prevent erosion.
Design Noise at 1m
The maximum allowable sound pressure level at
a distance of 1 metre for all pipe segments. This
is an average value over the length of the pipe.
Calculated values that exceed this specification
will be highlighted in the results.
You may provide different
design information (Mach
Number, Noise at 1 m, Vapour
Velocity, Liquid Velocity) for
the Main Headers and
Tailpipes.
Any field may be left empty, in
which case they will be
ignored.
You may define an allowable Mach number of 1.00 within a
network, in order to highlight only choked flow conditions. It is
recommended that you use a more reasonable value such as 0.5
or 0.7. This will obtain a more rapid solution towards maximum
allowable back pressure constraints when performing sizing
calculations.
Scenarios 8-7
8-7
8.1.3 Sources Tab
When you select the Sources tab, you will see a view similar to the one
shown in Figure 8.4. All sources are displayed on this tab (note that if
you are setting up a new case, this view will not show any sources).
This tab is useful in that you can easily toggle whether or not individual
sources are to be included in the current scenario, without having to
either unnecesarily delete sources or set the flow of a source to zero.
8.1.4 Estimates Tab
You can specify molar flow estimates for any pipes that you wish on the
Estimates tab. These are only required if looped models fail to
converge. You do not have to specify them all, only the ones that match
the tear pipes for which you solve the flow in the looped systems.
Figure 8.4
Figure 8.5
If a source is ignored, the
MABP constraint is ignored by
sizing calculations.
8-8 Scenario Tools
8-8
8.2 Scenario Tools
The complete analysis of a flare system should ideally include analysis
of the system for the scenarios in which each source relieves on its own.
For a large network with many sources, it can become tedious to define
each of these scenarios. These can automatically be added to your
model as follows.
8.2.1 Adding Single Source
Scenarios
Select Add Single Source Scenarios from the Tools menu or use the hot
key combination <Alt><T><N>.
This will analyse your model and add a scenario for each source that
has a non-zero flowrate defined in at least one scenario. Source data
will be copied from the scenario in which it has the highest flowrate.
Scenarios 9-1
9-1
9 Scenarios
9.1 Adding/Editing a Pipe .................................................................................. 3
9.1.1 Connections Tab ...................................................................................... 3
9.1.2 Dimensions Tab........................................................................................ 4
9.1.3 Fittings Tab............................................................................................... 6
9.1.4 Heat Transfer Tab..................................................................................... 7
9.2 Methods Tab ................................................................................................. 8
9.2.1 Multiple Editing....................................................................................... 10
9.3 Ignoring/Restoring Pipes........................................................................... 11
9.4 Arranging Display Order............................................................................ 12
9.5 Pipe Tools ................................................................................................... 13
9.5.1 Pipe Class Editor ................................................................................... 13
9-2
9-2
Scenarios 9-3
9-3
9.1 Adding/Editing a Pipe
To add a pipe, click the Add button on the Pipe Manager view. To edit a
pipe segment, highlight it, then click the Edit button. You can also edit
the pipe segment through the PFD, by double clicking on it’s icon. For
both adding and editing pipes the views are identical and it is called
Pipe Editor. The tabs available on the Pipe Editor view are
Connections, Dimensions, Fittings, Heat Transfer and Methods tabs.
9.1.1 Connections Tab
You may provide the following data in the Connections tab:
To ignore the pipe segment during calculations, select the Ignore check
box. Flarenet will completely disregard the pipe until you restore it to
an active state by clearing the check box.
Figure 9.1
FLARENET has a limit of
approximately 30000 pipe
segments that can be defined
within a single case.
Input Data Description
Segment Name
An alphanumeric description of the pipe
segment. Up to 30 characters are accepted.
Location
An alphanumeric description of the location
within the plant for the segment. This is a useful
parameter for grouping pipes together via the
Sort command.
UpStream Node
An integer number to represent the upstream end
of the pipe segment. Valid values are between 1
and 30000.
DownStream Node
An integer number to represent the downstream
end of the pipe segment. Valid values are
between 0 and 30000.
9-4 Adding/Editing a Pipe
9-4
You have the option of modelling the current segment as a main header
or a tailpipe. If this box is checked, the segment is considered to be a
tailpipe. Note that in the Scenario Editor view, you can set the Mach
Number, Vapour and Liquid Velocities, Rho V2 and Noise for both the
main headers and the tailpipes (See Section 8.1 - Adding/Editing
Scenarios).
The ability to classify a pipe as either a tailpipe or a header allows us to
perform calculations in which the pressure drop for tailpipes is
determined by the rated flow and that for headers is determined by the
nominal flow. This is in accordance with API-RP-521.
9.1.2 Dimensions Tab
Enter the following information in the Dimensions tab:
Figure 9.2
Input Data Description
Length
The physical length of the pipe segment. This
length is used in association with the fittings loss
coefficients to calculate the equivalent length of
the pipe. If you have equivalent length data for
your network, enter this data here as the sum of
the actual length plus the equivalunt length of the
fittings and enter zero for the fittings loss
coefficients.
Elevation Change
A positive elevation indicates that the outlet is
higher than the inlet.
Material
The pipe material, either Carbon Steel or
Stainless Steel.
Scenarios 9-5
9-5
If you wish the pipe segment to be resized by sizing calculations,
Sizeable check box should be checked. For example, a model of a
network containing a representation of the knockout drum as a pipe
segment would normally leave this unchecked such that sizing
calculations for the pipes would not change the knockout drum size.
Select the Use Pipe Class check box to restrict the pipe sizes to those
defined by the Pipe Class tool.
Roughness
The surface roughness of the pipe segment.
Whenever a material is selected, the absolute
roughness is initialised to the default value for the
material as defined on the Preferences dialog
box. Valid values are between 0.00001 inches
and 0.1 inches.
Nominal Diameter
The nominal pipe diameter used to describe the
pipe size. For pipes with a nominal diameter of 14
inches or more, this will be the same as the
outside diameter of the pipe.
Schedule Number
If a pipe schedule other than "-" is selected, you
will be able to select a nominal pipe diameter
from the pipe databases. It will not be necessary
to specify the internal diameter or the wall
thickness for the pipe.
If you select "-" you will be unable to select a
nominal pipe diameter from the pipe databases
and you will then have to specify both the internal
diameter and wall thickness for the pipe.
Internal Diameter
The pipe diameter used for the pressure drop
calculations.
Wall Thickness
The thickness of the pipe wall. Valid values are
any positive number or zero.
Input Data Description
Schedule Numbers:
Carbon Steel:
10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120,
140, 160, STD, XS, XXS
Stainless Steel:
5S, 10S, 40S, 80S
You can also define your own
schedules (See Section 12.3 -
Pipe Schedule Database
Editor).
9-6 Adding/Editing a Pipe
9-6
9.1.3 Fittings Tab
You can supply the following data:
From the Database Fitting box, select the appropriate type of fitting,
then press the Add button to move the selection in the Selected Fitting
box. You can select as many fittings as required. The final fitting loss
equation, which will be a sum of all the selected fittings, will appear in a
box underneath the Selected Fitting box. Click Link to transfer the
coefficients for this equation into the Fittings Loss field, while
maintaining the list of fittings. Click Paste to transfer the coefficients for
the fitting equation into the Fittings Loss field on the Pipe Editor view.
The selected list of fittings will not be retained. To remove the selected
fitting individually, select the fitting and press the Delete button.
Figure 9.3
Input Data Description
Length Multiplier
The length of the pipe is multiplied by this value
to determine the equivalent length used for the
pressure drop calculation. If left blank then the
value on the Calculation Options Editor is
used.
Fittings Loss
The fittings "K" factor is calculated from the
following equation in which Ft is the friction factor
for fully developed turbulent flow:
K = A + BF
t
Valid values are any positive number or 0.
The network cannot be sized correctly if you use equivalent
length data to model fittings losses, since the equivalent length
of any pipe fitting is a function of the pipe diameter and will
therefore be incorrect when the diameters change.
Scenarios 9-7
9-7
9.1.4 Heat Transfer Tab
The groups available on the Heat Transfer tab are as follows:
• External Conditions
• Insulation
• Heating
External Conditions Group
The following fields are available in this group:
If the Heat Transfer With Atmosphere check box is activated, the pipe
segment can have an heat exchange with the surrounding.
Insulation Group
The Insulation group contains the following:
Figure 9.4
Input Field Description
Temperature
Enter the outside temperature. It will be used to
calculate the amount of heat transfer.
Wind Velocity Specify the wind velocity.
Input Field Description
Description A brief description about the pipe insulation.
Thickness Supply the insulation thickness.
Thermal Conductivity Enter the insulation thermal conductivity.
9-8 Methods Tab
9-8
Heating Group
You can supply either one of the following in the Heating group:
9.2 Methods Tab
The following data information should be supplied on the Methods tab:
Input Field Description
Outlet temperature
You can explicitly set an outlet temperature for
this segment, or leave it blank. A heater in a flare
knockout drum is an example of process
equipment that may require a fixed outlet
temperature. Valid values are between -260°C
and 999°C.
Duty
Enter the heating duty and the outlet temperature
will be calculated based on the inlet temperature.
Figure 9.5
Input Field Description
VLE Method
The options for the Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium calculations are as follows (see Appendix A
- Theoretical Basis for more details):
• Compressible Gas - Real Gas relationship
• Peng Robinson - Peng Robinson Equation of State
• Soave Redlich Kwong - Soave Redlich Kwon Equation of State
• Vapour Pressure - Vapour Pressure method as described in API Techincal Data Book
Volume 1
13
.
• Model Deafault - If this is selected, the Default method for the VLE method (as defined
on the Calculation Options Editor view) will be used.
Scenarios 9-9
9-9
Horizontal and
Inclined Pipes
The Horizontal/Inclined method applies only when you have selected Two-Phase pressure
drop. The options are:
• Isothermal Gas - This is a compressible gas method that assumes isothermal expansion
of the gas as it passes along the pipe. Flarenet uses averaged properties of the fluid over
the length of the pipe. The outlet temperature from the pipe is calcualted by adiabatic
heat balance either with or without heat transfer. Pressure losses due to change in
elevation are ignored.
• Adiabatic Gas - This is a compressible gas method that assumes adiabatic expansion of
the gas as it passes along the pipe. As with the Isothermal Gas method, pressure losses
due to change in elevation are ignored.
• Beggs & Brill - The Beggs and Brill method is based on work done with an air-water
micture at many different conditions, and is aplicable for inclined flow. For more details,
see Appendix A - Theoretical Basis.
• Dukler - Dukler breaks the pressure drop in two-phase systems into three components -
friction, elevation and acceleration. Each component is evaluated independantly and
added algebraically to determine the overall pressure drop. For more details , see
Appendix A - Theoretical Basis.
• Default - If this is selected, the Default method for the Horizontal/Inclined method (as
defined on the Calculation Options Editor view) will be used.
Vertical Pipes
The Vertical method applies only when you have selected Two-Phase pressure drop. The
options are:
• Isothermal Gas - This is a compressible gas method that assumes isothermal expansion
of the gas as it passes along the pipe. Flarenet uses averaged properties of the fluid over
the length of the pipe. The outlet temperature from the pipe is calcualted by adiabatic
heat balance either with or without heat transfer. Pressure losses due to change in
elevation are ignored.
• Adiabatic Gas - This is a compressible gas method that assumes adiabatic expansion of
the gas as it passes along the pipe. As with the Isothermal Gas method, pressure losses
due to change in elevation are ignored.
• Beggs & Brill - Although the Beggs and Brill method was not originally intedned for use
with vertical pipes, it is nevertheless commonly used for this purpose, and is therefore
included as an option for vertical pressure drop methods. For more details, see Appendix
A - Theoretical Basis.
• Dukler - Although the Dukler method is not generally applicable to vertical pipes, it is
included here to allow comparison with the other methods.
• Orkiszewski - This is a pressure drip correlation for vertical, two-phase flow for four
different flow regimes - bubble, slug, annular-slug transition and annular mist. For more
details, see Appendix A - Theoretical Basis.
• Default - If this is selected, the Default method for the Vertical method (as defined on the
Calculation Options Editor view) will be used.
Two Phase
Elements
For two-phase calculations, the pipe segment is divided into a specified number of elements.
On each element, energy and material balances are solved along with the pressure drop
correlation. In simulations involving high heat transfer rates, many increments may be
necessary, due to the non-linearity of the temperature profile. Obviously, as the number of
increments increases, so does the calculation time; therefore, you should try to select a
number of increments that reflects the required accuracy.
Friction Factor
Method
The Friction Factor Method applies only when you have entered a value for friction factor. The
options are:
• Round - This method has been maintained promarily for historical purposes in order for
older Flarenet calculations to be matched. It tends to over predict the friction factor by up
to 10% in the fully turbulent region.
• Chen - It should always be the method of preference since it gives better predictions and
fully turbulent flow conditions normally found within flare systems.
• Default - If this is selected, the Default method for the Friction Factor Method (as defined
on the Calculation Options Editor view) will be used.
Damping Factor
The damping factor used in the iteratice solution procedure. If this is left blank, the value in the
Calculation Options Editor view is used.
Input Field Description
9-10 Methods Tab
9-10
Click OK to accept the modifications and return to the Pipe Manager
view, or Cancel to discard the modifications.
9.2.1 Multiple Editing
You can edit multiple pipe segments simultaneously by highlighting
them with the mouse cursor while keeping the Ctrl key pressed. After
you have finished selecting pipe segments, double click any of them to
open the common Pipe Editor view.
This particular Pipe Editor view does not show the Name field as well as
the Upstream and Downstream Nodes field since those are associated
with individual pipe segments. You can specify a universal setting for all
the selected pipe segments or allow them to keep their individual
settings by entering * in the field or selecting * from the drop down
menus.
Figure 9.6
Figure 9.7
The two phase methods are
really meant for incompressible
fluids. If the pressure drop is
greater than 10% of the inlet
pressure then the
comprissibility effects become
significant you can
approximate compressible
elements in the pipe.
Scenarios 9-11
9-11
9.3 Ignoring/Restoring
Pipes
You can ignore single or multiple pipe segments within the model.
When you ignore a single pipe segment, all upstream pipe segments are
automatically ignored. This enables you to do what if type calculations,
where part of the network can be excluded from the calculation without
the need for deletion and reinstallation of the appropriate pipe
segments.
To ignore a pipe:
1. Open the Pipe Editor view of the pipe segment that you wish to
ignore.
2. On the Connections tab, see Figure 9.8, activate the Ignore check
box.
To restore a pipe segment that has previously been ignored:
1. Open the Pipe Editor view of the pipe segment that you wish to
ignore.
2. On the Connections tab, deactivate the Ignore check box.
Figure 9.8
When you ignore a single pipe
segment, all upstream pipe
segments are automatically
ignored.
9-12 Arranging Display Order
9-12
9.4 Arranging Display
Order
The display order for the pipe segments has no impact on the
calculations. Consequently, you are free to display the pipe segments in
any order that you wish. To arrange the display order of the pipe
segments:
1. Display the Pipe Manager view.
This view has buttons to position individual pipe segments within the
display and to sort the order by either the group or alphanumerically
based on the segment name.
2. Manipulate the display order as follows:
• To sort the pipe segments by location, click the Sort button and
then select Group from the extended menu.
• To sort the pipe segments in alphabetical order based upon the
segment name, click the Sort button and then select Name
from the menu.
• To swap the display position of two pipe segments, click the
name of the first pipe segment in the Pipe box and then either
pressing the <Shift> key click on the name of the second pipe
segment if they are on top of each other or pressing the <Ctrl>
key click on the name of the second pipe segment if they are
located in different places in the list. Press the Swap button to
display the pipe segment list in the new order.
• To reposition the display position of one pipe segment, click the
name of the pipe segment to be moved in the Pipe box and
then click on either the up or down arrow keys.
4. Click OK to accept the new order.
Figure 9.9
Scenarios 9-13
9-13
9.5 Pipe Tools
9.5.1 Pipe Class Editor
The Pipe Class Editor allows you to edit the allowable schedules for
each nominal diameter, for both Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel,
during sizing calculations. It also allows you to restrict specific pipe
sizes.
Note that if you have selected Use Pipe Class When Sizing in the Run
Options view, these are the schedules which will be used.
Figure 9.10
9-14 Pipe Tools
9-14
Nodes 10-1
10-1
10 Nodes
10.1 Node Manager............................................................................................. 3
10.2 Node Types ................................................................................................. 4
10.3 Sources ..................................................................................................... 18
10.3.1 Copy Source Data................................................................................ 30
10.3.2 Source Tools ........................................................................................ 31
10.4 Ignoring/Restoring Nodes ....................................................................... 32
10-2
10-2
Nodes 10-3
10-3
Pipes are connected via nodes, which can be added, edited and deleted
from the Node Manager. Sources are also added through the Node
Manager view.
10.1 Node Manager
To access the Node Manager, select Nodes from the Build menu.
The following buttons are available:
Figure 10.1
Button Description
Add
You will be prompted to select the type of node.
This new node will be named with a number
depending upon the number of nodes already
added.
Edit
Allows you to edit the currently highlighted node.
The form varies, depending on the type of node,
as discussed below.
Delete
Allows you to remove the currently highlighted
node.
Sort
Sort the nodes list alphabetically (in descending
order) either by name or location or type of node.
Up and Down Arrow Move the highlighted pipe up and down the list.
Swap Swap the two selected pipes in the Pipes list.
OK Closes the view.
10-4 Node Types
10-4
10.2 Node Types
The following types of node available in FLARENET.
• Flare Tip
• Connector
• Tee
• Vertical Separator
• Horizontal Separator
• Orifice Plate
• Flow Bleed
• Relief Valve
• Control Valve
Flare Tip
The tabs available on the Flare Tip Editor are the Connections and
Calculations tabs.
Figure 10.2
Nodes 10-5
10-5
Connections Tab
The following fields are available on this tab:
To ignore the flare tip node during calculations, select the Ignore check
box. Flarenet will completely disregard the node until you restore it to
an active state by clearing the check box.
Calculations Tab
The Calculations tab contains the following:
Select the Use Curve check box to enter a vendor supplied data for the
pressure drop through a flare tip, which often take the form of a curve.
It gives the pressure drop versus the mass flowrate for a fluid with
defined molecular weight and temperature and uses linear
interpolation. To add a new data point, press the Add button and to
delete an existing data point press the Delete button. You can provide
up to 10 data points.
Field Description
Name
The alphanumeric description of the node (e.g. -
HP Flare Tip).
Location
You may wish to specify the location of the node
in the plant. Note that the location can have an
alphanumeric name. This feature is useful for
large flowsheets; you can provide a different
“location” name to different sections to make it
more comprehensible.
Inlet
Either type in the name of the pipe segment or
select from the drop down menu.
At
You can specify the end of the pipe segment
attached with the flare tip.
Field Description
Diameter
You can specify a diameter for the tip. The default
value is 1000 mm. Valid values are between 0
and 1000 mm.
Fitting Loss
Fitting loss will be used to correct the sizing for
the tip.
10-6 Node Types
10-6
Connector
This connects two pipe objects. The tabs available on the Connector
Editor view are Connections and Calculations tab.
Connections Tab
The following fields are available on this tab:
Figure 10.3
Field Description
Name
The alphanumeric description of the node (e.g. -
HP Connect 1).
Location
You may wish to specify the location of the node
in the plant. Note that the location can have an
alphanumeric name. This feature is useful for
large flowsheets; you can provide a different
“location” name to different sections to make it
more comprehensible.
Upstream/Downstream
Either type in the name of the pipe segment or
select from the drop down menu.
At
You can specify the end of the pipe segment
attached with the connector.
Nodes 10-7
10-7
To ignore the connector node during calculations, select the Ignore
check box. Flarenet will completely disregard the node until you restore
it to an active state by clearing the check box.
Calculations Tab
The Calculations tab contains the following:
Field Description
Theta
Specify the connector expansion angle. If not
defined, it will be calculated from length.
Length
Enter the connector length. If not defined, it will
be calculated from theta.
Fitting Loss Method
The available options are;
• Calculated - The fitting loss willl be calculated
based on upstream/downstream pipesizes.
• Ignored - Flarenet will not calculate the fitting loss
if this is selected.
10-8 Node Types
10-8
Tee
This tee connects three pipes. The Tee Editor view is used to enter
connection data and it contains the Connections and Calculations
tabs.
Figure 10.4
Nodes 10-9
10-9
Connections Tab
The following fields are available on this tab:
To ignore the tee node during calculations, select the Ignore check box.
Flarenet will completely disregard the node until you restore it to an
active state by clearing the check box.
Calculations Tab
The Calculations tab contains the following:
Field Description
Name
The alphanumeric description of the node (e.g. -
HP Tee 1).
Location
You may wish to specify the location of the node
in the plant. Note that the location can have an
alphanumeric name. This feature is useful for
large flowsheets; you can provide a different
“location” name to different sections to make it
more comprehensible.
Upstream/Downstream/
Branch
Either type in the name of the pipe segment or
select from the drop down menu.
At
You can specify the end of the pipe segment
attached with the tee.
You only need to provide 2 of 3
connections to be able to solve
the tee. This allows for
solution(s) to partially built
networks.
Field Description
Theta
Specify the connector expansion. This will be
zero if used between pipes with the same
diameter.
Fitting Loss Method
The available options are;
• Ignored - Flarenet would not calculate the fitting
loss if this option is selected.
• Simple - It uses a constant flow ratio independent
K factor for the loss through the branch and run.
• Miller - This method uses a K factor which is
interpolated using Miller Curves, which are
functions of the flow and area ratios of the branch
to the total flow as well as the branch angle.
10-10 Node Types
10-10
Vertical Separator
Separators are used to divide the vessel contents into its constituent
vapour and liquid phases. In Flarenet, the Vertical Separator have only
one inlet and one vapour outlet stream.
Connections Tab
The Connections tab contains the following fields:
To ignore the Vertical Separator during calculations, select the Ignore
check box. Flarenet will completely disregard the node until you restore
it to an active state by clearing the check box.
Figure 10.5
Field Description
Name
The alphanumeric description of the Vertical
Separator (e.g. - HP KO Drum).
Location
You may wish to specify the location of the
Vertical Separator in the plant. Note that the
location can have an alphanumeric name. This
feature is useful for large flowsheets; you can
provide a different “location” name to different
sections to make it more comprehensible.
Inlet/Vapour Outlet
Either type in the name of the pipe segment or
select from the drop down menu.
At
You can specify the end of the pipe segment
attached with the Vertical Separator.
Nodes 10-11
10-11
Calculations Tab
The following fields are available:
Figure 10.6
Field Description
Diameter The internal diameter of the vessel.
Fitting Loss Method
The Fitting Loss drop down menu have the
following two options available:
• Ignored - If this option is selected, the fitting
losses for the Vertical Separator will not be
calculated.
• Calculated - The fitting losses for the
separator will be calculated.
10-12 Node Types
10-12
Horizontal Separator
Separators are used to divide the vessel contents into its constituent
vapour and liquid phases. In Flarenet, the Horizontal Separator have
only one primary inlet, one secondary inlet/outlet, and one vapour
outlet stream.
Connections Tab
The Connections tab contains the following fields:
To ignore the Horizontal Separator during calculations, select the
Ignore check box. Flarenet will completely disregard the node until you
restore it to an active state by clearing the check box.
Figure 10.7
Field Description
Name
The alphanumeric description of the Horizontal
Separator (e.g. - HP KO Drum).
Location
You may wish to specify the location of the
Horizontal Separator in the plant. Note that the
location can have an alphanumeric name. This
feature is useful for large flowsheets; you can
provide a different “location” name to different
sections to make it more comprehensible.
Primary Inlet/
Secondary Inlet/Vapour
Outlet
Either type in the name of the pipe segment or
select from the drop down menu.
At
You can specify the end of the pipe segment
attached with the Horizontal Separator.
You only need to provide 2 of 3
connections to be able to solve
the separator. This allows for
solution(s) to partially built
networks.
Nodes 10-13
10-13
Calculations Tab
The following fields are available:
Figure 10.8
Field Description
Diameter The internal diameter of the vessel.
Liquid Level
The liquid level in the vessel. Pressure drop is
calculated based upon the the vapour space
above the liquid.
Fitting Loss Method
The Fitting Loss drop down menu have the
following two options available:
• Ignored - If this option is selected, the fitting
losses for the Horizontal Separator will not
be calculated.
• Calculated - The fitting losses for the
source will be calculated.
10-14 Node Types
10-14
Orifice Plate
An Orifice Plate is a thin plate, which has a clean-cut hole with straight
walls perpendicular to the flat upstream face of the plate placed
crosswire of the channel.
Connections Tab
The Connections tab contains the following fields:
To ignore the Orifice Plate during calculations, select the Ignore check
box. Flarenet will completely disregard the node until you restore it to
an active state by clearing the check box.
Figure 10.9
Field Description
Name
The alphanumeric description of the Orifice
Plate (e.g. - HP OP).
Location
You may wish to specify the location of the
Orifice Plate in the plant. Note that the location
can have an alphanumeric name. This feature is
useful for large flowsheets; you can provide a
different “location” name to different sections to
make it more comprehensible.
Upstream/Downstream
Either type in the name of the pipe segment or
select from the drop down menu.
At
You can specify the end of the pipe segment
attached with the Orifice Plate.
Nodes 10-15
10-15
Calculations Tab
The fields available on the Calculations tab are:
Figure 10.10
Field Description
Diameter
The diameter of the orifice hole. Valid values are
between 0 and 1000 mm.
Upstream Diameter
Ratio
It is the ratio of the throat diameter to the
Upstream pipe diameter.
Downstream Diameter
Ratio
It is the ratio of the throat diameter to the
Downstream pipe diameter.
Fittings Loss Method
The Fitting Loss drop down menu have the
following two options available:
• Ignored - If this option is selected, the fitting
losses for the Horintal Separator would not
be calculated.
• Thin Orifice - The fitting losses for the
orifice plate will be calculated using the
equations for the thin orifice plate.
• Contraction/Expansion - For this fitting
loss method, orifice plates will be modelled
as a sudden contraction from the inlet line
size to the hole diameter followed by a
sudden expansion from the hole diameter to
the outlet line size.
You only need to provide 1 of 3
sizing parameters. For
Example, if you entered the
Diameter than FLARENET
will calculate the Upstream
Diameter Ratio and the
Downstream Diameter Ratio.
10-16 Node Types
10-16
Flow Bleed
The Flow Bleed is a simple calculation block that allows you to;
• Specify a fixed pressure drop
• Specify a constrained flow offtake where the flow offtake is
calculated from
The calculated Offtake is constrained to maximum and minimum
values.
Connections Tab
The Connections tab contains the following fields:
To ignore the Flow Bleed during calculations, select the Ignore check
box. Flarenet will completely disregard the node until you restore it to
(10.1) Offtake Multiplier Inlet Flow Offset + × =
Figure 10.11
Field Description
Name
The alphanumeric description of the Flow Bleed
(e.g. - HP Connect XX).
Location
You may wish to specify the location of the Flow
Bleed in the plant. Note that the location can
have an alphanumeric name. This feature is
useful for large flowsheets; you can provide a
different “location” name to different sections to
make it more comprehensible.
Upstream/Downstream
Either type in the name of the pipe segment or
select from the drop down menu.
At
You can specify the end of the pipe segment
attached with the Flow Bleed.
Nodes 10-17
10-17
an active state by clearing the check box.
Calculations Tab
The Fields available on the Calculations tab are:
Source
This connects a source to a pipe object. All sources are connected as a
source node. Section 10.3 - Sources lists in detail the type of sources
available in Flarenet.
Figure 10.12
Field Description
Offtake Multiplier
Specify the Offtake multiplier. The default value is
0.
Offtake Offset
Specify the Offset for the Offtake to compensate
for the changes in the inlet flow.
Offtake Minimum Specify the minimum value for the Offtake.
Offtake Maximum Specify the maximum value for the Offtake.
Pressure Drop Enter the pressure drop across the Flow Bleed.
10-18 Sources
10-18
10.3 Sources
Relief valves, blowdown valves, rupture disks, purge valves, etc. are
represented by sources. Each source gives a fixed flow, composition,
pressure and temperature description for the fluid entering the flare
header network at a defined point.
The fluid data for each source may vary between scenarios, but the
connection node and any physical characteristics are always the same
for all scenarios.
For example, you might have to consider both a blocked control valve
scenario and a fire scenario for a particular relief valve. The following
sample Fluid data would be specific to each scenario:
However, the following Source data would be the same for both
scenarios:
The source data is managed by the Node Manager view. The sources
available in Flarenet are: Relief Valve and Control Valve.
Property
Scenario
Blocked Valve Fire
Molecular Weight 23.0 34.0
Flow [kg/hr] 50,000 10,000
Upstream Pressure [bar abs] 11 12
Upstream Temperature [C] 90 150
FLARENET will display the
scenario specific data in blue .
The data which is common to
all the scenarios is shown in
black.
Property Value
Orifice Area Per Valve (mm
2
) 70.698
Diameter (mm) 300
Nodes 10-19
10-19
Relief Valve
The Relief Valve source can be used to model types of spring loaded
relief valves. Relief valves are used frequently in many industries in
order to prevent dangerous situations occuring from pressure buildups
in a system.
Connections Tab
The Connections tab is where the name of the Relief Valve and its outlet
stream is specified. The following fields are available:
To ignore the Relief Valve during calculations, select the Ignore check
box. Flarenet will completely disregard the node until you restore it to
an active state by clearing the check box.
Figure 10.13
Field Description
Name
The alphanumeric description of the Relief
Valve (e.g. - PSV 1).
Location
You may wish to specify the location of the Relief
Valve in the plant. Note that the location can have
an alphanumeric name. This feature is useful for
large flowsheets; you can provide a different
“location” name to different sections to make it
more comprehensible.
Inlet
Either type in the name of the pipe segment or
select from the drop down menu.
At
You can specify the end of the pipe segment
attached with the Relief Valve.
10-20 Sources
10-20
Conditions Tab
The fields avalable on this page are:
Figure 10.14
Field Descrption
MAWP
The Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
(MAWP) is the maximum gauge pressure
permissible in a vessel at its operating
temperature. It is normally equal to the relief
valve set pressure unless you have a low
pressure vessel.
Contingency
In general there are two types of process upset
conditions:
• Fire - The relieving pressure is 121% of MAWP.
• Operating - The relieving pressure is 110% of
MAWP. Some of the operating upset examples are
cooling failure, power failure and instrument air
failure.
Relieving Pressure
The Relieving Pessure is equal to the valve set
pressure plus the overpressure. You can either
enter the value or have it calculated using the
MAWP and the Contingency by pressing the Set
button. If you entered a value less than the
MAWP, a warning message will be generated.
Valid values are between 0.01 and 600 bar.
Nodes 10-21
10-21
Inlet Temp Spec.
The temperature specification of the source on
the upstream side of the relief valve. Valid values
are between -250
o
C and 1500
o
C.
You can select the fluid condition from the drop
down box on the ledft side. The available option
are:
• Actual - it uses the given inlet temperature
as the actual fluid temperature.
• Subcool - If this option is selected, enter the
amount of subcooling.
• Superheat - If this option is selected, enter
the amount of superheat.
Allowable Back
Pressure
The Allowed Back Pressure is the pressure that
is allowed to exist at the outlet of a pressure relief
device as a result of the pressure in the
discharge system. It is the sum of the
superimposed and built-up back pressure.
Pressing the Set button calculates the Allowable
Back Pressure as a function of the valve type as
defined on the Dimension tab. Valid values are
between 0.01 to 600 bar.
Outlet Temperature
This is the temperature of the source on the
downstream side of the valve.
If the enthalpy method chosen is the Ideal Gas
model, then this temperature is used to
determine the enthalpy of the source at the
entrance to the pipe network, otherwise this
enthalpy is calculated by isenthalpic flash from
the upstream pressure and temperature. Valid
values are between -250
o
C and 1500
o
C.
Mass Flow
It is the mass flow of the source. Valid values are
between 0 and 100,000,000 kg/hr.
Rated Flow
It is the rated mass flow of the source. This is the
sized or allowable flowrate. Valid values are
between 0 and 100,000,000 kg/hr.
Field Descrption
We recommend a value for
Outlet Temperature which
corresponds to an isenthalpic
flash from the upstream
conditions down to the
Allowable Back Pressure. This
will give the highest probable
entry temperature into the
system which will in turn give
the highest velocities.
The rated flowrate is required
if you are sizing the tailpipes
based on the rated capacity of
the source. The API guide for
Pressure-Relieving and
Depressuring Systems
recommends that tailpipes be
sized in this manner (Section
5.4.1.3.1, 1990 Edition
23
).
10-22 Sources
10-22
Composition Tab
The Composition tab contains the following fields:
Figure 10.15
Field Description
Basis
The composition basis, which may be either Mol.
Wt., Mole Fraction or Mass Fraction.
Mol. Wt.
The molecular weight of the fluid. You can only
enter data here if the composition basis selected
is Molecular Weight. Valid values are between 2
and 500.
If the composition basis selected is Mole
Fractions, the molecular weight is updated when
you enter or change the component fractions.
Fluid Type
If Molecular Weight is selected in the composition
basis drop down box, you need to select the
Fluid Type to calculate a binary composition in
order to match the molecular weight. If the two
components of the specified fluid type are not
found then the other components are used.
Component Fractions
The fluid composition in either mole or mass
fractions. You can only enter data here if the
composition basis selected is Mole Fractions.
When you exit the Source view, you will be
prompted about an Invalid Composition if the
sum of these fractions is not equal to one. You
can normalised the composition either by maually
editting the component fractions or by pressing
the Normalise button.
If the composition basis selected is Molecular
Weight, the component fractions are re-
estimated when you change the molecular
weight.
Nodes 10-23
10-23
Dimensions Tab
The following fields are available on the Dimensions tab:
Figure 10.16
Field Description
Flange Diameter The diameter of the valve discharge flange.
Number of Valves
Specify the number of valves for the source. Valid
values are between 1 and 10.
Orifice Area Per Valve
You can either enter it manually or press the
Lookup button and select from the Orifice
Selection view. Valid values are between 0 and
100,000,000 mm
2
.
Valve Type
The choices are:
• Balanced - A spring loaded pressure relief
valve that incorporates a means for
minimizing the effect of back pressure on the
performance characteristics.
• Conventional - A spring loaded pressure
relief valve whose performance
characteristics are directly affected by
changes in the back pressure on the valve.
10-24 Sources
10-24
Methods Tab
The available fields are:
Figure 10.17
Fields Description
Fittings Loss Method
The Fittings Loss drop down menu have the
following two options available:
• Ignored - If this option is selected, the fitting
losses for the relief valve would not be
calculated.
• Calculated - The fitting losses for the
source will be calculated.
VLE Method
The options for the Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium
calculations are as follows (see Appendix A -
Theoretical Basis for more details):
• Compressible Gas - Real Gas relationship.
• Peng Robinson - Peng Robinson Equation
of State.
• Soave Redlich Kwong - Soave Redlich
Kwong Equation of State.
• Vapour Pressure - Vapour Pressure
method as described in API Technical Data
Book - Volume 1.
• Model Default - If this is selected, the
Default method for the VLE method (as
defined on the Options view) will be used.
Sizing Method
The two Sizing Method options available are:
• API - American Petroleum Institute
• HEM - Homogeneous Equilibrium Model
Nodes 10-25
10-25
Control Valve
The control valve is used to model a constant flow source such as purge
valves, bursting disks and blowdown valves. The most significant
difference to the relief valve is that the rated flow equals the nominal
flow.
Connections Tab
The Connections tab is where the name of the Control Valve and its
outlet stream is specified. The following fields are available:
To ignore the Control Valve during calculations, select the Ignore check
box. Flarenet will completely disregard the node until you restore it to
an active state by clearing the check box.
Figure 10.18
Field Description
Name
The alphanumeric description of the Control
Valve (e.g. - FCV 1).
Location
You may wish to specify the location of the
Control Valve in the plant. Note that the location
can have an alphanumeric name. This feature is
useful for large flowsheets; you can provide a
different “location” name to different sections to
make it more comprehensible.
Outlet
Either type in the name of the pipe segment or
select from the drop down menu.
At
You can specify where the pipe segment is to be
attached to the Control Valve.
10-26 Sources
10-26
Conditions Tab
The fields avalable on this page are:
Figure 10.19
Field Descrption
Inlet Pressure
The pressure of the source on the upstream side
of the valve. Valid values are between 0.01 and
600 bar.
Inlet Temp Spec.
The temperature specification of the source on
the upstream side of the control valve. Valid
values are between -260
o
C and 1500
o
C.
Allowable Back
Pressure
The Allowed Back Pressure is the pressure that
is allowed to exist at the outlet of a pressure relief
device as a result of the pressure in the
discharge system. It is the sum of the
superimposed and built-up back pressure.
Pressing the Set button calculates the Allowable
Back Pressure as a function of the valve type as
defined on the Dimension tab. Valid values are
between 0.01 to 600 bar.
Outlet Temperature
This is the temperature of the source on the
downstream side of the valve.
If the enthalpy method chosen is the Ideal Gas
model, then this temperature is used to
determine the enthalpy of the source at the
entrance to the pipe network, otherwise this
enthalpy is calculated from the upstream
pressure and temperature. Valid values are
between -250
o
C and 1500
o
C.
Mass Flow
This is the mass flow of the source. Valid values
are between 0 and 100,000,000 kg/hr.
It is recommended that a
value for Outlet Temperature
which corresponds to an
isenthalpic flash from the
upstream conditions down to
the Allowable Back Pressure.
This will give the highest
probable entry temperature
into the system which will in
turn give the highest velocities.
Nodes 10-27
10-27
Composition Tab
The Composition tab contains the following fields:
Figure 10.20
Field Description
Basis
This is the composition basis, which may be
either Mol. Wt., Mole Fraction or Mass
Fraction.
Mol. Wt.
It is the molecular weight of the fluid. You can
only enter data here if the composition basis
selected is Molecular Weight. Valid values are
between 2 and 500.
If the composition basis selected is Mole
Fractions, the molecular weight is updated when
you enter or change the component fractions.
Fluid Type
If Molecular Weight is selected in the composition
basis drop down box, you need to select the
Fluid Type to calculate a binary composition in
order to match the molecular weight. If the two
components of the specified fluid type are not
found then the other components are used.
Component Fractions
This is the fluid composition in either mole or
mass fractions. You can only enter data here if
the composition basis selected is Mole Fractions.
When you exit the Source view, you will be
prompted about the Invalid Composition if the
sum of these fractions is not equal to one. You
can normalised the composition by either maually
editting the component fractions or by pressing
the Normalise button.
If the composition basis selected is Molecular
Weight, the component fractions are estimated
when you change the molecular weight.
10-28 Sources
10-28
Dimensions Tab
The only field available on the Dimension tab is the Flange Diameter. It
is the diameter of the valve discharge flange.
Figure 10.21
Nodes 10-29
10-29
Methods Tab
The available fields are:
Figure 10.22
Fields Description
Fitting Loss Method
The Fitting Loss drop down menu have the
following two options available:
• Ignored - If this option is selected, the fitting
losses for the control valve would not be
calculated.
• Calculated - The fitting losses for the
source will be calculated.
VLE Method
The options for the Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium
calculations are as follows (see Appendix A -
Theoretical Basis for more details):
• Compressible Gas - Real Gas relationship.
• Peng Robinson - Peng Robinson Equation
of State.
• Soave Redlich Kwong - Soave Redlich
Kwong Equation of State.
• Vapour Pressure - Vapour Pressure
method as described in API Technical Data
Book - Volume 1.
• Model Default - If this is selected, the
Default method for the VLE method (as
defined on the Options view) will be used.
10-30 Sources
10-30
10.3.1 Copy Source Data
On the Relief Valve Editor and Control Valve Editor views, press the
Copy To button to copy source data to other scenarios. You will see a
view similar to the following:
The Copy Source Data to Scenarios view contains two columns: Copy
and Scenario. You can select the scenarios from the Scenario list by
activating the corresponding check box in the Copy colum.
Figure 10.23
Nodes 10-31
10-31
10.3.2 Source Tools
The initial sizing of a flare system is time consuming both in terms of
time taken to build the model and the computation time. Using an
Ideal Gas method can speed up the calculation during the initial sizing
estimation. Speed is an important issue during sizing calculation
especially for a complex multiple scenario case. Typically, the back
pressure should be used for calculations. Rigourous rating calculations
for all scenarios can be done by the Peng Robinson enthalpy method or
any other enthalpy methods with pressure depedency and provides the
down stream temperature.
Updating Downstream Temperatures
The downstream temperatures are only used to define the system entry
temperature when ideal gas enthalpies are used. After several cycles of
rating and sizing calculations, the original values for each source may
no longer be valid. These values may be updated to reflect the results of
the last calculation using an equation of state enthalpy method as
follows.
Select Refresh Source Temperatures from the Tools menu.
Adding Single Source Scenarios
The thorough evaluation of a flare network will require the evaluation
of many scenarios. In most systems, there will be the possibility of each
relief valve lifting on its own. In the case of a petrochemical complex,
this could have several hundred relief valves and the task of setting up
the scenarios for each relief valve would be time consuming and error
prone.
Once all the major scenarios have been defined, select Add Single
Source Scenarios from the Tools menu. Press Yes to allow FLARENET to
analyse the existing scenarios to determine the greatest flow rate for
each relief valve and create a scenario using this data.
10-32 Ignoring/Restoring Nodes
10-32
10.4 Ignoring/Restoring
Nodes
You can ignore single or multiple nodes within the model. When you
ignore a single node, all upstream nodes are automatically ignored.
This enables you to do what if type calculations, where part of the
network can be excluded from the calculation without the need for
deletion and reinstallation of the appropriate nodes.
To ignore a node:
1. Open the node editor view of the node that you wish to ignore.
2. On the Connections tab, see Figure 10.24, activate the Ignore
check box.
To restore a node that has previously been ignored:
1. Open the node editor view of the node that you wish to ignore.
2. On the Connections tab, deactivate the Ignore check box.
Figure 10.24
When you ignore a single
node, all upstream nodes are
automatically ignored.
Calculations 11-1
11-1
11 Calculations
11.1 Calculation Options ................................................................................... 3
11.1.1 General Tab............................................................................................ 3
11.1.2 Methods Tab........................................................................................... 6
11.1.3 Warnings Tab ......................................................................................... 9
11.1.4 Initialisation Tab.................................................................................... 10
11.2 Starting The Calculations........................................................................ 11
11.3 Efficient Modelling Techniquies.............................................................. 12
11.3.1 Data Entry............................................................................................ 12
11.3.2 Calculation Speed................................................................................ 13
11.3.3 Sizing Calculations............................................................................... 15
11-2
11-2
Calculations 11-3
11-3
11.1 Calculation Options
The selection of settings and options for the calculations is managed
from the Calculation Options Editor view. To access the Calculation
Options Editor view, select Options from the Calculations menu.
11.1.1 General Tab
The fields available on this tab are:
Figure 11.1
Field Description
Max iterations
The maximum number of iterations. The
calculations will stop if this limit is reached.
Valid values are between 1 and 100; the default
is 25.
Pressure Tolerance
When the difference in pressure between
successive iterations is less than this tolerance,
convergence is assumed.
Valid values are between 0.00001% and 10%;
the default is 0.01%
Mass Balance
Tolerance
This is the solution tolerance for the iterative
mass balance performed during looped system
calculations.
Valid values are between 0.00001% and 10%;
the default is 0.01%
Damping Factor
The damping factor used in the iterative solution
procedure. A default-damping factor of 1 is used.
11-4 Calculation Options
11-4
Atmospheric Pressure
Specify the atmospheric pressure. The default
values are 1.01325 bar abs or 14.69618 psia.
Ambient Temperature
The Ambient temperature must be in the range
-100
o
C to 100
o
C.
Wind Velocity The average wind velocity.
Length Multiplier
The length of the pipe is multiplied by this value
to determine the equivalent length used for the
pressure drop calculation.
Calculation Mode
Select the Calculating Mode from the drop down
menu. The available options are:
• Rating - It is used to check the existing flare
system in a plant. This method calculates the
pressure profile for the existing pipe network.
• Design - It is used to design anew flare system for
the plant. During calculation it adjust the diameters
of all pipes until all the design constraints of MABP,
velocity, etc, have been met. These diameters can
be smaller than the initially defined data.
• Debottleneck - It is used to determine areas of the
flare system that must be increased in size due to
either the uprating of the existing plant and hence
flare loading, or the tie-in of new plant.
Loop Solver
These algorithms provide globally convergent
methods for nonlinear systems of equations. The
following methods are available:
• Broyden - It provides a quicker solution since it
does not have to calculate Jacobian matrix. You
need to provide better guesses for the tear pipe
flows.
• Newton-Raphson - It works more reliably if default
initial guesses are used but takes a longer time.
Field Description
Calculations 11-5
11-5
The following check boxes are available on this tab:
Checkbox Description
Rated Flow for
Tailpipes
If checked, the rated flow will be used in the
sizing calculations for the tailpipes (as opposed
to the actual flowrates). The API guide for
Pressure-Relieving and Depressuring Systems
recommends that tailpipes be sized based on the
rated capacity
Enable Heat Transfer
If checked, heat transfer can take place between
the pipe segment and the surroundings for pipe
segments which have Heat Transfer with
Atmosphere enabled.
All Scenarios
If checked, the calculations will be made for all
the scenarios defined in the model, otherwise the
calculations will be made only for the scenario
which is currently displayed.
When sizing calculations are made for a number
of scenarios simultaneously, a single network is
calculated that will satisfy the design constraints
for all scenarios.
Choked Flow Check
If left uncheked, velocities will not be limited to
the sonic condition. This is useful in sizing
calculations since the mach number limitations
will still be met by the time the final solution is
reached. Calculation speed is greater at the risk
of numerical instability and convergence failure.
Echo Solver History
When checked, it should enable printing of much
more intermediate information during
calculations. This should be left unchecked
unless you have convergence problems.
Force Convergent
Solver
Check this option if you are modelling a
convergent flare system, but with 2 flare tips as
commonly found on offshore floating production
facilities.
11-6 Calculation Options
11-6
11.1.2 Methods Tab
The Methods tab contains the following fields:
Figure 11.2
Input Field Description
VLE Method
The options for the Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium
calculations are as follows (see Appendix A -
Theoretical Basis for more details):
• Compressible Gas - Real Gas relationship.
• Peng Robinson - Peng Robinson Equation
of State.
• Soave Redlich Kwong - Soave Redlich
Kwong Equation of State.
• Vapour Pressure - Vapour Pressure
method as described in API Technical Data
Book - Volume 1
13
.
Enthalpy
The following calculation method for the
determination of fluid enthalpies are available:
• Ideal Gas - This method uses the specified
downstream temperature of a source to
calculate the heat balance within the
network.
• Peng Robinson - The Peng Robinson
enthalpy is determined rigorously.
• Soave Redlich Kwong - The Soave Redlich
Kwong enthalpy is determined rigorously.
• Lee-Kesler - This method uses the specified
upstream temperature and pressure of a
source to calculate the heat balance within
the network. The Lee Kesler enthalpies may
be more accurate than the Property Package
enthalpies, but they require solution of a
separate model.
Calculations 11-7
11-7
Horizontal and Inclined
Pipes
The Horizontal/Inclined method applies only
when you have selected Two-Phase pressure
drop. The options are:
• Isothermal Gas - This is a compressible gas
method that assumes isothermal expansion
of the gas as it passes along the pipe.
Flarenet uses averaged properties of the
fluid over the length of the pipe. The outlet
temperature from the pipe is calculated by
adiabatic heat balance either with or without
heat transfer. Pressure losses due to change
in elevation are ignored.
• Adiabatic Gas - This is a compressible gas
method that assumes adiabatic expansion of
the gas as it passes along the pipe. As with
the Isothermal Gas method, pressure losses
due to change in elevation are ignored.
• Beggs & Brill - The Beggs and Brill method
is based on work done with an air-water
mixture at many different conditions, and is
applicable for inclined flow. For more details,
see Appendix A - Theoretical Basis.
• Dukler- Dukler breaks the pressure drop in
two-phase systems into three components -
friction, elevation and acceleration. Each
component is evaluated independently and
added algebraically to determine the overall
pressure drop. For more details, see
Appendix A - Theoretical Basis.
Input Field Description
11-8 Calculation Options
11-8
Vertical Pipes
The Vertical method applies only when you have
selected Two-Phase pressure drop. The options
are:
• Isothermal Gas - This is a compressible gas
method that assumes isothermal expansion
of the gas as it passes along the pipe.
Flarenet uses averaged properties of the
fluid over the length of the pipe. The outlet
temperature from the pipe is calculated by
adiabatic heat balance either with or without
heat transfer. Pressure losses due to change
in elevation are ignored.
• Adiabatic Gas - This is a compressible gas
method that assumes adiabatic expansion of
the gas as it passes along the pipe. As with
the Isothermal Gas method, pressure losses
due to change in elevation are ignored.
• Beggs & Brill - Although the Beggs and Brill
method was not originally intended for use
with vertical pipes, it is nevertheless
commonly used for this purpose, and is
therefore included as an option for vertical
pressure drop methods. For more details,
see Appendix A - Theoretical Basis.
• Dukler - although the Dukler method is not
generally applicable to vertical pipes, it is
included here to allow comparison with the
other methods.
• Orkiszewski - This is a pressure drop
correlation for vertical, two-phase flow for
four different flow regimes - bubble, slug,
annular-slug transition, and annular mist. For
more details, see Appendix A - Theoretical
Basis.
Two Phase Elements
For two-phase calculations, the pipe segment is
divided into a specified number of elements. On
each element, energy and meterial balances are
solved along with the pressure drop correlation.
In simulations involving high heat transfer rates,
many increments may be necessary, due to the
non-linearity of the temperature profile.
Obviously, as the number of increments
increases, so does the calculation time;
therefore, you should try to select a number of
increments which reflects the required accuracy.
Friction Factor Method
The Friction Factor Method applies only when
you have entered a value for friction factor. The
options are:
• Round - This method has been maintained
primarily for historical purposes in order for
older Flarenet calculations to be matched. It
tends to over predict the friction factor by up
to 10% in the fully turbulent region.
• Chen - It should always be the method of
preference since it gives better predictions
and fully turbulent flow conditions normally
found within flare systems.
Input Field Description
Calculations 11-9
11-9
11.1.3 Warnings Tab
There are three groups available on the Warnings tab:
• Design Problems
• Calculation Problems
• Sizing Status
Design Problems Group
The following options can be selected in this group:
• Mach Number
• Velocity
• Rho V2
• Noise
• Back Pressure
• Choked Flow
• Slug Flow
• Temperature
• Carbon Steel Min./Max Temp.
• Carbon Steel Min./Max Temp.
Figure 11.3
You can set the level of detail
of the warnings by checking
the appropriate boxes. By
default, they are all checked.
11-10 Calculation Options
11-10
Calculation Problems Group
The Calculation Problems group contain the following check boxes:
• Physical properties Failure
• Heat Balance Failure
• Choke Pressure Failure
• Pressure Drop Failure
• Liquid With Vapour Only Method
Sizing Status Group
The check boxes available in this group are:
• Initialisation
• Size Change
• Limited Reached
11.1.4 Initialisation Tab
The Initialisation tab allows you to specify the initial value for the
pressure for physical property calculations. It should be at least equal to
the system exit pressure.
Figure 11.4
Calculations 11-11
11-11
11.2 Starting The
Calculations
To start the calculations, select Calculate from the Calculations menu.
Alternatively, you could select the Start Calculations button on the
button bar.
The status of the rating calculations is shown on the status bar. In the
following screen shot, the second box on the status bar shows that the
node mass and energy balance calculations are performed for tee Tee 1.
The third box shows that at the second iteration, the pressure tolerance
for the sixth pipe is calculated as 2.45e
-1
.
To abort calculations, select the Stop Calculations button, which takes
the place of the Start Calculations button during calculations.
Figure 11.5
Start Calculations Button
The following words before the
object on the status bar shows
the type of calculation being
performed:
B = Mass and Energy
Calculations
P = Pressure Drop
Calculations
Stop Calculations Button
Due to speed considerations, it is recommended that sizing
calculations be performed subject to the constraints:
• Compressible Gas VLE
• Ideal Gas Enthalpy Method
• No Heat Transfer Calculations
11-12 Efficient Modelling Techniquies
11-12
11.3 Efficient Modelling
Techniquies
Efficient modelling of a flare network requires some forethought in
order to meet the primary objectives which are in general:
1. Definition of the design constraints for the flare system. These will
usually be defined by company standards or by local health and
safety regulations. If unavailable, standard texts such as API-RP-
521 can be used to select preliminary acceptable values.
2. Efficient acquisition of the data for the piping configuration and
layout.
3. Definition of the scenarios or contingencies which should be
evaluated. Grass roots design will require analysis of a far wider
range of scenarios to those required by the simple expansion of a
flare system to incorporate a new relief valve.
4. Rapid construction of the computer model of the flare system.
5. Fast and efficient calculation of the computer model of the flare
system.
Objectives 1 to 5 can only be achieved by the use of engineering skill
and judgement. Once complete, the efficient use of Flarenet can lead to
a satisfactory project conclusion.
11.3.1 Data Entry
Flarenet has a wide range of methods for entering the data for each
object within the model. In general, you should use the method that
you are most comfortable with, but experience has shown that use of
the PFD environment for definition of the piping configuration and
layout can save many man days of labour with large flare networks.
Although there is no set order in which the model must be built, the
recommended sequence of data entry for building the model is:
1. Define the project description, user name, etc. by selecting
Description under File in the menu bar.
2. Set preferences for the default piping materials, type of tee,
composition basis, etc. from the Preferences view, accessed via the
File command in the menu bar. These may be overwritten on an
object by object basis at any stage. Ensure that the Edit Objects On
Add check box is active if you wish to edit the object data as each
new flowsheet object is created.
Calculations 11-13
11-13
3. Define a pipe class if appropriate. This will ensure that you only
use pipe sizes as allowed by your project. Open the Pipe Class
Editor using the Tools command in the menu bar.
4. With the Calculation Options Editor, define default calculation
methods for VLE, Pressure drop, etc. To open this view, select
Options under the Calculations menu.
5. Define all the source nodes (relief valves and control valves) for the
first scenario. The first scenario should be the one that has the
greatest level of common data amongst the complete set of
scenarios. Drag the nodes from the toolbox to the PFD.
6. Define the design constraints on Mach number, noise, etc for the
first scenario using the Scenario Manager. Set source node on
ignored status for this scenario. To access this view, select the Build
menu, then Scenarios from the drop-down list.
7. Define the pipe network (common to all scenarios). If the network
is to be sized, some care must be taken in defining reasonable
estimates for the pipe diameters.
8. Add the next scenario by selecting the Add button on the Scenario
Manager. The data for the sources should be cloned from the
previously defined scenario that has the most similar data. Edit the
design constraints of this scenario if necessary.
9. Make the new scenario current. Highlight it on the Scenario
Manager and select the Current button.
10. Edit the source data for each source for the new scenario. Double
click sources on the PFD
Repeat steps #8 through #10 for all scenarios
11.3.2 Calculation Speed
Calculation time will often be only a small percentage of the time taken
to construct the computer model. However, on low specification
personal computers, a sizing calculation for a complex multiple
scenario model could take several hours, if not days, if care is not taken
in the selection of the thermodynamic models or in the definition of
the component slate.
When considering the desired accuracy for the calculations, due
consideration must be given to the fact that you are modelling a system
that will rarely if ever come close to a steady state condition, with a
steady state modelling tool.
11-14 Efficient Modelling Techniquies
11-14
Component Slate
As a rule of thumb you can assume that the calculation time is
proportional to the square of the number of components. Especially
when the VLE is calculated by an equation of state instead of treating
the fluids as a simple compressible gas.
Flare systems generally operate at conditions in which heavy
components such as hexane or heavier will stay in the liquid phase
throughout the system. You should therefore endeavour to characterise
the heavy ends of petroleum fluids by as few components as possible.
The properties that you use for the characterisation should be
optimised to:
• Ensure the component stays in the liquid phase
• Match the liquid phase density
VLE Method
Source compositions may be modelled either by definition of a
molecular weight or by a detailed component by component analysis.
When a composition is defined solely by molecular weight Flarenet
analizes the user defined component slate to select a pair of
components whose molecular weights straddle the defined value. A
binary composition is then calculated to match this value. This type of
fluid characterisation is only suitable for network analyses in which the
fluids are assumed to be vapour, since the VLE behaviour cannot be
reasonably predicted from this level of detail. Thus the Compressible
Gas VLE method is the only one that should ever be used in association
with molecular weight modelling.
When modelling using a detailed component by component analysis, if
you are confident that the system will be liquid free then the
Compressible Gas VLE method should be used since it does not have
the overhead of determining the vapour/liquid equilibrium split. The
computation time for the fluid properties then becomes several order
of magnitudes faster that those involving a liquid phase.
When modelling a system in which two phase effects are important,
consideration must be given to the pressures both upstream of the
sources and within the flare piping. The Vapour Pressure VLE method,
which is the fastest of the multiphase methods, is, strictly speaking,
only valid for pressures below 10 bar. The reduced temperature of the
fluid should also be greater than 0.3. Experience has shown that it also
works to an acceptable degree of accuracy for flare system analysis at
Calculations 11-15
11-15
pressures well beyond this. If speed is an issue, then it is recommended
that a scenario with as many active sources as possible be rated both
using one of the cubic equations of state and this method. If acceptable
agreement between the results is achieved then it may be reasonably
assumed that the extrapolation is valid.
11.3.3 Sizing Calculations
The final calculations upon which a flare system is built should of
course be made using the most detailed model consistent with the
quality of data available, but for initial sizing calculations a number of
points should be considered when selecting appropriate calculation
methods.
• There is not generally a great deal of difference between the
pressure drops calculated for a two phase system, whether
calculated by treating the system as a compressible gas or as a
two phase fluid. This occurs since as the fluid condenses the
velocities will decrease but the two-phase friction factor will
increase.
• Unless choked flow is allowed in the system, the back pressure
on each source should not vary greatly with line size. The
specification of a reasonable fixed downstream temperature for
each source for use with the ideal gas enthalpy model should
therefore give reasonable results.
The recommended procedure for performing sizing calculations is as
follows:
1. Build the network using reasonable estimates for the pipe
diameters. Estimate the diameters from:
where: d = Diameter (m)
W = Mass flow (kg/s)
P = Tip pressure (bar abs)
M = Design mach number
2. Rate the network for all the scenarios with your desired detailed
model for the VLE and enthalpies. This will give reasonable
temperatures downstream of each source.
(11.1)
d
W
300PM
------------------ =
11-16 Efficient Modelling Techniquies
11-16
3. Copy the calculated temperatures downstream of each source to
the source data by the Refresh Source Temperatures option under
the Tools menu.
4. Size the network for all scenarios using Compress Gas VLE and
Ideal Gas enthalpies.
5. Rate the network for all the scenarios with your desired detailed
model for the VLE and enthalpies. If there are any design
violations, make a debottlenecking calculation with these
methods.
Databases 12-1
12-1
12 Databases
12.1 Database Features ..................................................................................... 3
12.1.1 Selection Filter ....................................................................................... 3
12.1.2 Manoeuvring Through the Table ............................................................ 4
12.1.3 Printing................................................................................................... 5
12.1.4 Adding/Deleting Data ............................................................................. 5
12.2 Setting The Password................................................................................ 5
12.3 Pipe Schedule Database Editor ................................................................ 6
12.4 Fittings Database Editor ............................................................................ 7
12.5 Component Database Editor ..................................................................... 8
12-2
12-2
Databases 12-3
12-3
The data for the various installable components of the model are stored
in user-modifiable database files.
The database files are:
• SCHEDULE.MDB - The pipe schedule database. This contains
data for both carbon steel and stainless steel pipe.
• FITTINGS.MDB - The pipe fittings database.
• COMPS.MDB - The pure component database.
These files are initially installed to the Database sub-directory in your
main FLARENET directory.
The databases may be password protected by a single password
common to each. If the password has been disabled, or an incorrect
access password has been entered, the databases may be reviewed in
read-only mode (note that original data is always read-only). You must
have defined an access password before any database can be edited.
12.1 Database Features
12.1.1 Selection Filter
The Selection Filter may be used to restrict the data which is shown.
You may use the following wildcard characters:
• ? - Represents a single character.
• * - Represents a group of characters of undefined length.
• Any filter string has an implied * character at the end.
Some examples are shown below:
You may add and edit your own data to the databases. However,
you cannot edit or delete any of the original data.
Filter Application Result
*0
Pipe Schedule 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120,
140, 160
1?0 Pipe Schedule 100, 120, 140, 160
1* Pipe Schedule 10, 100, 120, 140, 160
*90* Fittings All 90 degree bends and elbows
*Entrance* Fittings All Pipe Entrance fittings
*thane Components Methane, Ethane
M* Components Methane, Mcyclopentane, etc.
As you navigate through the
table, you will see that the
standard database records are
shown in black. User-defined
records, which may be edited,
are shown in blue.
12-4 Database Features
12-4
12.1.2 Manoeuvring Through the
Table
Click on the table to select a record, then navigate through the table
using the navigator and scroll bar controls.
Figure 12.1
Indicates the
selected record
Go to first record
Go to previous
record
Go to last
record
Go to next record
Use this scroll bar to manoeuvre
through the Properties (applicable only
to the Component Database Editor).
Use this scroll
bar to move
through the
database list.
Databases 12-5
12-5
12.1.3 Printing
Select the Print All button to print the pipe schedule, fittings or
component data, depending on which editor you are currently using.
FLARENET prints formatted output using the default printer settings.
12.1.4 Adding/Deleting Data
When the Add button is clicked, the cursor will move to the last record
on the table and insert a new record that contains dummy data. You
should override this data with your actual data. Note that user-defined
data is shown in blue.
When you add items, they will then become immediately available to
the simulation.
Select the Delete button to delete the current record. You can only
delete your own data.
Click OK to close the Database Editor view.
12.2 Setting The Password
To set or modify the password:
1. Select Set Password from the Database menu on the menu bar.
The Password Editor dialog box will now be displayed.
2. Enter your existing password in the Old Password field.
3. Enter your new password in both the New Password and Confirm
New Password field and then click OK, or Cancel to abort the
procedure.
Figure 12.2
Print All Button
Add Button
Add Button
If you have already set your
password, you first need to
enter the existing password
before supplying the new one.
12-6 Pipe Schedule Database Editor
12-6
12.3 Pipe Schedule
Database Editor
The Pipe Schedule Database Editor allows you to view the pipe
schedule data for all pipes in the database, and to add and edit user-
defined entries.
To use the Pipe Schedule Database Editor, select Pipe Schedule from
the Database menu. After you enter the password, the Pipe Schedule
Database Editor view will be displayed, as shown in Figure 12.3.
Select the material you wish to view using the Material drop down. This
may be either Carbon Steel or Stainless Steel.
The Nominal Diameter, Schedule, Internal Diameter, Wall Thickness
and Group for each entry is tabulated.
For information on the Database view features that are common to the
Pipe Schedule, Fittings and Components Databases, see Section 12.1 -
Database Features.
Figure 12.3
If you have already set your
password, you will need to
enter the password before
accessing the databases.
Databases 12-7
12-7
12.4 Fittings Database
Editor
The Fittings Database Editor allows you to view the pipe fittings data
for all fittings types in the database, and to add and edit user-defined
entries.
To display the Fittings Database Editor, select Pipe Fittings from the
Database menu. After you enter the password, the Fittings Database
Editor view will be displayed, as shown in Figure 12.4.
The description of each fitting, as well as the A and B term in the pipe
fitting equation is tabulated. The Reference defines the literature
source for the data.
The pipe fitting equation is:
K = A + BF
t
For information on the Database view features that are common to the
Pipe Schedule, Fittings and Components Databases, see Section 12.1 -
Database Features.
Figure 12.4
12-8 Component Database Editor
12-8
12.5 Component Database
Editor
The Component Database Editor allows you to view the component
data for all the pure components in the database, and to add and edit
user defined entries.
To display the Component Database Editor, select Component from
the Database menu. After you enter the password, the Component
Database Editor view will be displayed, as shown in Figure 12.5.
The data for each component in the database is tabulated.
For information on the Database view features that are common to the
Pipe Schedule, Fittings and Components Databases, see the next
section.
Figure 12.5
Databases 12-9
12-9
12.5.1 Importing Component Data
Additional components may be added to the database via an ASCII file
whose format is given in Appendix B - File Format.
The component data file can be read into FLARENET by selecting the
Import Button on the Component Database Editor view. Note the
Import button is unique to the Component Database Editor. This
feature allows you to specify the text file, which must be created
previously within HYSIM, on the Select Import File view.
A utility to create this file from a HYSIM case is supplied. Two steps are
necessary in order to import component data from HYSIM Version 2.60
into the component database.
1. Export the component data from HYSIM. A calculator program
must be executed within HYSIM in order to convert the
component data to the proper format.
2. Import the component data into FLARENET, via the component
database editor.
In order to create the HYSIM transfer file:
1. Load the HYSIM case containing the component data into HYSIM.
2. At the main HYSIM command line prompt, type the command
!EXPORT. You must previously have copied the file EXPORT.HCL
into the HYSIM working directory from the \HYSIM directory
under your main program directory. This need be done only once.
3. When prompted for the name of the export file, enter the file name.
This file will be given the extension .TXT. The transfer file will now
be created (in your HYSIM directory).
Figure 12.6
Print All Button
12-10 Component Database Editor
12-10
Viewing Data and Results 13-1
13-1
13 Viewing Data and
Results
13.1 Components Data....................................................................................... 3
13.2 Scenarios Data ........................................................................................... 3
13.3 Pipes Data................................................................................................... 4
13.4 Sources Data .............................................................................................. 4
13.5 Nodes Data.................................................................................................. 5
13.6 Messages .................................................................................................... 6
13.6.1 Problems Tab ......................................................................................... 6
13.6.2 Data Echo Tab........................................................................................ 6
13.6.3 Solver Tab .............................................................................................. 7
13.6.4 Sizing Tab............................................................................................... 7
13.6.5 Loops tab ............................................................................................... 8
13.7 Pressure/Flow Summary ........................................................................... 8
13.8 Compositions ............................................................................................. 9
13.9 Physical Properties.................................................................................... 9
13.10 Profile ...................................................................................................... 11
13.11 Flow Map................................................................................................. 12
13.12 Scenario Summary................................................................................. 13
13.13 Graph Control ......................................................................................... 14
13.13.1 Control Tab......................................................................................... 15
13.13.2 Axes Tab ............................................................................................ 16
13.13.3 ChartStyles Tab.................................................................................. 17
13-2
13-2
13.13.4 Legend Tab ........................................................................................ 18
13.13.5 ChartArea Tab.................................................................................... 19
13.13.6 Plot Area Tab...................................................................................... 20
Viewing Data and Results 13-3
13-3
Tabulated Data and Results can be viewed from the View menu in the
menu bar.
13.1 Components Data
Properties for all components in the current case can be viewed by
selecting Data and then Components from the View menu.
Alternatively, you can use the key combination <Alt><V><D><C>.
Components can be edited, on the Component Editor view, by double
clicking on any cell in the appropriate row. For more information on
editing the components see Section 7.2 - Adding/Editing Components.
13.2 Scenarios Data
Scenario data for all the scenarios in the case can be viewed by
selecting Data and then Scenarios from the View menu. Alternatively,
you can use the key combination <Alt><V><D><S>.
Figure 13.1
Figure 13.2
For all of these views, columns can be resized and moved as
described in Section 5.5.1 - Changing Column Width and
Section 5.5.2 - Changing Column Order.
13-4 Pipes Data
13-4
The Scenario Editor can be accessed by double clicking on any cell in
the appropriate row. See Section 8.1 - Adding/Editing Scenarios for
more information on editing scenarios.
13.3 Pipes Data
Properties of the pipe network on a segment-by-segment basis can be
viewed by selecting Data and then Pipes from the View menu.
Alternatively, you can use the key combination <Alt><V><D><P>.
You can edit an individual segment by double clicking on any cell in the
appropriate row. See Section 9.1 - Adding/Editing a Pipe for more
information on editing pipe segments.
13.4 Sources Data
Source data can be viewed by selecting Data and then Sources from the
View menu. Alternatively, you can use the key combination
<Alt><V><D><S>.
Figure 13.3
Figure 13.4
Viewing Data and Results 13-5
13-5
You can edit an individual source by double clicking on any cell in the
appropriate row. See Section 10.3 - Sources for more information on
editing sources.
To view source data for a different scenario select the appropriate
scenario in the scenario selector on the toolbar, and the Sources view
will change accordingly.
13.5 Nodes Data
Properties for all the nodes in the current case can be viewed by
selecting Data and then Nodes from the View menu. Alternatively, you
can use the key combination <Alt><V><D><N>.
You can edit an individual node by double-clicking on any cell in the
appropriate row. For information on editing nodes see Section 10.1 -
Node Manager.
Figure 13.5
To change scenarios, you
could select the appropriate
scenario tab, or select one
from the Scenario Manager.
13-6 Messages
13-6
13.6 Messages
Messages can be viewed by selecting Results and then Messages from
the View menu. Alternatively, you can use the key combination
<Alt><V><R><M>.Note that they can be viewed only after you have run
the calculations.
13.6.1 Problems Tab
Any violations of the design constraints are shown on this tab.
13.6.2 Data Echo Tab
The Data Echo tab shows the options chosen for the calculation.
Figure 13.6
Figure 13.7
The messages that are
displayed depend on the
Message options you have
selected (see Section 11.1.3 -
Warnings Tab).
The following design
constraints will be checked for
violations :
• Mach Number
• Velocity
• pv
2
• Noise
• Back Pressure
• Temperature
• Slug Flow
• Ice Formation
Viewing Data and Results 13-7
13-7
13.6.3 Solver Tab
This tab displays any complications encountered by the solver.
13.6.4 Sizing Tab
This tab displays the sequence of line size changes during sizing
calculations.
Figure 13.8
Figure 13.9
13-8 Pressure/Flow Summary
13-8
13.6.5 Loops tab
This tab displays the solution history for looped network calculations.
13.7 Pressure/Flow
Summary
After running the case, you can view the Pressure/Flow Summary by
selecting Results and then Pressure/Flow Summary from the View
menu.
Note that if any value violates a design limitation (e.g. - a Mach number
is greater than the maximum allowable Mach number), it is displayed
in emboldened red.
Figure 13.10
Figure 13.11
The following variables are
shown:
• Mass Flowrate
• Molar Flowrate
• Rated Flowrate
• Static Pressure Drop
• Noise
• Static Source Back Pressure
• Upstream (US) Static
Pressure
• US Temperature
• US Velocity
• US Mach No.
• US Rho V2
• US Energy
• Downstream (DS) Static
Pressure
• DS Temperature
• DS Velocity
• DS Mach No.
• DS Rho V2
• DS Energy
• Flow Regime
• Static Pipe Acceleration
Loss
• Static Pipe Elevation Loss
• Static Pipe Fittings Loss
• Friction Factor
• Reynolds Number
• Duty
• Overall HTC
• External HTC
• Internal HTC
• Length Used
Viewing Data and Results 13-9
13-9
13.8 Compositions
After running the case, you can view the Compositions for each pipe
segment by selecting Results and then Compositions from the View
menu. You can also use the <Alt><V><R><C> key combination to
access the view.
The Composition view may not be available if Save Phase Propertise is
not active on the General tab of the Preferences Editor view.
13.9 Physical Properties
After running the case, you can view the Physical Properties for each
pipe segment by selecting Results and then Physical Properties from
the View menu. Alternatively, you can use the key combination
<Alt<V><R><R>.
The Physical Properties view may not be available if Save Phase
Propertise is not active on the General tab of the Preferences Editor
view.
Figure 13.12
Figure 13.13
The following properties are
displayed (Upstream and
Downstream):
• Density
• Enthalpy
• Entropy
• Phase Fraction
• Heat Capacity
• Molecular Weight
• Surface Tension
• Thermal Conductivity
• Viscosity
• Z Factor
13-10 Physical Properties
13-10
You can view properties for different fluid phases by double-clicking
anywhere inside the view. Each line expands to display properties for
the various phases.
Double clicking again, inside the view, will contract the view to its
original state.
Figure 13.14
F = Fluid (Overall)
V = Vapour Phase
L = Liquid Phase
W = Water Phase
M = Mixed (Water & Liquid)
Viewing Data and Results 13-11
13-11
13.10 Profile
After running the case, you can view the properties profile by selecting
Results and then Profile from the View menu or by pressing the key
combination <Alt><V><R><P>.
You can select the property type from the drop down menu. The Profile
displays the profile from the selected Source (which may be chosen
from the drop down menu at the top of the view) to the Flare.
Three buttons are available:
Figure 13.15
The following properties
profile are available:
• Pressure
• Temperature
• Mass Flow
• Molar Flow
• Mach No.
• Noise
• Rho V2
The property type can
be selected from the
drop down box.
Select the Source for
which you want to
display the profile.
Button View Description
Print
Print the graph using the current
printer settings. The output also
includes important information such as
the name of the file, the scenario, and
the model statistics.
Save
Save the graph to a windows metafile
.wmf. You will be prompted for the file
name and path.
Copy
Copy the graph to the Windows
clipboard. It can then be pasted in
other applicable Windows applications
(such as your word processor).
13-12 Flow Map
13-12
The plot can be modified by the 2D Chart Control Properties which is
available on object inspecting the plot area. See Section 13.13 - Graph
Control for more information on 2D Chart Control Properties view.
13.11 Flow Map
The flow map available in FLARENET displays the flow pattern
correlation of Gregory Aziz and Mandhane which is currently the most
widely used method. It was based on almost 6,000 flow pattern
observations, from a variety of systems, and many independent studies
and it is strictly applicable only to horizontal flow. Typically, the
superficial gas and liquid velocities in a horizontal pipe are the most
important single parameters influencing the flow pattern.
After running the case, you can view the Gregory Aziz and Mandhane
flow map by selecting Results and then Flow Map from the View menu
or by pressing the key combination <Alt><V><R><W>.
You can display the flow map for each pipe segment by selecting the
desired pipe segment from the drop down box on the top of the view.
The upstream and downstream condition are marked with a red dot
and a label on the flow map. Unless the pipe segment has a single phase
flow with a large pressure drop, both upstream and downstream pipe
conditions will generally be close to each other.
Figure 13.16
Viewing Data and Results 13-13
13-13
Three buttons are available:
13.12 Scenario Summary
After running the case, you can view the Scenario Summary by
selecting Results and then Scenario Summary from the View menu.
You can select a source from the drop-down menu at the top of the
view.
Button View Description
Print
Print the graph using the current
printer settings. The output also
includes important information such as
the name of the file, the scenario, and
the model statistics.
Save
Save the graph to a windows metafile
.wmf. You will be prompted for the file
name and path.
Copy
Copy the graph to the Windows
clipboard. It can then be pasted in
other applicable Windows applications
(such as your word processor).
Figure 13.17
13-14 Graph Control
13-14
Two buttons are also available:
13.13 Graph Control
You can customize each individual plot in Flarenet using the Chart
Control tool. You can modify many of the plot characteristics, which are
categorized into the six tabs of the 2D Chart Control Properties view:
Control, Axes, ChartStyles, Legend, ChartArea and PlotArea.
You can open the 2D Chart Control Properties view by object
inspecting any spot on an active plot.
Button View Description
Print
Print the results using the current
printer settings. The output also
includes important information such
as the name of the file, scenario, and
the model statistics.
Save
Save the results to an ASCII text file
.txt. You will be prompted for the file
name and path.
Figure 13.18
Viewing Data and Results 13-15
13-15
13.13.1 Control Tab
The Control tab is used to specify the background border, background
and foreground colors and background image. The inner tabs available
on the Control tab are:
Figure 13.19
Inner Tab Option Description
Border
Type Select the border type drawn around the area from the
drop down box.
Width Enter the boarder type width in pixels. Valid values are
between 0 and 20 pixels.
Interior
Background Color
RGB
Enter the RGB value for the specified background color.
Valid values are between #000000 and #ffffff.
Background Color
Name
Select the color name from the drop down box.
Foreground Color
RGB
Enter the RGB value for the specified foreground color.
Valid values are between #000000 and #ffffff.
Foreground Color
Name
Select the Color name from the drop down box.
13-16 Graph Control
13-16
13.13.2 Axes Tab
The Axes tab allows you to customize the plot area, using the following
inner tabs:
Figure 13.20
Inner Tab Option Description
Grid
IsStyleDefault When checked, the GridStyle returns to the default. If this
option is disabled, it does not apply to the selected axis.
Spacing Specifies the grid increment. If this option is disabled, it
does not apply to the selected axis.
GridStyle
Pattern List the available line patterns.
Width Specify the width of the line, in pixels.
Color RGB List the RGB value of the line color. Valid values are
between #000000 and #ffffff.
Color name List the name of the specified line color. To choose a new
color by its name, click the down arrow or type the name
of the color here.
When displaying Undefined, there is no matching color
name for the specified color.
Font
Description List the current font setting for the text. Click the button on
the right to choose a new font,size, or style.
Sample Shows a sample of how text will appear with the specified
font setting.
Viewing Data and Results 13-17
13-17
13.13.3 ChartStyles Tab
The ChartStyles tab allows you to customize how data series look in the
chart. The inner tabs available on the ChartStyles tab are:
Figure 13.21
Press the Add button to add a
ChartStyle after the selected
Style in the list.
Press the Remove button to
remove the selected ChartStyle
from the list.
Inner Tab Option Description
FillStyle
Pattern This drop down box lists the available fill patterns.
Color RGB Lists the RGB value of the fill color. Valid values are
between #000000 and #ffffff.
Color Name Lists the name of the specified fill color. To choose a new
color by its name, click the down arrow or type the name
of the color here.
When displaying Undefined, there is no matching color
name for the specified color.
LineStyle
Pattern Lists the avaiable line patterns.
Width Specifies the width of the line, in pixels.
Color RGB Lists the RGB value of the fill color. Valid values are
between #000000 and #ffffff.
Color Name Lists the name of the specified fill color. To choose a new
color by its name, click the down arrow or type the name
of the color.
When displaying Undefined, there is no matching color
name for the specified color.
SymbolStyle
Shape Lists the available symbol shapes.
Size Specifies the size of the symbol.
Color RGB Lists the RGB value of the symbol color. Valid values are
between #000000 and #ffffff.
Color Name Lists the name of the specified symbol color. To choose a
new color by its name, click the down arrow or type the
name of the color here.
When displaying Undefined, there is no matching color
name for the specified color.
13-18 Graph Control
13-18
13.13.4 Legend Tab
The Legend tab allows you to customize the legend on the following
inner tabs:
Figure 13.22
Inner Tab Option Description
General
Anchor Specifies where the legend is positioned, relative to the
ChartArea. You can fine-tune the positioning with the
Location inner tab.
Orientation Specifies the layout of items in the Legend.
IsShowing Displays the label, if Series-labels have been defined
Location
Left Specifies the distance from the left edge of the chart to
the area, in pixels. If this option is disabled, you cannot
change the position of this area.
Top Specifies the distance from the top edge of the chart to
the area, in pixels. If this option is disabled, the distance
cannot be changed.
Width Specifies the width of the area in pixels. If this option is
disabled, the width cannot be changed.
Height Specifies the height of the area in pixels. If this option is
disabled, the height cannot be changed.
Border
Type Specifies the type of border drawn around the area. If this
option is disabled, you cannot change the border type.
Width Specifies the width of the border in pixels.
Viewing Data and Results 13-19
13-19
13.13.5 ChartArea Tab
The ChartArea tab allows you to customize the chart area in detail.
Interior
Background Color
RGB
Enter the RGB value for the specified background color.
Valid values are between #000000 and #ffffff.
Background Color
Name
List the name of the specified background color. To
choose a new color by its name, click the down arrow or
type the name of the color.
Foreground Color
RGB
Enter the RGB value for the specified foreground color.
Valid values are between #000000 and #ffffff.
Foreground Color
Name
List the name of the specified foreground color. To choose
a new color by its name, click the down arrow or type the
name of the color.
Font
Description List the current font setting for the text. Click the button on
the right to choose a new font, size, or style.
Sample Shows a sample of how text will appear with the specified
font setting.
Inner Tab Option Description
Figure 13.23
Inner Tab Option Description
Location
Left Specifies the distance from the left edge of the chart to
the area, in pixels. If this option is disabled, you cannot
change the position of this area.
Top Specifies the distance from the top edge of the chart to
the area, in pixels. If this option is disabled, the distance
cannot be changed.
Width Specifies the width of the area in pixels. If this option is
disabled, the width cannot be changed.
Height Specifies the height of the area in pixels. If this option is
disabled, the height cannot be changed.
13-20 Graph Control
13-20
13.13.6 Plot Area Tab
The plot area can be customized on the PlotArea tab using the
following inner tabs:
Border
Type Specifies the type of border drawn around the area. If this
option is disabled, you cannot change the border type.
Width Specifies the width of the border in pixels.
Interior
Background Color
RGB
Enter the RGB value for the specified background color.
Valid values are between #000000 and #ffffff.
Background Color
Name
List the name of the specified background color. To
choose a new color by its name, click the down arrow or
type the name of the color.
Foreground Color
RGB
Enter the RGB value for the specified foreground color.
Valid values are between #000000 and #ffffff.
Foreground Color
Name
List the name of the specified foreground color. To choose
a new color by its name, click the down arrow or type the
name of the color.
Inner Tab Option Description
Figure 13.24
Inner Tab Option Description
General
IsBoxed Draws a box arount the plot area.
Top Specifies the distance from the top of the chart area to the
axis. Positive values allow space for axis labels; negative
values let you “zoom in” on a chart.
Bottom Specifies the distance from the bottom of the chart area to
the axis. Positive values allow space for axis labels;
negative values let you “zoom in” on a chart.
Left Specifies the distance from the left side of the chart area
to the axis. Positive values allow space for axis labels;
negative values let you “zoom in” on a chart.
Right Specifies the distance from the right side of the chart area
to the axis. Positive values allow space for axis labels;
negative values let you “zoom in” on a chart.
Viewing Data and Results 13-21
13-21
Interior
Background Color
RGB
Enter the RGB value for the specified background color.
Valid values are between #000000 and #ffffff.
Background Color
Name
List the name of the specified background color. To
choose a new color by its name, click the down arrow or
type the name of the color.
Foreground Color
RGB
Enter the RGB value for the specified foreground color.
Valid values are between #000000 and #ffffff.
Foreground Color
Name
List the name of the specified foreground color. To choose
a new color by its name, click the down arrow or type the
name of the color.
Image
File Specifies the file name and path of the image you want to
load into the chart element.
Layout Select the way you want the image to be displayed in the
backround.
IsEmbedded When checked, the image is embedded into the chart.
When unchecked, the chart looks for the image in the
specified location.
Reset button Click this button to return the chart element background to
its default.
Inner Tab Option Description
13-22 Graph Control
13-22
PFD 14-1
14-1
14 PFD
14.1 Overview ..................................................................................................... 3
14.2 Object Inspection....................................................................................... 5
14.2.1 PFD Toolbar Buttons.............................................................................. 5
14.2.2 Print Options .......................................................................................... 6
14.2.3 Stream Label Options ............................................................................ 7
14.2.4 Viewports Option.................................................................................... 7
14.3 Installing Objects ....................................................................................... 8
14.4 Connecting Objects ................................................................................... 9
14.5 Manipulating the PFD................................................................................. 9
14.5.1 Selecting PFD Objects........................................................................... 9
14.5.2 Unselecting Objects ............................................................................. 10
14.5.3 Moving Objects .................................................................................... 10
14.5.5 Regenerate PFD.................................................................................. 11
14.6 Printing and Saving the PFD Image........................................................ 11
14.7 Changing the PFD View Options ............................................................ 12
14-2
14-2
PFD 14-3
14-3
14.1 Overview
One of the key benefits of the Process Flow Diagram (PFD) is that it
provides the best representation of the flowsheet as a whole. From this
one location, you have an immediate reference to your current progress
in building the Flare network.
The PFD has been developed to satisfy a number of functions. In
addition to the graphical representation, you can build your flowsheet
within the PFD using the mouse to install objects and make
connections. You can also reposition objects, resize icons and reroute
connections.
The PFD also possesses analytical capabilities in that you can access
the Edit views for nodes, pipe segments, and sources which are
displayed.
Each object has a specific icon to represent it: The nodes on the objects have
been colour coded to show the
flow path. The red dot is for
upstream flow, the blue dot is
for downstream flow whereas
magenta is for branch flow in
case of a tee or horizontal
separator.
Object Icon
Pipe-Segment
Flare Tip
Connector
Tee
Relief Valve
Control Valve
14-4 Overview
14-4
To open the PFD, select PFD and then Open from the View menu. A
separate window with its own tool bar is opened.
Vertical Separator
Horizontal Separator
Orifice Plate
Flow Bleed
Object Icon
Figure 14.1
PFD Tool
Bar
Vertical
Scroll Bar
Horizontal
Scroll Bar
PFD 14-5
14-5
14.2 Object Inspection
One of the key features of the FLARENET PFD is the ability to inspect
objects in the flowsheet. If you double-click on any pipe-segment,
source or node, the appropriate edit view will be opened for that object.
PFD Toolbar
There are several tools that helps to simplify your interaction with the
PFD. The most basic tools relate to what is displayed in the PFD
Window.
14.2.1 PFD Toolbar Buttons
The PFD toolbar buttons are arranged as follows:
All of these buttons perform an important function as explained below:
Figure 14.2
Button View Description
Print PFD
Print the PFD to the Printer.
Save PFD
Save the PFD to file. It is saved in
a .wmf format (Windows Metafile).
Copy PFD
Copies the PFD to the clipboard,
allowing you to paste it into other
applications.
Toggle Grid
Display
Toggle the grid on and off. When
the grid is on, this button will be
faded.
Coarser Grid
This button increases grid
spacing. All objects you move or
add "snap to" the current grid
spacing.
14-6 Object Inspection
14-6
14.2.2 Print Options
You can specify the area of the PFD that you desire to print by selecting
the following options available on the PFD button bar.
Finer Grid
This button decreases grid
spacing. All objects you move or
add "snap to" the current grid
spacing.
Snap To Grid
On/Off
Toggles the snap to grid option on
and off. When the snap to grid is
on all pipe segments and nodes
will be snapped to the closest
grids.
Rotate Pipes
Clockwise
Rotate the selected pipe
segments and nodes.
Toggle Direct/
Orthogonal
connections
Toggle between bent and straight
connections. All current
connections (and any connections
you subsequently make) will
conform to the connection method
you have selected.
Toggle Arrange/
Connect Mode
Toggle between Arrange and
Connect modes. Arrange mode
allows you to move icons and
labels. Connect mode allows you
to graphically connect compatible
objects. The status bar on the
PFD shows which mode is
activated.
Toolbox
This button toggles the Toolbox
view.
Button View Description
The Ctrl+Shift+S hot keys
snaps the objects to the grid.
While in the snap mode, the
Status bar displays the word
Snap.
Option Description
Print Visible Print part of the PFD visible on the screen.
Print All Print the whole PFD.
Print Selected
Print only the selected part of the PFD. You can
highlight the part of the PFD by clicking once on
the PFD and than dragging the section of PFD.
The PFD is printed without the page header and
footer to allow compilation of a multiple tiled
image.
PFD 14-7
14-7
14.2.3 Stream Label Options
By default, each object on the PFD has a label that displays its name.
You can change all object name labels so that the current value of a key
variable is shown in the place of each object name.
You can chose between the type of labels for the pipe segments and
nodes by selecting the property drop down box on the PFD button bar.
The box on the right side of the property drop down box displays the
default units for the chosen property.
If the object label is red in colour it indicates that the object violated the
limits setup in the Scenarios Editor or the fluid is in the slug region.
Some of the possible causes are ice formation, slug flow, temperature
violation and source back pressure. If the object label is grey in colour it
indicates that the object is ignored for calculation by activating the
Ignore check box on the object property view.
14.2.4 Viewports Option
You have the option to change the PFD viewports. By default, a single
PFD viewport is defined as Overall. You can specify a different setting
for each viewport including percent zoom and stream labels.
Add a New Viewport
New viewports can be added to the PFD by right clicking the title bar of
the PFD view and selecting the Add Viewport from the displayed menu.
Delete an Existing Viewport
You can delete an existing viewport from the PFD by right clicking the
PFD view title bar and selecting the Delete Viewport from the menu.
Figure 14.3
The following properties are
available:
• Energy Flow
• Length
• Mach Number
• Mass Flow
• Molecular Weight
• Molar Flow
• Noise
• Nominal Diameter
• Pressure
• Rho V2
• Temperature
• Vapour Fraction
• Velocity
• Velocity (Liq)
• Velocity (Vap)
Scroll down
to see more
variables.
14-8 Installing Objects
14-8
Print Viewport
Visible viewports can be printed to a selected printer by choosing the
Print Window from the menu.
14.3 Installing Objects
The PFD can be used to install objects into the flowsheet, as well as
connect compatible objects. Object specifications are then supplied via
the appropriate Property view which can be accessed by double-
clicking the object icon.
The PFD Toolbox is used to install operations. The Toolbox can be
accessed by doing one of the following:
• Open the View menu and then open the PFD sub-menu. Select
Toolbox.
• Press the <F4> key.
• Press the Toolbox button on the PFD button bar.
The procedure for installing operations via the Toolbox is as follows:
1. Click the desired object in the PFD Toolbox. You will see the button
being depressed.
2. Click in the specific area in the PFD where you want to place the
object icon. The object then appears in the PFD.
3. Drag and drop the desired object using the secondary mouse key.
To delete an object, select the object you wish to delete, then press the
<Delete> key on the keyboard.
Figure 14.4
Tee
Flare Tip
Horizontal
Separator
Connector
Relief Valve
Pipe
Segment
Vertical
Separator
Control
Valve
Flow
Bleed
Orifice
Plate
If the Edit Objects on Add
check box is activated, the
object editor view will be open
for each new object which is
added to the PFD.
PFD 14-9
14-9
14.4 Connecting Objects
To connect objects:
1. Enter connect mode by clicking the Connect button on the tool
bar. This toggles between connect and arrange modes.
2. Click on the source object to select it.
3. Move the mouse pointer over the central handle point (blue fill
instead of white for this handle point) then press the left mouse
button.
4. Drag off the source object and over the destination object.
5. Release the left mouse button.
14.5 Manipulating the PFD
There are a number of features built into the PFD interface to modify its
appearance. The manipulations apply to all objects that are installed in
the PFD.
14.5.1 Selecting PFD Objects
To select a single object, position the mouse pointer on top of the
object, then click once with the left mouse button. The selected object
will have eight small boxes outlining its border. These small boxes are
used to size an object.
Note that text must be selected separately; that is, when you select an
object, the corresponding text is not also automatically selected.
There are two methods you can use to select multiple objects:
Method One
1. If the objects are all contained within the same area, the quickest
and easiest way is to marquee select that group. Press the left
mouse button (outside the group), and drag the mouse so that a
Arrange Mode button
Connect Mode button
FLARENET allows you to select single objects as well as
multiple objects, but in order to select an object, you must be in
Arrange mode.
A pipe which has been
selected.
A pipe and the corresponding
text which have been selected.
14-10 Manipulating the PFD
14-10
box appears.
2. Continue dragging until this box contains all the objects that you
want selected.
3. When you release the mouse button, each object will have its own
rectangular box surrounding it, indicating it has been selected.
Method Two
1. Position the mouse pointer on the first object in the PFD you want
to select.
2. Press the left mouse button to select this object.
3. To select a second object, hold down the <Shift> key or <Ctrl> key,
then click on the second object with the left mouse button. Two
objects will now be selected.
4. Continue this method for the remainder of the objects you wish to
select.
14.5.2 Unselecting Objects
The following methods can be used:
• Click on an empty spot in the PFD with the left mouse button.
• To unselect only one item, press the <Shift> key and click on
the object with the left mouse button.
14.5.3 Moving Objects
You can move objects individually, or as a group.
1. Select the item or items you want to move.
2. Position the mouse pointer on one of the objects and press the left
mouse button.
3. Drag the mouse to the new position on the PFD and release the
mouse button. All selected items will move to the new location.
14.5.4 Locating Objects on the PFD
You can locate individual object on the PFD by pressing the
<Ctrl><Shift><F> hot keys, which displays the Locate Object view. You
can select individual objects from the list by clicking on them using the
primary mouse key. The object will be highlighted on the PFD.
If the grid is on, all objects
which are moved will "snap
to" the grid. Their movement
will be constrained to the grid
spacing.
PFD 14-11
14-11
14.5.5 Regenerate PFD
Use this function to reposition all objects in a logical manner. Select
PFD and then Regenerate from the View menu.
This feature is a great time-saver especially when you have not laid out
the PFD as you were building the case. Rather than placing all objects
yourself, regenerate the PFD in this manner. You can then make
additional changes to further fine-tune your PFD. Regenerate PFD
option places all the objects along a vertical path in the best possible
manner. It is not recommended to regenerate well laid out PFDs.
14.6 Printing and Saving
the PFD Image
The first three toolbar buttons are used to transfer the PFD to the
printer, Windows Metafile and to memory.
To print the PFD using the current Print Setup, press the Print PFD
button. For more information on the Print Setup, see Section 15.1.3 -
Printer Setup.
To save the PFD in a .wmf format (Windows Metafile), press the Save
PFD button. You will be prompted to enter a file name:
Enter the file name and path, then click OK. To view the PFD, you can
then use a program which is capable of reading .wmf files (such as
Corel Draw
TM
).
Figure 14.5
Print PFD Button
Save PFD Button
14-12 Changing the PFD View Options
14-12
To copy the PFD to the clipboard, select the Copy PFD button. You can
then paste it into other Windows applications as you would with any
Windows object.
14.7 Changing the PFD
View Options
When in the PFD window, FLARENET allows you to select several view
options, namely, Grid, Rotate, and Connection. All of these options are
available via toolbar buttons. The following is a brief description of
each button:
Copy PFD Button
Button Description
Grid
When the Grid Toolbar button is selected, a grid
is superimposed upon the existing PFD. There
are also 3 buttons beside the Grid Toolbar button.
These buttons allow you to either increase or
decrease the grid density as well as snap the
elements to grid.
Rotate
You can select to rotate or mirror (flip) the
selected object about its centre in one of the
following five ways:
• Rotate 90
• Rotate 180
• Rotate 270
• Flip Y
• Flip X
Toggle Direct/
Orthogonal
This button allows you to toggle between direct
and orthogonal connecting lines.
Exporting, Importing and Printing 15-1
15-1
15 Exporting, Importing
and Printing
15.1 Printing........................................................................................................ 4
15.1.2 Location-Specific Printing ...................................................................... 7
15.1.3 Printer Setup.......................................................................................... 7
15.2 Importing Source Data............................................................................... 8
15.2.1 ASCII Text Files...................................................................................... 8
15.2.2 Importing HYSYS Source Data............................................................ 13
15.2.3 Importing from Microsoft Access.......................................................... 16
15.3 Exporting to Microsoft Access ............................................................... 17
15-2
15-2
Exporting, Importing and Printing 15-3
15-3
Data can be either exported to, or imported from a number of external
sources. The printing of data and results is included as an export
function since the printing functionality incorporated within
FLARENET is also used to export data and results in a number of
industry standard formats.
The following data may be exported from FLARENET:
• All data and results may be printed on any Windows-
compatible printer.
• All data and results may be saved as either ASCII text,
Comma-separated text, or Tab-separated text.
• All data and results may be saved in a Microsoft Access
database.
The following data may be imported into FLARENET:
• Source data from the HYSIM and HYSYS process simulators.
This data is transferred via an ASCII file. Consequently, it
should be possible to import source data from any external
source provided it conforms to this file format.
• Component data from the HYSIM process simulator, which is
discussed in Section 12.5.1 - Importing Component Data.
This data is transferred via an ASCII file. Consequently, it
should be possible to import component data from any external
source provided it conforms to this file format.
• Data from a Microsoft Access database. The format of this
database is given in the appendices.
15-4 Printing
15-4
15.1 Printing
In order to print either model data or calculation results that are not
specific to a single source, select Print from the File drop down menu.
The Print view will be displayed.
Select the items that you wish to print by checking the appropriate
boxes in the Database, Data and Results group box.
By default, the printout is only for the current scenario. Check the All
Scenarios box if you want printouts for all of the scenarios.
If you want the results to be saved as an ASCII text file, check the Print
To File box. You will then be able to select the file format via the Text
File Format drop-down menu. The following file formats are
supported:
• Text - Saves the data in ASCII format, with all values separated
by spaces.
• CSV, Comma Separated - Saves the data in ASCII format,
with all values separated by commas.
• TSV, Tab Separated - Saves the data in ASCII format, with all
values separated by tabs.
Figure 15.1
Exporting, Importing and Printing 15-5
15-5
If you checked the Print To File check box, the Print To File view will be
displayed when you click OK.
Select or directly enter the file, then click OK.
If you did not check the Print To File check box, the results will
immediately be printed when you click OK on the Print view.
15.1.1 .FMT Files
The printouts can be customised to a limited extent using a series of
ASCII text files with the extension ".fmt". These files may be edited
using any ASCII text editor such as the NOTEPAD application
distributed with Microsoft Windows.
The default ".fmt" files for each printed report are:
Figure 15.2
Report .fmt File
Component Database DbComps.fmt
Pipe Fittings Database DbFittings.fmt
Pipe Schedules
Database
DbSchedules.fmt
Components Comps.fmt
Scenarios Scenarios.fmt
Pipes Pipes.fmt
Source Sources.fmt
Nodes Nodes.fmt
Messages Messages.fmt
Pressure/Flow Summary Summary.fmt
Compositions MoleFracs.fmt
15-6 Printing
15-6
By default, these files are located in the Flarenet program directory. You
can change the location and ".fmt" file for each report via the Reports
tab on the Preferences Editor view.
These files conform to the format shown in Appendix B - File Format.
Physical Properties Properties.fmt
Scenario Summary ScenSum.fmt
Report .fmt File
Figure 15.3
Exporting, Importing and Printing 15-7
15-7
15.1.2 Location-Specific Printing
Results that are specific to a single source must be printed individually.
The Profile, Flow Map and Scenario Summary views each have a Print
button which can be selected to print the displayed data. The Profile
view is shown here:
15.1.3 Printer Setup
To edit the printer setup, select Printer Setup from the File menu or
press the <Alt><F><R> key combination. This is used to select the
default/specific printer, print orientation, paper size, paper source, and
any other settings applicable to your printer. It is similar to the Printer
Setup commands in other Windows applications. Note that the Print
Figure 15.4
Information on printing the
PFD is given in Section 14.6 -
Printing and Saving the PFD
Image.
See Section 13.10 - Profile and
Section 13.12 - Scenario
Summary for more details.
Print
Save
Copy
15-8 Importing Source Data
15-8
Setup Options vary for different printers.
15.2 Importing Source Data
FLARENET allows you to import source data through multiple ways.
You could load up data from a specially formated text file or directly
from HYSYS, as well as using existing Access database to import data.
15.2.1 ASCII Text Files
To access the ASCII text files containing the source data, select Import
from the File menu and then select Text File Sources from the Import
Figure 15.5
Exporting, Importing and Printing 15-9
15-9
submenu. The Text Import of Source Data view will be displayed:
The following objects are available on this view:
Figure 15.6
Object Description
File
Specify the file from which the source data will be
imported. Pressing the Browse button opens the
Text File For Source Data view. Select the text
file from this view and press the OK button. Press
the Open button to load the source data file in
FLARENET.
P/T Location
Specify the pressure and temperature location for
the source. If Upstream is selected from the drop
down box, the relieving pressure and the actual
Inlet temperature specification is copied from the
source data file. If Downstream is selected from
the drop down box, the allowable back pressure
and the outlet temperature is copied from the
source data file.
Component Data
Specify the action to be taken if similiar
components exist in the text file and the
FLARENET case. The Ignore Existing selection
does not copy the same components from the
text file to the FLARENET case, whereas the
Overwrite Existing copies all the component
data from text file to the FLARENET case.
Stream
List all the streams available to be imported in
FLARENET.
Source
Select the source to which the source data will be
imported.
Scenarios
List all the scenarios available in the FLARENET
case. You can select the scenarios to which the
data will be copied.
15-10 Importing Source Data
15-10
Example: Importing from HYSIM
Two steps are necessary in order to import source data from HYSIM
Version 2.6 or later.
1. Export the source data from HYSIM. A calculator program must be
executed within HYSIM in order to convert the source data to the
proper format.
2. Import the source data into FLARENET, using the File Import
feature.
In order to create the HYSIM transfer file:
1. Load the HYSIM case containing the source data into HYSIM.
2. At the main HYSIM command line prompt, type the command
!FNW26 as shown below. You must previously have copied the file
FNW25.HCL into the HYSIM working directory from the \HYSIM
program directory under your main program directory. This need
be done only once.
3. When prompted for the name of the export file as shown below,
enter the file name. This file will be given the extension .PRN.
4. When prompted for the pressure and temperature location as
shown below, define whether the conditions for the streams within
the simulation case represent either conditions upstream or
downstream of the source valve.
Figure 15.7
Figure 15.8
Figure 15.9
Exporting, Importing and Printing 15-11
15-11
5. When prompted for the streams to export as shown below, select as
many streams as you wish (do not select energy streams), by using
the standard HYSIM stream selection methods.
The transfer file will now be created (in your HYSIM directory).
In order to import the HYSIM transfer file:
1. Select Import then Text File Sources from the File menu. When
prompted for the Text Import File as shown below, enter the file
name.
2. On the Text Import Of Source Data view, enter the source number
for the selected scenario within the FLARENET model that
corresponds to each HYSIM stream. Specify the P/T Location and
the Component Data from the drop down box.
Figure 15.10
Figure 15.11
15-12 Importing Source Data
15-12
Example 2: Importing From HYSYS
Two steps are necessary in order to import source data from HYSYS.1.
1. Export the source data from HYSYS. A program must be executed
externally to HYSYS in order to convert the source data to the
proper format.
2. Import the source data into FLARENET, using the File Import
feature.
In order to create the HYSYS transfer file:
1. Run the FNETEXPT.EXE program. This is initially installed in the
\HYSYS directory under your main program directory. The
following dialog box will be displayed.
2. Enter the name of the HYSYS file containing the streams of
interest, then click Open. The Flowsheet Streams list will then
contain a list of all the material streams in the file.
3. Select the streams to export as well as the location that the pressure
and temperature represent (P&T Location).
4. Click Export. Select a name for the transfer file then click OK. The
transfer file will now be created.
Figure 15.12
Exporting, Importing and Printing 15-13
15-13
In order to import the HYSYS transfer file:
1. Select Import then Text File Sources from the File menu. When
prompted for the Text Import File as shown below, enter the file
name.

2. On the Text Import Of Source Data view, enter the source number
for the selected scenario within the FLARENET model that
corresponds to each HYSYS stream. Specify the P/T Location and
the Component Data from the drop down box.
15.2.2 Importing HYSYS Source Data
The Source data can also be imported directly from HYSYS. To access
the HYSYS files containing the source data, select Import from the File
menu and then select HYSYS Sources from the submenu. The Hysys
Figure 15.13
Blank source name fields
means that the stream data is
not imported
15-14 Importing Source Data
15-14
Import of Source Data view will be displayed:
The following objects are available on this view:
Figure 15.14
Object Description
File
Specify the HYSYS file from which the source
data will be imported. Pressing the Browse
button opens the Hysys File For Source Data
view. Select the HYSYS file from this view and
press the OK button. Press the Open button to
load the source data file in FLARENET.
P/T Location
Specify the pressure and temperature location for
the source. If Upstream is selected from the drop
down box, the relieving pressure and the actual
Inlet temperature specification is copied from the
source data file. If Downstream is selected from
the drop down box, the allowable back pressure
and the outlet temperature is copied from the
source data file.
Component Data
Specify the action to be taken if similiar
components exist in the HYSYS file and the
FLARENET case. The Ignore Existing selection
does not copy the same components from the
HYSYS file to the FLARENET case, whereas the
Overwrite Existing copies all the component
data from HYSYS file to the FLARENET case.
Stream
List all the streams available in HYSYS file which
can be imported in FLARENET.
Exporting, Importing and Printing 15-15
15-15
Source
Select the source to which the source data will be
imported.
Scenarios
List all the scenarios available in the FLARENET
case. You can select the scenarios to which the
data will be copied.
Object Description
15-16 Importing Source Data
15-16
15.2.3 Importing from Microsoft
Access
Source data can be imported from a Microsoft Access database. In
order to import source data:
1. Select Access Database from the Import sub-menu under the File
menu on the main program menu bar. The Import Data From
Access Database view will be displayed.
2. Select the file to be imported by either typing or selecting the
appropriate file in the File Name box. The search directory and
drive can be changed using the Directories and Drives boxes.
3. Click OK.
FLARENET looks for data in the following tables in the Access data file.
• Components
• Connectors
• ControlValves
• FlowBleeds
• HorizontalSeparators
• OrificePlates
• Pipes
• PressureFlowSummary
• ReliefValves
• Tees
• Tips
• VerticalSeparators
For a description of fields contained in each of these tables see
Appendix B - File Format.
Figure 15.15
Exporting, Importing and Printing 15-17
15-17
15.3 Exporting to Microsoft
Access
In order to save the components and nodes in a Microsoft Access
database, select Export and then Access Database from the File menu.
The Export Data To Access Database view will be displayed:
You can open the Access data file from within Access. This file contain
the following tables, which will be created even if they contain no data.
• Components
• Connectors
• ControlValves
• FlowBleeds
• HorizontalSeparators
• OrificePlates
• Pipes
• PressureFlowSummary
• ReliefValves
• Tees
• Tips
• VerticalSeparators
For a description of fields contained in each of these tables look in
Appendix B - File Format.
Figure 15.16
15-18 Exporting to Microsoft Access
15-18
Theoretical Basis A-1
A-1
A Theoretical Basis
A.1 Pressure Drop.............................................................................................. 3
A.1.1 Pipe Pressure Drop Method .................................................................... 3
A.1.2 Fittings Pressure Drop Methods ............................................................ 11
A.2 Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium........................................................................ 15
A.2.1 Compressible Gas ................................................................................. 15
A.2.2 Vapour Pressure.................................................................................... 16
A.2.3 Soave Redlich Kwong............................................................................ 17
A.2.4 Peng Robinson ...................................................................................... 18
A.3 Physical Properties ................................................................................... 19
A.3.1 Vapour Density ...................................................................................... 19
A.3.2 Liquid Density ........................................................................................ 19
A.3.3 Vapour Viscosity .................................................................................... 20
A.3.4 Liquid Viscosity...................................................................................... 20
A.3.5 Thermal Conductivity............................................................................. 23
A.3.6 Enthalpy................................................................................................. 24
A.4 Noise........................................................................................................... 27
A-2
A-2
Theoretical Basis A-3
A-3
A.1 Pressure Drop
A.1.1 Pipe Pressure Drop Method
Vapour Phase Pressure Drop Methods
Pressure drop can be calculated either from the theoretically derived
equation for isothermal flow of a compressible fluid in a horizontal
pipe
2
:
where: G = Mass flow
a = Cross sectional area of pipe
P
1
= Upstream pressure
P
2
= Downstream pressure
R = Universal gas constant
f = Moody friction factor
φ = Internal diameter
L = Equivalent length
T = Temperature
M = Molecular weight
or from the theoretically derived equation for adiabatic flow of a
compressible fluid in a horizontal pipe
2
:
where: G = Mass flow
a = Cross sectional area of pipe
P
1
= Upstream pressure
(A.1)
G
a
----
\ .

2 P
1
P
2
------
\ .

ln
M P
2
2 P
2
1 – ( )
2RT
--------------------------------- 2f
L
φ
---
\ .

G
a
----
\ .

2
+ + 0 =
(A.2) 4f
L
φ
---
\ .

γ 1 –

-----------
P
1
V
1
------
a
G
----
\ .

2
+



1
V
1
V
2
------
\ .

2




γ 1 +
γ
-----------
V
2
V
1
------
\ .

ln – =
A-4 Pressure Drop
A-4
R = Universal gas constant
V
1
= Upstream velocity
V
2
= Downstream velocity
f = Moody friction factor
φ = Internal diameter
L = Equivalent length
γ = Ratio of specific heats
The Moody friction factor is calculated using an equation appropriate
for the flow regime. These equations correlate the friction factor to the
pipe diameter, Reynolds number and roughness of the pipe
4
:
Turbulent Flow (Re > 4000)
The friction factor may be calculated from either the Round equation:
where: f = Moody friction factor
Re = Reynolds number
φ = Internal diameter
e = Absolute pipe roughness
Or from the Chen
21
equation:
where: f = Moody friction factor
Re = reynolds number
φ = Internal diameter
e = Absolute pipe roughness
(A.3)
1
f
----- 3.6
Re
0.135 Re
e
φ
--- 6.5 +
\ .

-------------------------------------------





log =
(A.4)
1
f
----- 4
e φ ⁄
3.7065
----------------
5.0452
Re
----------------
e φ ⁄ ( )
1.1098
2.8257
---------------------------
7.149
Re
-------------
\ .

0.8981
+
\ .

log –



log – =
Theoretical Basis A-5
A-5
Transition Flow (2100 Re 4000)
where: f = Moody friction factor
Re = Reynolds number
φ = Internal diameter
e = Absolute pipe roughness
Laminar Flow (Re < 2100)
where: f = Moody friction factor
Re = Reynolds number
The Darcy friction factor is given by:
where: f = Moody friction factor
f
d
= Darcy friction factor
2-Phase Pressure Drop
Beggs and Brill
The Beggs and Brill
9
method is based on work done with an air-water
mixture at many different conditions, and is applicable for inclined
flow. In the Beggs and Brill correlation, the flow regime is determined
using the Froude number and inlet liquid content. The flow map used
is based on horizontal flow and has four regimes: segregated,
intermittent, distributed and transition. Once the flow regime has been
determined, the liquid hold-up for a horizontal pipe is calculated, using
≤ ≤
(A.5)
1
f
----- 4.0
e
3.7φ
----------
\ .

log –
5.02
Re
----------
e
3.7φ
----------
\ .

5.02
Re
----------
e
3.7φ
----------
13.0
Re
---------- –
\ .

log –



log – =
(A.6)
f
16.0
Re
---------- =
(A.7) f
d
4 f • =
Although the Beggs and Brill
method was not intended for
use with vertical pipes, it is
nevertheless commonly used
for this purpose, and is
therefore included as an
option for vertical pressure
drop methods.
A-6 Pressure Drop
A-6
the correlation applicable to that regime. A factor is applied to this
hold-up to account for pipe inclination. From the hold-up, a two-phase
friction factor is calculated and the pressure gradient determined.
The boundaries between regions are defined in terms of two constants
and the Froude number
10
:
where: x = ln(λ)
λ = input liquid content = q
liquid
/(q
liquid
+q
gas
)
q = in situ volumetric flowrate
Figure A.1
0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1
0.1
1
10
100
1000
Input Liquid Content
F
r
o
u
d
e

N
u
m
b
e
r
Distributed
Segregated
Intermittent
Transition
Beggs and Brill Flow Regimes
(A.8)
(A.9)
L
1
4.62 – 3.757x – 0.481x
2
– 0.0207x
3
– ( ) exp =
L
2
1.061 4.602x – 1.609x
2
– 0.0179x
3
– 0.000635x
5
+ ( ) exp =
Theoretical Basis A-7
A-7
According to Beggs and Brill:
1. If the Froude number is less than L
1
, the flow pattern is segregated.
2. If the Froude number is greater than both L
1
and L
2
, the flow
pattern is distributed.
3. If the Froude number is greater than L
1
and smaller than L
2
the
flow pattern is intermittent.
Dukler Method
The Dukler
10
method breaks the pressure drop into three components -
Friction, Elevation and Acceleration. The total pressure drop is the sum
of the pressure drop due to these components:
where: ∆P
Total
= Total change in pressure
∆P
F
= Change in pressure due to friction
∆P
E
= Change in pressure due to elevation
∆P
A
= Change in pressure due to acceleration
The pressure drop due to friction is:
where: f
TP
= Two-phase friction factor (determined empirically)
L = Equivalent length of the pipeline (ft)
V
m
= Velocity of the two-phase mixture in pipeline assuming
equal velocity (ft/s)
ρ
m
= Density of two-phase mixture (lb/ft
3
)
g
c
= Gravitational constant (32.2 lbm-ft/lbf-s
2
)
D = Inside diameter of pipe (ft)
(A.10)
∆P
Total
∆P
F
∆P
E
∆P
A
+ + =
(A.11)
∆P
F
2f
TP
LV
m
2
ρ
m
144g
c
D
-------------------------------- =
A-8 Pressure Drop
A-8
The pressure drop due to elevation is as follows:
where: E
h
= Liquid head factor (determined empirically)
ρ
L
= Liquid density
ΣH = Sum of elevation changes
The pressure drop due to acceleration is usually very small in oil/gas
distribution systems, but becomes significant in flare systems:
where: A = Cross-sectional area
ρ
g
= Gas density
Q
GPL
= Volume of gas flowing at pipeline temperature and
pressure (ft
3
/hr)
Q
LPL
= Volume of liquid flowing at pipeline temperature and
pressure (ft
3
/hr)
R
L
= Liquid holdup in pipeline as a percentage of pipeline
capacity
θ = Angle of the pipe bend
Orkiszewski Method
The Orkiszewski
11,12
method assumes there are four different flow
regimes existing in vertical two-phase flow - bubble, slug, annular-slug
transition and annular-mist.
The bubble flow regime consists mainly of liquid with a small amount
of a free-gas phase. The gas phase consists of small, randomly
distributed gas bubbles with varying diameters. The gas phase has little
effect on the pressure gradient (with the exception of its density).
In the slug flow regime, the gas phase is most pronounced. The gas
(A.12)
∆P
E
E
h
ρ
L
H
å
144
------------------------ =
(A.13) ∆P
A
1
144g
c
A
2
---------------------
ρ
g
Q
GPL
2
1 R
L

--------------------
ρ
L
Q
LPL
2
R
L
-------------------- +
\ .


DS
ρ
g
Q
GPL
2
1 R
L

--------------------
ρ
L
Q
LPL
2
R
L
-------------------- +
\ .


US
θ cos – =
Theoretical Basis A-9
A-9
bubbles coalesce and form stable bubbles of approximately the same
size and shape. The gas bubbles are separated by slugs of a continuous
liquid phase. There is a film of liquid around the gas bubbles. The gas
bubbles move faster than the liquid phase. At high flow velocities, the
liquid can become entrained in the gas bubbles. The gas and liquid
phases may have significant effects on the pressure gradient.
Transition flow is the regime where the change from a continuous
liquid phase to a continuous gas phase occurs. In this regime, the gas
phase becomes more dominant, with a significant amount of liquid
becoming entrained in the gas phase. The liquid slug between the gas
bubbles virtually disappears in the transition regime.
In the annular-mist regime, the gas phase is continuous and is the
controlling phase. The bulk of the liquid is entrained and carried in the
gas phase.
Orkiszewski defined bubble flow, slug flow, mist flow and gas velocity
numbers which are used to determine the appropriate flow regime.
If the ratio of superficial gas velocity to the non-slip velocity is less than
the bubble flow number, then bubble flow exists, for which the
pressure drop is:
where: ∆P = Pressure drop (lb/ft
2
per foot of length)
f
tp
= Two-phase friction factor
ρ
L
= Liquid density (lb/ft
3
)
V
sL
= Superficial liquid velocity (ft/s)
R
L
= Dimensionless factor dependent on non-slip velocity
g
c
= Gravitational constant (32.2 lbm-ft/lbf-s
2
)
D = Hydraulic diameter (ft)
If the ratio of superficial gas velocity to the non-slip velocity is greater
than the bubble flow number, and the gas velocity number is smaller
than the slug flow number, then slug flow exists. The pressure drop in
(A.14)
∆P f
tp
ρ
L
V
sL
R
L
--------
\ .

2
2g
c
D
---------------- =
A-10 Pressure Drop
A-10
this case is:
where: V
ns
= Non-slip velocity
V
r
= Bubble rise velocity
Γ = Constant
The pressure drop calculation for mist flow is as follows:
where: V
sg
= Superficial gas velocity (ft/s)
ρ
g
= Gas density (lb/ft
3
)
The pressure drop for transition flow is:
where: ∆Ps = Pressure drop for slug flow
∆Pm = Pressure drop for mixed flow
χ = Weighting factor, dependent on mist flow, slug flow, and
gas velocity numbers.
The pressure drop calculated by the previous equations are for a one-
foot length of pipe. These are converted to total pressure drop by:
where: ρ = Density of the flowing regime (lb/ft
3
)
Q
total
= Mass rate of combined liquid/gas (lb/s)
(A.15)
∆P
f
tp
ρ
L
V
ns
2
2g
c
D
---------------------
\ .

V
sL
V
r
+
V
ns
V
r
+
--------------------
\ .

Γ + =
(A.16)
∆P f
tp
ρ
g
V
sg
( )
2
2g
c
D
--------------- =
(A.17)
∆P ∆P
s
1 χ – ( )∆P
m
+ =
(A.18)
∆P
total
ρ∆PL
144 1
Q
total
G
f
4637PA
p
2
----------------------
\ .



---------------------------------------------------- =
Theoretical Basis A-11
A-11
G
f
= Gas flow rate (ft
3
/s)
A
p
= Cross-sectional area of pipe (ft
2
)
p = Average pressure in segment (psia)
∆P = Unit pressure drop (as calculated above)
L = Length of line segment (ft)
A.1.2 Fittings Pressure Drop
Methods
Fitting pressure losses are calculated from a type specific loss
coefficient, K, which is defined by
Where: P = Total pressure loss
= Density
U = Velocity
The static inlet pressure is then calculated from the following equation
in which it is assumed that there is no elevation change across the
node.
Where: P = Total pressure loss
P = Static pressure
= Density
U = Velocity
Subscripts: 1 = Inlet
2 = Outlet
(A.19) K
∆P
ρU
2
( ) 2 ⁄
---------------------- =

ρ
(A.20)
∆P P
1
ρ
1
U
1
2
2
------------- +
\ .


P
2
ρ
2
U
2
2
2
------------- +
\ .


– =

ρ
A-12 Pressure Drop
A-12
Enlargers/Contractions
The loss coefficient is calculated from the ratio of the smaller diameter
to the larger diameter, β, which is defined by:
Sudden and gradual contraction
If < 45° :
Otherwise:

(A.21)
β
d
1
d
2
----- =
Figure A.2
θ
(A.22)
K
2
0.8
θ
2
--- 1 β
2
– ( ) sin
β
4
---------------------------------------
K
1
β
4
------ = =
(A.23)
K
2
0.5 1 β
2
– ( )
θ
2
--- sin
β
4
-------------------------------------------
K
1
β
4
------ = =
Theoretical Basis A-13
A-13
Sudden and gradual enlargement
If < 45° :
Otherwise:
Tees
Tees can be modelled either using a flow independent loss coefficient
for each flow path or using variable loss coefficients that are a function
of the volumetric flow and area for each flow path as well as the branch
angle. The following numbering scheme is used to reference the flow
paths.
Figure A.3
θ
(A.24)
K
2
2.6
θ
2
--- 1 β
2
– ( )
2
sin
β
4
-----------------------------------------
K
1
β
4
------ = =
(A.25)
K
2
1 β
2
– ( )
2
β
4
----------------------
K
1
β
4
------ = =
Figure A.4
A-14 Pressure Drop
A-14
Constant Loss Coefficient
If: = 90°
Otherwise :
Variable Loss Coefficients
The loss coefficient is a function of the branch angle, branch area to
total flow area ratio and branch volumetric flow to total volumetric flow
ratio. These values have been graphically represented by Miller.
reference here A typical chart for K23 in combining flow is shown.
θ
(A.26)
(A.27)
K
13
K
31
0.5 = =
K
23
K
32
0.5 = =
(A.28)
(A.29)
K
13
K
31
1.37 = =
K
23
K
32
0.76 = =
Figure A.5
Flow Ratio, Q1/Q3
A
r
e
a
R
a
t
i
o
A
1
/
A
3
Theoretical Basis A-15
A-15
Orifice Plates
Orifice plates can either be modelled as a sudden contraction from the
inlet line size to the hole diameter followed by a sudden expansion
from the hole diameter to the outlet line size. This simplistic treatment
if often adequate given the uncertainty in the prediction of two phase
loss coefficients.
Alternatively the equation for a thin orifice plate may be used:
where: d
1
= Inlet pipe diameter
d
2
= Hole diameter
Separators
The pressure loss for a separator is modelled by treating it as a sudden
enlargement of the total flow from the inlet line size to the hydraulic
diameter of the body followed by a sudden contraction of the vapour
flow from the hydraulic diameter of the body to the to the outlet line
size. Friction losses within the separator body are ignored.
A.2 Vapour-Liquid
Equilibrium
A.2.1 Compressible Gas
The PVT relationship is expressed as:
(A.30)
(A.31)
K
2
2.825 1 β
2
– ( )
1.5082β
0.08596
β
4
------------------------------------------------------------ =
β
d
1
d
2
----- =
(A.32) PV ZRT =
A-16 Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium
A-16
where: P = pressure
V = Volume
Z = Compressibility factor
R = Gas constant
T = Temperature
The compressibility factor Z is a function of reduced temperature and
pressure. The overall critical temperature and pressure are determined
using applicable mixing rules.
A.2.2 Vapour Pressure
The following equations are used for estimating the vapour pressure,
given the component critical properties
3
:
where: p
*
r
= Reduced vapour pressure (p
*
/p
c
)
p
*
= Vapour pressure (psi abs)
p
c
= Critical pressure (psi abs)
ω = Acentric factor
T
r
= Reduced temperature (T/T
c
)
T = Temperature (°R)
T
c
= Critical Temperature (°R)
This equation is restricted to reduced temperatures greater than 0.30,
and should not be used below the freezing point. Its use was intended
for hydrocarbons, but it generally works well with water.
(A.33)
(A.34)
(A.35)
p

r
ln p

r
ln ( )
0 ( )
ω p

r
ln ( )
1 ( )
+ =
p

r
ln ( )
0 ( )
5.92714
6.09648
T
r
------------------- – 1.28862 T
r
ln – 0.169347T
r
6
+ =
p

r
ln ( )
1 ( )
15.2518
16.6875
T
r
------------------- – 13.4721 T
r
ln – 0.43577T
r
6
+ =
Theoretical Basis A-17
A-17
A.2.3 Soave Redlich Kwong
It was noted by Wilson (1965, 1966) that the main drawback of the
Redlich-Kwong equation of state was its inability of accurately
reproducing the vapour pressures of pure component constituents of a
given mixture. He proposed a modification to the RK equation of state
using the acentricity as a correlating parameter, but this approach was
widely ignored until 1972, when Soave (1972) proposed a modification
of the SRK equation of this form:
The a term was fitted in such a way as to reproduce the vapour pressure
of hydrocarbons using the acentric factor as a correlating parameter.
This led to the following development:
The reduced form is:
The SRK equation of state can represent with good accuracy the
behaviour of hydrocarbon systems for separation operations, and since
it is readily converted into computer code, its usage has been extensive
in the last twenty years. Other derived thermodynamic properties, like
enthalpies and entropies, are reasonably accurate for engineering
work, and the SRK equation enjoys wide acceptance in the engineering
(A.36)
P
RT
V b –
------------
a T T
c
ω , , ( )
V V b + ( )
--------------------------- – =
(A.37)
(A.38)
(A.39)
(A.40)
P
RT
V b –
------------
a
c
α
V V b + ( )
--------------------- – =
a
c

a
R
2
T
c
2
P
c
-------------- (Ω
a
the same as RK) =
α 1 S 1 T
r
0.5
– ( ) + =
S 0.480 1.574ω 0.176ω
2
– + =
(A.41) P
r
3T
r
V
r
0.2559 –
----------------------------
3.8473α
V
r
V
r
0.2599 + ( )
--------------------------------------- – =
A-18 Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium
A-18
community today.
A.2.4 Peng Robinson
Peng and Robinson (1976) noted that although the SRK was an
improvement over the RK equation for VLE calculations, the densities
for the liquid phase were still in considerable disagreement with
experimental values due to a universal critical compressibility factor of
0.3333, which was still too high. They proposed a modification to the
RK equation which reduced the critical compressibility to about 0.307,
and which would also represent the VLE of natural gas systems
accurately. This improved equation is represented by:
They used the same functional dependency for the α term as Soave:
The accuracy of the SRK and PR equations of state are roughly the same
(except for density calculations).
(A.42)
(A.43)
(A.44)
P
RT
V b –
------------
a
c
α
V V b + ( ) b V b – ( ) +
------------------------------------------------- – =
a
c
0.45724
R
2
T
c
2
P
c
-------------- =
b 0.07780
RT
c
P
c
--------- =
(A.45)
(A.46)
(A.47)
α 1 S 1 T
r
0.5
– ( ) + =
S 0.37464 1.5422ω 0.26992ω
2
– + =
P
r
3.2573T
r
V
r
0.2534 –
----------------------------
4.8514α
V
r
2
0.5068V
r
0.0642 – +
----------------------------------------------------------- – =
Theoretical Basis A-19
A-19
A.3 Physical Properties
A.3.1 Vapour Density
Vapour density is calculated using the compressibility factor calculated
from the Berthalot equation
5
. This equation correlates the
compressibility factor to the pseudo reduced pressure and pseudo
reduced temperature.
The density is then calculated from the real gas equation.
A.3.2 Liquid Density
Saturated liquid volumes are obtained using a corresponding states
equation developed by R. W. Hankinson and G. H. Thompson
14
which
explicitly relates the liquid volume of a pure component to its reduced
temperature and a second parameter termed the characteristic
volume. This method has been adopted as an API standard. The pure
compound parameters needed in the corresponding states liquid
density (COSTALD) calculations are taken from the original tables
published by Hankinson and Thompson, and the API data book for
components contained in FLARENET's library. The parameters for
hypothetical components are based on the API gravity and the
generalized Lu equation. Although the COSTALD method was
developed for saturated liquid densities, it can be applied to sub-
cooled liquid densities, i.e., at pressures greater than the vapour
pressure, using the Chueh and Prausnitz correction factor for
compressed fluids. The COSTALD model was modified to improve its
accuracy to predict the density for all systems whose pseudo-reduced
temperature is below 1.0. Above this temperature, the equation of state
compressibility factor is used to calculate the liquid density.
(A.48) Z 1.0 0.0703
P
r
T
r
----- 1.0
6.0
T
r
2
------- –
\ .





+ =
(A.49) ρ
PM
ZRT
----------- =
A-20 Physical Properties
A-20
A.3.3 Vapour Viscosity
Vapour viscosity is calculated from the Golubev
3
method. These
equations correlate the vapour viscosity to molecular weight,
temperature and the pseudo critical properties.
T
r
> 1.0
T
r
1.0
A.3.4 Liquid Viscosity
FLARENET will automatically select the model best suited for
predicting the phase viscosities of the system under study. The model
selected will be from one of the three available in FLARENET: a
modification of the NBS method (Ely and Hanley), Twu's model, and a
modification of the Letsou-Stiel correlation. FLARENET will select the
appropriate model using the following criteria:
All the models are based on corresponding states principles and have
been modified for more reliable application. These models were
selected since they were found from internal validation to yield the
most reliable results for the chemical systems shown. Viscosity
predictions for light hydrocarbon liquid phases and vapour phases
were found to be handled more reliably by an in-house modification of
the original Ely and Hanley model, heavier hydrocarbon liquids were
more effectively handled by Twu's model, and chemical systems were
more accurately handled by an in-house modification of the original
(A.50) µ
3.5M
0.5
P
c
0.667
T
r
0.71 0.29 T
r
⁄ + ( )
10000.0T
c
0.167
----------------------------------------------------------------------- - =

(A.51) µ
3.5M
0.5
P
c
0.667
T
r
0.965
10000.0T
c
0.167
------------------------------------------------ =
Chemical System Liquid Phase Methodology
Lt Hydrocarbons (NBP < 155 F) Mod Ely & Hanley
Hvy Hydrocarbons (NBP > 155 F) Twu
Non-Ideal Chemicals Mod Letsou-Stiel
Theoretical Basis A-21
A-21
Letsou-Stiel model.
A complete description of the original corresponding states (NBS)
model used for viscosity predictions is presented by Ely and Hanley in
their NBS publication
16
. The original model has been modified to
eliminate the iterative procedure for calculating the system shape
factors. The generalized Leech-Leland shape factor models have been
replaced by component specific models. FLARENET constructs a PVT
map for each component and regresses the shape factor constants such
that the PVT map can be reproduced using the reference fluid. It is
important to note that the PVT map is constructed using the COSTALD
for the liquid region. The shape factor constants for all the library
components have already been regressed and are stored with the pure
component properties.
Pseudo component shape factor constants are regressed when the
physical properties are supplied. Kinematic or dynamic viscosity versus
temperature curves may be supplied to replace FLARENET's internal
pure component viscosity correlations. FLARENET uses the viscosity
curves, whether supplied or internally calculated, with the physical
properties to generate a PVT map and regress the shape factor
constants. Pure component data is not required, but if it is available it
will increase the accuracy of the calculation.
The general model employs methane as a reference fluid and is
applicable to the entire range of non-polar fluid mixtures in the
hydrocarbon industry. Accuracy for highly aromatic or naphthenic oil
will be increased by supplying viscosity curves when available, since
the pure component property generators were developed for average
crude oils. The model also handles water and acid gases as well as
quantum gases.
Although the modified NBS model handles these systems very well, the
Twu method was found to do a better job of predicting the viscosities of
heavier hydrocarbon liquids. The Twu model1
8
is also based on
corresponding states principles, but has implemented a viscosity
correlation for n-alkanes as its reference fluid instead of methane. A
complete description of this model is given in the paper
18
titled
"Internally Consistent Correlation for Predicting Liquid Viscosities of
Petroleum Fractions".
For chemical systems the modified NBS model of Ely and Hanley is
used for predicting vapour phase viscosities, whereas a modified form
of the Letsou-Stiel model
15
is used for predicting the liquid viscosities.
This method is also based on corresponding states principles and was
found to perform satisfactorily for the components tested.
A-22 Physical Properties
A-22
The parameters supplied for all FLARENET pure library components
have been fit to match existing viscosity data over a broad operating
range. Although this will yield good viscosity predictions as an average
over the entire range, improved accuracy over a more narrow operating
range can be achieved by supplying viscosity curves for any given
component. This may be achieved either by modifying an existing
library component through FLARENET's component librarian or by
entering the desired component as a hypothetical and supplying its
viscosity curve.
Liquid Phase Mixing Rules for Viscosity
The estimates of the apparent liquid phase viscosity of immiscible
Hydrocarbon Liquid - Aqueous mixtures are calculated using the
following "mixing rules":
i) If the volume fraction of the hydrocarbon phase is greater than or
equal to 0.33, the following equation is used
19
:
where: µ
eff
= apparent viscosity
µ
oil
= viscosity of Hydrocarbon phase
ν
oil
= volume fraction Hydrocarbon phase
ii) If the volume fraction of the hydrocarbon phase is less than 0.33, the
following equation is used
20
:
where: µ
eff
= apparent viscosity
µ
oil
= viscosity of Hydrocarbon phase
µ
H2O
= viscosity of Aqueous phase
ν
oil
= volume fraction Hydrocarbon phase
The remaining properties of the pseudo phase are calculated as
(A.52)
µ
eff
µ
oil
e
3.6 1 υ
oil
– ( )
=
(A.53) µ
eff
1 2.5ν
oil
µ
oil
0.4µ
H
2
O
+
µ
oil
µ
H
2
O
+
------------------------------------
\ .


+ µ
H
2
O
=
Theoretical Basis A-23
A-23
follows:
A.3.5 Thermal Conductivity
As in viscosity predictions, a number of different models and
component specific correlations are implemented for prediction of
liquid and vapour phase thermal conductivities. The text by Reid,
Prausnitz and Poling
15
was used as a general guideline in determining
which model was best suited for each class of components. For
hydrocarbon systems the corresponding states method proposed by
Ely and Hanley
16
is generally used. The method requires molecular
weight, acentric factor and ideal heat capacity for each component.
These parameters are tabulated for all library components and may
either be input or calculated for hypothetical components. It is
recommended that all of these parameters be supplied for non-
hydrocarbon hypotheticals to ensure reliable thermal conductivity
coefficients and enthalpy departures.
The modifications to the method are identical to those for the viscosity
calculations. Shape factors calculated in the viscosity routines are used
directly in the thermal conductivity equations. The accuracy of the
method will depend on the consistency of the original PVT map.
The Sato-Reidel method
15
is used for liquid phase thermal conductivity
predictions of glycols and acids, the Latini et al. Method
15
is used for
esters, alcohols and light hydrocarbons in the range of C3 - C7, and the
Missenard and Reidel method
15
is used for the remaining components.
For vapour phase thermal conductivity predictions, the Misic and
Thodos, and Chung et al.
15
methods are used. The effect of higher
pressure on thermal conductivities is taken into account by the Chung
et al. method.
(A.54)
(A.55)
(A.56)
mw
eff
x
i
mw
i å
= (molecular weight)
ρ
eff
1 x
i
p
i
⁄ ( )
å
( ) ⁄ = (mixture density)
Cp
eff
x
i
Cp
i å
= (misture specific heat)
A-24 Physical Properties
A-24
As in viscosity, the thermal conductivity for two liquid phases is
approximated by using empirical mixing rules for generating a single
pseudo liquid phase property.
A.3.6 Enthalpy
Ideal Gas
The ideal gas enthalpy is calculated from the following equation:
where: H = Ideal enthalpy
T = Temperature
A, B, C, D, E = Ideal Gas heat capacity terms
Lee-Kesler
The Lee-Kesler enthalpy method corrects the ideal gas enthalpy for
temperature and pressure.
(A.57)
H
ideal
A
i
B
i
T C
i
T
2
D
i
T
3
E
i
T
4
+ + + + =
(A.58)
(A.59)
(A.60)
H H
ideal
H
dep
+ =
H
dep
RT
c
----------- -
\ .


H
dep
RT
c
----------- -
\ .


s
ω
ω
r
------
H
dep
RT
c
----------- -
\ .


r
H
dep
RT
c
----------- -
\ .


s




+ =
H
dep
RT
c
------------
\ .


k
T
r
Z
k
1.0 –
b
2
k
2b
3
k
T
r
-----------
\ .



3b
4
k
T
t
2
-----------
\ .


+
T
r
V
r
----------------------------------------------------- - –
c
2
k
3c
3
k
T
r
2
----------
\ .



2T
r
V
r
2
------------------------------ –
d
2
k
5T
r
V
r
5
----------------- 3E + +









– =
Theoretical Basis A-25
A-25
where: T
c
= Critical temperature
H = Specific enthalpy
ω = Acentric factor
r = Reference fluid
s = Simple fluid
H
ideal
= Ideal enthalpy
b, c, d, β, γ = Lee-Kesler terms
H
dep
= Ideal Gas departure enthalpy
Equations of State
The Enthalpy and Entropy calculations are performed rigorously using
the following exact thermodynamic relations:
For the Peng Robinson Equation of State, we have:
(A.61)
E
c
4
k
2T
r
3
γ
k
---------------- β
k
1.0 β
k
1
γ
k
V
r
2
-------- + +
\ .


e
γ
k
V
r
2
------- –
– +







=
(A.62)
(A.63)
H H
ID

RT
-------------------- Z 1 –
1
RT
------- T
∂P
∂T
------
\ .

V
P – V d

V

+ =
S S
°
ID

R
------------------- Z ln
P

------ ln –
1
R
---
∂P
∂T
------
\ .

V
1
V
--- – V d

V

+ =
(A.64)
H H
ID

RT
-------------------- Z 1 –
1
2
1.5
bRT
-------------------- a T
da
dt
------ –
V 2
0.5
1 + ( )b +
V 2
0.5
1 – ( )b +
------------------------------------
\ .


ln – =
A-26 Physical Properties
A-26
where:
For the SRK Equation of State:
A and B term definitions are provided below:
(A.65)
S S
°
ID

R
------------------- Z B – ( ) ln
P

------ ln –
A
2
1.5
B
-------------
T
a
---
da
dT
------
\ .

Z 2
0.5
1 + ( )B +
Z 2
0.5
1 – ( )B –
------------------------------------ - ln + =
(A.66) a x
i
x
j
a
i
a
j
( )
0.5
1 k
ij
– ( )
j 1 =
N
å
i 1 =
N
å
=
(A.67)
(A.68)
H H
ID

RT
-------------------- Z 1 –
1
bRT
---------- a T
da
dT
------ – 1
b
V
--- +
\ .

ln – =
S S
°
ID

R
------------------- Z B – ( ) ln
P

------ ln –
A
B
---
T
a
---
da
dT
------ 1
B
Z
--- +
\ .

ln + =
Term Peng-Robinson Soave-Redlich-Kwong
b
i
0.077796
RT
ci
P
ci
----------- 0.08664
RT
ci
P
ci
-----------
a
i
a
ci
α
i
a
ci
α
i
a
ci
0.457235
RT
ci
( )
2
P
ci
------------------ 0.42748
RT
ci
( )
2
P
ci
------------------
α
i
1 m
i
1 T
ri
0.5
– ( ) + 1 m
i
1 T
ri
0.5
– ( ) +
m
i 0.37646 1.54226ω
i
0.26992ω
i
2
– + 0.48 1.574ω
i
0.176ω
i
2
– +
Theoretical Basis A-27
A-27
where:
and
ID = Ideal Gas
° = Reference state
R = Ideal gas constant
H = Enthalpy
S = Entropy
A.4 Noise
The sound pressure level at a given distance from the pipe is calculated
from the following equations. In these equations the noise producing
mechanism is assumed to be solely due to the pressure drop due to
friction.
where: L = Equivalent length
SPL = Sound pressure level
r = Distance from pipe
(A.69)
a x
i
x
j
a
i
a
j
( )
0.5
1 k
ij
– ( )
j 1 =
N
å
i 1 =
N
å
=
(A.70) b x
i
b
i
i 1 =
N
å
=
(A.71)
(A.72)
W
m
1.36
∆P
L
-------
\ .

πφ
2
4
---------
\ .

=
SPL
r
10
10
13
ηW
m
L
4πr
2
---------------------------
\ .


1 – log =
A-28 Noise
A-28
φ = Internal diameter pressure
η = Acoustic efficiency
∆P = Change in Pressure
The acoustical efficiency is calculated from the following graph.
Figure A.6
(A.73)
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
Mach Number
10
-11
10
-10
10
-9
10
-8
10
-7
10
-6
10
-5
10
-4
10
-3
A
c
o
u
s
t
i
c
a
l

E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
pt = 10.0
pt = 1.0
pt = 0.1
pt
P
1
P
2
------
\ .

T
2
T
1
-----
\ .

2
=
Theoretical Basis A-29
A-29
The transmission loss due to the pipe wall is calculated from:
(A.74)
t 17.0
0.5mv
φ
---------------
\ .

36.0 – =
A-30 Noise
A-30
File Format B-1
B-1
B File Format
B.1 Access File................................................................................................... 3
B.1.1 Components Table................................................................................... 3
B.1.2 Connectors Table..................................................................................... 4
B.1.3 ControlValves Table ................................................................................. 5
B.1.4 FlowBleeds Table..................................................................................... 6
B.1.5 HorizontalSeparators Table...................................................................... 7
B.1.6 OrificePlates Table................................................................................... 8
B.1.7 Pipe Table................................................................................................ 9
B.1.8 PressureFlowSummary Table................................................................ 10
B.1.9 ReliefValves Table.................................................................................. 11
B.1.10 Tees Table............................................................................................ 13
B.1.11 Tips Table ............................................................................................ 14
B.1.12 VerticalSeparators Table...................................................................... 15
B.2 .FMT Files Format ...................................................................................... 16
B-2
B-2
File Format B-3
B-3
B.1 Access File
FLARENET looks for data in the following tables in the Access data file.
• Components
• Connectors
• ControlValves
• FlowBleeds
• HorizontalSeparators
• OrificePlates
• Pipes
• PressureFlowSummary
• ReliefValves
• Tees
• Tips
• VerticalSeparators
A description of fields contained in each of these tables is given below.
B.1.1 Components Table
The following table gives a description of the fields in the Access file
called Components.
Field Description Type Units
Name Component Name Text
Type Component Type Text
MolWt Component Molecular Weight Double
StdDensity Standard Liquid Density Double kg/m
3
NBP Normal Boiling Point Double K
Watson Watson Characterisation factor Double
Pc Critical Pressure Double bar abs
Tc Critical Temperature Double K
Vc Critical Volume Double m
3
/kgmole
Vchar Characteristic Volume Double m
3
/kgmole
Omega Acentric Factor Double
OmegaSRK SRK Acentric Factor Double
Ha Indeal Gas Enthalpy Coefficient A Double kJ/kgmole
Hb Indeal Gas Enthalpy Coefficient B Double kJ/kgmole/K
Hc Indeal Gas Enthalpy Coefficient C Double kJ/kgmole/K
2
Hd Indeal Gas Enthalpy Coefficient D Double kJ/kgmole/K
3
B-4 Access File
B-4
B.1.2 Connectors Table
The following table gives a description of the fields in the Access file.
These must be in a table called Connectors.
He Indeal Gas Enthalpy Coefficient E Double kJ/kgmole/K
4
Hf Indeal Gas Enthalpy Coefficient F Double kJ/kgmole/K
5
S Entropy Coefficient Double
ViscA
Viscosity Coefficient A For Ely And
Hanley Method
Double
ViscB
Viscosity Coefficient B For Ely And
Hanley Method
Double
Field Description Type Units
Field Description Type Units
Name Segment Name Text
Location Segment Location Text
Connection1
Name of node connected to
upstream end
Text
ConnectionPoint1
Index of connection on node connect
to upstream end (0 = Upstream, 1 =
Downstream, -32767 = unknown)
Integer
Connection2
Name of node connected to
downstream end
Text
ConnectionPoint2
Index of connection on node connect
to downstream end (0 = Upstream, 1
= Downstream, -32767 = unknown)
Integer
Length
Segment Length. Set to -32767 for
unknown.
Double
Angle
Included Angle. Set to -32767 for
unknown
Double
Xpos
X coordinate of upper left corner of
icon on PFD. The 0,0 coordinate
refers to the top left corner
Double Twips
Ypos
Y coordinate of upper left corner of
icon on PFD. The 0,0 coordinate
refers to the top left corner
Double Twips
XposLabel
X coordinate of upper left corner of
label on PFD. The 0,0 coordinate
refers to the top left corner
Double Twips
YposLabel
Y coordinate of upper left corner of
label on PFD. The 0,0 coordinate
refers to the top left corner
Double Twips
Rotation
Rotation of icon on PFD (0 = Normal,
1 = 90o, 2 = 180o, 3 = 270o, Add 4 to
value to flip about Y axis before
rotation
Double
File Format B-5
B-5
B.1.3 ControlValves Table
The following table gives a description of the fields in the Access file.
These must be in a table called ControlValves.
Field Description Type Units
Name Segment Name Text
Location Segment Location Text
Connection1
Name of node connected to
upstream end
Text
ConnectionPoint1
Index of connection on node connect
to upstream end (0 = Upstream, 1 =
Downstream, -32767 = unknown)
Integer
FlangeInternalDiameter Internal Diameter Of Outlet Flange Double mm
MassFlow Mass Flow Double kg/hr
Pressure Inlet Pressure Double bar abs
TemperatureFlag
Flag To Indicate Type Of
Temperature Specification; 0 =
Absolute, 1 = Superheat, 2 = Subcool
Integer
Temperature
Inlet Temperature Specification
Relative To Type Defined By
Temperature Flag
Double C
AllowableBackPressure Allowable Pressure At Outlet Flange Double bar abs
FluidType
Description Of Fluid Type; HC, Misc,
Amine, Alcohol, Ketone, Aldehyde,
Ester, Carbacid, Halogen, Nitrile,
Phenol, Ether
Text
MoleFractionx
Component mole fraction in detailed
composition. x gives the index of the
component in the component list,
starting at 1.
Double
Xpos
X coordinate of upper left corner of
icon on PFD. The 0,0 coordinate
refers to the top left corner
Double Twips
Ypos
Y coordinate of upper left corner of
icon on PFD. The 0,0 coordinate
refers to the top left corner
Double Twips
XposLabel
X coordinate of upper left corner of
label on PFD. The 0,0 coordinate
refers to the top left corner
Double Twips
YposLabel
Y coordinate of upper left corner of
label on PFD. The 0,0 coordinate
refers to the top left corner
Double Twips
Rotation
Rotation of icon on PFD (0 = Normal,
1 = 90o, 2 = 180o, 3 = 270o, Add 4 to
value to flip about Y axis before
rotation
Double
B-6 Access File
B-6
B.1.4 FlowBleeds Table
The following table gives a description of the fields in the Access file.
These must be in a table called FlowBleeds.
Field Description Type Units
Name Segment Name Text
Location Segment Location Text
Connection1
Name of node connected to
upstream end
Text
ConnectionPoint1
Index of connection on node connect
to upstream end (0 = Upstream, 1 =
Downstream, -32767 = unknown)
Integer
Connection2
Name of node connected to
downstream end
Text
ConnectionPoint2
Index of connection on node connect
to downstream end (0 = Upstream, 1
= Downstream, -32767 = unknown)
Integer
PressureDrop
Fixed Pressure Drop. Set To -32767
for unknown.
Double bar
FlowOffset Fixed Flow Offtake Contribution Double kg/hr
FlowMultiplier
Proportional Flow Offtake
Contribution
Double kg/hr
FlowMinimum
Minimum Bound To Calculated
Offtake. Set to -32767 for unknown.
Double kg/hr
FlowMaximum
Maximum Bound To Calculated
Offtake. Set ot -32767 for unknown
Double kg/hr
Xpos
X coordinate of upper left corner of
icon on PFD. The 0,0 coordinate
refers to the top left corner
Double Twips
Ypos
Y coordinate of upper left corner of
icon on PFD. The 0,0 coordinate
refers to the top left corner
Double Twips
XposLabel
X coordinate of upper left corner of
label on PFD. The 0,0 coordinate
refers to the top left corner
Double Twips
YposLabel
Y coordinate of upper left corner of
label on PFD. The 0,0 coordinate
refers to the top left corner
Double Twips
Rotation
Rotation of icon on PFD (0 = Normal,
1 = 90o, 2 = 180o, 3 = 270o, Add 4 to
value to flip about Y axis before
rotation
Double
File Format B-7
B-7
B.1.5 HorizontalSeparators Table
The following table gives a description of the fields in the Access file.
These must be in a table called HorizontalSeparators.
Field Description Type Units
Name Segment Name Text
Location Segment Location Text
Connection1
Name of node connected to
upstream end
Text
ConnectionPoint1
Index of connection on node connect
to upstream end (0 = Upstream, 1 =
Downstream, -32767 = unknown)
Integer
Connection2
Name of node connected to
downstream end
Text
ConnectionPoint2
Index of connection on node connect
to downstream end (0 = Upstream, 1
= Downstream, -32767 = unknown)
Integer
Connection3
Name of node connected to
secondary inlet
Text
ConnectionPoint3
Index of connection on node connect
to secondary inlet (0 = Upstream, 1 =
Downstream, -32767 = unknown)
Integer
Diameter Vessel Diameter Double mm
LiquidLevel Liquid Level Double mm
Xpos
X coordinate of upper left corner of
icon on PFD. The 0,0 coordinate
refers to the top left corner
Double Twips
Ypos
Y coordinate of upper left corner of
icon on PFD. The 0,0 coordinate
refers to the top left corner
Double Twips
XposLabel
X coordinate of upper left corner of
label on PFD. The 0,0 coordinate
refers to the top left corner
Double Twips
YposLabel
Y coordinate of upper left corner of
label on PFD. The 0,0 coordinate
refers to the top left corner
Double Twips
Rotation
Rotation of icon on PFD (0 = Normal,
1 = 90o, 2 = 180o, 3 = 270o, Add 4 to
value to flip about Y axis before
rotation
Double
B-8 Access File
B-8
B.1.6 OrificePlates Table
The following table gives a description of the fields in the Access file.
These must be in a table called OrificePlates.
Field Description Type Units
Name Segment Name Text
Location Segment Location Text
Connection1
Name of node connected to
upstream end
Text
ConnectionPoint1
Index of connection on node connect
to upstream end (0 = Upstream, 1 =
Downstream, -32767 = unknown)
Integer
Connection2
Name of node connected to
downstream end
Text
ConnectionPoint2
Index of connection on node connect
to downstream end (0 = Upstream, 1
= Downstream, -32767 = unknown)
Integer
OrificeDiameter
Diameter of orifice. Set to -32767 for
unknown.
Double mm
OrificeInletDiameterRatio
Ratio of orifice diameter to inlet
diameter. Set to -32767 for unknown.
Double
OrificeOutletDiameterRatio
Ratio of orifice diameter to outlet
diameter. Set to -32767 for unknown.
Double
Xpos
X coordinate of upper left corner of
icon on PFD. The 0,0 coordinate
refers to the top left corner
Double Twips
Ypos
Y coordinate of upper left corner of
icon on PFD. The 0,0 coordinate
refers to the top left corner
Double Twips
XposLabel
X coordinate of upper left corner of
label on PFD. The 0,0 coordinate
refers to the top left corner
Double Twips
YposLabel
Y coordinate of upper left corner of
label on PFD. The 0,0 coordinate
refers to the top left corner
Double Twips
Rotation
Rotation of icon on PFD (0 = Normal,
1 = 90o, 2 = 180o, 3 = 270o, Add 4 to
value to flip about Y axis before
rotation
Double
File Format B-9
B-9
B.1.7 Pipe Table
The following table gives a description of the fields in the Access file.
These must be in a table called Pipe.
Field Description Type Units
Name Segment Name Text
Location Segment Location Text
Connection1
Name of node connected to
upstream end
Text
ConnectionPoint1
Index of connection on node connect
to upstream end (0 = Upstream, 1 =
Downstream, -32767 = unknown, 2 =
Branch/Secondary Inlet)
Integer
Connection2
Name of node connected to
downstream end
Text
ConnectionPoint2
Index of connection on node connect
to downstream end (0 = Upstream, 1
= Downstream, -32767 = unknown, 2
= Branch/Secondary Inlet)
Integer
TailPipe Tailpipe flag (1 = True, 0 = False) Integer
Length Segment Length Double m
ElevationChange Elevation Change Double m
MaterialCode
Pipe Material (0 = Carbon Steel, 1 =
Stainless Steel)
Integer
Roughness Pipe Roughness Double inches
InternalDiameter Pipe Internal Diameter Double inches
WallThickness Pipe Wall Thickness Double inches
NominalDiameter Nominal Pipe Size Text
Schedule Pipe Schedule Text
LengthMultiplier Fitting length multiplier Double
K1 A in fitting loss equation Double
K2 B in fitting loss equation Double
Ambient Ambient temperature Double C
WindSpeed Wind speed Double m/s
OutletTemp
Fluid outlet temperature (Set to -
32767 if to be calculated)
Double C
Duty
Heat transfer to pipe (Set to -32767 if
to be calculated)
Double kJ/hr
InsulationName Description of insulation Text
InsulationThickness Insulation thickness Double mm
InsulationConductivity Insulation thermal conductivity Double W/m/C
Xpos
X coordinate of upper left corner of
icon on PFD. The 0,0 coordinate
refers to the top left corner
Double Twips
B-10 Access File
B-10
B.1.8 PressureFlowSummary Table
The following table gives a description of the fields in the Access file.
These must be in a table called PressureFlowSummary.
Ypos
Y coordinate of upper left corner of
icon on PFD. The 0,0 coordinate
refers to the top left corner
Double Twips
XposLabel
X coordinate of upper left corner of
label on PFD. The 0,0 coordinate
refers to the top left corner
Double Twips
YposLabel
Y coordinate of upper left corner of
label on PFD. The 0,0 coordinate
refers to the top left corner
Double Twips
Rotation
Rotation of icon on PFD (0 = Normal,
1 = 90o, 2 = 180o, 3 = 270o, Add 4 to
value to flip about Y axis before
rotation
Double
Field Description Type Units
Field Description Type Units
Name Segment Name Text
MassFlow Mass Flow Double kg/hr
RatedFlow Rated Flow Double kg/hr
MolarFlow Molar Flow Based Upon Mass Flow Double kgmole/hr
PressureDrop Pressure Drop Double bar
PressureAtSource
Pressure At Source Node Outlet
Flange. -32767 if unknown.
Double bar
PressureDropFriction
Friction Component Of Pressure
Drop. -32767 if unknown.
Double bar
PressureDropElevation
Elevation Component Of Pressure
Drop. -32767 if unknown.
Double bar
PressureDropAcceleratio
n
Acceleration Component Of Pessure
Drop. -32767 if unknown.
Double bar
PressureDropFittings Pressure Drop Due To Fittings Double bar
Noise
Average Sound pressure level At A
Distance Of 1 m From The Pipe
Double dB
FrictionFactor Fracition Factor Double
Reynolds Reynolds number Double
FlowRegime Flow Regime Text
EquivalentLength
Equivalent Length Of Pipe Inluding
Physical Length And Fittings.
Double m
Duty Calculated Duty Double kJ/hr
Htc Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient Double W/m2/C
HtcExternal External Heat Transfer Coefficient Double W/m2/C
File Format B-11
B-11
B.1.9 ReliefValves Table
The following table gives a description of the fields in the Access file.
These must be in a table called ReliefValves.
HtcInternal Internal Heat Transfer Coefficient Double W/m2/C
Pressure1 Upstream Pressure Double bar abs
Temperature1 Upstream Temperature Double C
Velocity1 Upstream Velocity Double m/s
Mach1 Upstream Mach Number Double
RhoV21 Upstream Rho V2 Double kg/m/s2
Energy1 Upstream energy Flow Double kJ/hr
Pressure2 Downstream Pressure Double bar abs
Temperature2 Downstream Temperature Double C
Velocity2 Downstream Velocity Double m/s
Mach2 Downstream Mach Number Double
RhoV22 Downstream Rho V2 Double kg/m/s2
Energy2 Downstream energy Flow Double kJ/hr
Field Description Type Units
Field Description Type Units
Name Segment Name Text
Location Segment Location Text
Connection1
Name of node connected to
upstream end
Text
ConnectionPoint1
Index of connection on node connect
to upstream end (0 = Upstream, 1 =
Downstream, -32767 = unknown)
Integer
FlangeInternalDiameter Internal Diameter Of Outlet Flange Double mm
MassFlow Mass Flow Double kg/hr
RatedFlow
Rated Flow (The Maximum Flow
That The Valve Can Pass)
Double kg/hr
MAWP
Maximum Allowable Working
Pressure
Double bar abs
Pressure Inlet Pressure Double bar abs
TemperatureFlag
Flag To Indicate Type Of
Temperature Specification; 0 =
Absolute, 1 = Superheat, 2 = Subcool
Integer
Temperature
Inlet Temperature Specification
Relative To Type Defined By
Temperature Flag
Double C
ContingencyFlag
Type oF Contingency (0 = Operating,
1 = Fire)
Double
B-12 Access File
B-12
AllowableBackPressure Allowable Pressure At Outlet Flange Double bar abs
ValveTypeFlag
Type Of Valve (0 = Balanced
Bellows, 1 = Conventopnal)
Double
ValveCount Number Of Valves In The Assmbley Integer
OrificeAreaPerValve Orifice Area Per valve Double mm2
FluidType
Description Of Fluid Type; HC, Misc,
Amine, Alcohol, Ketone, Aldehyde,
Ester, Carbacid, Halogen, Nitrile,
Phenol, Ether
Text
MoleFractionx
Component mole fraction in detailed
composition. x gives the index of the
component in the component list,
starting at 1.
Double
Xpos
X coordinate of upper left corner of
icon on PFD. The 0,0 coordinate
refers to the top left corner
Double Twips
Ypos
Y coordinate of upper left corner of
icon on PFD. The 0,0 coordinate
refers to the top left corner
Double Twips
XposLabel
X coordinate of upper left corner of
label on PFD. The 0,0 coordinate
refers to the top left corner
Double Twips
YposLabel
Y coordinate of upper left corner of
label on PFD. The 0,0 coordinate
refers to the top left corner
Double Twips
Rotation
Rotation of icon on PFD (0 = Normal,
1 = 90o, 2 = 180o, 3 = 270o, Add 4 to
value to flip about Y axis before
rotation
Double
Field Description Type Units
File Format B-13
B-13
B.1.10Tees Table
The following table gives a description of the fields in the Access file.
These must be in a table called Tees.
Field Description Type Units
Name Segment Name Text
Location Segment Location Text
Connection1
Name of node connected to
upstream end
Text
ConnectionPoint1
Index of connection on node connect
to upstream end (0 = Upstream, 1 =
Downstream, -32767 = unknown)
Integer
Connection2
Name of node connected to
downstream end
Text
ConnectionPoint2
Index of connection on node connect
to downstream end (0 = Upstream, 1
= Downstream, -32767 = unknown)
Integer
Connection3 Name of node connected to branch Text
ConnectionPoint3
Index of connection on node connect
to branch (0 = Upstream, 1 =
Downstream, -32767 = unknown)
Integer
BranchAngleIndex
Branch Angle Identifier ( 0 = 30o, 1 =
45o, 2 = 60o, 3 = 90o)
Integer
Body
Coonection Ondex Of Pipe That
Defines The Body Diameter (0 =
Upstream, 1 = Downstream, 2 =
Branch)
Integer
Xpos
X coordinate of upper left corner of
icon on PFD. The 0,0 coordinate
refers to the top left corner
Double
Ypos
Y coordinate of upper left corner of
icon on PFD. The 0,0 coordinate
refers to the top left corner
Double
XposLabel
X coordinate of upper left corner of
label on PFD. The 0,0 coordinate
refers to the top left corner
Double
YposLabel
Y coordinate of upper left corner of
label on PFD. The 0,0 coordinate
refers to the top left corner
Double
Rotation
Rotation of icon on PFD (0 = Normal,
1 = 90o, 2 = 180o, 3 = 270o, Add 4 to
value to flip about Y axis before
rotation
Double
B-14 Access File
B-14
B.1.11Tips Table
The following table gives a description of the fields in the Access file.
These must be in a table called Tips.
Field Description Type Units
Name Segment Name Text
Location Segment Location Text
Connection1
Name of node connected to
upstream end
Text
ConnectionPoint1
Index of connection on node connect
to upstream end (0 = Upstream, 1 =
Downstream, -32767 = unknown)
Integer
Diameter Exit Diameter Double mm
K Total Head Loss Coefficient Double
CurveFlag Use Curve Flag (0 = No, 1 = Yes) Integer
CurvePoints
Number of points in pressure drop
curve.
Integer
CurveMassFlowx
Mass Flow Point In Pressure Drop
Curve. x gives the index of the point,
starting at 1.
Double kg/hr
CurvePressureDropx
Pressure Drop Point In Pressure
Drop Curve. x gives the index of the
point, starting at 1.
Double bar
Xpos
X coordinate of upper left corner of
icon on PFD. The 0,0 coordinate
refers to the top left corner
Double Twips
Ypos
Y coordinate of upper left corner of
icon on PFD. The 0,0 coordinate
refers to the top left corner
Double Twips
XposLabel
X coordinate of upper left corner of
label on PFD. The 0,0 coordinate
refers to the top left corner
Double Twips
YposLabel
Y coordinate of upper left corner of
label on PFD. The 0,0 coordinate
refers to the top left corner
Double Twips
Rotation
Rotation of icon on PFD (0 = Normal,
1 = 90o, 2 = 180o, 3 = 270o, Add 4 to
value to flip about Y axis before
rotation
Double
File Format B-15
B-15
B.1.12VerticalSeparators Table
The following table gives a description of the fields in the Access file.
These must be in a table called VerticalSeparators.
Field Description Type Units
Name Segment Name Text
Location Segment Location Text
Connection1
Name of node connected to
upstream end
Text
ConnectionPoint1
Index of connection on node connect
to upstream end (0 = Upstream, 1 =
Downstream, -32767 = unknown)
Integer
Connection2
Name of node connected to
downstream end
Text
ConnectionPoint2
Index of connection on node connect
to downstream end (0 = Upstream, 1
= Downstream, -32767 = unknown)
Integer
Diameter Vessel Diameter Double mm
Xpos
X coordinate of upper left corner of
icon on PFD. The 0,0 coordinate
refers to the top left corner
Double Twips
Ypos
Y coordinate of upper left corner of
icon on PFD. The 0,0 coordinate
refers to the top left corner
Double Twips
XposLabel
X coordinate of upper left corner of
label on PFD. The 0,0 coordinate
refers to the top left corner
Double Twips
YposLabel
Y coordinate of upper left corner of
label on PFD. The 0,0 coordinate
refers to the top left corner
Double Twips
Rotation
Rotation of icon on PFD (0 = Normal,
1 = 90o, 2 = 180o, 3 = 270o, Add 4 to
value to flip about Y axis before
rotation
Double
B-16 .FMT Files Format
B-16
B.2 .FMT Files Format
The printouts can be customised to a limited extent using a series of
ASCII text files with the extension “.fmt”. These files may be edited
using any ASCII text editor such as the NOTEPAD application
distributed with Microsoft Windows.
The default “.fmt” files for each printed report are:
By default, these files are located in the Flarenet program directory. You
can change the location and “.fmt“ file for each report on the Reports
tab on the Preferences Editor view.
Report “.fmt” file
Component Data Comps.fmt
Component Database DbComps.fmt
Compositions MoleFrac.fmt
Fittings Database DbFittings.fmt
Messages Messages.fmt
Node Data Node.fmt
Pipes Data Pipes.fmt
Physical Properties Properties.fmt
Pipe Schedule Database DbSchedules.fmt
Pressure/Flow Summary Summary.fmt
Scenarios Data Scenarios.fmt
Scenarios Summary ScenSum.fmt
Source Data Sources.fmt
Figure B.1
File Format B-17
B-17
These files confirm to the following format, here shown for part of the
DbSchedules.fmt file.
The following defines which variable may be printed with each report:
Variable Description
5 Number of variables to display
6 Font Size (Point)
Arial Font Name
schedule,20.0,0 Variable Name,width (mm), repeat flag (0 = All
panes, 1 = Once only)
nominal,20.0,1
internal,20.0,1
wall,20.0,1
group,20.0,1
Variable Name Variable Description
C
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ambient Ambient Temperature x
angle Angle To Horizontal
backpres Back Pressure x
basis Composition Basis x
calcloss Autocalculated Fittings Loss
Equation
calculations Node Run, Branch and Tail
Segment
x
class Pipe Class x
comps Mole Fractions x x
connections x
count Number Of Items
damp Damping Factor
density Standard Liquid Density x x
densitydown Downstream Density x
densityup Upstream Density x
desc Description x
dsn Downstream Node x
duty Heat Loss x
elevation Elevation Change x
energy Energy x
B-18 .FMT Files Format
B-18
energydown Downstream Energy Flow x
energyup Upstream Energy Flow x
enthalpy Enthalpy x
enthalpydown Downstream Enthalpy x
enthalpyup Upstream Enthalpy x
entropy Entropy x
entropydown Downstream Entropy x
entropyup Upstream Entropy x
equivlength Equivalent Length
factor Rated Flow factor
fitloss Fittings Loss Equation
fittingsa Fitting Loss A x
fittingsb Fitting Loss B x
fittingsuse x
flange Flange Diameter x
flow Mass flow
fractiondown Downstream Phase Fraction x
fractionup Upstream Phase Fraction x
frictionfractor Friction Factor x
group Item Group x
headmach Header Mach No. x
headvelvap Header Vapour Velocity x
headvelliq Header Liquid Velocity x
headrhov2 Header Rho V2 x
headnoise Header Noise x
heatcapdown Downstream Heat Capacity x
heatcapup Upstream Heat Capacity x
hia Enthalpy A Coefficient x x
hib Enthalpy B Coefficient x x
hic Enthalpy C Coefficient x x
hid Enthalpy D Coefficient x x
hie Enthalpy E Coefficient x x
hif Enthalpy F Coefficient x x
htc Heat Transfer Coefficient
htcoverall Overall HTC x
Variable Name Variable Description
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File Format B-19
B-19
htcexternal External HTC x
htcinternal Internal HTC x
id Item ID x
ignored Item Ignored x x
insname Insulation Description x
insthick Insulation Thickness x
insconductivity Insulation Conductivity x
internal Internal Diameter x x
length Segment Length x
lmultiply Length Multiplier x
location Segment Location x
machdown Downstream Mach Number x
machup Upstream Mach Number x
massflow Mass Flow x x
material Material Of Construction x
methoddamping Damping Factor x
methoddp Pressure Drop Method
methodelements Twp Phase Elements x
methodfriction Friction Factor x
methodfitlos Fittings Loss Method x
methodhordp Horizontal 2 Phase Pressure Drop
Method
x
methodincdp Inclined Pressure Drop x
methodverdp Vertical 2 Phase Pressure Drop
Method
x
methodvle VLE method x x
molarflow Molar Flow x
moleflow Source Molar Flow
molwt Molecular Weight x x x x
molwtdown Downstream Molecular Weight x
molwtup Upstream Molecular Weight x
msg Text Message
multiply Fittings Equation Multiplier x
name Item Name x x x x x x x x x x
nbp Normal Boiling Point x x
node Node x x
Variable Name Variable Description
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B-20 .FMT Files Format
B-20
noise Noise x
nominal Nominal Pipe Diameter x x
number Index Number x
offmaximum Maximum Flow Offtake
offminimum Minimum Flow Offtake
offmultiply Offtake Flow Multiplier
offrate Offtake Flow Offset
offset Fittings Equation Offset x
omega Acentric Factor x x
omegasrk SRK Acentric Factor x x
pc Critical Pressure x x
phase Phase Label x
plant Source Plant Location
pressource Static Source Back Pressure x
presallow Allowable Back Pressure x
presdown Downstream Static Pressure x
presdrop Pressure Drop x
presdropfriction Static Pipe Friction Loss x
presdropacceler
ation
Static Pipe Acceleration Loss x
presdropelevatio
n
Static Pipe Elevation Loss x
presdropfittings Static Pipe Fittings Loss x
presin Inlet Pressure x
presup Upstream Static Pressure x
property Property Description x
ratedflow Rated Mass Flow x
refer Literature Reference x
regime Flow Regime x
resize Resizable Flag x
reynolds Reynolds Number x
rhov2up Upstream Rho V2 x
rhov2down Downstream Rho V2 x
roughness Wall roughness x
scenario Scenario Name x
schedule Pipe Schedule x x
Variable Name Variable Description
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File Format B-21
B-21
seg1 Node Run Segment x
seg2 Node Branch Segment x
seg3 Node Tail Segment x
separate Separator Flag
si Entropy Coefficient x
source Source Name
status Ignored Status Flag
surftendn Downstream Surface Tension x
surftenup Upstream Surface Tension x
tailmach Tailpipe Mach No. x
tailnoise Tailpipe Noise x
tailpipe Tailpipe Flag x
tailrhov2 Tailpipe Rho V2 x
tailvelliq Tailpipe Liquid Velocity x
tailvelvap Tailpipe Vapour Velocity x
tc Critical Temperature x x
temp Temperature
tempcalc Inlet Temperature Calculations x
tempdown Downstream Temperature x
tempout Outlet Temperature x x
tempspec Inlet Temperature Specification x
tempup Upstream Temperature x
thermconddn Downstream Thermal Conductivity x
thermcondup Upstream Thermal Conductivity x
type Item Type x x x x
usn Upstream Node x
vapourfrac Source Vapour Fraction x
vc Critical volume x x
vchar Characteristic Volume x x
veldn Downstream Velocity x
velup Upstream Velocity x
Variable Name Variable Description
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B-22 .FMT Files Format
B-22
visca Viscosity A Coefficient x x
viscb Viscosity B Coefficient x x
viscdown Downstream Viscosity x
viscup Upstream Viscosity x
volume Pipe volume
wall Wall Thickness x x
watson Watson Characterisation
Parameter
x x
wind Wind Velocity x
zfactordown Downstream Compressibility
Factor
x
zfactorup Upstream Compressibility Factor x
Variable Name Variable Description
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References C-1
C-1
C References
C-2
C-2
References C-3
C-3
1
“GPSA Engineering Data Book”.
2
“chemical Engineering Volume 1”, 2nd Edition, J. M Coulson and J. F.
Richardson, Pergamon Press.
3
“Viscosity of Gases And Mixtures”, I. F. Golubev, Natinoal Technical
Information Services, TT7050022, 1959.
4
"Chemical Process Computations 1, Chemical Engineering-Data
Processing", Raman, Raghu, Elsevier Applied Science Publishers
Ltd, 1985.
5
"Journal Of Physics", 3 ,263 , D. J. Berthalot.
6
"Technical Data Book-Petroleum Refining", American Petroleum
Institute, 1977.
7
Ely, J.F. and Hanley, H.J.M., "A Computer Program for the Prediction
of Viscosity and Thermal Conductivity in Hydrocarbon Mixtures",
NBS Technical Note 1039 (1983).
8
Hankinson, R.W., and Thompson, G.H., AIChE J., 25, 653 (1979).
9
Beggs, H.D., and Brill, J.P., "A Study of Two-Phase Flow in Inclined
Pipes", J. Petrol. Technol., p. 607, May (1973).
10
Gas Conditioning and Processing, Volume 3, Robert N. Maddox and
Larry L. Lilly, 1982 by Campbell Petroleum Series (second edition,
1990).
11
Orkiszewski, J., Journal of Petroleum Technology, B29-B38, June,
1967.
12
Gas Conditioning and Processing, Volume 3, Robert N. Maddox and
Larry L. Lilly, 1982 by Campbell Petroleum Series (second edition,
1990).
13
API Technical Data Book - Volume 1 , 1983, American Petroleum
Institute.
14
Hankinson, R.W. and Thompson, G.H., A.I.Ch.E. Journal, 25, No. 4,
p.653 (1979).
C-4
C-4
15
Reid, R.C., Prausnitz, J.M., Poling, B.E., "The Properties of Gases
&Liquids", McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1987.
16
Ely, J.F. and Hanly, H.J.M., "A Computer Program for the Prediction of
Viscosity and Thermal Conductivity in Hydrocarbon Mixtures",
NBS Technical Note 1039.
17
Pausnitz, J.M., Lichtenthaler, R.N., Azevedo, E.G., "Molecular
Thermodynamics of Fluid Phase Equilibria", 2
nd
. Ed., McGraw-Hill,
Inc. 1986.
18
Twu, C.H., IEC. Proc Des & Dev, 24, p. 1287 (1985).
19
Woelfin, W., "Viscosity of Crude-Oil Emulsions", presented at the
spring meeting, Pacific Coast District, Division of Production, Los
Angeles, Calif., Mar. 10, 1942.
20
Gambill, W.R., Chem Eng., March 9, 1959.
21
Chen, N.H., "An Explicit Equation for Friction Factor in Pipe", Ind.
Eng. Chem. Fund., 18, 296, 1979.
22
API Recommended Practice 520, “Sizing, Selection, and Installation
of Pressure - Relieving Devices in Refineries”, Part I, 6
th
. Ed.,
American Petroleum Institute, March, 1993
23
API Recommended Practice 521, “Guide for Pressure-Relieving and
Depressuring Systems”, 3
rd
. Ed., American Petroleum Institute,
November, 1990
24
Leung, J.C., "Easily Size Relief Devices and Piping for Two-Phase
Flow", Chem. Eng. Prog., p. 28, December, 1996.
25
Miller, D.M., "Internal Flow Systems", 2
nd
. Ed., BHR Group Limited,
1990.
Glossary of Terms D-1
D-1
D Glossary of Terms
D.1.1 Adiabatic Flow ......................................................................................... 3
D.1.2 Choked Flow............................................................................................ 3
D.1.3 Critical Pressure ...................................................................................... 3
D.1.4 Critical Temperature................................................................................. 3
D.1.5 Dongle ..................................................................................................... 3
D.1.6 Equivalent Length.................................................................................... 3
D.1.7 Isothermal Flow ....................................................................................... 3
D.1.8 MABP....................................................................................................... 4
D.1.9 Mach Number .......................................................................................... 4
D.1.10 Node ...................................................................................................... 4
D.1.11 Reduced Pressure................................................................................. 4
D.1.12 Reduced Temperature ........................................................................... 4
D.1.13 Scenario ................................................................................................ 4
D.1.14 Schedule................................................................................................ 5
D.1.15 Security Device...................................................................................... 5
D.1.16 Source ................................................................................................... 5
D.1.17 Static Pressure ...................................................................................... 5
D.1.18 Tailpipe................................................................................................... 5
D.1.19 Total Pressure........................................................................................ 5
D.1.20 Velocity Pressure................................................................................... 5
D-2
D-2
Glossary of Terms D-3
D-3
D.1.1 Adiabatic Flow
Adiabatic flow is the constant enthalpy flow of a fluid in a pipe.
D.1.2 Choked Flow
The velocity of a fluid in a pipe of constant cross sectional area cannot
exceed the sonic velocity of the fluid. If the flow of fluid in a pipe is great
enough that the sonic velocity is reached, then a pressure discontinuity
is seen at the exit end of the pipe.
D.1.3 Critical Pressure
The critical pressure is the pressure at which the vapour density and
liquid density of a substance may be the same.
D.1.4 Critical Temperature
The critical temperature is the temperature at which the vapour density
and liquid density of a substance may be the same.
D.1.5 Dongle
See Security Device.
D.1.6 Equivalent Length
The equivalent length of a pipe is the straight length of pipe which
would create the same pressure drop as the actual pipe length plus
losses due to bends and fittings.
D.1.7 Isothermal Flow
Isothermal flow is the constant temperature flow of a fluid in a pipe. In
general when the pressure of a gas reduces, there is a small change in
temperature. This assumption leads to a small error in the calculated
pressure profile. In practice for pipes of length at least 1000 diameters,
this difference does not exceed 5% and in fact never exceeds 20%.
D-4
D-4
D.1.8 MABP
The Maximum Allowable Back Pressure on a relief device is the
maximum pressure that can exist at the outlet of the device without
affecting the capacity of the device.
In general the MABP for a conventional pressure relief valve should not
exceed 10% of the set pressure at 10% overpressure.
In general the MABP for a balanced pressure relief valve should not
exceed 40% of the set pressure at 10% overpressure.
D.1.9 Mach Number
Mach number is the ratio of the fluid velocity to the sonic velocity in the
fluid.
D.1.10Node
Nodes define the connection points between pipes, and pipes with
sources. These are always represented by integer numbers. Node 0
always refers to the exit from the flare system.
D.1.11Reduced Pressure
Reduced pressure is the ratio of the absolute pressure to the critical
pressure of the fluid.
D.1.12Reduced Temperature
Reduced temperature is the ratio of the absolute temperature to the
critical temperature of the fluid.
D.1.13Scenario
A scenario represents a set of flow and compositional data for all
sources in the system.
Glossary of Terms D-5
D-5
D.1.14Schedule
The schedule of a pipe defines a standard thickness for a given nominal
pipe size. In general, flare and vent systems are constructed from
schedule 40 or 80 pipe.
D.1.15Security Device
The hardware device that is connected to the parallel port of the
computer. FLARENET cannot be run unless this device is connected.
D.1.16Source
A source refers to a fluid entering the piping network regardless of the
type of pipe fitting from which it enters. the fluid is defined in terms of
its composition, mass flowrate, pressure and temperature.
D.1.17Static Pressure
The pressure acting equally in all directions at a point in the fluid.
Physical properties are calculated at the static pressure condition.
D.1.18Tailpipe
The section of pipe between the discharge flange of the source valve
and the main collection header is generally refered to as a tailpipe.
D.1.19Total Pressure
The sum of the static and velocity pressures.
D.1.20Velocity Pressure
Given by , also called the kinematic pressure.
ρU
2
2
----------
D-6
D-6
I-1
A
Acentric Factor A-16, A-17, A-23, A-25
Adiabatic Flow
definition D-3
Allowable Back Pressure 10-21, 10-26
B
Berthalot Equation A-19
Button Bar 5-6
C
Calculation Options 11-3
Calculation Options Editor 11-3
General tab 11-3
Methods tab 11-6
Warnings tab 11-9
Calculation Problems group 11-10
Design Problems group 11-9
Sizing Status group 11-10
Calculations 11-1
starting the 11-11
Case
creating a new 6-3
opening an existing 6-4
saving a 6-5
Case Description View 6-3
Check Box 5-4
Chen Equation A-4
Choked Flow
definition D-3
Column Order
changing 5-10
Column Width
changing 5-9
Comma Separated Values 15-4
Component
adding/editing 7-5
changing 7-9
list 7-4
removing selected 7-5
selecting 7-3
matching name string 7-4
selection filter 7-4
sorting 7-9
swapping 7-9
type 7-3
Component Editor View 7-5
Critical tab 7-7
estimating unknown properties 7-8
Identification tab 7-6
Other tab 7-8
Component Manager View 7-3
Composition Basis 5-14
Connector Editor 10-6
Calculations tab 10-7
Connections tab 10-6
Control Valve Editor
Composition tab 10-27
Conditions tab 10-26
Connections tab 10-25
Dimensions tab 10-28
Methods tab 10-29
Copying Source Data
See Sources copy source data
COSTALD Calculations A-19
Critical Pressure
definition D-3
Critical Temperature
definition D-3
CSV
See Comma Separated Values
D
Darcy Friction Factor A-5
Data
components 13-3
sources 13-4
Index
I-2
I-2
viewing 13-1
Data Export 15-3
Data Import 15-3
Data View 5-4
editing 5-9
Database Editor
component 12-8
fittings 12-7
pipe schedule 12-6
Database Features 12-3
adding/deleting data 12-5
manoeuvring through the table 12-4
printing 12-5
selection filter 12-3
Databases Menu 12-1
Dialog Box 5-4
Dongle
See Security Device
Drop Down List Box 5-4
E
Edit Box 5-4
Equation
Berthalot A-19
Chen A-4
Real Gas A-19
Round A-4
SRK A-17
Equivalent Length
definition D-3
Exporting
to Microsoft Access 15-17
Exporting to Microsoft Access 15-17
F
Flare Tip Editor 10-4
Calculations tab 10-5
Connections tab 10-5
Flow
laminar A-5
mist A-10
transition A-5, A-9, A-10
turbulent A-4
Flow Bleed Editor
Calculations tab 10-17
Connections tab 10-16
FMT Files 15-5
Froude Number A-6
H
Help Menu 5-16
Horizontal Separator Editor
Calculations tab 10-13
Connections tab 10-12
Hysim 15-3
I
Importing
ASCII text files 15-8
from HYSIM 15-8
from Microsoft Access 15-16
HYSYS source data 15-13
Interface 5-1
Isothermal Flow
definition D-3
M
MABP
definition D-4
Mach Number
definition D-4
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP) 10-
20
Menu Bar 5-5
Mod Ely & Hanley Method A-20
Mod Letsou-Stiel A-20
Modal View 5-4
Moody Friction Factor A-4
N
Network
rating an existing 11-12
Node
definition D-4
Node Manager 10-3
Node Types 10-4
connector 10-6
flare tip 10-4
flow bleed 10-16
horizontal separator 10-12
orifice plate 10-14
sources 10-18
tee 10-8
vertical separator 10-10
Nodes 10-1
Noise A-27
acoustical efficiency A-28
Index I-3
I-3
Non-Modal View 5-4
O
Orifice Plate Editor
Calculations tab 10-15
Connections tab 10-14
P
Password
setting the 12-5
PFD 14-1
button bar 14-5
changing view options 14-12
grid 14-12
toggle direct/orthogonal 14-12
connecting objects 14-9
icons 14-3
installing objects 14-8
manipulating the 14-9
moving objects 14-10
object inspection 14-5
overview 14-3
printing 14-11
regenerate 14-11
saving 14-11
selecting objects 14-9
method one 14-9
method two 14-10
unselecting objects 14-10
view 14-4
Physical Properties A-19
liquid density A-19
liquid viscosity A-20
mixing rules A-22
thermal conductivity A-23
vapour density A-19
vapour viscosity A-20
Golubev method A-20
Physical Prperties
enthalpy A-24
Equations of State A-25
ideal gas A-24
Lee-Kesler A-24
Pipe
adding/editing a 9-3
arranging display order 9-12
ignoring/restoring 9-11
multiple editing 9-10
Pipe Editor 9-3
Fittings tab 9-6
Heat Transfer tab 9-7
External Conditions group 9-7
Heating group 9-8
Insulation group 9-7
Methods tab 9-8
Pipe Tools 9-13
pipe class editor 9-13
Preferences
setting 5-12
Preferences Editor
Databases tab 5-15
Defaults tab 5-14
General tab 5-12
Import tab 5-16
Reports tab 5-15
Pressure Drop A-3
Printer Setup 15-7
Printing 15-4
location-specific 15-7
PVT Relationship A-15
R
Real Gas Equation A-19
Reduced Pressure
definition D-4
Reduced Temperature
definition D-4
Refresh Source Temperatures 10-31
Relief Valve Editor
Composition tab 10-22
Conditions tab 10-20
Connections tab 10-19
Dimensions tab 10-23
Methods tab 10-24
Removing 7-5
Results
compositions 13-9
messages 13-6
physical properties 13-9
pressure/flow summary 13-8
scenario summary 13-13
viewing 13-1
Round Equation A-4
S
Scenario
definition D-4
Scenario Editor
I-4
I-4
Estimates tab 8-7
General tab 8-5
Headers tab 8-6
Sources tab 8-7
Tailpipes tab 8-6
Scenario Management 8-3
Scenario Manager View 8-3
Scenario Selector 5-4
Scenario Tools 8-8
Scenarios
adding single source 8-8
adding/editing 8-5
General tab 8-5
Sources tab 8-7
Schedule
definition D-5
number 9-5
Security Device
definition D-5
Source
copy source data to scenarios 10-30
definition D-5
Source Tools 10-31
adding single source scenarios 10-31
updating downstream temperatures 10-31
Source Types
control valve 10-25
relief valve 10-19
SRK Equation A-17
SRK Equation of State A-26
Status Bar 5-8
T
Tab Separated Values 15-4
Tee Editor 10-8
Calculations tab 10-9
Connections tab 10-9
Terminology 5-3
Title Bar 5-4
Tool Tip 5-4
TSV
See Tab Separated Values
Two-Phase Pressure Drop A-5
Beggs and Brill A-5
Dukler method A-7
Orkiszewski method A-8
Twu Method A-20
V
Vaour Phase Pressure Drop
methods A-3
Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium A-15
compressible gas A-15
Peng Robinson A-18
Soave Redlich Kwong A-17
vapour pressure A-16
Vertical Separator Editor
Calculations tab 10-11
Connections tab 10-10
W
Windows Menu 5-16

Table of Contents
1 Introducing FLARENET..................................... 1-1
1.1 1.2 Use of Manuals ................................................................. 1-6 Technical Support ........................................................... 1-10 Technical Support Centres ....................................................... 1-11 Offices ...................................................................................... 1-12 Agents ...................................................................................... 1-13

2

Installing FLARENET ........................................ 2-1
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 Basic Requirements .......................................................... 2-3 Installation ......................................................................... 2-3 Licensing ........................................................................... 2-5 Redundant License Servers ............................................ 2-13 Commuter Licensing ....................................................... 2-16 License Server Environment Variables ........................... 2-17 License Server Tools....................................................... 2-25 User Options ................................................................... 2-38 Potential Problems Running FLARENET ........................ 2-39

2.10 Glossary of Terms ........................................................... 2-43

3

Get Started ....................................................... 3-1
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 Data Requirements ........................................................... 3-3 Starting Flarenet................................................................ 3-6 Starting A New Model........................................................ 3-9 Saving The Model ........................................................... 3-13 Building The Pipe Network .............................................. 3-14 Defining The Scenarios ................................................... 3-24 Defining The Sources...................................................... 3-27 Rating The Network......................................................... 3-33 Printing Data And Results ............................................... 3-38

4

Upgrading the Network .................................... 4-1
4.1 Data Requirements ........................................................... 4-3

iii

4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9

Starting Flarenet................................................................ 4-7 Opening the Old Model ..................................................... 4-8 Updating the Model ........................................................... 4-9 Defining The Scenarios ................................................... 4-17 Defining The Sources...................................................... 4-19 Sizing The Network ......................................................... 4-25 Rigorous Rating............................................................... 4-30 Printing Data And Results ............................................... 4-32

5

Interface ........................................................... 5-1
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 Terminology....................................................................... 5-3 Menu Bar........................................................................... 5-5 Tool Bar............................................................................. 5-6 Status Bar.......................................................................... 5-8 Editing Data Views ............................................................ 5-9 Setting Preferences......................................................... 5-12 Windows Menu................................................................ 5-16 Help Menu ....................................................................... 5-16

6

Creating and Saving Cases .............................. 6-1
6.1 6.2 6.3 Creating A New Case........................................................ 6-3 Opening An Existing Case ................................................ 6-4 Saving A Case................................................................... 6-5

7

Components...................................................... 7-1
7.1 7.2 7.3 Selecting Components ...................................................... 7-3 Adding/Editing Components.............................................. 7-5 Organizing the Component List......................................... 7-9

8

Scenarios.......................................................... 8-1
8.1 8.2 Adding/Editing Scenarios .................................................. 8-5 Scenario Tools .................................................................. 8-8

9

Scenarios.......................................................... 9-1
9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 Adding/Editing a Pipe ........................................................ 9-3 Methods Tab ..................................................................... 9-8 Ignoring/Restoring Pipes ................................................. 9-11 Arranging Display Order.................................................. 9-12 Pipe Tools ....................................................................... 9-13

10 Nodes.............................................................. 10-1

iv

10.1 Node Manager................................................................. 10-3 10.2 Node Types ..................................................................... 10-4 10.3 Sources ......................................................................... 10-18 10.4 Ignoring/Restoring Nodes.............................................. 10-32

11 Calculations.................................................... 11-1
11.1 Calculation Options ......................................................... 11-3 11.2 Starting The Calculations .............................................. 11-11 11.3 Efficient Modelling Techniquies..................................... 11-12

12 Databases....................................................... 12-1
12.1 Database Features.......................................................... 12-3 12.2 Setting The Password ..................................................... 12-5 12.3 Pipe Schedule Database Editor ...................................... 12-6 12.4 Fittings Database Editor .................................................. 12-7 12.5 Component Database Editor ........................................... 12-8

13 Viewing Data and Results .............................. 13-1
13.1 Components Data ........................................................... 13-3 13.2 Scenarios Data................................................................ 13-3 13.3 Pipes Data....................................................................... 13-4 13.4 Sources Data................................................................... 13-4 13.5 Nodes Data ..................................................................... 13-5 13.6 Messages ........................................................................ 13-6 13.7 Pressure/Flow Summary ................................................. 13-8 13.8 Compositions................................................................... 13-9 13.9 Physical Properties.......................................................... 13-9 13.10 Profile ............................................................................ 13-11 13.11 Flow Map....................................................................... 13-12 13.12 Scenario Summary........................................................ 13-13 13.13 Graph Control................................................................ 13-14

14 PFD.................................................................. 14-1
14.1 Overview ......................................................................... 14-3 14.2 Object Inspection............................................................. 14-5 14.3 Installing Objects ............................................................. 14-8 14.4 Connecting Objects ......................................................... 14-9 14.5 Manipulating the PFD...................................................... 14-9 14.6 Printing and Saving the PFD Image .............................. 14-11 14.7 Changing the PFD View Options................................... 14-12

v

15 Exporting, Importing and Printing.................. 15-1
15.1 Printing ............................................................................ 15-4 15.2 Importing Source Data .................................................... 15-8 15.3 Exporting to Microsoft Access ....................................... 15-17

A

Theoretical Basis .............................................A-1
A.1 A.2 A.3 A.4 Pressure Drop ...................................................................A-3 Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium ...............................................A-15 Physical Properties..........................................................A-19 Noise ...............................................................................A-27

B

File Format .......................................................B-1
B.1 B.2 Access File ........................................................................B-3 .FMT Files Format ...........................................................B-16

C D

References .......................................................C-1 Glossary of Terms ............................................D-1 Index ..................................................................I-1

vi

Introducing FLARENET

1-1

1 Introducing FLARENET
1.1 Use of Manuals ............................................................................................. 6 1.1.1 How This Manual Is Organized ................................................................ 7 1.1.2 Conventions used in the Manuals ............................................................ 7 1.2 Technical Support ...................................................................................... 10

1-1

1-2

1-2

1 1-3 . FLARENET can model the piping system topologies most commonly found in flare systems. Traditional methods for the design of these flare and vent systems are often reliant upon the experience of the engineer. Failure to evaluate a single scenario due to "a lack of time" in the project design phase can have catastrophic penalties once the process is in operation. This is supported by detailed tables of all pertinent data and calculated results. Figure 1. • Convergent multiphase systems which comprise over 90% of today's installations in chemical process plants ranging from offshore production facilities to refineries and petrochemical plants.Introducing FLARENET 1-3 The design of flare and vent system piping is an important part of the overall system design for any chemical process. He or she must make a number of decisions in order to try to reduce the number of relief scenarios for evaluation based upon tight project deadlines. The program interface uses a flow diagram for direct visualisation of the piping network. FLARENET has been designed to facilitate the design and rating of flare and vent system piping throughout the entire design process.

1-4 • Multiphase systems with two flare tips as commonly found on offshore floating production facilities.2 1-4 . Figure 1.

• Design of an entire new flare system for a single relief scenario. 1-5 . "Plantwide Cooling Water Failure" and "Localised Fire" cases. The following calculations can be done simply from a consistent data set. • Debottlenecking design of an entire/partial flare system for a single relief scenario. as well as the individual relief valve loads can be maintained within a single file model of the flare system. • Rating of an entire/partial flare system for all relief scenarios.Introducing FLARENET 1-5 • Vapour phase ring mains. • Rating of an entire/partial flare system for a single relief scenario. • Design of an entire new flare system for all relief scenarios.3 Multiple relief scenarios such as "Plantwide Power Failure". FLARENET has the option to calculate the pressure profiles using a range of single and two-phase pressure drop calculation methods. Figure 1. • Debottlenecking design of an entire/partial flare system for all relief scenarios.

Since FLARENET is totally interactive. 1. plus a Get Started example to get you up and running with the software. pipe fittings loss coefficients and pure component properties. It is recommended. that you read this manual in order to fully understand the principles involved in the construction and running of the computer models of the flare and vent systems.1-6 Use of Manuals These methods may be used globally throughout the model or specified at a local level. The first three chapters contain the information you need to install FLARENET. it provides virtually unlimited 1-6 . Extensive databases are provided for pipe schedule data. These databases may be supplemented with user supplied data. A graphical display of the pressure profile between any relief source and the flare or vent tip is available to facilitate the rapid determination of sections of the pipe network. FLARENET automatically highlights calculated data that violates user defined design constraints for the flare system: • • • • • Relief valve allowable back pressure Fluid mach number Fluid velocity Fluid temperature Pipe noise These violations are automatically colour highlighted on the tabular results display. All FLARENET documentation is also available electronically on the CD-ROM. Robust multiphase thermodynamic models back up the physical property predictions used by the pressure drop models. which is included with your FLARENET package. however. The remainder of the manual provides in-depth information on the FLARENET interface environments and architecutre. Experienced process design engineers with basic computer knowledge can be expected to quickly acquire the skills necessary to make efficient use of the program.1 Use of Manuals Your FLARENET documentation package consists of one main coilbound User’s Guide. which cause pressurerelated bottlenecks.

For the more advanced user. To help you learn how to use FLARENET efficiently. 1. Click and drag Object inspect A number of text formatting conventions are also used throughout the manuals: 1-7 . Position the cursor on the object of interest. and press the primary mouse button twice. keywords are used to imply a longer instructional phrase: Keywords Select. press or click Double-click Action Position the cursor on the object or button of interest. press and hold the primary mouse button.1.1. Please keep in mind that the approach used in solving each example problem presented in the FLARENET documentation may only be one of the many possible methods. and press the secondary mouse button once. Keywords for Mouse Actions As you work through various procedures given in the manuals. the primary mouse button is on the left. and release the primary mouse button. the appendices contain a summary of the database contents as well as details of the mathematical models used within FLARENET. move the cursor to a new location. quickly in succession. For most users of a standard twobutton mouse. choose. You should feel free to explore other alternatives. and press the primary mouse button once. and the secondary button on the right. Instead of repeating certain phrases for mouse instructions. The primary mouse button is the one you use the most. Position the cursor on the object of interest. 1. you will be given instructions on performing specific functions or commands.1 How This Manual Is Organized This FLARENET User’s Guide is a comprehensive guide that gives details of all the procedures you need to work with the program. this manual describes all areas of the program in a logical sequence. Position the cursor on the object of interest.Introducing FLARENET 1-7 flexibility in solving any simulation problem.2 Conventions used in the Manuals The following section lists a number of conventions used throughout the documentation.

The name of radio buttons and check boxes are identified by bold lettering. When you are asked to select a key or keys to perform a certain function. enclosed by angle brackets.1-8 Use of Manuals Format When you are asked to invoke a FLARENET menu command. Numbered lists are used to break down a procedure into steps. Select the Segment Name cell. When you are asked to provide keyboard input. Notice the two alternatives for completing Step 1 are indented to indicate their sequence in the overall procedure. Press <Enter> to accept the value." Bullets and Numbering Bulleted and numbered lists will be used extensively throughout the manuals. The name of a FLARENET view (or window) is indicated by bold lettering The name of a group within a view is identified by bold lettering. Press <Enter> to accept the name. 3. the button is identified by bold. or for simply listing like objects. the command is identified by bold lettering. keyboard commands are identified by bold lettering. When you are asked to select a FLARENET button. Move to the Splits tab by doing one of the following: • Select the Splits tab • Press <Alt><S> 2. OK identifies the OK button on a particular view. A bulleted list of like objects might describe the various groups on a particular view. 2. Type a name for the pipe segment. italicized lettering. 3. it will be indicated by bold lettering Example File indicates the File menu item. the Add Pipe property view (which is opened by pressing the Add button on the Pipe Manager view) has a 1-8 . Type a value for the rate. For example. for example: 1. Bulleted lists are used to identify alternative steps within a procedure. Component Manager view Component Types group Halogen check box "Type Pipe 25 for the segment name. <F1> identifies the F1 key. A sample procedure that utilizes bullets is: 1.

Figure 1. The use of many of these conventions will become more apparent as you progress through the manuals. Examples include: FLARENET allows you to select single objects as well as multiple objects. but inorder to select an object. Text appearing in the outside margin of the page supplies you with additional or summary information about the adjacent graphic or paragraph. you should have read the introductory section which precedes the example problems in this manual. 1-9 . Shaded Text Boxes A shaded text box provides you with important information regarding FLARENET’s behaviour.Introducing FLARENET 1-9 group which contains four check boxes. namely: • • • • Resizeable Separate Liquids Tailpipe Allow Autocalc Callouts A callout is a label and arrow that describes or identifies an object. you must be in Arrange mode. or general messages applying to the manual. Before proceeding. An example is shown to the left. An example callout describing a graphic is shown below.4 FLARENET Icon Annotations Annotation text appears in the outside page margin.

1-10 . we encourage you to visit our Website at www.). please have the same information available. phone and fax numbers.1-10 Technical Support 1. We also have toll free lines that you may use. please include in your message: • • • • Your full name. About.hyprotech. When you call. The version of FLARENET you are using (see Help.2 Technical Support There are several ways in which you can contact Technical Support..com. A detailed description of the problem (attach a simulation case if possible). If you cannot find the answer to your question in the manual. When contacting us via E-mail. where a variety of information is available to you. including: • • • • • Answers to Frequently Asked Questions Example Cases and Product Information Technical Papers News Bulletins Hotlink to Support E-mail You can also access Support directly via E-mail.. The following listing of Technical Support Centres includes the Support E-mail address. company. The serial number of your FLARENET security key.

aeat.com (e-mail) (403) 520-6181 (local . 4th floor E-08007 Barcelona.aeat. Japan AEA Technology . Selangor Malaysia support@software.. OX11 0RA United Kingdom support@software.com (e-mail) +60 3 470 3880 (technical support) +60 3 470 3811 (fax .technical support) +44 1235 435555 (technical support. Spain support@software.L.technical support) +34 93 215 68 84 (information & sales) Oxford.Hyprotech Ltd. Malaysia Lot E-3-3a.aeat. Canada AEA Technology . AEA Hyprotech KK Plus Taria Bldg. 707 .com (e-mail) +34 93 215 68 84 (technical support) +34 93 215 42 56 (fax .Hyprotech Ltd. Japan 222-0033 support@software. Oxford.aeat.Hyprotech Ltd. UK AEA Technology Engineering Software Hyprotech 404 Harwell.com (e-mail) 81 45 476 5051 (technical support) 81 45 476 5051 (information & sales) 81 45 476 3055 (fax) 1-11 . Alberta T2P 3V3 support@software.aeat.technical support) 1-800-661-8696 (information & sales) Barcelona. Pg. Hyprotech Ltd. 6F. Hyprotech Europe S.com (e-mail) 0800 731 7643 (toll free technical support. Jalan Ampang 68000 Ampang.technical support) (403) 520-6601 (fax . Dataran Palma Jalan Selaman ½. UK only) +44 1235 434284 (fax . information & sales) Kuala Lumpur. Spain AEA Technology .technical support) +60 3 470 3880 (information & sales) Yokohama.Hyprotech Ltd. Suite 800. 3-1-4.Introducing FLARENET 1-11 Technical Support Centres Calgary. de Gràcia 56.technical support) 1-888-757-7836 (toll free . Malaysia AEA Technology .8th Avenue SW Calgary. Shin-Yokohama Kohoku-ku Yokohama.

Canada Tel: (403) 520-6000 Fax: (403) 520-6040/60 Toll Free: 1-800-661-8696 Newark. Malaysia Tel: +60 3 470 3880 Fax: +60 3 470 3811 Houston. Germany Tel: +49 211 577 933 0 Fax: +49 211 577933 11 Cairo. Japan Tel: 81 45 476 5051 Fax: 81 45 476 3055 1-12 . Egypt Tel: +20 2 7020824 Fax: +20 2 7020289 Seoul. USA Tel: (302) 369-0773 Fax: (302) 369-0877 Toll Free: 1-800-688-3430 Oxford. UK Tel: +44 1235 435555 Fax: +44 1235 434294 Oudenaarde. TX. Norway Tel: +47 67 10 6464 Fax: +47 67 10 6465 Kuala Lumpur. Spain Tel: +34 93 215 68 84 Fax: +34 93 215 42 56 Düsseldorf. DE. USA Tel: (713) 339-9600 Fax: (713) 339-9601 Toll Free: 1-800-475-0011 Barcelona.1-12 Technical Support Offices Calgary. Korea Tel: 82 2 3453 3144 or 82 23453 3145 Fax: 82 2 3453 9772 Yokohama. Belgium Tel: +32 55 310 299 Fax: +32 55 302 030 Hovik.

Katy. Beijing. India Logichem Process Sandton. Indonesia Ranchero Services (Thailand) Co. Inc. Inc. Iran ZAO Techneftechim Moscow.C. Caracas.com Email: info@hyprotech. USA International Innotech. Russia Tel: (281) 492-2774 Fax: (281) 492-8144 Tel: 86 10 6499 3956 Fax: 86 10 6499 3957 Tel: 886 2 809 6704 Fax: 886 2 809 3095 Tel: 57 1 258 44 50 Fax: 57 1 258 44 50 Tel: 91 11 621 1815 or 91 11 621 1760 Fax: 91 11 644 6871 or 91 11 644 1984 Tel: 27 11 465 3800 Fax: 27 11 465 4548 Tel: 61 7 544 81 355 Fax: 61 7 544 81 644 Tel: +421 7 288286 Fax: +421 7 288286 Tel: 62 21 567 4573 75 or 62 21 567 4508 10 Fax: 62 21 567 4507 or 62 21 568 3081 Tel: 66 2 381 1020 Fax: 66 2 381 1209 Tel: +401 335 60 05 or 401 335 60 06 Fax: +401 331 3463 or 401 322 30 69 Tel: 52 5 546 5440 Fax: 52 5 535 6610 Tel: 55 11 533 2381 Fax: 55 11 556 10746 Tel: 54 11 4555 5703 Fax: 54 11 4551 0751 Tel: 58 2 264 1873 Fax: 58 2 265 9509 Tel: 98 21 8754496 or 98 21 8758947 Fax: 98 21 8753352 Tel: +7 095 202 4370 Fax: +7 095 202 4370 Internet Website: www. Romania Soteica De Mexico Mexico D. Taiwan KBTECH Ltda. New Delhi. Peregian. Ltd. Ltd. Australia Protech Engineering Bratislava. Bangkok.com 1-13 .L. Argentina Soteiven C. Bogota. Danan Wingus Sakti Jakarta. Buenos Aires.R.A. Thailand S.hyprotech.Introducing FLARENET 1-13 Agents International Innotech. Mexico Soteica Do Brasil Sao Paulo. Venezuela Taradis CAD/CAM Center Tehran. Colombia Kinetics Technology India Ltd. Slovak Republic PT. China International Innotech Taipei. Brazil Soteica S.. South Africa Process Solutions Pty. Chempetrol Service srl Bucharest.F.

1-14 Technical Support 1-14 .

.....................................................................................6.........................................................1 Basic Requirements......3...........................................................4 Redundant License Servers .......................................7....................... 22 LSERVRCCNF............................................................ 8 Network Licensing..........3 2................................................................... 3 2....6 WLMAdmin ...................................................... 24 2..........3 Licensing.............5 Commuter Licensing.............................................................................. 22 LSERVRC ................................................................6 2....... 33 lsusage................................................4 Overview .... 25 lsmon ....................3 2.............6.3 2................................. 13 2.......................................................... 14 2...............................1 2.........................2 2.........6...................7.......................7........................................................Installing FLARENET 2-1 2 Installing FLARENET 2...................... 3 2...........4 2..................................................4 2.................. 19 LSDEFAULTDIR.....7 License Server Tools .............3................................. 29 rlftool .............................................................................5 2.......................................................................2 2....7.. 23 LSPROTOCOL............................. 17 2......................................7 LSHost .................................6.......... 5 Installing the Hardware key...................................................................2 2...................6........................................ 7 Standalone Licensing............................... 28 Wrlftool ........ 25 2.............................................................................................1 Setting up Redundant License Servers..........7...................... 17 LSERVOPTS.........................................................................................6 License Server Environment Variables ................................................... 16 2....................................1 2............... 9 2........ 34 2-1 ....................3.............. 23 LSPORT......................3.........5 2............2 Installation ..........................................7.............................................................................................................................................................................6.......1 2.................... 5 2........6...... 31 lspool.............4.....

..8 User Options............................ 39 2..........................8 lcommute ......................9 ipxecho...........................................7....................................7........ 37 2...................................................................................................................7.......................11 lsdecode .............. 38 2........... 38 2.................... 36 2.......7 Wcommute .........1 Setting Group Reservations ..9 Potential Problems Running FLARENET ................10 Glossary of Terms .........................................2-2 2................... 35 2............................................................10 lswhere. 43 2-2 ...................7............................................................................................7..........................8................................................ 38 2............................................ 37 2..........................................................

Microsoft Windows release 3. System Component Microprocessor Operating System Physical Memory Disk Space Serial Port Keyboard Mouse Requirement 80486 DX or higher IBM PC type computer. 4. Pentium recommended. in which case the program is used in the same way as the single user version. but has the maximum number of concurrent licenses enforced by means of a single security key attached to a server on the network. 2.1 Basic Requirements The following system requirements will ensure satisfactory performance by FLARENET on resonably sized simulation. Approximately 12 MB of free hard disk space is required. From the Start Menu. type: d:\Server\setup.1 1. 8 MB of memory. 2.Installing FLARENET 2-3 2. FLARENET Program Installation Shut down all other operating Windows programs on the computer before starting the installation process.2. 16 MB recommended. required. select Run In the Run dialog box. 3. 2. in which case a single copy of the program is run from either a stand alone PC or from a workstation on a network. Insert the FLARENET software CD into the CD-ROM drive of the computer. Workstation usage requires write access to the program directory. The enforcement of the single user license is by means of the security key attached to the computer or workstation upon which the program is running.1 or later. 2-3 . Optionally. Note that a mouse cannot be plugged into the back of the security key.exe and click on the OK button (where d: corresponds to the drive letter of the CD-ROM drive).2 Installation FLARENET may be run as a single user program. A 25 pin parallel port with a female connector for connection of the security key (do not plug in a serial mouse behind the security key). Enhanced (101) keyboard. FLARENET may be run as a multi-user program .

2. you will be in the FLARENET environment. Select the components you would like to install as well as select the directory that Flarenet will be installed. When the installation is complete. As the installation progresses. 9. Double click the FLARENET application icon. Click Next to continue. 6. you will be prompted with a dialogue box that tells you that you will need to restart you computer to complete the installation. 2. Click Next to continue. after several seconds. 7. The following startup dialog box will be displayed as FLARENET is being loaded. 2-4 . Select the setup type you would like to install: Network or Standalone.2-4 Installation 5. Note that some files are installed to the appropriate Windows directory (the exact path may vary depending on your system setup). Click Next to begin the installation. After several seconds the FLARENET welcome screen will appear. 8. you will see a view showing the progress of the installation.2 Starting FLARENET The FLARENET setup program automatically creates the FLARENET program group which contains the FLARENET application icon. Specify your company name for registration and click Next.

1 Licensing Overview Standard Licenses Standard mode is based on setting a hard limit of users that are licensed to use the application. but not defining specific license numbers.This upper limit allows any combination of products to be used up to the limit. The license specifies a maximum number of tokens and each product is assigned a token value. For example. one license is consumed per feature.Installing FLARENET 2-5 2. You can setup any number of application combinations within the framework of your license setting. Flarenet licenses default to allow up to three copies of Flarenet to be running on a single PC while only consuming one Flarenet license from the server. For example. Licenses can optionally define how many instances can run on a single license.3. Every time the application is run.License Modes).6 . Token Licensing Token mode allows Hyprotech applications to be licensed in a slightly different way then the Standard mode by setting an upper limit on usage. When a user is finished with that feature. In Standard mode. decreasing the available licenses for that feature by one. the license is released back to the license server allowing other users access to launch it. The License Manager will always look for a standalone license first and failing that search for an available network license. a customer with 10 network licenses for Flarenet and 5 network licenses for HYSYS can simultaneously run up to 10 copies of Flarenet and 5 copies of HYSYS. Licenses can also be mixed between standalone and network (refer to Section . If a fourth copy on that PC is started a second license will be consumed.License Server Environment Variables for more information. Optionally a system administrator can customise this process by setting the license server to release specific licenses only to specific users. it consumes a number of token licenses until the limit is reached. Most licenses are issued in Standard mode. This makes token mode very flexible. For instance. See Section 2. say Flarenet has a token value of 10 and HYSYS a token 2-5 .3 2.

you may receive an error which states "D_RHART733" with some failure code. then the AEA_Flarenet check-out will return to the application with a success. It will then request "N" units of the AEA__Token license. so the entire checkout fails. Similarly. but the AEA__Token check-out failed. With this configuration 5 users could run Flarenet.2-6 Licensing value of 4. 2-6 . If the CSS object cannot find the AET_XXX license for feature XXX then you cannot check-out any tokens for that feature. it also allows 4 users to run Flarenet and with 2 runing HYSYS. If this is successful. When the CSS object is in token-mode it will mutate the license request (the Flarenet license is used for this example). Server error messages are slightly different compared to Standard mode. Token mode is active in the your Com Security Server (CSS) object if the AEATOKENMODE flag/name is set in the LSHOST Environment variable or "lshost" file. This means that the Descriptor license check-out failed. but we are checking out AET_Flarenet and AEA__Token licenses. Effectively this will check-out N AEA__Token licenses at once. However. This is to reflect the underlying fact that we are no longer checking out an AEA_Flarenet license. This license will be used to define the token value of the Process feature (The token value is a number from 1 to 99). The error messages in token mode has the server names prefixed by either D_ or T_ this means that when the check-out occurs. with an upper limit of 50 tokens. or allow 3 HYSYS users. When the CSS object finds the Descriptor license and extracts a valid token value of "N" units. an error of "T_RHART733" and an error code indicating that the Descriptor worked. The CSS object will request a Descriptor license called AET_Flarenet (note the "T" in the name).

3 Standalone Licensing to configure the application to run with Standalone licenses. When the application runs. Standalone licensing is setup so that both the application and the licenses are installed on the a single computer.3. Please note that to avoid damage to the computer or key.Network Licensing to configure the application to run with Network licenses. A unique locking code is read from the hardware key and used to generate license codes needed to run the software. An arrow indicates which end should be plugged into the computer. the locking codes must then match the hardware key’s locking code for the licenses to be valid. This kind of configuration is most often used when the application is only used by an individual on a particular computer. Network licensing is setup so that the application is installed on a users computer and the licenses are installed on a network license server.Setting up a License Server for additional information). manufactured by Rainbow Technologies. The license server is used to manage all of the license codes. Refer to Section 2. 2-7 . CID keys can be used for both standalone and network versions of the software. the computer should be powered down before installation of the key. This code locks the hardware key to the licenses. Key Types Computer ID Keys Computer ID keys (or CID keys) are beige Sentinel SuperPro keys.2 Installing the Hardware key Both the standalone and network mode of the application require the use of a hardware key. Refer to Section 2. Note that network licensing requires a Computer ID key be installed on machines that will be used as license servers (refer to Section . 2. Standalone licensing requires a Computer ID key to be installed on every machine that will be running the application.4 .3. The license server consists of network licenses and the license server application. The Computer ID key is installed on the parallel port (printer port) of your computer.Installing FLARENET 2-7 License Modes There are two methods that can be used to license Hyprotech applications: Standalone licensing and Network licensing.3.

2. Locking Codes and License Files A license code needs to be created that includes the information required to identify a specific computer. The license file contains all of the license codes specifying all licensed features of the application. Standalone Licensing Once the application and the Hardware key have been installed on your computer you need to install the license file.2-8 Licensing Hyprotech Green Keys Hyprotech green keys are installed into either a 9-pin or 25-pin serial port of your computer. where the FLARENET executable is located. Open the following directory. Standalone licensing requires that a key is installed on every machine that will be running the application. Hyprotech Green keys can only be used for standalone versions of the software.3 To install FLARENET refer to Section 2. you will have to perform the following steps. The information used to identify a computer is called its fingerprint.2.3. you will find included in your package a FLARENET software CD. The fingerprint required by the application comes from the attached hardware key.1 . C:\Program Files\Common Files\Hyprotech\SLM License Tools. FLARENET Purchases If you have just purchased FLARENET. Copy the license file in to your FLARENET root directory.FLARENET Program Installation. You are now set up to run FLARENET with Standalone licenses. a Computer ID key and a diskette with the license file associated with that key. Rename the license file to lservrc. Note the license file does not have an extension. FLARENET Upgrades If you are currently running a standalone version of FLARENET using a Hyprotech Green Key and are upgrading to the SLM security. 2-8 . The arrow on the label indicates the proper orientation of the GreenKey (the arrow must point towards the computer). 1.

Network Licensing Network licensing is configured so that each user must install the software on their computer and the licenses are installed on a separate license server computer. In addition to the Lock Code please include the following information in your message to ensure a prompt reply: • • • • your name and title company name address key serial number Once Hyprotech has received your Lock Code a license file will be generated and sent back to you.follow the steps outlined below to install the License Server on your license server computer.exe application.Installing FLARENET 2-9 2. 4. 2. you should supply this information for each key that requires an update. Email the locking code for your key(s) to Hyprotech at licenses@hyprotech. Place the license file in your FLARENET root directory. • Computer ID key (refer to the Section 2. where the FLARENET executable is located. Because the lock code is unique to each key. Figure 2.com. Rename the license file to lservrc.4 To install FLARENET refer to Section 2.1 3.3.FLARENET Program Installation.3.2.2 .1 .Installing the Hardware key) • License Server software . The following window will appear displaying six locking codes. Run the echoid32. You are now set up to run FLARENET with Standalone licenses. Setting up a License Server A license server computer is made up of the following components. • License file 2-9 .

5. type: d:\Server\Setup\setup. The powerful personal computer of a FLARENET user is one of the poorer choices for the license server computer. 2. rebooted after lockup in another software program (terminating FLARENET users). If you are having problems with the license server ensure that these drivers are installed by running the setup. select Run In the Run dialog box. Note that the license server computer does not need to be a powerful or fast computer. 4. Insert the FLARENET software CD into the CD-ROM drive of the computer. From the Start Menu. 3. 1. the best choice for the license server computer is one that is left on continually. The License Server installation program creates files only in the directory specified to it during the installation setup procedure. 2-10 . Follow the on-screen instructions to proceed with installation.0 (SP 5) or Windows 95/98. The most trouble-free installation will result from a license server computer used only for the license server function. Note the license server requires certain drivers to talk to the Computer ID key.exe program found in the Delivery Drivers directory on the included disk.2-10 Licensing Multiple license server computers can be setup to spread the load over multiple computers. This computer can be switched off behind locked doors for the weekend. Installing the License Server The following instructions are written assuming installation on Windows NT 4. Shut down all other operating Windows programs on the computer before starting the installation process. Because the license server computer must be operational for FLARENET users to run their software. This avoids conflicts with other software. causing difficulties for existing programs (like the license server software).exe and click on the OK button (where d: corresponds to the drive letter of the CD-ROM drive). or require reconfiguration to suit the needs of a new software program.

See Step 5. The following window will appear displaying six locking codes. 1. The default license server directory is: C:\Program Files\Rainbow Technologies\sentLM\Server\ Rename the license file to lservrc. you will find included in your package a FLARENET software CD. The fingerprint required by FLARENET comes from the attached Computer ID key. below for information on how this done for you operating system.2 2-11 . Open the following directory: C:\Program Files\Common Files\Hyprotech\SLM License Tools. Copy the license file in to your license server directory. FLARENET Purchases Note the license file does not have an extension. Run the echoid32.exe application. 2. If you have just purchased FLARENET. a Computer ID key and a diskette with the license file associated with that key. FLARENET Upgrades If you wish to upgrade your FLARENET licenses or you did not receive your license file you must perform the following steps. Figure 2. Once you have copied the license file to the license server directory you must stop and re-start the license server.Installing FLARENET 2-11 Locking Codes and License Files A license code needs to be created which includes the information required to identify a specific computer. The information used to identify a computer is called its fingerprint.

The license server has its own window running that allows you to access the license server controls. The default license server directory is: C:\Program Files\Rainbow Technologies\sentLM\Server\ Rename the license file to lservrc. To re-start the server click on the Start button. This is done differently depending on the operating system you are using. In addition to the Lock Code please include the following information in your message to ensure a prompt reply: • • • • your name and title company name address key serial number Once Hyprotech has received your Lock Code a license file will be generated and sent back to you. You must then stop and then re-start the license server when ever you change or make changes to the license file. 2-12 . 4.com. Place the license file in your license server directory.2-12 Licensing 3. Highlight SentinelLM and click on the restart icon located in the toolbar at the top of the window. The license server is seen in the list as SentinelLM. found in the Control Panel. Because the lock code is unique to each key. you should supply this information for each key that requires an update. To stop the server highlight SentinelLM and click on the Stop button. 5. The license server is seen in the list as SentinelLM. Description The license server controls are accessed by opening the Admin Tools folder. and then opening Services. The license server controls are accessed by opening the Services found in the Control Panel. Operating System Windows 2000 Windows NT (SP 5) Windows 95/98 Now that you have the proper license codes in place see the next section on setting the system environment variable to point your FLARENET user computers to your license server. Email the locking code for your key(s) to Hyprotech at licenses@hyprotech.

In this case. All of the redundant license servers at your site form a license server pool. • You can acquire licenses even if a particular license server goes down (license server backup). the next highest priority server becomes the leader in turn. Wrlftool can be used to set the priority order of the license servers. By default. You may also configure the license servers so that only one is active and the others are solely backup license servers. Each license server runs on a separate computer on the network. the leader is the first license server in the pool you start up.Installing FLARENET 2-13 2. The leader also makes sure that all the license servers in the pool are using the same version of the redundant license file. or dial-up connections. If this file is changed on one of the license servers. However. only one of the license servers is designated as the leader. If the leader goes down. Internet. However.4 Redundant License Servers Redundant license servers and license balancing offer several important benefits. after one of the license servers 2-13 . Each of the license servers in the pool can take over for any other if one of the l license servers goes down. All servers in a redundant license server pool can grant tokens. Each computer on which a redundant license server resides requires a copy of this file. Then the other license servers would only be used if the main license server went down. all of the license tokens should be allocated to just a single license server and license balancing turned off. The redundant license file (lservrlf) is used to define which license servers make up the redundant license server pool as well as how many token of which licenses are distributed among those license servers. License server computers do not have to be on the same subnet. License servers can be in geographically separate locations on subnets connected to one another via WAN. • The speed that a you can acquire a license is optimized by distributing license tokens among multiple license servers to reduce the traffic for a particular license server (license balancing). The leader synchronizes communication between the license servers in the pool. It is recommended that the leader should be in an area of the network with good bandwidth since the leader must communicate with all other redundant license servers.

• Decide how many redundant license servers to set up and select the computers on which they will reside (you must define at least three. the leader detects the change in the file and automatically updates the rest of the license servers to the newer version. • Create the redundant license file.1 Setting up Redundant License Servers There are three aspects to setting up and using redundant license servers. 1. The following points will go through the steps required to setup a redundant license server. Install the protected application(s) on the users computers. Set each user to access the preferred license server by setting the LSHOST or LSFORCEHOST environment variables on the users computers (refer to Section 2.6 . Install the license server on the computers selected to be redundant servers (refer to Setting up a License Server). using the Wrlftool utility to define the redundant license server pool. The auto-borrowing mechanism helps in load balancing also. Each computer on which a redundant license server resides must have a fixed IP address. • Bring up the license servers.4. but five is recommended). use the WlmAdmin utilities to dynamically reconfigure the redundant license server pool and set license token allocation. You will also receive a diskette that contains a license file (lservrc) that is locked to each of the Computer ID keys. Based on requests. 2-14 . Along with the application you will receive a Computer ID key for each redundant license server. leading to a balanced system. 4. Redistribution of tokens only occurs if license borrowing is turned on. the leader will take away the unused tokens and give them to the requesting license server. 2. the tokens get distributed among the license servers after some interval of time into a pattern that reflects real token use. 2.2-14 Redundant License Servers is stopped and restarted. If you are upgrading your application licenses or you did not receive a license file refer to section Locking Codes and License Files. If a license server exhausts its token allocation. 3.License Server Environment Variables). it will ask the leader to borrow tokens from other license servers. To maintain the pool. If tokens are available from any other license server. lservrlf. A Computer ID key must be attached to each of these computers.

5. 2-15 . view information about the redundant license server pool.Installing FLARENET 2-15 Make sure that any of the license servers that you will be using as redundant license servers are shut down before using the Wrlftool or rlftool to create the redundant license file. Because the redundant license file is in the same directory as each license server. you can use lspool or WlmAdmin from any computer on the network to change the license distribution.7 .License Server Tools for more information). 6. After this. install the redundant license codes you received with the application into the redundant license file and set their initial token distribution among the redundant license servers Since this is the first time that the redundant license server pool has been set up. 7. 8. still using the Wrlftool or rlftool utility. Bring up each of the license servers in the pool. changes to any one of the redundant license files will automatically be transmitted to each redundant license server when one of the license servers is stopped and restarted. each license server will automatically start up as a redundant license server. you need to copy the redundant license file to each of redundant license servers. Use the Wrlftool or rlftool to add the license servers to the redundant license server pool and set the preference number of the license servers to set the order in which the leader will be chosen if the license server goes down. Maintaining the Redundant License Server Pool Once the redundant license servers are set up. Then. and turn borrowing on/off (refer to Section 2.

This will ensure that all of your license tokens are not used up by commuter licensing. • the protected application installed and ready to use. Before your users check out a commuter authorization the portable computer must have: The commuter licensing user must check an authorization back into the same license server from which the authorization was checked out. Remember the application must be able to run off the network. Since commuter licenses use the same license tokens as other types of licensing you will want restrict the percentage of license tokens on a specific license server that can be used for commuter licensing. laptop) that is not connected to the network. • access to the Wcommute or lcommute utility. • network access to the appropriate license server.7.5 You will want to encourage your users to always check authorizations back in as soon as possible. you must use the -com option with the LSERVOPTS environment variable.7 . Commuter Licensing Commuter licensing allows you to temporarily use a protected application on a portable computer (i.lcommute for information on how to check out a commuter authorization. • is connected to the network.8 . To check out a license the portable computer must first be attached to the network and have access to a license server containing licenses for that application.Wcommute and Section 2.2-16 Commuter Licensing 2. 2-16 .e.7. Refer to Section 2. This application must also be installed on the portable computer.

2. For example LSHOST. If you choose to use this file you must place it in the applications root directory. If this file is found. an error message is displayed. the application looks for the specific license server host listed in that variable. Open the Start menu select Settings and then select Control Panel. There are three ways you can set the environment variable to contact the proper license server. 4. 6. then a check is made for a file with the name “lshost” in the applications root directory. • If LSHOST is not set. 3. • If no LSFORCEHOST environment variable is set.0 or WIndows 2000. then the application looks for the LSHOST environment variable. In the Variable text box enter the name of the environment variable. This broadcast search is limited to the users local network subnet. 5.Installing FLARENET 2-17 2. • If the LSFORCEHOST environment variable is set. The following lists the steps the application takes to look for a license server: Note the lhost file does not have an extension attached to it and capitalization does not matter. Select the Environment tab. and the application will close. then the application looks for any of the license server hosts listed in the file. 1. 2-17 . If it cannot find that computer.6 License Server Environment Variables If you choose to set any of the environment variables use the following steps to help you if you are unfamiliar with the system tools for Windows NT 4. In the Value text box enter the address. 2.1 LSHost When the application is started it first tries to identify a standalone license. hostname of the server(s) or variable options. Click OK. If this variable has been set then the application looks for any of the license server hosts listed. Double click on the System icon to open the System Properties window. If the License Server is located outside the users local subnet then the address/hostname of the server must be specified for the application to make the network connection.6. If this fails it will then (by default) attempt to obtain a license by searching for license servers over the network.

3 This file will search for TESTSERV_1.2-18 License Server Environment Variables The LSHOST variable naming conventions are: Note if you are using a network system where the DNS is variable. LSFORCEHOST The LSFORCEHOST environment variable is used to force the application to look for only one license server computer. Anything that follows a number symbol (#) is treated as a comment. LSHOST prevents a network broadcast from being done. • Any valid hostname recognized by your network. If none of the specified license servers is found. and prevents a network broadcast from being done. the application stops searching and returns an error. LSFORCEHOST overrides an LSHOST environment variable or “lshost” file. LSHOST The LSHOST environment variable is used to tell the application to search for one or more license servers. TESTSERV_3 and TESTSERV_5. TESTSERV_2. Note when using multiple server names you need to separate the names. 2-18 . Notice that TESTSERV_4 has been commented out. • Numeric names (IP address). the application stops searching and returns an error. When this variable is set the application will work through the list of license servers beginning at the first license server in the list to the last. with a colon (:). The “lshost” file works the same way as the LSHOST environment variable. Figure 2. in that order. If the license server listed in the variable cannot be found. then you cannot use the IP address for this purpose. in both the environment variable string and “lshost “ file. • NO_NET to disable the default broadcast mechanism from searching the network. The following is an example of an “lshost” file.

6. This can also be specified by the LSPORT environment variable. However you can move existing backup log file to another directory and the license server will begin again. Option Description Specifies the name and location of the license code file.log. -z 2000 means 2000 bytes. To ensure that not all license tokens are used up by commuter. Specifies the maximum size of the usage file.Installing FLARENET 2-19 2. the file will not be backed up on overflow. The size can be specified in bytes. For example. Commuter licensing uses the same license tokens as other network licenses. A typical log file name is lserv. By default. It is recommended that the specific environment variable be used whenever possible -e license configuration file -l usage log file -z usage log file size -x -port port number -com percentage 2-19 . The options for this variable are found in the following table. The license server port number is used by the TCP/ IP protocol when transferring data between the license server and the client. The default value for the maximum size of the log file is 1 megabyte. in the local directory. the license server will create a backup log file unless the -x option has been used. By default. If the -x option is specified. lservrc. the license server will use the file. -z 2k means 2 kilobytes and -z 2m means 2 megabytes. Once the maximum size of the file is reached. or megabytes. Specifies the name and location of the optional license configuration file. Once that percentage of tokens are used up on more will be made available to commuters until tokens are returned. This can also be specified by the LSERVRC environment variable. on overflow of the usage log file. By default usage logging is disabled. -s license file Some of the options that can be set with LSERVOPTS can be set with a specific environment variable. the file contents will be moved into a backup file.2 LSERVOPTS The LSERVOPTS environment variable is used to set license server options. Instead the license server will simply stop writing further records to the file. New usage records are then written to the original file until it overflows again. set this option to the percentage of license tokens you want used for commuter licensing. kilobytes. The maximum number of backup files is 99. This can also be specified by the LSERVRCCNF environment variable. Enables usage logging by specifying the name and location of the usage log file (note you can not include any spaced in the path name).

By default. This is the default encryption level if you do not specify one. 1 to 4.lsusage on how to view the log file). starts the license server as a background service that will not be terminated when the computer user logs off. Vendor defined log file encryption level. but tampering with or deleting an entry will be detected by lsusage. The license server runs without displaying a window or message. Specifies the name and location of the optional group reservations file. Specifies the name and location of the error file where the license server will log occurrences of unexpected conditions.7. For Windows 95/98. Specifies the level of encryption that license transactions will be written to the licenses server log file. • 1 . Then the license server will append the lservlog file in the current directory. Such entries will not be displayed by lsusage.No encryption • 2 . Information is recorded in the file one entry per line in the following format. the license server uses the lsreserv file in the current directory.Encrypt entire record.Encrypt usage only. All transaction data for the license code will be encrypted. this is disabled until the option is specified. You must use the lsrvdown command to stop the license server. Transaction data will be readable except for license usage data. • 3 . • 4 . If this is nonzero. Transaction data will be readable. BY default.6 . -rlf redundant license file -lfe encryption level -f error file -u group reservations file -b Setting Usage Logging If you activate the usage logging option the license server records all license requests and returns in this file. 2-20 . it overrides the Server-LFE. The date the entry was made.No encryption.2-20 License Server Environment Variables Option Description Starts the license server as a redundant license server using the specified redundant license file. Element Server-LFE License-LFE Date Description Customer defined log file encryption level as specified by the license server -lfe option. You do not need to use this option to start the license server as a redundant license server if a lservrlf redundant license file is in the same directory as the license server. Usage reports can be viewed by using the lsusage tool (refer to Section 2. Such entries will not be displayed by lsusage.

Only applicable after a license release. Example Figure 2. the license was issued. The version of the license server. The transaction type. 0 indicates an issue.Installing FLARENET 2-21 Element Time-Stamp Feature Ver Trans NumKeys Keylife User Host LSver Currency Comment Description The time stamp of the entry. and 2 a release. (Encrypted if encryption level is set to 3 or 4) The text passed in by the protected application. The number of licenses handled during the transaction. 1 a denial. Version of the feature. The number of licenses in use after the current request/release.4 2-21 . The user name of the application associated with the entry. Name of the feature. The host name of the application associated with the entry. (Encrypted if encryption level is set to 3 or 4) How long in second.

2-22 License Server Environment Variables 2. Example Figure 2.3 LSDEFAULTDIR The LSDEFAULTDIR environment variable can be used to set the default location of the license server file. Example Figure 2.4 LSERVRC The LSERVRC environment variable is used to set the name and location of the license code file. By default.6. the default directory is set to the directory the license server executable is located in.6. It is recommended that the default name and location are used for this file. By default.6 2-22 .5 2. this file will be called lservrc and reside in the license server default directory. It’s recommended that the license server default directory not be changed.

6.8 2-23 .5 LSERVRCCNF The LSERVRCCNF environment variable can be used to set the name and location of the license server configuration file. It is recommended that the default name and location are used for this file. If LSERVRCCNF is not used to specify the configuration file then the name and location of this file will be based upon the name and location of the license code file.6. Specify IPX or UDP (for TCP/IP) to choose the protocol.Installing FLARENET 2-23 2.7 2. Example Figure 2. this file will be called lservc.cnf and reside in the license server default directory. Example Figure 2. In most installations. In this case the configuration file will reside in the same directory as the license code file and have the same base name as the license code file but with the extension.6 LSPROTOCOL The LSPROTOCOL environment variable is used to specify the communications protocol that will be used to communicate with the license server. This file is used in setting up user alerts and other options.cnf.

(The license server default port number is 5093). Do not change the port number unless your vendor has instructed you to do so or conflicts are occurring between the license server and another network application that is using the license server’s port number.7 LSPORT The license server port number is used by the TCP/IP protocol when transferring data between the license server and the client.9 2-24 .2-24 License Server Environment Variables 2.6. Example Figure 2. A symptom of such a conflict would be license server communication errors.

2-25 . detail on active licenses.7 License Server Tools All of the license server tools are located in the following directory: C:\Program Files\Common Files\Hyprotech\SLM License Tools 2.7. such as license servers detected. Figure 2. From then on WLMAdmin will start up with whatever view mode was last used. and information on licensed users.10 The View menu provides three ways to query license servers. WLMAdmin is a network administration tool that provides you with information on licensing activities.Installing FLARENET 2-25 2.1 WLMAdmin Note that when you first open WLMAdmin you will see a blank screen. IP address or IPX address of a single license server. Running the WLMAdmin application will open the following window.allows you to specify the host name. • Single Server .

11 Specify the host name. You will see the following window. IP address or IPX address of the license server into the text box and click Add. Beneath the license name is a list of license users (users who are using the license) and queue users (users who are waiting for the license). Clicking on the user name located under the license user or queue user heading will display information about that user in the right-hand pane. • All in Subnet . Click Close when you are done.allows you to create a list of license servers you would like to view.10 highlighting a license displays information on the characteristics of the license in the right -hand pane. You will see information such as: • • • • • license type. The list located in the left-hand pane displays all of the license servers that could be found on the network.2-26 License Server Tools • Server List . 2-26 . and whether or not the license can be used for computer licensing. when the license expires. what users currently are using the license.lists all of the license servers found on your area of the network. how many concurrent users can use the license. You can add as many servers as you want. To delete a license server from the list highlight the server and click Delete. Figure 2. The list is created by choosing the Server List option from the Edit menu. This option may be slow since WLMAdmin searches the entire subnet. Beneath the license server name is a list of the all the licenses associated with that license server. As you can see in Figure 2.

To view the License specific menu click on a license name in the left hand pane of the main display and then click the right mouse button.Installing FLARENET 2-27 Maintaining a Redundant License Server Pool There are two menu sets that you can use to maintain your redundant license servers: License Server specific and License specific. Display the list of all license servers in the redundant license pool that this license server is a member.13 2-27 . This will display the following menu. To view the License Server specific menu click on a license server name in the main display and then click the right mouse button. Figure 2. Turn on all token borrowing for this license server. Display the name of the leader of the redundant license server. Deletes the selected license server from it redundant license server pool. Figure 2. This will display the following menu.12 Option Add server to pool Delete server from pool Get leader server name Get pool server list Disable borrowing for all features Enable borrowing for all features Description Adds the selected license server to the license server pool that is a member of. Turn off all token borrowing for this license server.

change how its tokens are distributed among the redundant license servers.. where the first number is the number of tokens allocated. IP address or IPX address that identifies the redundant license server and tokens is the number of tokens to allocate to that server. 2-28 . lsmon will attempt to talk to the license server on the computer indicated in the LSHOST environment variable or in the LSHOST file. If Server-host is omitted.2 lsmon Lsmon is a command line utility that retrieves information about all features currently licensed by the license server and the clients using those features. You see a list of the license servers.7. then it will attempt to contact a license server using the broadcast mechanism. you see a text box that you may type the new distribution criteria.. Use the following format: Server1:tokens1^Server2:token2.2-28 License Server Tools Option Description For this license. not the initial allocation set in the redundant license file. For this particular license. enables token borrowing for this license server only. Each server is followed by three numbers. If the variable or file does not exist. If lsmon fails to find a license server. For this particular license. Change distribution criteria Get distribution criteria Disable borrowing Enable borrowing 2. and the third number is commuter tokens in use. This is the dynamic allocation. The following option may be supplied: Option Server-host Description The name of the computer that the license server is running. See how the license tokens are currently distributed. where Server is the host name. When you select this command. you will receive an error message and the utility will exit. disables tokens borrowing for this license server only. the second number is the tokens in use.

3 If you are editing an existing redundant license file we recommend you make your changes to a copy of your file under another name in order to avoid synchronization problems with someone trying to use the file when you are editing it. This sets the preference order. Although the first license server in the pool to be started up becomes the leader by default. Once you have added more than one server to the pool you can use the Move Up or Move Down buttons to adjust the order of the server in the pool. At any time you can select a license server and click Delete Server to remove the server from the pool. click Add Server. the preference order determines in what order the license servers will become the leader if the license servers go down. Figure 2.7. Remember to change the name back to its original name when you are done. 2-29 . You are required to add at least 3 servers.Installing FLARENET 2-29 2.14 Creating and Maintaining the Redundant License Server Pool To create a new redundant license file. To add a new license server to the pool. select Open from the File menu then select the file. select New from the File menu. Specify the host name and the IP or IPX address of the computer that runs the license server. To edit an existing redundant license file. Wrlftool Wrlftool is a Windows-interface program that allows you to create and maintain a redundant license file.

Editing and Deleting Redundant Licenses To add a redundant license to the pool.15 Once you have added the license code the license editing view will appear.16 2-30 . Figure 2.2-30 License Server Tools Adding. You will see a screen that allows you to either add the license code or specify a file containing the license code. click Add License. Figure 2.

type: rlftool -1 redundant-license-file You then see a menu that lists the rlftool options. that license server will borrow more tokens from another license server in the pool • License distribution . If you would like all of the licenses set up to be identical you can use the Accept All button.4 rlftool Rlftool is a command line utility that allows you to create and maintain a redundant license file. Type the number of the option you want to use and press Return. the when 10 license tokens are remaining on any license server. type 12 and press Return. version number. For a license code with more than one license you can set up each license differently by scrolling through each license using the Next License button. to modify an existing redundant license file. you can select an existing license from the main screen and click Edit License to modify the license or click Delete License to delete the license from the pool. After at least one license has been added to the pool.Installing FLARENET 2-31 The license code. if this license has 100 tokens and the borrowing threshold is set to 90%. from DOS type: rlftool Or. feature name. Along with displaying the license attributes you can specify the following information for the license.From a list of servers in the pool you can choose which license servers will service this license by selecting the appropriate Include check boxes. For example. • Borrowing threshold . To exit and save the file.This is the percentage of license tokens that. You may find using the Windows-interface Wrlftool utility more convenient than this utility. number of license servers that make up the redundant license server pool and number of tokens available make up the License Attribute group box. For each license server you include you can select how many tokens will initially be distributed to that license server. 2-31 . 2. when consumed. To use rlftool in menu mode to create a new redundant license file.7. will trigger borrowing from another license server in the pool.

Not necessary except in extraordinary circumstances. Delete the license server specified by the host name. you set the order that the license servers will be elected the leader if the leader goes down. Add the license server specified by the host name and IP or IPX address. token borrowing will occur. Not necessary except in extraordinary circumstances. Change the redundant license server pool name to the one specified. Delete a license code with the specified feature/ version from the redundant license file. Preference Order View/Edit License To use the rlftool as a command line utility.( -A license-code -F license-file-name -D feature version -p pool-name -s sequence-# -t time-stamp 2-32 . Change the sequence number of the redundant license file. You will be prompted for token distribution and for the threshold percentage. type rlftool followed by any of the options below except -l (which will take you to the menu). because this is handled for you automatically. and may change the token allocations for that license. Add the license codes contained in the specified text file to the redundant license file. by setting the preference order. Enclose the license code in quotation marks. (A mismatch in time-date stamps triggers transmission of the redundant license file to the other redundant license servers when the license server that this change is being made is stopped and restarted. However. (A mismatch in sequence numbers triggers transmission of the redundant license file to the other redundant license servers when the license server that this change is being made is stopped and restarted. May be 8 characters. Add the specified license code to the redundant license file. Option -h -l filename -a server-name address -d server-name Description Displays a list of the rlftool options Load or create a redundant license file.2-32 License Server Tools Two options available when using rlftool in menu mode that are not available as command line options are: Option Description The first redundant license server in the pool to be started is by default the leader. because this is handled for you automatically. When this percentage of the total number of tokens has been consumed on any license server.( Change the time-date stamp of the redundant license file. You can select an existing license to view.

7. Temporary change only in effect until the license server is stopped and restarted. Modifies the redundant license file. You can specify the host name. Modifies the redundant license file. it must be replaced with empty quotation marks: “ “. When the redundant license servers are restarted the changes are lost. IP address. but do not write the changes permanently to the redundant license file. You can specify the host name. If the version is not specified. You must set the LSHOST environment variable to point to one of the redundant license servers..Installing FLARENET 2-33 Option -R report-filename -C conflict report Description Write the redundant license file contents to the specified file.. or IPX address to identify the new license server. where server is the host name. or IPX address to identify the new license server. 2. The dist-crit format is: server1:tokens1^server2:tokens2. The lspool options are: Option -h Description Displays a list of lspool options Add the license server to the redundant license server pool. 2-33 . lspool Lspool is a command line utility that performs the same functions the WLMAdmin utility does. or IPX address. -g feature version Displays the distribution criteria for the specified feature/version. -c feature name distcrit. Changes the distribution criteria for the specified feature/version tokens. Some lspool options dynamically change the redundant license server configuration.5 When making changes to the redundant license server pool as a whole we recommend you select the leader license server to make the changes to. -l -p Displays the host name of the leader redundant license server. Deletes a license server from the redundant license server pool. IP address. Does not modify the redundant license file. If the version is not specified. IP address. it must be replaced with empty quotation marks: “ “. Displays a list of license servers in the redundant license server pool. -a license server -d license server Features and versions are obtained from the license file lservrc. Write any conflicts between token allocation and license servers to the specified file.

2-34 License Server Tools Option Description DIsable or enable token borrowing for the specified feature version for this license server.log usage information event 6 .log all events 1 .log license server down 10 . Does not modify the redundant license file.log borrowing related event 5 . -b feature version OFF|ON -B OFF|ON Temporary change only in effect until the license server is stopped and restarted.log license server addition/deletion 11 . 2-34 .log license server up. The number of tokens for this license that were issued. Disable or enable logging for the specified event.log redundant license file transfer 9 . If the version is not specified.log distribution change 7 . Temporary change only in effect until the license server is stopped and restarted. The percentage of requests for this license that were denied (usually because the hard limit of the license had already been reached). Disable or enable token borrowing for all features/versions for this license server. providing information on license transactions contained in the license server usage file.7.log heart beat 4 .6 lsusage Lsusage is a command line utility that displays a summary of application usage. At the command line enter the following: lsusage logfile. Element Feature name/Version %age Denied %age Issued Ttl Keys Issued Description Identifies the license for which this entry was made.log election of leader license server 3 . Does not modify the redundant license file. On by default 2 . Where logfile is the name you have given to the log file. The log file will then be displayed with the following information. • • • • • • • • • • • • 0 .log license information synchronization 8 . The percentage of requests for this license that were granted. it must be replaced with empty quotation marks: “ “.log license addition deletion -L event OFF|ON 2.

(License requests are queued only if license queuing is enabled for this license.Installing FLARENET 2-35 Element %age Queued granted Description The percentage of queued license requests that were granted.7 Wcommute Wcommute is a Windows-interface utility used for checking commuter authorizations in and out. Duration Max. App. App. %age Qreq. Min. The session numbers for this license server that were logged in this file. The maximum number of minutes the application for this license was is use. The percentage of license requests that were placed in the license queue.) The minimum number of minutes the application for this license was in use. Figure 2. When you first open Wcommute you will see the following window. Duration Avg. The average number of minutes the application for this license was in use. Duration LOG REPORT FOR Sessions: x 2.17 Object Check Out Check In Description Checks out an authorization for a specific license Checks in an authorization for a specific license 2-35 .7. App.

Searched for and displays a specified license server. Check in an authorization for a commuter license. The lcommute options are: Option Note if you do not supply any command line options lcommute will ask you for the information it needs. that you would like to check out. indicating it has been checked out). Figure 2. to select it. -h -c:i -c:o -s:license server Description Displays list of options. 2. Perform the following steps to check out an authorization for a license. Enter a number between 1 to 30 to specify the number of days this license will be checked out. 1. Click Check Out. Click once on the license name to select it and then click Check In.7. Requires you to specify the license server’s computer hostname. This activates the Please enter the number of days until the authorization expires text box. 2-36 . look for the license under the license server that you checked the license out of (There should be a red check mark beside it. You will need to check the authorization back into the same license. Remember the name of the license server that you obtained the authorization. Click Search Subnet or Single Server to display the commuter licenses available for authorization. Click once on a commuter license.18 3. Check out an authorization for a commuter license.2-36 License Server Tools Object Search Subnet Single Server Description Searches for and displays all of the license servers on your subnet. Host name. IP address or IPX address. 4. IP address or IPX address of the license server servicing the commuter license.8 lcommute Lcommute is a command line utility used for checking commuter authorizations in and out. A read check mark will then appear next to the license indicating that it has been checked out. To check in an authorization. 2.

and the authorization is being checked out for 30 days. You can specify the following options: Option -d -r Description Displays details on the license servers found on the network. Only use when you are using the -c:o option.7.9 ipxecho Displays the IPX network address. the feature name identifying the commuter license is AEA_BDK.7. If the license does not have a version. This also identifies the license you want to use. 2-37 . The address is returned in the form of four hexadecimal bytes (network-node address) followed by six hexadecimal bytes (IPX-address). When using the IPX network protocol.Installing FLARENET 2-37 Option -f:feature -v:version -d:days Description Name of feature.10 lswhere Lswehere is a command line utility used to display the network names of the computers running the license server. Number of days the authorization will be checked out. 2. Displays just the IP or IPX addresses of the license servers found on the network. from 1 to 30. the license server host name must be the IPX address of the computer on which the license server resides. this can be omitted. This identifies the license you want to use. By default the address of the computer that the license server is running as well as its host name is displayed. Version. the license does not have a version number. the license server to be contacted is QATEST. the authorization is being checked out. This is the default setting. Example lcommute -s:QATEST -c:o -f:AEA_BDK -d:30 In this case. 2.

If this is not specified the default file name. The groups must be mutually exclusive.7. but you can use it to read a redundant license code file containing un-installed redundant license code. lservrc. The name of the configuration file that may be needed in case readable license strings have been customized by re-mapping of fixed strings. lservrc.cnf).1 User Options Setting Group Reservations Group reservations allows you to associate user groups with each feature and reserving for each group a pool containing a certain number of licenses. -s license-file -e license-config-file 2. A group specification consists of the following: • • • • The name of the feature for which the reservation applies. the license server will issue the license(s) and remove 2-38 . lsdecode looks for license-file. The number of licenses reserved for that group. is used. You cannot use lsdecode to read a redundant license file (default name lservrlf). The name of the group. This utility can be useful in determining the details of licensing agreements. By default.8. You can specify the following options: Option Description The name of the license file.cnf (for example. it checks whether the user making the request belongs to a group. And the login names of users or host IDs of computers that belong to that group. The number of licenses reserved for a feature cannot exceed the number of concurrent copies specified in the license code for that feature.11 lsdecode Lsdecode is a command line utility used to decrypt parts of the information in license code strings. Different groups for the same feature should not have common users or computers.8 2. When the license server receives a request. and licenses are available for that group.2-38 User Options 2. It also enables you to decipher unknown codes. Any licenses not specifically reserved fall into the general pool. If so.

The characters $ and ! have special meaning. Error aLS_BADHANDLE aLS_INSUFFICIENTUNITS aLS_LICENSESYSNOTAVAILABLE aLS_LICENSETERMINATED aLS_NOAUTHORIZATIONAVAILABLE aLS_NOLICENSESAVAILABLE aLS_NORESOURCES aLS_NO_NETWORK aLS_NO_MSG_TEXT aLS_UNKNOWN_STATUS aLS_BAD_INDEX Description Handle used on call did not describe a valid licensing system context Licensing system could not locate enough available licensing resources No licensing system could be found with which to perform the function invoked The licensing system has determined that the resources used to satisfy a previous request are no longer granted to the calling software. If no version number is specified. Otherwise. The network is unavailable. 2-39 . them from that group’s pool. and ! indicates a logical NOT.ver ]:group_name:num_of_licenses:{ user_name | computer} One or more user_name and or computer may be specifies. The licensing system has licensing resources that could satisfy the request. Group reservations should be entered according to the following format. The version number is optional. but at least one value must be specified in the last field. Insufficient resources (such as memory) are available to complete the request. with one group per line: feature_name[ . 2. A warning occurred while looking up an error message string for the LSGetMessage() function. only the feature name is used. The licensing system has no licensing resources that could satisfy the request. An unrecognized status code was passed into the LSGetMessage() function. $ indicates the computer name. but they are not available at the time of the request.Installing FLARENET 2-39 The path and file name of the reservation file is defined by the LSERVRC environment variable. requests will be serviced with licenses from the general pool until no licenses are available.9 Potential Problems Running FLARENET The following table provides descriptions of some possible error returns from the system. An invalid index was specified in LSEnumProviders() or LSQuery License.

Input buffer is too small. User// excluded. Internal error in SentinelLM. Failed to add license. (Probable cause . license server is not RUNNING. If reasons are known. End of clients on calling VLSgetClientInfo. This may be due to a timerestriction on the license. Failed to return the key issued to this copy of the application. No success in achieving the target. LSrelease called when this copy of the application had not received a valid key from the SentinelLM server. End of features on calling VLSgetFeatureInfo. license server is not responding. The license associated with the current context has expired. Irrecoverable Internal error in SentinelLM. Failed to delete license. Last update was done locally. need a bigger buffer. Last update was done by the SentinelLM server. No servers responded to client broadcast.network down. General error by vendor in calling function etc. On the specified machine. wrong port number.). aVLS_NO_SERVER_FILE aVLS_NO_SERVER_RUNNING aVLS_APP_NODE_LOCKED aVLS_NO_KEY_TO_RETURN aVLS_RETURN_FAILED aVLS_NO_MORE_CLIENTS aVLS_NO_MORE_FEATURES aVLS_CALLING_ERROR aVLS_INTERNAL_ERROR aVLS_SEVERE_INTERNAL_ERROR aVLS_NO_SERVER_RESPONSE aVLS_USER_EXCLUDED aVLS_UNKNOWN_SHARED_ID aVLS_NO_RESPONSE_TO_BROADCA ST aVLS_NO_SUCH_FEATURE aVLS_ADD_LIC_FAILED aVLS_DELETE_LIC_FAILED aVLS_LOCAL_UPDATE aVLS_REMOTE_UPDATE 2-40 . some other application on that port etc. more specific errors are given. Generic error when a license is denied by a server. On the specified machine. No FILE giving license server name (Application cannot figure out the license server. This feature is node locked but the request for a key came from a machine other than the host running the SentinelLM server. Unknown shared id. Unknown host (Application is given a server name but that server name doesn’t seem to exist). No such feature recognized by server.2-40 Potential Problems Running FLARENET Error aLS_NO_MORE_UNITS aLS_LICENSE_EXPIRED aLS_BUFFER_TOO_SMALL aLS_NO_SUCCESS aVLS_NO_LICENSE_GIVEN aVLS_APP_UNNAMED aVLS_HOST_UNKNOWN Description No additional units are available. Application has not been given a name.

Could not queue the client because the queue is full. Even though the client asked VLSreleaseExt API to return a specific number of units. A tag’s type is invalid for the operation requested. The status of LS_HANDLE = is ambiguous. and it cannot service the request since the license for this feature has been set to be time tamper proof. or a version mismatch. The domain of server is different from that of client. The LS_HANDLE = is an active handle. aVLS_MULTIPLE_VENDORID_FOUND aVLS_BAD_SERVER_MESSAGE aVLS_CLK_TAMP_FOUND aVLS_NOT_AUTHORIZED aVLS_INVALID_DOMAIN aVLS_UNKNOWN_TAG_TYPE aVLS_INVALID_TAG_TYPE aVLS_UNKNOWN_TAG aVLS_UPDATE_TAGGED_KEY_ERROR aVLS_TAGS_NOT_SUPPORTED aVLS_LOG_FILE_NAME_NOT_FOUND aVLS_LOG_FILE_NAME_NOT_CHANG ED aVLS_FINGERPRINT_MISMATCH aVLS_TRIAL_LIC_EXHAUSTED aVLS_NO_UPDATES_SO_FAR aVLS_ALL_UNITS_RELEASED aVLS_QUEUED_HANDLE aVLS_ACTIVE_HANDLE aVLS_AMBIGUOUS_HANDLE aVLS_NOMORE_QUEUE_RESOURCES aVLS_NO_SUCH_CLIENT aVLS_CLIENT_NOT_AUTHORIZED aVLS_BAD_DISTB_CRIT aVLS_LEADER_NOT_PRESENT 2-41 . version from multiple vendors. Distribution Criterion given is not correct. Probably an incompatible or unknown server. No client as specified. Processing not done because current leader is not known. Attempt to update a tagged key. it returned all the issued units. and it is not clear from the requested operation which license the requester is interested in. Client not authorized to make the specified request.Installing FLARENET 2-41 Error aVLS_VENDORIDMISMATCH Description The vendor identification of requesting application does not match with that of the application licensed by this system. ??????? ??????? ??????? Trial License Usage Exhausted or Trial License Expired. The server has found evidence of tampering of the system clock. found with the server. The server doesn’t know this tag. The LS_HANDLE = is a queued handle. Server does not support tags. The server does not know of this tag type. The specified operation is not permitted authorization failed. No Updates have been made so far. An error has occured in decrypting (or decoding) a network message. The server has licenses for the same feature.

elan License not enabled. Server is not allowed to issue commuter code for the requested feature and version. Trial usage query failed. Invalid IP address Format. Tried to delete a server who is not in pool currently. Message forwarded to leader. Not an Error. End of features on calling VLSgetCommuterInfo API. Host name is not valid or can not be resolved. of servers it can handle. The token cannot be issued because of majority rule failure. A non-redundant feature given for redundant feature related operation. Pool will not exist if this only server is removed. Client already exist. Client server version mismatch. Client commuter code does not exist. VLSgetAndInstallCommuterCode() failed. The feature is inactive on the requested server. Failed to get client commuter info. may be Contact server died or modified. 2-42 .2-42 Potential Problems Running FLARENET Error aVLS_SERVER_ALREADY_PRESENT aVLS_SERVER_NOT_PRESENT aVLS_FILE_OPEN_ERROR aVLS_BAD_HOSTNAME aVLS_DIFF_LIB_VER aVLS_NON_REDUNDANT_SRVR aVLS_MSG_TO_LEADER aVLS_CONTACT_FAILOVER_SERVER aVLS_UNRESOLVED_IP_ADDRESS aVLS_UNRESOLVED_HOSTNAME aVLS_INVALID_IP_ADDRESS aVLS_SERVER_FILE_SYNC aVLS_POOL_FULL aVLS_ONLY_SERVER aVLS_FEATURE_INACTIVE aVLS_MAJORITY_RULE_FAILURE aVLS_CONF_FILE_ERROR aVLS_NON_REDUNDANT_FEATURE aVLS_NO_TRIAL_INFO aVLS_TRIAL_INFO_FAILED aVLS_ELM_LIC_NOT_ENABLE aVLS_NOT_LINKED_TO_INTEGRATED _LIBRARY aVLS_CLIENT_COMMUTER_CODE_DO ES_NOT_EXIST aVLS_CLIENT_ALREADY_EXISTS aVLS_NO_MORE_COMMUTER_CODE aVLS_GET_COMMUTER_INFO_FAILED aVLS_UNABLE_TO_UNINSTALL_CLIE NT_COMMUTER_CODE aVLS_ISSUE_COMMUTER_CODE_FAIL ED aVLS_UNABLE_TO_ISSUE_COMMUTE R_CODE Description Tried to add a server to pool which is already there. IP address given can not be resolved. Error related to configuration file operation. VLSuninstallAndReturnCommuterCode() API failed. Different API version. Commuter related error code not linked to integrated library. no. Server is synchronizing dist table. Update fail. Pool is already having max. Host name given is unresolved. File can not be open. It is not an error. No Trial usage info. A non-redundant server contacted for redundant server related information.

used to define a single licensed feature. 2. Server has already check out one commuter code for this client. License granted local to the users machine.. Program/Service running on a computer which is attached to the LAN. Client has already had commuter code with this feature version. Grants Licenses to the application which is running on network user machines.10 Term License Glossary of Terms Description Permission granted to program/application/ component to use a specific feature. No commuter code exit with this feature / version. Please wait. File containing License Codes for the specific features licensed to the user.Installing FLARENET 2-43 Error aVLS_NOT_ENOUGH_COMMUTER_KE YS_AVAILABLE aVLS_INVALID_INFO_FROM_CLIENT aVLS_CLIENT_ALREADY_EXIST aVLS_COMMUTER_CODE_DOES_NOT _EXIST aVLS_COMMUTER_CODE_ALREADY_ EXIST aVLS_SERVER_SYNC_IN_PROGRESS Description Not enough key available to check out commuter code. Encrypted/Checksummed/TamperProtected AlphaNumeric text string. Physical hardware device used to secure Licenses. License Code License File Standalone License Network License Network License Server Hardware Key 2-43 . Each code is licked to a hardware key (Computer ID key or GreenKey). License granted/obtained from a network license server. Invalid lock Info provided by client.. Server synchronization in progress.

2-44 Glossary of Terms 2-44 .

............................................ 13 3.................................................4 Saving The Model.....................................................................................................6 Defining The Scenarios .............. 33 3...........................7 Defining The Sources .......2 Starting Flarenet............ 9 3... 38 3-1 ................... 14 3................................3 Starting A New Model ...........................8 Rating The Network.......... 3 3. 6 3.................................................................................................1 Data Requirements....................................................................................9 Printing Data And Results ............................................................... 24 3.................Get Started 3-1 3 Get Started 3.................................5 Building The Pipe Network............................. 27 3..........................................................................

3-2 3-2 .

4. 2. Connectivity Length and fittings loss coefficients for each pipe segment Description You would normally have prepared a system sketch that defines the nodes to which the pipe segments are connected. It is recommended that reasonable diameters be defined. Building The Pipe Network . This example consists of the following main parts: 1. the pipe diameters that you define are relatively unimportant since they will be overwritten by the sizing algorithms. Defining The Sources .Pipes and nodes will be added using either the PFD or the Manager views. Sizing the Network . If you are sizing a new flare system.Get Started 3-3 This Get Started tutorial shows the fundamental principles involved in using FLARENET to design and rate a new flare system. This "guided tour" will expose you to most of the major features of FLARENET.Finally. Defining the Scenarios .1 Data Requirements Before you can start to build a computer model of the flare header system. so that the sizing algorithm initialises to a condition that will give faster convergence. 3.Different scenarios will be set up to simulate various process conditions. You should initially size a network using vapour phase methods. This tutorial assumes that you are familiar with the use of Windows and have some prior experience in the design of flare systems. These will be based upon either a preliminary or detailed isometric drawing of the piping. Diameter and pipe schedule for each pipe segment 3-3 . Pipe Segment Data Data When you are sizing a flare system.Relieving sources will be added to each scenario. 3. the initial pipe diameters may affect the solution when there is a liquid phase and the liquid knockout drum is modelled. you must first define all the data that will determine your system. the pipe network will be simulated and results will be viewed both in textual and graphical form. these will normally be taken from the flare system P&ID. If you are rating an existing network.

0 0 0 0 0 Elevation Change (m) 0 100 0 0 0 The flare tip is assumed to be a simple opened ended piece of 18" pipe. assuming standard tees for the junctions.3 428.3 876.3 876. 3-4 .05 19. Fittings loss coefficients exclude pipe enlargement and junction losses which will automatically be calculated.1 The pipe segments in the network diagram are detailed in the following table.3-4 Data Requirements The following diagram shows the connectivity of the system that you will be designing in this example. Figure 3.275 Wall Thickness (mm) Segment Name Flare Tip Stack Header 3 Tail Pipe 1 Tail Pipe 2 Length (m) 0 100 50 25 25 Fittings Loss 3.65 428. It will not be resized.275 14.05 14. Internal Diameter (mm) 876.65 19.

0 5. The following tables define the source data for each scenario. 20 25 3-5 . This is the maximum pressure that can exist at the outlet of the device (source) without affecting its capacity.0 Mol. These are only used if the Ideal Gas enthalpies are not used for the heat balance. With relief valves. Default Source Data Source Name Source 1 Source 2 Flowrate (kg/hr) 100000 100000 Flange Size (mm) 300 300 US Temp (C) 15 15 DS Temp (C) 15 15 US Pres. the flowing pressure should be used.Get Started 3-5 Relief Source Data The following data must be specified for the sources: Data Description These may vary for each scenario that you are evaluating. The Rated Flow refers to the quantity of fluid that the source valve will pass due to its physical construction. If a relief source is not used in a particular scenario the flow may be set to zero. This temperature is used as the pressure independent temperature at which the source enters the network. The Flow refers to the quantity of fluid that the source valve must pass as a consequence of the plant upset condition. Flow and Composition Maximum Allowable Back Pressure (MABP) Downstream temperature Upstream pressure and temperature Discharge flange size In this example. (bar abs) 10 10 MABP (bar abs) 5. This temperature is used when ideal gas enthalpies are used to calculate the heat balance. This will normally be determined from the relief valve sizing calculations. Wt. you will consider three scenarios that represent one fire case and two single blocked discharge cases. Rated flow must always be greater than or equal to flow. or as an initial guess when any other enthalpy method is used. These may vary for each scenario that you are evaluating.

(bar abs) 10 10 MABP (bar abs) 5. Select the Start Menu.0 Mol. 1. it will be assumed that the rated flow is equal to the maximum flow for the source from the two scenarios +20%. Wt.AEA Technology. 3-6 .3-6 Starting Flarenet Source 1 Only Data Source Name Source 1 Source 2 Flowrate (kg/hr) 100000 0 Flange Size (mm) 300 300 US Temp (C) 15 15 DS Temp (C) 15 15 US Pres. the following data is used for both Scenarios: • Maximum allowable mach number . To Start Flarenet. 20 25 For each source.2 Starting Flarenet The installation process creates a shortcut to Flarenet in the Start Menu under Programs.. 3.50 for both main headers and tailpipes.. 2.0.0. Wt.0 5. 20 25 Source 2 Only Data Source Name Source 1 Source 2 Flowrate (kg/hr) 0 100000 Flange Size (mm) 300 300 US Temp (C) 15 15 DS Temp (C) 15 15 US Pres. System Design Constraints In this case.0 Mol.0 5. (bar abs) 10 10 MABP (bar abs) 5. Move from the Programs to AEA Technology to Flarenet 3.

2 Now you are ready to begin working with Flarenet.Get Started 3-7 3. Select Flarenet 3.0. Figure 3. 3-7 .

Select the Preference from the Flarenet File menu.3 Note that this view has been resized. To re-size the view. your Desktop view should appear larger than this when initially opened. press the Maximize button in the upper right hand corner. the Flarenet Desktop will appear: Figure 3. Before setting up the Get Started case. click and drag the outside border.3-8 Starting Flarenet When you start Flarenet. the Preferences 3-8 . To make the view full size. you should choose the Flarenet unit set for displaying information. You can check your current unit set by accessing the Preferences Editor: 1.

Figure 3. Also confirm that the Edit Objects on Add checkbox is active(checked).3 New Case Button Starting A New Model To start a new case. which will be used for this example. Figure 3. do one of the following: • Select New from the File menu on the main program menu bar. 3. Press the OK button to close the Preferences Editor view. The current unit set is shown in the Units drop down menu.5 3. This option will open the object editor view each time a new object is added. The Flarenet defualt is Metric.Get Started 3-9 Editor view will open.4 2. 3-9 .

Ensure that the HC checkbox in the Component Type group is 3-10 . Initially. Ethane and Propane. Figure 3. we will be using the following components: Methane. To add methane using the filter option: 1.6) into the User Name. Figure 3. There are number of ways to select components for your simulaion. Project.7 The Selected list box is empty. Job Code. and Description fields. You can deactivate them by pressing the Invert button. The Component Manager view then appears. indicating that no components have yet been installed in the case. In this model. One method is to filter the database for a certain component type.6 Enter the appropriate data (as shown in Figure 3. and then click the OK button. The Description Editor view appears. all the checkboxes in the Component Types group are active.3-10 Starting A New Model • Press the New Case button.

8 3. Start typing methane in the Selection Filter edit box. Highlight the component by single clicking on it and then click Add to place it in the Selected list. Notice that as you are typing. 3-11 . Double click Methane in the Database list box. Figure 3. the Database list box will be filtered out to show only the matching components.Get Started 3-11 activated. Methane will now have been selected and will be shown in the Selected list box. As an alternative method. you may scroll through the Database list box until you see the desired component. 2. Repeat the previous step with Ethane and Propane.

Click OK to close the Component Manager view and accept the list of components. indicating that they have been installed in the case. Open the View menu and then the Data sub-menu. You can use the horizontal scroll bar at the bottom of the view to view all of the component properties. Select Components from the sub-menu.9 Notice that now all the required components are shown in the Selected list box. The Components data view will be displayed: Figure 3.10 3-12 .3-12 Starting A New Model This Component Manager view will now appear as follows: Figure 3.

Note that you do not need to include the . enter the name of the file to which you wish to save the case in the File name field.4 Saving The Model It is good practice to periodically save your case by doing one of the following: Save button • Press the Save button on the button bar. • Press <Ctrl><S>.11 After selecting an appropriate disk drive and directory in the Save in drop-down menu. As this is the first time you have saved your case.Get Started 3-13 3. • Select Save from the File menu. the Save Flarenet Model view will be displayed: Figure 3.fnw extension. FLARENET will add it automatically. Click Save to close the dialog box and save the file. 3-13 .

Figure 3. You can add an object by clicking on it. respectively.. in the Build menu. make sure that the Edit Objects on Add checkbox on the General tab of the Preferences Editor view is checked. 3-14 . The PFD view will be displayed with its own button bar. These are accessible through Pipes.12 Before proceeding any further. At this point the view should be blank..3-14 Building The Pipe Network 3. and Nodes.. you should first build the pipe network model via the PFD. which dislays all the objects available in Flarenet..5 Building The Pipe Network Open PFD Button Since all scenarios have a common pipe network. Press the Open PFD View button on the button bar. The desired objects can be added with any of the following features: • Pressing the Toggle Palette Display button on the PFD view or the F4 key will open the Toolbox view. since we have not added a single object yet. • Objects can also be added via the Pipe Manager and the Node Manager views.

which can be changed to a more appropriate name as follows: 1. press the Flare Tip button on the Toolbox view. Now you need to specify the pipe. 3.13 By default the Flare Tip has been named as 1. Since this example is of smaller size. 2. In the At drop down box. The Flare Tip Editor view will be displayed: Flare Tip Button Figure 3. which will be simulated as a flare stack. This field is only useful for larger case with multiple sections (areas) within a same plant. you need to specify the Diameter and the Fitting Loss values on the Calculations tab. and it is attached to the Tip. Enter the name Stack in the Inlet field. Since the Edit Objects on Add checkbox is selected. 3-15 . select Downstream as the pipe end connected to the Tip. Delete the default name and type Flare Tip as the new name. therefore the Location field will be left blank. In order to complete the Flare Tip Editor view. 4.Get Started 3-15 For the Flare Tip. Click in the Name field on the Flare Tip Editor view.

On the Calculations tab. enter 876. Notice that two new objects have been added to the PFD view. 6. 8.3 as the diameter and 3 as the fitting loss in the appropriate fields. Press OK to close the view.3-16 Building The Pipe Network 5. Specify the Length as 100 m and the Elevation Change as 100 m.14 Now you have provided all the necessary information about the Tip. This will result in a vertical pipe measuring 100 m tall. Open the Stack property view and move to the Dimensions tab. 7. 3-16 . Figure 3. You can either manually arrange them by clicking and dragging the object icons or let Flarenet auto-arrange the icons by selecting Regenerate from the PFD menu under the View drop down menu.

every pipe segment uses the default models which are specified on the Methods tab of the Calculation Options Editor view. 12.Get Started 3-17 9. and Compressible Gas VLE. Select the Nominal Diameter as 36 inch and the Pipe Schedule as 40. The Pipe Manager view will be displayed. Press OK to close the Stack property view. On the Methods tab. Now you need to add another pipe segment which will be added using the Pipe Manager view. In this example.16 3-17 . are Isothermal Vapour Pressure Drop. The default methods.15 10. as defined in the Calculation Options Editor view. Select Pipes from the Build menu on menu bar. 11. Figure 3. Figure 3. confirm that Vertical Pipe and VLE Method are set as default models.

Change the default name to Header 3. The Pipe Editor property view will be displayed.17 14. Figure 3. On the PFD Toolbox view. a Connector node will be used. since you need a simple connection between the two pipes. click on the Connector button. Flarenet allows you to choose between a variety of nodes. Move to the Dimensions tab and enter the following data in the appropriate fields: Field Length (m) Nominal Diameter (inch) Pipe Schedule Value 50 36 40 16.3-18 Building The Pipe Network 13. 17. 15. Close the Pipe Manager view by pressing the OK button. Click the Add button. 18. Click OK to close the Pipe Editor view. You need to attach Header 3 with Stack using a node. Connector Button 3-18 .

3-19 . In the Upstream drop down box. Figure 3. to combine the flow from the two sources. Now. using the Node Manager. 20.19 Notice that by default the Theta has a value of 90 deg and the Fitting Loss Method is set as Calculated. Move to the Calculations tab. Enter the new name as Con 1. Press the OK button to close the Connector Editor view. a tee will be added. 23. 21. 22. In the Downstream drop down box. select Header 3 and specify the connection at Downstream (of Header 3) in the At drop down box. You can leave the default value for this example. select Stack and specify the connection at Upstream (of Stack) in the At drop down box.18 19. Figure 3. On the Connections tab.Get Started 3-19 This will open the Connector Editor view.

3-20 .21 26.20 25. Move to the Calculations tab and change the Fittings Loss Methods setting to Miller in the drop down menu. 28. Click the Add button and Select Tee from the pop up list. Close the Tee Editor property view by pressing Ok button. Figure 3. Figure 3. 27. Press Ok to close the Node Manager view. Change the default name to Tee 1 in the Name field. The Tee Editor will be displayed. 29. Select Nodes from the Build menu on menu bar. 30.3-20 Building The Pipe Network 24. Specify the Downstream connection to be Header 3 and select Upstream from the At drop down menu. The Node Manager view will be displayed.

3-21 . 37. Move to the Dimensions tab and specify the Length as 25 m.22 32. you can add two pipe segments to the upstream and branch section of Tee 1 using the Pipe Manager view. Figure 3. Figure 3. 33. Open the Pipe Manager view by selecting Pipes from the Build menu. Set Nominal Diameter as 18 inch from the drop down box. Press Next to add another pipe segment.Get Started 3-21 Now. Press the Add button to add a new pipe segment. 31. 36. Specify Tee 1 as the Downstream connection and select Branch in the At drop down box. Change the default pipe name to Tail Pipe 1. 34.23 35.

24 42.25 3-22 . The Pipes view displays the data for all of the pipe segments: Figure 3. 43.3-22 Building The Pipe Network Notice that Tail Pipe 1 has been added to the Pipe Manager list. Press the OK button to close the Pipe Editor property view. Change the new pipe segment default name to Tail Pipe 2. Move to the Dimensions tab and specify the Length as 25 m. Set Nominal Diameter as 18 inch from the drop down box. 39. 40. Specify Tee 1 as the Downstream connection and select Upstream in the At drop down box. Close the Pipe Manager view by pressing the OK button. 41. Figure 3. Select Data-Pipes from the View drop down menu on the menu bar. 38.

Get Started 3-23 You could also check the PFD to ensure that the proper connections have been made.26 3-23 . A portion of the PFD is displayed below: Figure 3.

44. The Scenario Manager dialog box will be displayed.3-24 Defining The Scenarios 3. Since each case must contain at least one scenario. a set of default scenario data is created when you start a new case. Select Scenarios from the Build menu on the menu bar. We need to modify this data. the Default Scenario.6 Defining The Scenarios You now need to define the data for all the scenario.27 45. Figure 3. Source 1 Only and Source 2 Only scenarios. 3-24 . Double click on Default Scenario in the Scenario list box.

The Clone Scenario From dialog box will be displayed. Click Add on the Scenario Manager. i. then click OK to close the Edit Scenario dialog box and return to the Scenario Manager.28. Default Scenario scenario. Enter the data for the Default Scenario scenario as shown in Figure 3. 47. you could single-click Default Scenario in the Scenario list box then click Edit. 3-25 . Figure 3. Alternatively. Now we should add the data for the Source 1 Only scenario. Figure 3.e.29 48.28 46. Select the only entry in the dialog box.Get Started 3-25 The Scenario Editor dialog box will be displayed.

Figure 3. Figure 3.30 50. Change the default name to Source 1 Only and enter the data for the Source 1 Only scenario as shown in Figure 3. 53. Change the default new for the new scenario to Source 2 Only. then click OK to close the Scenario Manager.3-26 Defining The Scenarios 49.31 52.30. 51. Click OK to close the Scenario Editor view and return to the Scenario Manager.30. To add a new scenario press Next on the Scenario Editor and select the Source 1 Only scenario from the Clone Scenario From dialog box. Enter the data for the new scenario as shown in Figure 3. 3-26 .

33 55. The Preferences view will be displayed.7 Defining The Sources You will now enter the source data for the sources in all scenarios. is selected in the Composition Basis drop down list box. Click OK to close the Preferences Editor view.32 Ensure that Mol.Get Started 3-27 3. 54. the program preferences must be set to accept the compositions on this basis. Figure 3. 3-27 . Select Preferences from the File drop down menu on the menu bar. Wt. Figure 3. Since for the first part of the example you will be defining the source compositions in terms of molecular weight.

3-28 .3-28 Defining The Sources Before defining a set of source data. 56. Select the Default Scenario scenario. You must select the scenario which corresponds to this data. Figure 3. Any open data views would now display data for this scenario.34 You can now add the data corresponding to this scenario for each source. You will start by defining the data for the Default Scenario.

Get Started 3-29 The Mole Fractions are automatically estimated from the Molecular Weight. Click Add and select Control Valve from the pop up list. Select Nodes from the Build menu on the main menu bar (<Alt>. Figure 3.35 58. The Node Manager dialog box will be displayed: Figure 3. 57. S). Because HC is selected from the drop down.36 3-29 . B. only hydrocarbon components will be used to match the Molecular Weight.

Wt. Figure 3. specify the Mol.3-30 Defining The Sources The Control Valve Editor view will be displayed: Figure 3. Change the default name to Source 1. Move to the Conditions tab and set the Mass Flow as 100000 kg/hr. On the Composition tab. 60.38 61. Click Next to add a new source. 62.37 59. The node pop up list will again be displayed. Select Tail Pipe 1 in the Outlet drop down down box and set connection to be at Upstream (of Tail Pipe 1). to be 25. 3-30 .

40 3-31 . 64. Again select Control Valve from and the Control Valve Editor view will be displayed. 65. Select Tail Pipe 2 in the Outlet drop down down box and set connection to be at Upstream (of Tail Pipe 2). The Node Manager dialog box will now appear as follows: Figure 3.39 66. Repeat step# 60-62 to add all the information required by the scenario. The source name appears as the source name preceded by the plant identifier.Get Started 3-31 63. 67. Press the Ok button to close the Control Valve Editor view. Figure 3. Name the new source as Source 2 on the General tab.

Select Data-Sources from the View drop down menu on the menu bar.3-32 Defining The Sources 68. Close the Node Manager view by pressing the OK button. The Sources data view for the Default Scenario will be displayed: Figure 3.41 You must now add the source data for the other two scenarios. 70. Select the Source 1 Only scenario from the Scencario Selector drop down menu on the tool bar (to the right of the buttons).0 kg/hr • Source 2 . Make the following changes to the flowrates in the Source 1 Only Scenario (all other information remains the same): • Source 1 .100000 kg/hr • Source 2 . Any open data views will now display data for this scenario.100000 kg/hr 3-32 . select the Source 2 Only scenario from the Scencario Selector drop down menu on the tool bar (to the right of the buttons) and make the following changes to the Source 2 Only: • Source 1 . Next. 71. 69.0 kg/hr 72.

42 74. The calculations will stop if this limit is reached. then click OK.8 Rating The Network We have now entered all the model data and can now make the sizing calculations. When the difference in pressure between successive iterations is less than this tolerance.Get Started 3-33 3. Specify the atmospheric pressure. Enter the data as shown above. Select Options from the Calculation menu on the menu bar. We will need to set the calculation options before starting the calculations. The damping factor used in the iterative solution procedure. 73. The options are explained below: Default Setting 25 Max Iterations 0. convergence is assumed. The Options dialog box will be displayed: Figure 3. This is the solution tolerance for the iterative mass balance performed during looped system calculations. 1 1.01325 bar abs 3-33 .01% Pressure Tolerance Mass Balance Tolerance Damping Factor Atmospheric Pressure 1% Option Description The maximum number of iterations.

The length of the pipe is multiplied by this value to determine the equivalent length used for the pressure drop calculation. or the tie-in of new plant. The average wind velocity. heat transfer can take place between the pipe segment and the surroundings for pipe segments which have Heat Transfer with Atmosphere enabled. The API guide for PressureRelieving and Depressuring Systems recommends that tailpipes be sized based on the rated capacity If checked. The available options are: • Rating . These diameters can be smaller than the initially defined data.It provides a quicker solution since it does not have to calculate Jacobian matrix. The methods available are: • Broyden . • Newton-Raphson . Select the Calculating Mode from the drop down menu. • Debottleneck . Rating Calculation Mode • Design . NewtonRaphson These algorithms provides globally convergent methods for nonlinear systems of equations. the rated flow will be used in the sizing calculations for the taipipes (as opposed to the actual flowrates). velocity and etc have been meet.It is used to design new flare system for the plant. This method calculates the pressure profile for the existing pipe network.It is used to check the existing flare system in a plant.It works more reliably if default initial guesses are used but takes a longer time. OFF Enable Heat Transfer 3-34 . You need to provide better guesses for the tear pipe flows. During calculation it adjust the diameters of all pipes until all the design constraints of MABP. Loop Solver OFF Rated Flow for Tailpipes If checked.3-34 Rating The Network Option Ambient Temperature Wind Velocity Length Multiplier Default Setting 15o C 10 m/s 1 Description The Ambient temperature must be in the range -100oC to 100oC.It is used to determine areas of the flare system that must be increased in size due to either the uprating of the existing plant and hence flare loading.

This should be left unchecked unless you have convergence problems. you could select the Calculations button. All Scenarios ON Choked Flow Check If left unchecked. Select Calculate from the Calculation drop down menu on the menu bar (<Alt><C><C> or <Ctrl><R>). 75. it should enable printing of much more intermediate information during calculations. OFF Echo Solver History OFF Force Convergent Solver You can now start the calculations.Get Started 3-35 Option Default Setting OFF Description If checked. Calculation speed is greater at the risk of numerical instability and convergence failure. a single network is calculated that will satisfy the desigh constraints for all scenarios. velocities will not be limited to the sonic condition. but with 2 flare tips as commonly found on offshore floating production facilities. the calculations will be made for all the scenarios defined in the model. When sizing calculations are made for a number of scenarios simultaneously. Check if you are modelling a convergent flare system. otherwise the calculations will be made only for the scenario which is currently displayed. Calculations button Figure 3. When checked. Alternatively. This is useful in sizing calculations since the mach number limitations will still be met by the time the final solution is reached.43 3-35 .

3-36 . The Sources view shows the data for all the sources in the current scenario. Select Results-Messages from the View drop down menu on the menu bar.44 Once the calculations are complete you can review the results.45 77.3-36 Rating The Network Note that the current calculation is shown on the status bar: Figure 3. 76. Figure 3. Select Data-Sources from the View drop down menu on the menu bar.

Press Pressure/Flow Summary button on the button bar. 78.47 3-37 . Note that the Problem tab list two mach number violations for Tail Pipe 1 and Tail Pipe 2.46 This window contains general information and warning messages regarding the calculations.Get Started 3-37 The Messages data view will be displayed. Pressure/Flow Summary button The Pressure/Flow Summary view will be displayed: Figure 3. These problems can be fixed by doing detail design for the network. But for this example you can ignore them and concentrate more on the features available in Flarenet. Figure 3.

9 Printing Data And Results To print data and results: 79. 3-38 .fnw (model after calculations) which are stored in the qstart sub-directory under the main program directory. The Print dialog box will be displayed.fnw (model before calculations) and Step1c. check the Print To Text File box. 80. Click OK.3-38 Printing Data And Results 3. 81. Click on the appropriate check boxes to select the items that you wish to print. Also check the All Scenarios box to print the results for all of the scenarios instead of just the current scenario. Select Print from the File drop down menu on the menu bar. If you want to print to a file. then select the file type from the Text File Type drop down. This case is available for review in Step1.

3 Opening the Old Model ......................................... 7 4.............. 30 4. 25 4..................................Upgrading the Network 4-1 4 Upgrading the Network 4.................................................................................. 19 4................. 8 4..............................9 Printing Data And Results .......... 32 4-1 ...........................................................6 Defining The Sources ..............................................................................................8 Rigorous Rating ................................2 Starting Flarenet.........1 Data Requirements..4 Updating the Model ........................... 9 4......................................................................................... 17 4....7 Sizing The Network ...........................................5 Defining The Scenarios ................................................................................................. 3 4........................................................................

4-2 4-2 .

Different scenarios will be set up to simulate various process conditions. Building The Pipe Network . these will normally be taken from the flare system P&ID. Sizing the Network . This example consists of the following main parts: 1. If you are rating an existing network. These will be based upon either a preliminary or detailed isometric drawing of the piping. 2.Get Started to model the tie-in of two new control valves into our current system. you must first define all the data that will determine your system. Diameter and pipe schedule for each pipe segment 4-3 . It is recommended that reasonable diameters be defined. The modified system will be simulated for two new scenarios. This tutorial assumes that you are familiar with the use of Windows and have some prior experience in the design of flare systems. the pipe diameters that you define are relatively unimportant since they will be overwritten by the sizing algorithms. Pipe Segment Data Data When you are sizing a flare system. Connectivity Length and fittings loss coefficients for new pipe segment Description You would normally have prepared a system sketch that defines the nodes to which the new pipe segments are connected.Upgrading the Network 4-3 Note that this tutorial is a continuation of the one in Chapter 3 .Finally. 4.Pipes and nodes will be added using either the PFD or the Manager views.Relieving sources will be added to each scenario. Defining The Sources . 4. so that the sizing algorithm initialises to a condition that will give faster convergence. the pipe network will be simulated and results will be viewed both in textual and graphical form.Get Started and requires that you complete that tutorial before continuing with this one. one each for the new sources. You should initially size a network using vapour phase methods. the initial pipe diameters may affect the solution when there is a liquid phase and the liquid knockout drum is modelled.1 Data Requirements Before you can start to upgrade a computer model of the existing flare header system. In this Get Started tutorial you will change the network designed in Chapter 3 . Defining the Scenarios . If you are sizing a new flare system. 3.

4-4 . Nominal Diameter (inch) 36 28 32 36 18 18 12 18 Segment Name Stack Header 1 Header 2 Header 3 Tail Pipe 1 Tail Pipe 2 Tail Pipe 3 Tail Pipe 4 Length (m) 100 50 50 50 25 25 25 25 Schedule 40 30 40 40 40 40 40 40 Fittings Loss 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Elevation Change (m) 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 The new pipe segments Header 1. Header 2.1 The pipe segments in the network diagram are detailed in the following table.4-4 Data Requirements The following diagram shows the connectivity of the system which includes the new sources you will be adding in this example. Tail Pipe 3 and Tail Pipe 4 will be added. Figure 4.

Flow and Composition Maximum Allowable Back Pressure (MABP) Downstream temperature Upstream pressure and temperature Discharge flange size In this example.0 5.0 Mol. If a relief source is not used in a particular scenario the flow may be set to zero. the flowing pressure should be used. you will consider five scenarios that represent one fire case and four single blocked discharge cases. or as an initial guess when any other enthalpy method is used. This temperature is used when ideal gas enthalpies are used to calculate the heat balance. This will normally be determined from the relief valve sizing calculations. The following tables define the source data for each scenario. Rated flow must always be greater than or equal to flow. 20 25 30 35 4-5 .0 5. This temperature is used as the pressure independent temperature at which the source enters the network. With relief valves. The Flow refers to the quantity of fluid that the source valve must pass as a consequence of the plant upset condition. These may vary for each scenario that you are evaluating. Wt.0 5. This is the maximum pressure that can exist at the outlet of the device (source) without affecting its capacity. The Rated Flow refers to the quantity of fluid that the source valve will pass due to its physical construction. These are only used if the Ideal Gas enthalpies are not used for the heat balance.Upgrading the Network 4-5 Relief Source Data The following data must be specified for the sources: Data Description These may vary for each scenario that you are evaluating. (bar abs) 10 10 10 10 MABP (bar abs) 5. Default Source Data Source Name Source 1 Source 2 Source 3 Source 4 Flowrate (kg/hr) 100000 100000 100000 100000 Flange Size (mm) 300 300 300 300 US Temp (C) 15 15 15 15 DS Temp (C) 15 15 15 15 US Pres.

20 25 30 35 Source 4 Only Data Source Name Source 1 Source 2 Source 3 Source 4 Flowrate (kg/hr) 0 0 0 100000 Flange Size (mm) 300 300 300 300 US Temp (C) 15 15 15 15 DS Temp (C) 15 15 15 15 US Pres.0 Mol. 20 25 30 35 Source 2 Only Data Source Name Source 1 Source 2 Source 3 Source 4 Flowrate (kg/hr) 0 100000 0 0 Flange Size (mm) 300 300 300 300 US Temp (C) 15 15 15 15 DS Temp (C) 15 15 15 15 US Pres.0 5. (bar abs) 10 10 10 10 MABP (bar abs) 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 Mol.0 5.0 5.4-6 Data Requirements Source 1 Only Data Source Name Source 1 Source 2 Source 3 Source 4 Flowrate (kg/hr) 100000 0 0 0 Flange Size (mm) 300 300 300 300 US Temp (C) 15 15 15 15 DS Temp (C) 15 15 15 15 US Pres. 4-6 .0 5. (bar abs) 10 10 10 10 MABP (bar abs) 5. Wt. 20 25 30 35 For each source.0 Mol.0 5. (bar abs) 10 10 10 10 MABP (bar abs) 5. 20 25 30 35 Source 3 Only Data Source Name Source 1 Source 2 Source 3 Source 4 Flowrate (kg/hr) 0 0 100000 0 Flange Size (mm) 300 300 300 300 US Temp (C) 15 15 15 15 DS Temp (C) 15 15 15 15 US Pres. (bar abs) 10 10 10 10 MABP (bar abs) 5.0 Mol. Wt. it will be assumed that the rated flow is equal to the maximum flow for the source from the two scenarios +20%. Wt.0 5. Wt.0 5.0 5.

Starting Flarenet To Start Flarenet. Select Flarenet 3.0.2 1. 4. the following data is used for both Scenarios: • Maximum allowable mach number . 2.2 Now you are ready to began working with Flarenet.50 for both main headers and tailpipes. Select the Start Menu.Upgrading the Network 4-7 System Design Constraints In this case. 4-7 .0.0. Figure 4. Move from the Programs to AEA Technology to Flarenet 3. 3.

• Press the Load An Existing Model From Disk button.4-8 Opening the Old Model When you start Flarenet. 4. To make the view full size. • Press <Ctrl><O>. 4-8 . your Desktop view should appear larger than this when initially opened.3 Opening the Old Model To open the previously stored case: • Select Open from the File menu on the main program menu bar. You do not need to change the setting on the Preference Editor view since the stored case has its own setting. press the Maximize button in the upper right hand corner. the Flarenet Desktop will appear: Figure 4.3 Maximize button Note that this view has been resized. click and drag the outside border. To re-size the view.

Next select the file named step1c. Use the Look in drop-down menu to select the appropriate disk drive and directory. 4. This will open the Step1c.fnw from the list and press the Open button. you need to do the following modifications to the pipe network: Nominal Diameter (inch) 36 36 Segment Name Header 3 Stack Tip Diameter (mm) Length (m) 50 100 Schedule 40 40 Fittings Loss 0 0 3 Elevation Change (m) 0 100 876.Upgrading the Network 4-9 The Open Flarenet Model view will appear.fnw case and any open view will display the case data.4 Updating the Model Before proceeding any further.4 4.3 A large pipe diameter is selected to adjust the network for flow from the new sources. 4-9 . 5. Figure 4.

4-10 Updating the Model Now you need to add the new pipe segments to the existing model. But first delete the connection between Tee 1 and Header 3 as follows: Toggle Connect/Arrange Mode button (Connect Mode) 6. 4-10 .5 Toggle Connect/Arrange Mode button (Arrange Mode) 7. Press the Delete button on the keyboard. Press the Add button and select the Tee from the pop up list. Open the Node Manager view. Figure 4.6 9. Press the Toggle Connect/Arrange Mode button to switch to connect mode and select the connection between Tee 1 and Header 3. Figure 4. To add a tee section after Header 3: 8.

11. This field is only useful for larger case with multiple sections (areas) within a same plant. 15.Upgrading the Network 4-11 The Tee Editor view will be displayed: Figure 4. Figure 4. Open the Pipe Manager view by selecting Pipes from the Build menu. Now. 14. Specify the Downstream connection to be Header 3 and select Upstream from the At drop down menu. Close the Tee Editor property view by pressing Ok button. you can add two pipe segments to the upstream and branch section of Tee 3 using the Pipe Manager view.8 4-11 . Press Ok to close the Node Manager view. 12. therefore the Location field will be left blank.7 Since this example is of smaller size. 13. 10. Change the default name to Tee 3 in the Name field. Move to the Calculations tab and change the Fittings Loss Methods setting to Miller in the drop down menu.

20. Specify Tee 3 as the Downstream connection and select Branch in the At drop down box.4-12 Updating the Model 16.9 19. Move to the Dimensions tab and specify the Length as 50 m. Move to the Dimensions tab and specify the Length as 25 m. 25. 22. Change the default pipe name to Tail Pipe 4.10 4-12 . Figure 4. 17. Press Next to add another pipe segment. After pressing Next. Set Nominal Diameter as 18 inch from the drop down box. Set Nominal Diameter as 32 inch from the drop down box. Change the new pipe segment default name to Header 2. Press the Add button to add a new pipe segment. 18. you will noticed that Tail Pipe 4 has been added to the Pipe Manager list. 24. 21. 23. Specify Tee 3 as the Downstream connection and select Upstream in the At drop down box. Figure 4.

Close the Pipe Manager view by pressing the OK button. Delete the default name and type Tee 2 as the new name. Notice that three new objects have been added to the PFD view.Upgrading the Network 4-13 26. Press the OK button to close the Pipe Editor property view.11 By default the Tee has been named as 7 (or whichever name you see in the Name field). The Tee Editor view will be displayed: Tee button Figure 4. Now. Open the PFD Toolbox view (if it is not displayed) by pressing the Toolbox button PFD Toolbox button 29. Press the Tee button on the Toolbox view. Now you will add a tee section using the PFD Toolbox. Specify Header 2 as the Downstream connection and select Upstream in the At drop down box. Close the Tee Editor view by pressing the OK button. 32. 27. Since the Edit Objects on Add checkbox is selected. Click in the Name field on the Tee Editor view. you can add two pipe segments to the upstream and branch section of Tee 2 using the PFD Toolbox view. 33. 28. You can either manually arrange them by clicking and dragging the object icons or let Flarenet does the auto-arrangement by selecting Regenerate from the PFD menu under the View drop down menu. 4-13 . which can be changed to a more appropriate name as follows: 30. 31.

42.4-14 Updating the Model 34. Move to the Dimensions tab and specify the Length as 50 m. Pipe button 36. Move to the Dimensions tab and specify the Length as 25 m. 44. On the Pipe Editor view. 41. 4-14 . Press the Pipe button to add a new pipe segment. 39.12 37. Specify Tee 2 as the Downstream connection and select Branch in the At drop down box. 38. change the default pipe name to Tail Pipe 3. Close the Pipe Editor property view by pressing the OK button. Press the Pipe button again to add another pipe segment. 35. 40. Figure 4. Specify Tee 2 as the Downstream connection and select Upstream in the At drop down box. Set Nominal Diameter as 12 inch from the drop down box. Specify Tee 1 as the Upstream connection and select Downstream in the At drop down box. 43. Change the new pipe segment default name to Header 1.

Select Data-Pipes from the View drop down menu on the menu bar. The Pipes view displays the data for all of the pipe segments: Figure 4.Upgrading the Network 4-15 45.13 46. Set Nominal Diameter as 28 inch from the drop down box.14 You could also check the PFD to ensure that the proper connections 4-15 . Press the OK button to close the Pipe Editor property view. Figure 4.

15 4-16 .4-16 Updating the Model have been made. A portion of the PFD is displayed below: Figure 4.

Click Add on the Scenario Manager.17 4-17 . To add the new scenarios: 47. Select Scenario from the Build menu on the menu bar.Upgrading the Network 4-17 4. the Source 3 Only and Source 4 Only scenarios.5 Defining The Scenarios You now need to define the data for the new scenarios. The existing model already contains three scenarios which you still be using in this example. The Scenario Manager dialog box will be displayed. The Clone Scenario From dialog box will be displayed. Figure 4. Figure 4.16 48.

50. Figure 4.19 53.18 51. Figure 4.18. then click OK to close the Scenario Manager. Change the default name for the new scenario to Source 4 Only. 52. To add a new scenario press Next on the Scenario Editor and select the Source 3 Only scenario from the Clone Scenario From dialog box. Select the Source 2 Only scenario from the list. 54.18. Enter the data for the new scenario as shown in Figure 4. Change the default name to Source 3 Only and enter the data for the Source 3 Only scenario as shown in Figure 4.4-18 Defining The Scenarios 49. Click OK to close the Scenario Editor view and return to the Scenario Manager. 4-18 .

Select Preferences from the File menu on the menu bar.21 56.6 Defining The Sources You will now enter the source data for the sources in all scenarios. Since for the first part of the example you will be defining the source compositions in terms of molecular weight. 55. is selected in the Composition Basis drop down list box on the Defaults tab. The Preferences view will be displayed. Figure 4. 4-19 . Wt. the program preferences must be set to accept the compositions on this basis.20 Ensure that Mol. Click OK to close the Preferences Editor view. Figure 4.Upgrading the Network 4-19 4.

only hydrocarbon components will be used to match the Molecular Weight. you must select the scenario which corresponds to this data. Select the Default Scenario scenario.22 You can now add the data corresponding to this scenario for the new sources. 58. Figure 4. Any open data views would now display data for this scenario. 4-20 . The Mole Fractions are automatically estimated from the Molecular Weight. Select Nodes from the Build drop down menu on the main menu bar (<Alt>< B>< S>).4-20 Defining The Sources Before defining a set of source data. You will start by defining the data for the Default Scenario. Because HC is selected from the drop down. 57.

24 4-21 .Upgrading the Network 4-21 The Node Manager dialog box will be displayed: Figure 4. Figure 4. Click Add and select Control Valve from the pop up list.23 59.

26 62. to be 30. Select Tail Pipe 3 in the Outlet drop down box and set connection to be at Upstream (of Tail Pipe 3). Wt. Figure 4. specify the Mol. Move to the Conditions tab and set the Mass Flow as 100000 kg/hr. 61.4-22 Defining The Sources The Control Valve Editor view will be displayed: Figure 4. Change the default name to Source 3. 4-22 .25 60. On the Composition tab.

Press the Normalise button to calculate an appropriate binary composition. The node pop up list will again be displayed. 65. Name the new source as Source 4 on the General tab. Again select Control Valve from and the Control Valve Editor view will be displayed. 66. Click Next to add a new source. 67.28 4-23 . Figure 4.Upgrading the Network 4-23 63.27 64. Select Tail Pipe 4 in the Outlet drop down box and set connection to be at Upstream (of Tail Pipe 4). Figure 4.

69.29 70. Repeat Step 61 . to be 35 on the Composition tab. Specify Mole Wt. The Node Manager dialog box will now appear as follows: Figure 4.63 to add all the information required by the scenario. Select Data-Sources from the View drop down menu on the menu bar.30 4-24 .4-24 Defining The Sources 68. Close the Node Manager view by pressing the OK button. Press the Ok button to close the Control Valve Editor view. The source name appears as the source name preceded by the plant identifier. The Sources data view for the Default Scenario will be displayed: Figure 4. 71.

Make the following changes to the flowrates in all scenarios: Scenarios Source 1 Only Source 2 Only Source 3 Only Source 4 Only Source 1 (kg/hr) 100000 0 0 0 Source 2 (kg/hr) 0 100000 0 0 Source 3 (kg/hr) 0 0 100000 0 Source 4 (kg/hr) 0 0 0 100000 For each scenario. 73.31 75. select the Ignore check box for the source). 72. You will need to set the calculation options before starting the calculations. then click OK. Select the scenarios from the selector on the tool bar. 4. Enter the data as shown above. ensure that the sources which have a flowrate of zero are ignored (i. 4-25 . 74. Any open data views will display data for the selected scenario.Upgrading the Network 4-25 You must now add the source data for the other four scenarios. The Options dialog box will be displayed: Figure 4.7 Sizing The Network You have now entered all the model data and can now make the sizing calculations. Select Options from the Calculation drop down menu on the menu bar.e.

The available options are: • Rating . This is the solution tolerance for the iterative mass balance performed during looped system calculations. The damping factor used in the iterative solution procedure. Select the Calculating Mode from the drop down menu. or the tie-in of new plant. The calculations will stop if this limit is reached. These diameters can be smaller than the initially defined data. • Debottleneck . The length of the pipe is multiplied by this value to determine the equivalent length used for the pressure drop calculation. During calculation it adjust the diameters of all pipes until all the design constraints of MABP. When the difference in pressure between successive iterations is less than this tolerance. The Ambient temperature must be in the range -100oC to 100oC.01325 bar abs 15o C 10 m/s 1 Calculation Mode • Design .It is used to design new flare system for the plant.01% Pressure Tolerance Mass Balance Tolerance Damping Factor Atmospheric Pressure Ambient Temperature Wind Velocity Length Multiplier Rating 1% Option Description The maximum number of iterations. 1 1. 4-26 . have been meet. velocity and etc.It is used to determine areas of the flare system that must be increased in size due to either the upgrading of the existing plant and hence flare loading. The average wind velocity.4-26 Sizing The Network The options are explained below: Default Setting 25 Max Iterations 0. Specify the atmospheric pressure. convergence is assumed. This method calculates the pressure profile for the existing pipe network.It is used to check the existing flare system in a plant.

it should enable printing of much more intermediate information during calculations. OFF Enable Heat Transfer OFF All Scenarios ON Choked Flow Check If left unchecked.It works more reliably if default initial guesses are used but takes a longer time. The methods available are: • Broyden . If checked. The API guide for PressureRelieving and Depressuring Systems recommends that tailpipes be sized based on the rated capacity If checked. • Newton-Raphson . otherwise the calculations will be made only for the scenario which is currently displayed. the calculations will be made for all the scenarios defined in the model. You need to provide better guesses for the tear pipe flows. Loop Solver OFF Rated Flow for Tailpipes If checked. the rated flow will be used in the sizing calculations for the tailpipes (as opposed to the actual flowrates). This is useful in sizing calculations since the mach number limitations will still be met by the time the final solution is reached. When sizing calculations are made for a number of scenarios simultaneously. Calculation speed is greater at the risk of numerical instability and convergence failure. When checked.Upgrading the Network 4-27 Option Default Setting NewtonRaphson Description These algorithms provides globally convergent methods for nonlinear systems of equations. Check if you are modelling a convergent flare system. velocities will not be limited to the sonic condition.It provides a quicker solution since it does not have to calculate Jacobian matrix. heat transfer can take place between the pipe segment and the surroundings for pipe segments which have Heat Transfer with Atmosphere enabled. This should be left unchecked unless you have convergence problems. a single network is calculated that will satisfy the design constraints for all scenarios. OFF Echo Solver History OFF Force Convergent Solver 4-27 . but with 2 flare tips as commonly found on offshore floating production facilities.

and magenta is used for resized pipe segments. Alternatively. Select Calculate from the Calculation drop down menu on the menu bar (<Alt>< C>< C> or <Ctrl><R>). 76. 4-28 . Calculations button Figure 4.32 Note that the current calculation is shown on the status bar: Figure 4.33 Once the calculations are complete you can review the results. Note that red text is used for non resizable pipe segments.4-28 Sizing The Network You can now start the calculations. you could select the Calculations button.

Select Results-Problems from the View drop down menu on the menu bar.Upgrading the Network 4-29 77.5. It is due to smaller pipe segments causing very high fluid velocities across the pipe segment. The Messages data view will be displayed. it is a good idea to save your case before doing detail design. Select Save As from the File menu and save the file as Get Started 2 Rating. At this point.fnw 4-29 . It also shows both upstream and downstream pipe segment mach number for each violation. In this case the mach number exceeds the design value of 0. Figure 4.34 This window contains general information and warning messages regarding the calculations. which was defined for each scenario. 78. for Tail Pipe 1 and Tail Pipe 3.

79. The Calculation Options Editor dialog box will be displayed: Figure 4.36 4-30 . 81.35 80. Notice that the status bar will display the current calculation. Select Options from the Calculation drop down menu on the menu bar. Figure 4. You can now start a detail design calculation. Change the Calculation Mode to Design and press the OK button to close the Calculation Options Editor view.4-30 Rigorous Rating 4. Select the Start Calculation button on the button bar.8 Rigorous Rating The system will now be rated taking into account the appropriate pipe sizes.

85. The Pressure/Flow Summary view will be displayed: Figure 4. as a new file. You can use the bottom scroll bar to move across the columns.fnw on the Save Flarenet Model view and press the Save button.37 Notice that Flarenet has selected the appropriate nominal diameter for the pipe segments in the network. Press <Ctrl><A> to save the case. Press the Open Pipe Tabular View button on the button bar. 83. Figure 4. Open Pipe Tabular View button The Pipes view shows the data for all the pipe segment in the current scenario.Upgrading the Network 4-31 After the calculation have been completed. Select Results . 84. 4-31 . 82. you can review the new results. Enter the new file name as Get Started 2 Design.38 Notice that the upstream and downstream mach number are now within the design specification for the given scenario.Pressure/Flow Summary from the View menu on the menu bar.

4-32 . then select the file type from the Text File Type drop down. check the Print To Text File box.4-32 Printing Data And Results 4. Click OK. This case is available for review in Get Started 2 Rating. Select Print from the File drop down menu on the menu bar.9 Printing Data And Results To print data and results: 86.fnw (model after detail design) which are stored in the \Samples sub-directory under the main program directory. 88. Also check the All Scenarios box to print the results for all of the scenarios instead of just the current scenario. If you want to print to a file. Click on the appropriate check boxes to select the items that you wish to print.fnw (model before detail design) and Get Started 2 Design. The Print dialog box will be displayed. 87.

........... 12 5..........................................7 Windows Menu ......8 Help Menu ...................... 15 Import Tab ...........................................................3 5............................................. 16 5.....................................2 Changing Column Order ...4 Status Bar ....................... 10 5.............................2 5................................................................................................6 Setting Preferences................ 16 5....................................6...............5............................... 15 Reports Tab..................... 16 5-1 .................. 9 5.................................. 3 5.......................................6.............................................. 5 5..........Interface 5-1 5 Interface 5...........................3 Tool Bar ... 8 5...........................................5 General Tab............4 5........1 Terminology .................................................5......................1 Changing Column Width ..................................................................................... 14 Databases Tab ...............................................................................................6.....................................................................................................6......2 Menu Bar ..................................................................6................................................................. 6 5...5 Editing Data Views .................................................... 12 Defaults Tab ............ 9 5..................1 5.......................................................................................

5-2 5-2 .

Figure 5.Interface 5-3 The FLARENET interface has been designed to give you a great deal of flexibility in the way in which you enter. the on-line help can give you stepby-step instructions.1 Title Bar Scenario Selector Menu Bar Tool Bar Tool Tip Modal/Non-Modal View Data View Scroll Button Dialog Box Scroll Bar Edit Box Drop Down List Box FLARENET Desktop Area Check box Status Box Button 5-3 . 5. The terminology used to describe these components throughout this manual is given here.1 Terminology The following view of the FLARENET screen shows most of the interface components that you will encounter. modify and view the data and results which comprise your model of a flare system. If you need help with any particular task. This chapter describes the various components of the FLARENET interface.

see Section 5. A modal window which allows you to enter the model data. For more information. Data items that are alphanumeric in nature are entered into an Edit Box. Part of the Scroll Bar.Status Bar. It will contain a summary description of the action that will take place if you click on that button.5-4 Terminology Term Note that throughout this manual whenever any reference is made to clicking on a button or menu item. A non-modal view has a double border. You can leave a non-modal view open and interact with any other view or menu item. If you click on this arrow. and has the minimise/maximise buttons. On clicking the down arrow. A window that contains a non-editable view of the model data and/or the calculation results. which can be accessed by clicking on the appropriate menu item. you cannot access any other element in the simulation until you close it. unless otherwise specified it refers to the left mouse button. Whenever the information associated with a view or list exceeds what can be displayed. The Menu Bar displays all of the program functions. Selecting the box will turn it on. selecting it again will turn it off. the data that is entered in an Edit Box is checked for validity before you can continue. a Tool Tip will be displayed. Non-modal views do not restrict you in this manner. Definition Most views contain buttons. In general. a list of available options for that field will be displayed. This drop down list box shows the current scenario selected for the case. or left or right. a list of all the scenarios will be displayed. This is described in more detail later in the chapter. You cannot access any other element in the model until this form has been closed. They perform a specific action when selected (either by clicking the left mouse button or via the appropriate hot key combination). Modal/Non-Modal View Scenario Selector Scroll Bar Scroll Button Status Bar Title Bar Tool Bar Tool Tip 5-4 . Whenever you pass the mouse pointer over one of the buttons on the Tool Bar. you may move through the view or list by using the scroll bar. When a view is modal. located beside the field. The Tool Bar contains a number of controls (buttons) which give shortcut access to the most commonly used program functions. This displays the current model status. Button Check Box Data View Dialog Box Drop Down List Box Edit Box Menu Bar A modal view is characterised by a single border and the absence of the minimise/ maximise buttons in the upper right-hand corner of the view.4 . Data items or settings that have an On/Off status are indicated by Check Boxes. Indicates the Flarenet file currently loaded. This is described in more detail later in this chapter. A drop down list is indicated by a down arrow next to a field. allowing you to slide the list up or down.

and Section 10.5 . Also a list of previously opened cases are displayed at the bottom of the drop down menu. Access various FLARENET utilities (see Section 8. the Results.2 .2 Menu Bar The menu bar allows access to all the program functions via menus and sub-menus. pure component databases and allows you to set a password. Section 9.Source Tools).Pipe Tools.2 .3.Interface 5-5 5. File Build Tools Calculations Database View 5-5 . supply Case Description. Access the Managers for Components.2 Menu Sub-menu The menu bar contains commands for each of the main areas of program functionality: Menu Description Work with files (New. Open. Look at summaries of the Data. adjust printer setup. import/export files. pipe fittings. Set calculation options and start calculations.Scenario Tools. and the Process Flow Diagram (PFD). Pipes and Nodes. print. and set preferences. Save). Manage the pipe schedule. Figure 5. Scenarios.

hit the <F>. Displays the Process Flow Diagram. Load Case Save Case Print Data and Results Display Metric Units Display British Units Display PFD 5-6 . As an alternative to using the mouse to click on the menu item. Data and Results groups. etc.5-6 Tool Bar Menu Windows Help Description Arrange the display of windows (Cascade. You can either print to a printer or to a file. Button New Case Opens a case that has been previously saved to disk. View Description Starts a new case. For example. If you wish to save the case with a different file name. 5. use the Save As command in the File menu.3 Tool Bar The Tool Bar contains a set of controls which give shortcut access to some of the program functions without the need to navigate through a series of menus and/or sub-menus. Displays data and results in Metric units. Tile. Opens a Print view. Saves a case to disk using the current file name. and then while holding down the <Alt>. which allows you to print the entries from the Database. <I> and <H> keys in sequence (abbreviated as <Alt><F><I><H>). to import source data from the HYSIM process simulator as shown above you would hit the <Alt> key. you can hit the <Alt> key. then the underlined letter key.) Access on-line help and program version information. Displays data and results in British units.

a list of all the scenarios will be displayed. Stops the FLARENET calculations.Interface 5-7 Button Display Pipe Data View Display Source Data View Display Node Data View Open Pressure/ Flow Summary View Open Profile Graphical View Start Calculations Stop Calculations View Description Displays the Pipe data view. On clicking the down arrow. Displays the graphical Profile view. Displays the Pressure/Flow Summary view. located beside the field. Displays the Node data view. Starts the FLARENET calculations. 5-7 . Displays the Source data view. Scenario Selector This drop down list box show the current scenario selected for the case. The Tool Bar can be hidden by unchecking the Show Toolbar check box in the Preferences view.

5-8 Status Bar 5. During calculations.If Edit is displayed.3 Status Bar Status Bar (first region) Status Bar (second region) The status bar displays the current status of the model. The Status Bar can be hidden by unchecking the Show Status Bar check box in the Preferences view. such as the iteration error and the current pipe being solved.4 Figure 5. you can make changes to your model. • The first region displays the program status . 5-8 . this field will display Calc. There are two general regions in the status bar: The calculation time can be reduced by hiding the status bar. which is particularly useful for large cases. • The second region displays important information during calculations.

5 Editing Data Views You can change the position and width of some of the columns in each of the data views such as the Pressure/Flow Summary view. Figure 5.Flowrate).1 Changing Column Width To change the width of a column.4 Mouse pointer turned double-headed arrow. Click and hold down the primary mouse button. The mouse pointer will change to a double-headed arrow. . 5.Interface 5-9 5.g. then drag the separator line to the new position. 5-9 .5.5 The column width set here remains in effect for the duration of the current session and is saved when you exit FLARENET. move the mouse pointer until it is over the vertical column separator line to the right of the column that you wish to resize (e. Figure 5.

5-10 Editing Data Views 5. The heavy vertical line will move as you drag the column(s) and indicates where the selected column(s) will be transferred.5.2 Changing Column Order To reposition columns. then clicking. While holding down the mouse button. first select the columns by positioning the mouse pointer in the column heading(s) (you will see a down arrow). Figure 5. Figure 5. and there will be a heavy vertical line to the left of the column which contains the cursor.7 Heavy Vertical Line Column move cursor Release the mouse button.6 Select column cursor Now click anywhere in the shaded region and hold down the primary mouse button. drag the column(s) to their new position. the Mass Flowrate and the Molar Flowrate columns will be positioned between the Rated Flowrate and the Pressure Drop columns. The move column cursor will be shown. The column heading will now be shaded. In this case. The selected column(s) will remain in their 5-10 .

you could hold the <Shift> key and click on the additional adjacent columns you wish to select.8 The change in column order remains in effect for the duration of the current session and is saved when you exit FLARENET. Alternatively.Interface 5-11 Note that you can highlight multiple columns by clicking and dragging the mouse over the adjacent columns you wish to select. new location within the data view. Figure 5. 5-11 .

The information on the preference view is divided into different tabs: General. Databases. Reports and Import tab. The default value is 10 minutes. P).fnw.6 Setting Preferences The Preferences view allows you to specify default information for the simulation case.9 The following options are available on the General tab.6. F.1 General Tab Figure 5. Select this check box to activate a periodically backup of the current case. The Preferences view will be displayed. Backup Frequency Compress Files 5-12 . File is saved back to the directory as Backup. This edit box is only accessed if the Timed Backup check box is selected. To access the Preferences view. Defaults. Activate this checkbox to display the Tool bar. Options Show Status Bar Show Tool Bar Timed Backup Description Select this check box to display the Status bar. the data files will be saved in a compressed format that can reduce the file size of the saved cases by a factor of up to 50. select Preferences from the File menu (<Alt>. If checked.5-12 Setting Preferences 5. 5.

Units Work Directory Auto Flash Source Nodes Display Total Pressure Save Phase Properties 5-13 . The disk space/memory requirements are significantly effected by this option. the editor view will be displayed as the nodes/pipes are added to the PFD. Specify the directory for temporary files.Interface 5-13 Options Edit Objects On Add Description On activating this checkbox. Phase properties can be saved by activating this checkbox. Specify the units set to be used for the simulation. Activate the Auto Flash Source Nodes check box to automatically flash the source fluid when it is edited. specially for large cases. Select this check box to display the total pressure. It is advised to select this option only if you have a high specification PC. instead of the static pressure. The available unit sets are Metric and British. which is a sum of the static pressure and the velocity pressure. Otherwise sources are flashed during the calculation. which should be writable.

6. Activate this check box to use the pipe class to restrict the available uses for pipes. Set the material roughness to be used in calculation.10 The default data values given on the Default tab applies only to new instances of pipe class of pipes and nodes. The options available on this tab are: Options Description Select composition basis for each of the relief sources: Composition Basis • Molecular Weight . 45o and 30o tee.The molecular weight of the fluid is given. This is the default material to be used in new pipes.04572 mm and SS Roughness is 0.A full componentby-component composition must be given for the fluid. Tee Type Pipe Material Use Pipe Class CS = Carbon Steel SS = Stainless Steel CS/SS Roughness 5-14 .2 Defaults Tab Figure 5. 60o.5-14 Setting Preferences 5. The two material available for selection are Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel. Select the tee type to be set as a default for all the tees in the model. • Mole/Mass Fractions . based upon the list of installed components. The value for each instance may be freely edited at any stage.02540 mm. The available tee types are 90o. Mole fractions are estimated by FLARENET. The default CS Roughness is 0.

Pipe Schedules and Pipe Fittings database are stored.6.6.3 Databases Tab Figure 5. 5.Interface 5-15 5. 5-15 .11 You can specify the directories where the Components.12 You can specify the directories in which to save the report definition for each of the entries in the Report list. This allows you to maintain a range of alternative report definitions for each type of report.4 Reports Tab Figure 5.

Displays the general Windows Help on using Help.13 Specify the sizing factor to be used by the FLARENET to scale the PFDs created in earlier versions. Tile all currently-open windows horizontally. Open all the windows. Tile all currently-open windows vertically. Displays a list of world wide Technical Support offices.5-16 Windows Menu 5.6. Organise icons at the bottom of the screen. The options under the Help menu are: Technical Support About 5-16 .5 Import Tab Figure 5.8 Option Contents Using Help Help Menu Description Displays the FLARENET Help contents.7 Option Cascade Windows Menu Description Cascade all currently-open windows. Provides information about FLARENET. which can be accessed through the View menu bar Close all windows. This is a general Windows application function. 5. The options are: Tile Horizontally Tile Vertically Arrange Icons Open All Close All 5.

...................... 3 6..........................................................2 Opening An Existing Case ..................3 Saving A Case .........Creating and Saving Cases 6-1 6 Creating and Saving Cases 6............1 Creating A New Case ................... 4 6.................................................................................................................. 5 6-1 ...

6-2 6-2 .

1 Enter appropriate data into the User Name. do one of the following: • Select New from the File menu in the menu bar. The Case Description view will be displayed. New Case Button Figure 6. After you enter the case description information. Project. Job Code. Creating A New Case To start a new case. • Use the hot key combination <Alt><F><N>. the Component Manager view appears as shown on the next page.1 When you start FLARENET. The case description can later be modified by selecting Description from the File menu.Creating and Saving Cases 6-3 6.2 6-3 . Figure 6. a new case is automatically created. and Description fields and then click the OK button. • Click on the New Case button in the button bar.

6-4 . the arrangement of any windows that are already open is maintained.2 Opening An Existing Case When you open a case that has previously been stored on disk. • Search the directory using the Look in drop-down menu and upon finding the file. • Search the directory using the Look in drop-down menu and upon finding the file. click once on the file name to highlight it and then click the OK button.3 Select the file to be opened by doing one of the following: • Type the file name (including exact directory path if necessary) into the Filename field and click the OK button. do one of the following: Load Case Button • Select Open from the File menu. • Press the Load Case button on the button bar. 6. The File Open view appears. double click on the file name. • Use the hot key combination <Alt><F><O>. You can now set up the simulation. To open an existing case.6-4 Opening An Existing Case Select the desired components as described in Chapter 7 Components and click OK. however. all data from the current case is cleared. Figure 6.

or selecting the appropriate file in the list box in the view which contains all the files and folders. the Save Flarenet Model view will appear as shown on the next page.3 Saving A Case Cases may either be saved using the current case name or under a new name. The Save in dropdown menu can be used to change the directory and/or drive. When you’re saving the case for the first time or with a new name. Clear the Filename field. FLARENET will add it on automatically. To save a case using the current file name. do one of the following: • Select Save As from the File menu. Figure 6.4 Select the file to be saved by directly entering it. do one of the following: Save Case Button • Select Save from the File menu.Creating and Saving Cases 6-5 6. • Use the hot key combination <Alt><F><A>. • Click on the Save Case button on the button bar.fnw extension. type in the file name you want to give to the case in and click on the OK button. To save a case using a new name. Note that you do not have to include the . • Use the hot key combination <Alt><F><S>. 6-5 .

6-6 Saving A Case 6-6 .

......................................... 9 7....2............ 5 7...... 3 Component List .... 4 Removing Selected Components.1 Sorting the Component List ................2................. 4 Matching the Name String .....2 Swapping two components . 3 7....... 5 7......1.2 Estimating Unknown Properties....................................................1 Add Hypothetical Component/Edit Component View..............................................3.....3 7..........................................................4 Component Types ...............................................................................3...............3 Changing the Components ..1 7............ 9 7............................................................................... 9 7.......................3.................... 8 7........................................3 Organizing the Component List........................................................ 5 7.......1.......1........................................................ 9 7-1 .........2 7..............1 Selecting Components .........................................................2 Adding/Editing Components...Components 7-1 7 Components 7...........1..........................................................................

7-2 7-2 .

which can be accessed by selecting Components from the Build menu.1 Component Types You may filter the list of available components to include only those belonging to a specific family.Components 7-3 Data for all components that will be used in the simulation must be selected before the sources are defined. As an example. and the remaining options would be turned on. 7. The All and None buttons turn all of the filters on and off. 7-3 . respectively. while the Invert button toggles the status of each check box individually. or you may define your own components (hypothetical). These components may be taken from the standard component library. The Component Manager view will be displayed: Figure 7. and provides various tools which you can use to add and edit database and hypothetical components. if only the Hydrocarbons (HC) and Misc options were on.1.1 This view displays all of the Database and Selected components. and you pressed the Invert button.1 Selecting Components 7. then these two options would be turned off. You may select components from the Component Manager.

• Enter a character . Another way to add components is through the Selection Filter feature. As you are typing into the Selection Filter cell. you must first highlight it (by moving through the list until that component is highlighted). The Selection Filter cell accepts keyboard input.The <D> or < > arrow keys move the highlight D up one component. then transfer it by doubleclicking on it or selecting the Add button. 7-4 . you will move to the next component in the list which starts with that character.With the mouse. you will cycle through all of the components which start with that character. 1-propanol. If you repeatedly enter the same character. • Scroll Bar .7-4 Selecting Components 7. • Home/End .When you type a letter or number. You may use wildcard characters as follows: • ? .Represents a single character.2 Component List Components can be chosen from the Database list. etc. using one of the following methods: • Arrow Keys .Represents a group of characters of undefined length. use the scroll bar to move up and down through the list. propane.1. Some examples are shown here: Filter methan *anol ?-propanol *ane Result methanol. propanol. etc.3 Matching the Name String The interpretation of your input is limited to the Component Types which are checked. 7. and the < > or < > arrow keys move the highlight down one component. and is used to locate the component(s) in the current list that best matches your input. methane. matching what you have presently typed. and added to the Selected group. methanol. ethane.Use these keyboard keys to advance an entire page forward or backward. etc. ethanol. • PageUp/PageDown . • Any filter string has an implied '*' character at the end. i-butane.The <Home> key moves to the start of the list and the <End> key moves to the end of the list. • * .1. To add a component. Note that you cannot highlight multiple components to add to the Selected list. the component list is updated. 2-propanol methane. You may not have to enter the complete name or formula before it appears in the component list.

1 Add Hypothetical Component/ Edit Component View Upon clicking either the Hypothetical button or the Edit button the Component Editor view opens up. The Component Editor view for Methane is shown in Figure 7. This view is similar between adding a new hypothetical component and editing an existing component.4 Removing Selected Components You can remove any component from the Selected component list: 1. then change its name. or the <Delete> key. 7. select the Hypothetical button. 2. To create a new component (hypothetical). Highlight the component(s) you wish to delete. Press either the Delete button on the Component Manager view. and click the Edit button. highlight it in the Selected Component list. Hypothetical components are set up in the same manner as database components. any source compositions that used this component will be normalised. Once the component(s) are removed from the list. edit it.2.Components 7-5 7. To clone a component. Note that you may select multiple components by using the <Shift> and <Ctrl> keys.2 Adding/Editing Components To edit a component. 7.2: 7-5 .1. Be careful not to enter a component name that is already in the database.

Valid values are between 2 and 500. The Watson characterisation factor. Density Watson K 7-6 .g. Hypo -1). which allows better estimation methods to be chosen for that component. The normal boiling point of the component. The ID number is provided automatically for new components and cannot be edited. The type of component (or family) can be selected from the drop-down menu provided. NBP Std. The density of the component as liquid at 1 atm and 60 F.2 Input Field Name Component Types: • • • • • • • • • • • • Hydrocarbon Miscellaneous Amine Alcohol Ketone Aldehyde Ester Carboxylic Acid Halogen Nitrile Phenol Ether Type Description An alphanumeric name for the component (e. The molecular weight of the component. Up to 15 characters are accepted. ID Mol.7-6 Adding/Editing Components Identification Tab You can enter the following information on this tab: Figure 7. There is a wide selection of families to choose from. Wt.

The Soave-Redlich-Kwong acentric factor of the component (also called the COSTALD Acentricity).3 Input Field Description The critical pressure of the component. the pseudo critical volume should be used. Critical Volume Acentric Factor Acentric Factor (SRK) 7-7 . Valid values are between 0. Valid values are between 0. If the component represents more than a single real component.001 m3/kg and 10 m3/kg. If the component represents more than a single real component. Valid values are between 5 K and 1500 K. Critical Pressure Critical Temp. The critical volume of the component.Components 7-7 Critical Tab The following fields are available on the Critical tab: Figure 7. The critical temperature of the component. The acentric factor of the component. If the component represents more than a single real component. Valid values are between -1 and 10. the pseudo critical pressure should be used.01 bar abs and 500 bar abs. the pseudo critical temperature should be used.

Supply as many properties as are known. Hi E. Hi D. 7. 7-8 .2 Estimating Unknown Properties At the very minimum. Vicosity A and Viscosity B Description The coefficients for the ideal gas specific enthalpy equation: Hi = A + BT + CT2 + DT3 + ET4 + FT5 The coefficient for the entropy equation. Hi C.4 Input Field Hi A. and Hi F Entropy Coef. Hi B. so that the estimation can be as accurate as possible.7-8 Adding/Editing Components Other Tab You can specify the following information: Figure 7.2. 1983). However. it is a good practise to specify at least two of the following properties defined: • • • Molecular Weight Normal Boiling Point Standard Density If any of the above data is unknown. then click Estimate to fill-in the unknown properties. Viscosity coefficients used in the NBS Method (Ely and Hanley. you need to specify the Molecular Weight.

1 Sorting the Component List Components can be sorted in the following ways: Sorting Option Name Molecular Weight Normal Boiling Point (NBP) Group Description Arranged components alphabetically in descending order.3. Press the Change button to switch the two components. In the Component Manager view.3. NBP or Group. select the components in both the Selected Components and the Database lists. Select this to arrange components in increasing NBP value. select the first component in the Selected Component list by clicking on it. Group the components by type.3 Organizing the Component List The Selected Components list can be organized in different ways. 7. Components are listed according to increasing molecular weight. 7-9 . Molecular Weight. Swap the two components by pressing the Swap button. 7. 7.3 Changing the Components You can switch the components in the Selected Component list with the ones in the Database list while maintaining the source mole fractions.2 Swapping two components In the Component Manager view.Components 7-9 7. Then select the second component either using the <Shift> key if the two are in sequence or pressing the <Ctrl> key and then clicking on the component. You can either swap any two components or sort the whole list by Name.3.

7-10 Organizing the Component List 7-10 .

.....................1............................................1................................................................................................ 6 Sources Tab ..........................2... 5 Headers and Tailpipes Tabs ..............................Scenarios 8-1 8 Scenarios 8............................2 8......1 8....2 Scenario Tools..........................4 General Tab.................................... 7 8..................................................... 8 8-1 ...................1 Adding/Editing Scenarios...............3 8................... 8 8................................1.................. 7 Estimates Tab.........................1..................... 5 8..................1 Adding Single Source Scenarios ...................................................

8-2 8-2 .

30 might be applied for normal flaring compared to a Mach number limit of 0. This view has buttons that allow you to add. select Scenarios from the Build menu. The scenario management features within FLARENET allow you to simultaneously design and rate the header system for all of the possible relief scenarios. All cases have at least one scenario. Plantwide cooling medium or instrument air failure.Scenarios 8-3 A scenario defines a set of source conditions (flows. edit or delete scenarios as well as to select the current scenario for which scenario specific data is displayed. Scenarios can also be selected by selecting the scenario in the scenario selector on the tool bar. Localised fire or Depressurisation. For example. compositions. To access the Scenario Manager view. When looking at relief valves which might operate alone. a Mach number limit of 0. Typical scenarios might correspond to: • • • • Plantwide power failure.50 or greater at the peak flows encountered during plant blowdown. Although the major relief scenarios will normally constrain the size of the main headers. lower back pressures in the main headers may lead to localised high velocities and consequently choked flow in the tail pipes. Scenarios are managed via the Scenario Manager view. The design of a typical flare header system will be comprised of many scenarios for each of which the header system must have adequate hydraulic capacity. care should be taken in the evaluation of velocities in the individual relief valve tailpipes and sub headers. each scenario can have unique design limitations that will be used either to size the pipes or to highlight problem areas if any existing flare system is being rated. pressures and temperatures) for the entire network. Localised control valve failure. 8-3 . As well as having different source conditions.

and indicates the Current Scenario. and then click on the Current button. Arrange the scenario list alphabetically in descending order. Several buttons are available: Button Add Edit Delete Sort Up and Down Arrow Swap Current OK Description Adds a new scenario (See Adding/Editing Scenarios below). To make a scenario the current one. 8-4 . Swap the two selected scenarios in the list. Edits the highlighted scenario (See Adding/ Editing Scenarios below). highlight the appropriate scenario. Closes the Scenario Manager view.8-4 The Scenario Manager view will be displayed. Move the highlighted scenario up and down the Scenario list. Figure 8. Removes the currently highlighted scenario (note that there must always be at least one scenario in the case).1 The Scenario Manager view displays all Scenarios in the case.

2 You may provide the following information on the General tab: Data Name Description An alphanumeric description of the scenario (e. To edit a scenario. This will normally be atmospheric pressure.1. pressing the Add button will show a Clone Scenario Form dialog box. The system back pressure at the flare tip exit. pressures and temperatures of all the sources in the new scenario. 8. click the Add button on the Scenario Manager view. Power Failure).01 bar abs. The Next button allows you to continue adding scenarios without returning to the Scenario Manager.1 FLARENET has no preprogrammed limits on the number of scenarios which can be defined within a single case.1 General Tab Figure 8. the views are similar except for the Next button on the Scenario Editor view for adding a scenario. If there is already a scenario present in the Scenario list.Scenarios 8-5 8. the value on the Calculation Options Editor view will be used. Up to 40 characters are accepted. You can select an existing scenario from the list to be used to initialise the flows.g. The minimum value is 0. System Back Pressure 8-5 . Adding/Editing Scenarios To add a scenario. For adding and editing a scenario. If left empty. highlight it. but can be set to represent system design conditions at the exit point. compositions. then click the Edit button.

8-6 Adding/Editing Scenarios 8. Mach Number Description The maximum allowable Mach number for all pipe segments. Any field may be left empty. Vapour Velocity. Calculated velocities that exceed this value will be indicated in the results. This is an average value over the length of the pipe. The maximum allowable liquid velocity. The maximum allowable vapour velocity. Calculated values that exceed this specification will be highlighted in the results. Calculated velocities that exceed this value will be indicated in the results. Liquid Velocity) for the Main Headers and Tailpipes. It is recommended that you use a more reasonable value such as 0. It is the density times the velocity square. This value is normally used as a limiting factor to prevent erosion. This will obtain a more rapid solution towards maximum allowable back pressure constraints when performing sizing calculations.2 Headers and Tailpipes Tabs Figure 8.5 or 0. Vapour Velocity Liquid Velocity Rho V2 Design Noise at 1m You may define an allowable Mach number of 1.3 The Headers and Tailpipes tabs required the following information: Data You may provide different design information (Mach Number. 8-6 .7. Calculated values that exceed this number will be highlighted in the results.00 within a network. Noise at 1 m. The maximum allowable sound pressure level at a distance of 1 metre for all pipe segments.1. in order to highlight only choked flow conditions. in which case they will be ignored.

you will see a view similar to the one shown in Figure 8.4 Estimates Tab You can specify molar flow estimates for any pipes that you wish on the Estimates tab.4 8.3 Sources Tab If a source is ignored. Figure 8.1.1. without having to either unnecesarily delete sources or set the flow of a source to zero. These are only required if looped models fail to converge.Scenarios 8-7 8. You do not have to specify them all. Figure 8.4. This tab is useful in that you can easily toggle whether or not individual sources are to be included in the current scenario. only the ones that match the tear pipes for which you solve the flow in the looped systems. All sources are displayed on this tab (note that if you are setting up a new case. the MABP constraint is ignored by sizing calculations.5 8-7 . this view will not show any sources). When you select the Sources tab.

8-8 Scenario Tools 8. For a large network with many sources. 8-8 . 8.1 Adding Single Source Scenarios Select Add Single Source Scenarios from the Tools menu or use the hot key combination <Alt><T><N>. These can automatically be added to your model as follows.2. This will analyse your model and add a scenario for each source that has a non-zero flowrate defined in at least one scenario. it can become tedious to define each of these scenarios. Source data will be copied from the scenario in which it has the highest flowrate.2 Scenario Tools The complete analysis of a flare system should ideally include analysis of the system for the scenarios in which each source relieves on its own.

.................1 Adding/Editing a Pipe .................................... 13 9.................................................................. 3 9...................................................3 Ignoring/Restoring Pipes...................5.1 Pipe Class Editor ................................ 11 9...........5 Pipe Tools ..................................................................................................................Scenarios 9-1 9 Scenarios 9........... 13 9-1 ....1..... 3 Dimensions Tab....................1............................................ 4 Fittings Tab....................................................4 Arranging Display Order................1............. 12 9.......................................................................2 9..........................................................................3 9..................................... 6 Heat Transfer Tab .........................1 Multiple Editing.....1.............. 7 9........................................4 Connections Tab ....2......................................................................................... 8 9................ 10 9..1 9.........2 Methods Tab .........................................................................

9-2 9-2 .

by double clicking on it’s icon.1 Connections Tab Figure 9. This is a useful parameter for grouping pipes together via the Sort command. You can also edit the pipe segment through the PFD. An integer number to represent the upstream end of the pipe segment.Scenarios 9-3 9. An alphanumeric description of the location within the plant for the segment. then click the Edit button. Valid values are between 0 and 30000. The tabs available on the Pipe Editor view are Connections. click the Add button on the Pipe Manager view. 9-3 . Fittings.1 FLARENET has a limit of approximately 30000 pipe segments that can be defined within a single case. 9. Up to 30 characters are accepted.1 You may provide the following data in the Connections tab: Input Data Segment Name Description An alphanumeric description of the pipe segment. Flarenet will completely disregard the pipe until you restore it to an active state by clearing the check box. To edit a pipe segment. An integer number to represent the downstream end of the pipe segment.1. For both adding and editing pipes the views are identical and it is called Pipe Editor. Dimensions. Location UpStream Node DownStream Node To ignore the pipe segment during calculations. highlight it. Valid values are between 1 and 30000. Adding/Editing a Pipe To add a pipe. select the Ignore check box. Heat Transfer and Methods tabs.

Note that in the Scenario Editor view.2 Enter the following information in the Dimensions tab: Input Data Description The physical length of the pipe segment. 9. This length is used in association with the fittings loss coefficients to calculate the equivalent length of the pipe. enter this data here as the sum of the actual length plus the equivalunt length of the fittings and enter zero for the fittings loss coefficients. If this box is checked. A positive elevation indicates that the outlet is higher than the inlet. Rho V2 and Noise for both the main headers and the tailpipes (See Section 8. you can set the Mach Number. either Carbon Steel or Stainless Steel.2 Dimensions Tab Figure 9. the segment is considered to be a tailpipe. This is in accordance with API-RP-521. The ability to classify a pipe as either a tailpipe or a header allows us to perform calculations in which the pressure drop for tailpipes is determined by the rated flow and that for headers is determined by the nominal flow.1 . The pipe material. Vapour and Liquid Velocities.9-4 Adding/Editing a Pipe You have the option of modelling the current segment as a main header or a tailpipe.Adding/Editing Scenarios). Length Elevation Change Material 9-4 .1. If you have equivalent length data for your network.

For example. 80. 40. 9-5 . Roughness Nominal Diameter Schedule Numbers: Carbon Steel: 10. XS. The nominal pipe diameter used to describe the pipe size. It will not be necessary to specify the internal diameter or the wall thickness for the pipe. 80S You can also define your own schedules (See Section 12. The thickness of the pipe wall. If you wish the pipe segment to be resized by sizing calculations. Valid values are between 0.00001 inches and 0. this will be the same as the outside diameter of the pipe. 160. 30. you will be able to select a nominal pipe diameter from the pipe databases. For pipes with a nominal diameter of 14 inches or more. Whenever a material is selected. 140. 60. Valid values are any positive number or zero. the absolute roughness is initialised to the default value for the material as defined on the Preferences dialog box.1 inches. 100. If you select "-" you will be unable to select a nominal pipe diameter from the pipe databases and you will then have to specify both the internal diameter and wall thickness for the pipe. Internal Diameter Wall Thickness Schedule Number The pipe diameter used for the pressure drop calculations. STD. a model of a network containing a representation of the knockout drum as a pipe segment would normally leave this unchecked such that sizing calculations for the pipes would not change the knockout drum size.Scenarios 9-5 Input Data Description The surface roughness of the pipe segment. 20. If a pipe schedule other than "-" is selected. 40S. Select the Use Pipe Class check box to restrict the pipe sizes to those defined by the Pipe Class tool. 10S. 120. XXS Stainless Steel: 5S.3 Pipe Schedule Database Editor). Sizeable check box should be checked.

while maintaining the list of fittings. 9-6 . select the appropriate type of fitting.1. The final fitting loss equation. If left blank then the value on the Calculation Options Editor is used. then press the Add button to move the selection in the Selected Fitting box. The network cannot be sized correctly if you use equivalent length data to model fittings losses. Click Link to transfer the coefficients for this equation into the Fittings Loss field.3 You can supply the following data: Input Data Description The length of the pipe is multiplied by this value to determine the equivalent length used for the pressure drop calculation. The selected list of fittings will not be retained. will appear in a box underneath the Selected Fitting box. which will be a sum of all the selected fittings. The fittings "K" factor is calculated from the following equation in which Ft is the friction factor for fully developed turbulent flow: K = A + BFt Valid values are any positive number or 0. You can select as many fittings as required. Length Multiplier Fittings Loss From the Database Fitting box. select the fitting and press the Delete button.9-6 Adding/Editing a Pipe 9.3 Fittings Tab Figure 9. Click Paste to transfer the coefficients for the fitting equation into the Fittings Loss field on the Pipe Editor view. To remove the selected fitting individually. since the equivalent length of any pipe fitting is a function of the pipe diameter and will therefore be incorrect when the diameters change.

Enter the insulation thermal conductivity. If the Heat Transfer With Atmosphere check box is activated. the pipe segment can have an heat exchange with the surrounding.4 The groups available on the Heat Transfer tab are as follows: • External Conditions • Insulation • Heating External Conditions Group The following fields are available in this group: Input Field Temperature Wind Velocity Description Enter the outside temperature. Insulation Group The Insulation group contains the following: Input Field Description Thickness Thermal Conductivity Description A brief description about the pipe insulation. Specify the wind velocity. 9-7 . It will be used to calculate the amount of heat transfer.4 Heat Transfer Tab Figure 9. Supply the insulation thickness.Scenarios 9-7 9.1.

• Model Deafault .Real Gas relationship Peng Robinson . A heater in a flare knockout drum is an example of process equipment that may require a fixed outlet temperature.2 Figure 9.5 Methods Tab The following data information should be supplied on the Methods tab: Input Field Description The options for the Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium calculations are as follows (see Appendix A .9-8 Methods Tab Heating Group You can supply either one of the following in the Heating group: Input Field Description You can explicitly set an outlet temperature for this segment.Vapour Pressure method as described in API Techincal Data Book Volume 113.Soave Redlich Kwon Equation of State Vapour Pressure .Theoretical Basis for more details): • • • • Compressible Gas . the Default method for the VLE method (as defined on the Calculation Options Editor view) will be used.Peng Robinson Equation of State Soave Redlich Kwong . Valid values are between -260°C and 999°C.If this is selected. Outlet temperature Duty 9. or leave it blank. Enter the heating duty and the outlet temperature will be calculated based on the inlet temperature. VLE Method 9-8 .

Pressure losses due to change in elevation are ignored. slug. see Appendix A . • Default . Each component is evaluated independantly and added algebraically to determine the overall pressure drop. The options are: • Isothermal Gas . annular-slug transition and annular mist. • Beggs & Brill . so does the calculation time.This is a compressible gas method that assumes adiabatic expansion of the gas as it passes along the pipe. the Default method for the Friction Factor Method (as defined on the Calculation Options Editor view) will be used. you should try to select a number of increments that reflects the required accuracy. For two-phase calculations. • Default .If this is selected. For more details. • Beggs & Brill . pressure losses due to change in elevation are ignored. • Dukler . the value in the Calculation Options Editor view is used.bubble. The outlet temperature from the pipe is calcualted by adiabatic heat balance either with or without heat transfer. For more details . Flarenet uses averaged properties of the fluid over the length of the pipe. as the number of increments increases. If this is left blank. the Default method for the Horizontal/Inclined method (as defined on the Calculation Options Editor view) will be used. due to the non-linearity of the temperature profile.Dukler breaks the pressure drop in two-phase systems into three components friction. Damping Factor 9-9 . see Appendix A .Theoretical Basis. the pipe segment is divided into a specified number of elements.Scenarios 9-9 Input Field Description The Horizontal/Inclined method applies only when you have selected Two-Phase pressure drop. see Appendix A . The Friction Factor Method applies only when you have entered a value for friction factor.If this is selected. For more details. It tends to over predict the friction factor by up to 10% in the fully turbulent region. Obviously.This is a compressible gas method that assumes isothermal expansion of the gas as it passes along the pipe.It should always be the method of preference since it gives better predictions and fully turbulent flow conditions normally found within flare systems. On each element. energy and material balances are solved along with the pressure drop correlation. • Dukler .If this is selected. and is therefore included as an option for vertical pressure drop methods.The Beggs and Brill method is based on work done with an air-water micture at many different conditions. see Appendix A . For more details.This is a compressible gas method that assumes adiabatic expansion of the gas as it passes along the pipe. it is included here to allow comparison with the other methods.This is a pressure drip correlation for vertical.Theoretical Basis. The options are: • Isothermal Gas . many increments may be necessary. Pressure losses due to change in elevation are ignored. In simulations involving high heat transfer rates.Although the Dukler method is not generally applicable to vertical pipes. The Vertical method applies only when you have selected Two-Phase pressure drop. • Adiabatic Gas . The options are: Horizontal and Inclined Pipes Vertical Pipes Two Phase Elements Friction Factor Method • Round . the Default method for the Vertical method (as defined on the Calculation Options Editor view) will be used. The damping factor used in the iteratice solution procedure. two-phase flow for four different flow regimes . • Default .Theoretical Basis. As with the Isothermal Gas method. pressure losses due to change in elevation are ignored. • Adiabatic Gas . As with the Isothermal Gas method. elevation and acceleration. • Orkiszewski . • Chen .This method has been maintained promarily for historical purposes in order for older Flarenet calculations to be matched. and is aplicable for inclined flow. it is nevertheless commonly used for this purpose.This is a compressible gas method that assumes isothermal expansion of the gas as it passes along the pipe. Flarenet uses averaged properties of the fluid over the length of the pipe.Theoretical Basis.Although the Beggs and Brill method was not originally intedned for use with vertical pipes. The outlet temperature from the pipe is calcualted by adiabatic heat balance either with or without heat transfer. therefore.

Figure 9.6 This particular Pipe Editor view does not show the Name field as well as the Upstream and Downstream Nodes field since those are associated with individual pipe segments. If the pressure drop is greater than 10% of the inlet pressure then the comprissibility effects become significant you can approximate compressible elements in the pipe. Click OK to accept the modifications and return to the Pipe Manager view. 9.7 9-10 .2. Figure 9. double click any of them to open the common Pipe Editor view. or Cancel to discard the modifications.1 Multiple Editing You can edit multiple pipe segments simultaneously by highlighting them with the mouse cursor while keeping the Ctrl key pressed. You can specify a universal setting for all the selected pipe segments or allow them to keep their individual settings by entering * in the field or selecting * from the drop down menus. After you have finished selecting pipe segments.9-10 Methods Tab The two phase methods are really meant for incompressible fluids.

Scenarios 9-11 9. To ignore a pipe: 1. deactivate the Ignore check box. Ignoring/Restoring Pipes You can ignore single or multiple pipe segments within the model.8.3 When you ignore a single pipe segment. all upstream pipe segments are automatically ignored. 2. Open the Pipe Editor view of the pipe segment that you wish to ignore. see Figure 9. On the Connections tab. 2. 9-11 . When you ignore a single pipe segment. activate the Ignore check box. Open the Pipe Editor view of the pipe segment that you wish to ignore. where part of the network can be excluded from the calculation without the need for deletion and reinstallation of the appropriate pipe segments. all upstream pipe segments are automatically ignored. On the Connections tab. This enables you to do what if type calculations.8 To restore a pipe segment that has previously been ignored: 1. Figure 9.

Manipulate the display order as follows: • To sort the pipe segments by location. • To reposition the display position of one pipe segment. click the Sort button and then select Group from the extended menu. Consequently. To arrange the display order of the pipe segments: 1. click the name of the pipe segment to be moved in the Pipe box and then click on either the up or down arrow keys. you are free to display the pipe segments in any order that you wish. 4. • To swap the display position of two pipe segments.9-12 Arranging Display Order 9. • To sort the pipe segments in alphabetical order based upon the segment name. Click OK to accept the new order. Display the Pipe Manager view. 2.4 Arranging Display Order The display order for the pipe segments has no impact on the calculations. click the Sort button and then select Name from the menu. Press the Swap button to display the pipe segment list in the new order. 9-12 . click the name of the first pipe segment in the Pipe box and then either pressing the <Shift> key click on the name of the second pipe segment if they are on top of each other or pressing the <Ctrl> key click on the name of the second pipe segment if they are located in different places in the list.9 This view has buttons to position individual pipe segments within the display and to sort the order by either the group or alphanumerically based on the segment name. Figure 9.

5 Pipe Tools 9. Figure 9. these are the schedules which will be used.1 Pipe Class Editor The Pipe Class Editor allows you to edit the allowable schedules for each nominal diameter.Scenarios 9-13 9. during sizing calculations. 9-13 . It also allows you to restrict specific pipe sizes. for both Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel.5.10 Note that if you have selected Use Pipe Class When Sizing in the Run Options view.

9-14 Pipe Tools 9-14 .

.............................................................................................................................................Nodes 10-1 10 Nodes 10...............................................1 Node Manager..........3....... 18 10...............3 Sources ....... 3 10.... 32 10-1 ............................2 Source Tools ............................................. 4 10...................................................................... 31 10...............................................4 Ignoring/Restoring Nodes .................................. 30 10........1 Copy Source Data.......2 Node Types .................................................................3....

10-2 10-2 .

depending on the type of node. This new node will be named with a number depending upon the number of nodes already added. Closes the view.Nodes 10-3 Pipes are connected via nodes.1 Node Manager To access the Node Manager.1 Figure 10. Allows you to remove the currently highlighted node. Sources are also added through the Node Manager view. Add Edit Delete Sort Up and Down Arrow Swap OK 10-3 . Sort the nodes list alphabetically (in descending order) either by name or location or type of node. The following buttons are available: Button Description You will be prompted to select the type of node. The form varies. as discussed below. Move the highlighted pipe up and down the list. which can be added. Allows you to edit the currently highlighted node. edited and deleted from the Node Manager. 10. Swap the two selected pipes in the Pipes list. select Nodes from the Build menu.

Flare Tip Connector Tee Vertical Separator Horizontal Separator Orifice Plate Flow Bleed Relief Valve Control Valve Flare Tip Figure 10.10-4 Node Types 10.2 • • • • • • • • • Node Types The following types of node available in FLARENET.2 The tabs available on the Flare Tip Editor are the Connections and Calculations tabs. 10-4 .

which often take the form of a curve. You can provide up to 10 data points. Fitting loss will be used to correct the sizing for the tip. 10-5 . You may wish to specify the location of the node in the plant. Either type in the name of the pipe segment or select from the drop down menu. Location Inlet At To ignore the flare tip node during calculations. HP Flare Tip). Note that the location can have an alphanumeric name. It gives the pressure drop versus the mass flowrate for a fluid with defined molecular weight and temperature and uses linear interpolation. you can provide a different “location” name to different sections to make it more comprehensible. Select the Use Curve check box to enter a vendor supplied data for the pressure drop through a flare tip. The default value is 1000 mm.Nodes 10-5 Connections Tab The following fields are available on this tab: Field Name Description The alphanumeric description of the node (e. To add a new data point.g. press the Add button and to delete an existing data point press the Delete button. Flarenet will completely disregard the node until you restore it to an active state by clearing the check box. This feature is useful for large flowsheets. Calculations Tab The Calculations tab contains the following: Field Diameter Fitting Loss Description You can specify a diameter for the tip. You can specify the end of the pipe segment attached with the flare tip. select the Ignore check box. Valid values are between 0 and 1000 mm.

This feature is useful for large flowsheets. HP Connect 1). You can specify the end of the pipe segment attached with the connector. Location Upstream/Downstream At 10-6 . you can provide a different “location” name to different sections to make it more comprehensible.3 This connects two pipe objects.g.10-6 Node Types Connector Figure 10. The tabs available on the Connector Editor view are Connections and Calculations tab. Either type in the name of the pipe segment or select from the drop down menu. Connections Tab The following fields are available on this tab: Field Name Description The alphanumeric description of the node (e. You may wish to specify the location of the node in the plant. Note that the location can have an alphanumeric name.

Nodes 10-7 To ignore the connector node during calculations. Enter the connector length. Calculations Tab The Calculations tab contains the following: Field Theta Length Description Specify the connector expansion angle. 10-7 . it will be calculated from length.The fitting loss willl be calculated based on upstream/downstream pipesizes. The available options are. it will be calculated from theta. select the Ignore check box. If not defined. Fitting Loss Method • Calculated .Flarenet will not calculate the fitting loss if this is selected. • Ignored . Flarenet will completely disregard the node until you restore it to an active state by clearing the check box. If not defined.

4 This tee connects three pipes. The Tee Editor view is used to enter connection data and it contains the Connections and Calculations tabs. 10-8 .10-8 Node Types Tee Figure 10.

select the Ignore check box. Location You only need to provide 2 of 3 connections to be able to solve the tee. • Miller . 10-9 .g. • Ignored . Upstream/Downstream/ Branch At To ignore the tee node during calculations. which are functions of the flow and area ratios of the branch to the total flow as well as the branch angle.Flarenet would not calculate the fitting loss if this option is selected. Calculations Tab The Calculations tab contains the following: Field Theta Description Specify the connector expansion. You may wish to specify the location of the node in the plant. Flarenet will completely disregard the node until you restore it to an active state by clearing the check box. HP Tee 1). The available options are. you can provide a different “location” name to different sections to make it more comprehensible.It uses a constant flow ratio independent K factor for the loss through the branch and run. Either type in the name of the pipe segment or select from the drop down menu. This will be zero if used between pipes with the same diameter.This method uses a K factor which is interpolated using Miller Curves. Fitting Loss Method • Simple . You can specify the end of the pipe segment attached with the tee. Note that the location can have an alphanumeric name.Nodes 10-9 Connections Tab The following fields are available on this tab: Field Name Description The alphanumeric description of the node (e. This allows for solution(s) to partially built networks. This feature is useful for large flowsheets.

. In Flarenet.5 The Connections tab contains the following fields: Field Name Description The alphanumeric description of the Vertical Separator (e. Note that the location can have an alphanumeric name. You can specify the end of the pipe segment attached with the Vertical Separator. select the Ignore check box.HP KO Drum). you can provide a different “location” name to different sections to make it more comprehensible. Location Inlet/Vapour Outlet At To ignore the Vertical Separator during calculations. This feature is useful for large flowsheets. Connections Tab Figure 10. Either type in the name of the pipe segment or select from the drop down menu. 10-10 . You may wish to specify the location of the Vertical Separator in the plant. the Vertical Separator have only one inlet and one vapour outlet stream.g.10-10 Node Types Vertical Separator Separators are used to divide the vessel contents into its constituent vapour and liquid phases. Flarenet will completely disregard the node until you restore it to an active state by clearing the check box.

• Calculated . The Fitting Loss drop down menu have the following two options available: Fitting Loss Method • Ignored .The fitting losses for the separator will be calculated. the fitting losses for the Vertical Separator will not be calculated.If this option is selected.6 The following fields are available: Field Diameter Description The internal diameter of the vessel.Nodes 10-11 Calculations Tab Figure 10. 10-11 .

Either type in the name of the pipe segment or select from the drop down menu. You may wish to specify the location of the Horizontal Separator in the plant. Note that the location can have an alphanumeric name. the Horizontal Separator have only one primary inlet. you can provide a different “location” name to different sections to make it more comprehensible. Location You only need to provide 2 of 3 connections to be able to solve the separator. You can specify the end of the pipe segment attached with the Horizontal Separator. select the Ignore check box.10-12 Node Types Horizontal Separator Separators are used to divide the vessel contents into its constituent vapour and liquid phases. Connections Tab Figure 10. and one vapour outlet stream. This feature is useful for large flowsheets. Flarenet will completely disregard the node until you restore it to an active state by clearing the check box. This allows for solution(s) to partially built networks. one secondary inlet/outlet. 10-12 .HP KO Drum). . Primary Inlet/ Secondary Inlet/Vapour Outlet At To ignore the Horizontal Separator during calculations.7 The Connections tab contains the following fields: Field Name Description The alphanumeric description of the Horizontal Separator (e. In Flarenet.g.

The fitting losses for the source will be calculated. 10-13 . The liquid level in the vessel. The Fitting Loss drop down menu have the following two options available: Fitting Loss Method • Ignored . the fitting losses for the Horizontal Separator will not be calculated.Nodes 10-13 Calculations Tab Figure 10. Pressure drop is calculated based upon the the vapour space above the liquid. • Calculated .If this option is selected.8 The following fields are available: Field Diameter Liquid Level Description The internal diameter of the vessel.

You may wish to specify the location of the Orifice Plate in the plant.g.9 The Connections tab contains the following fields: Field Name Description The alphanumeric description of the Orifice Plate (e. You can specify the end of the pipe segment attached with the Orifice Plate. 10-14 . Connections Tab Figure 10. Location Upstream/Downstream At To ignore the Orifice Plate during calculations. which has a clean-cut hole with straight walls perpendicular to the flat upstream face of the plate placed crosswire of the channel. Flarenet will completely disregard the node until you restore it to an active state by clearing the check box.HP OP). select the Ignore check box. Either type in the name of the pipe segment or select from the drop down menu. you can provide a different “location” name to different sections to make it more comprehensible.10-14 Node Types Orifice Plate An Orifice Plate is a thin plate. This feature is useful for large flowsheets. Note that the location can have an alphanumeric name. .

The Fitting Loss drop down menu have the following two options available: • Ignored .For this fitting loss method. orifice plates will be modelled as a sudden contraction from the inlet line size to the hole diameter followed by a sudden expansion from the hole diameter to the outlet line size. Valid values are between 0 and 1000 mm. For Example.Nodes 10-15 Calculations Tab Figure 10. It is the ratio of the throat diameter to the Downstream pipe diameter. Diameter Upstream Diameter Ratio Downstream Diameter Ratio Description The diameter of the orifice hole. • Contraction/Expansion .The fitting losses for the orifice plate will be calculated using the equations for the thin orifice plate. if you entered the Diameter than FLARENET will calculate the Upstream Diameter Ratio and the Downstream Diameter Ratio. the fitting losses for the Horintal Separator would not be calculated.If this option is selected.10 The fields available on the Calculations tab are: Field You only need to provide 1 of 3 sizing parameters. It is the ratio of the throat diameter to the Upstream pipe diameter. • Thin Orifice . Fittings Loss Method 10-15 .

you can provide a different “location” name to different sections to make it more comprehensible.10-16 Node Types Flow Bleed The Flow Bleed is a simple calculation block that allows you to. This feature is useful for large flowsheets. Note that the location can have an alphanumeric name.1) The calculated Offtake is constrained to maximum and minimum values.g. Either type in the name of the pipe segment or select from the drop down menu. Location Upstream/Downstream At To ignore the Flow Bleed during calculations.11 The Connections tab contains the following fields: Field Name Description The alphanumeric description of the Flow Bleed (e. You can specify the end of the pipe segment attached with the Flow Bleed. Flarenet will completely disregard the node until you restore it to 10-16 . • Specify a fixed pressure drop • Specify a constrained flow offtake where the flow offtake is calculated from Offtake = Multiplier × Inlet Flow + Offset (10.HP Connect XX). . Connections Tab Figure 10. select the Ignore check box. You may wish to specify the location of the Flow Bleed in the plant.

12 The Fields available on the Calculations tab are: Field Offtake Multiplier Offtake Offset Offtake Minimum Offtake Maximum Pressure Drop Description Specify the Offtake multiplier. Specify the maximum value for the Offtake. Section 10. All sources are connected as a source node. Enter the pressure drop across the Flow Bleed. Source This connects a source to a pipe object. The default value is 0. Specify the minimum value for the Offtake.Nodes 10-17 an active state by clearing the check box. Calculations Tab Figure 10.Sources lists in detail the type of sources available in Flarenet. 10-17 . Specify the Offset for the Offtake to compensate for the changes in the inlet flow.3 .

0 50. Each source gives a fixed flow. rupture disks. The fluid data for each source may vary between scenarios.0 10. but the connection node and any physical characteristics are always the same for all scenarios.10-18 Sources 10. the following Source data would be the same for both scenarios: Property Orifice Area Per Valve (mm2) Diameter (mm) Value 70. pressure and temperature description for the fluid entering the flare header network at a defined point. The data which is common to all the scenarios is shown in black. composition. are represented by sources. etc. The sources available in Flarenet are: Relief Valve and Control Valve. FLARENET will display the scenario specific data in blue .000 11 90 Fire 34. The following sample Fluid data would be specific to each scenario: Scenario Property Blocked Valve Molecular Weight Flow [kg/hr] Upstream Pressure [bar abs] Upstream Temperature [C] 23. blowdown valves.698 300 The source data is managed by the Node Manager view.000 12 150 However.3 Sources Relief valves. 10-18 . purge valves. For example. you might have to consider both a blocked control valve scenario and a fire scenario for a particular relief valve.

. Connections Tab Figure 10. This feature is useful for large flowsheets.g. you can provide a different “location” name to different sections to make it more comprehensible.Nodes 10-19 Relief Valve The Relief Valve source can be used to model types of spring loaded relief valves.PSV 1). You can specify the end of the pipe segment attached with the Relief Valve. Relief valves are used frequently in many industries in order to prevent dangerous situations occuring from pressure buildups in a system. select the Ignore check box. Either type in the name of the pipe segment or select from the drop down menu. You may wish to specify the location of the Relief Valve in the plant.13 The Connections tab is where the name of the Relief Valve and its outlet stream is specified. 10-19 . The following fields are available: Field Name Description The alphanumeric description of the Relief Valve (e. Flarenet will completely disregard the node until you restore it to an active state by clearing the check box. Note that the location can have an alphanumeric name. Location Inlet At To ignore the Relief Valve during calculations.

power failure and instrument air failure.The relieving pressure is 121% of MAWP. • Operating . MAWP Relieving Pressure The Relieving Pessure is equal to the valve set pressure plus the overpressure. Valid values are between 0. It is normally equal to the relief valve set pressure unless you have a low pressure vessel. You can either enter the value or have it calculated using the MAWP and the Contingency by pressing the Set button. In general there are two types of process upset conditions: Contingency • Fire . If you entered a value less than the MAWP.The relieving pressure is 110% of MAWP. Some of the operating upset examples are cooling failure.14 The fields avalable on this page are: Field Descrption The Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP) is the maximum gauge pressure permissible in a vessel at its operating temperature.01 and 600 bar. a warning message will be generated. 10-20 .10-20 Sources Conditions Tab Figure 10.

enter the amount of superheat. • Subcool .Nodes 10-21 Field Descrption The temperature specification of the source on the upstream side of the relief valve. This will give the highest probable entry temperature into the system which will in turn give the highest velocities.If this option is selected. You can select the fluid condition from the drop down box on the ledft side. It is the mass flow of the source. The API guide for Pressure-Relieving and Depressuring Systems recommends that tailpipes be sized in this manner (Section 5.1.01 to 600 bar. This is the temperature of the source on the downstream side of the valve. 1990 Edition23). Rated Flow 10-21 . This is the sized or allowable flowrate.000.000 kg/hr. Inlet Temp Spec. enter the amount of subcooling. It is the rated mass flow of the source.If this option is selected. otherwise this enthalpy is calculated by isenthalpic flash from the upstream pressure and temperature.000. Valid values are between 0 and 100.it uses the given inlet temperature as the actual fluid temperature. The available option are: • Actual . • Superheat . It is the sum of the superimposed and built-up back pressure. Valid values are between -250oC and 1500oC. Valid values are between 0.3.4.1.000 kg/hr. then this temperature is used to determine the enthalpy of the source at the entrance to the pipe network. Valid values are between -250oC and 1500oC. We recommend a value for Outlet Temperature which corresponds to an isenthalpic flash from the upstream conditions down to the Allowable Back Pressure. Valid values are between 0 and 100. If the enthalpy method chosen is the Ideal Gas model. Pressing the Set button calculates the Allowable Back Pressure as a function of the valve type as defined on the Dimension tab. The Allowed Back Pressure is the pressure that is allowed to exist at the outlet of a pressure relief device as a result of the pressure in the discharge system. Allowable Back Pressure Outlet Temperature Mass Flow The rated flowrate is required if you are sizing the tailpipes based on the rated capacity of the source.

you need to select the Fluid Type to calculate a binary composition in order to match the molecular weight. Wt. Mole Fraction or Mass Fraction. the component fractions are reestimated when you change the molecular weight. you will be prompted about an Invalid Composition if the sum of these fractions is not equal to one.15 The Composition tab contains the following fields: Field Basis Description The composition basis. If the composition basis selected is Molecular Weight. Fluid Type Component Fractions 10-22 . Mol. You can normalised the composition either by maually editting the component fractions or by pressing the Normalise button. which may be either Mol.10-22 Sources Composition Tab Figure 10. The fluid composition in either mole or mass fractions. The molecular weight of the fluid. If the composition basis selected is Mole Fractions. If Molecular Weight is selected in the composition basis drop down box. You can only enter data here if the composition basis selected is Mole Fractions. When you exit the Source view. Wt. Valid values are between 2 and 500.. You can only enter data here if the composition basis selected is Molecular Weight. the molecular weight is updated when you enter or change the component fractions. If the two components of the specified fluid type are not found then the other components are used.

The choices are: • Balanced . You can either enter it manually or press the Lookup button and select from the Orifice Selection view.000 mm2. Valid values are between 0 and 100.A spring loaded pressure relief valve whose performance characteristics are directly affected by changes in the back pressure on the valve. Valid values are between 1 and 10.000. Orifice Area Per Valve Valve Type 10-23 .Nodes 10-23 Dimensions Tab Figure 10. Specify the number of valves for the source. • Conventional .A spring loaded pressure relief valve that incorporates a means for minimizing the effect of back pressure on the performance characteristics.16 The following fields are available on the Dimensions tab: Field Flange Diameter Number of Valves Description The diameter of the valve discharge flange.

• Model Default . • Soave Redlich Kwong .Homogeneous Equilibrium Model VLE Method 10-24 .If this is selected.American Petroleum Institute • HEM . the fitting losses for the relief valve would not be calculated.17 The available fields are: Fields Description The Fittings Loss drop down menu have the following two options available: Fittings Loss Method • Ignored .Peng Robinson Equation of State.Volume 1.10-24 Sources Methods Tab Figure 10. The two Sizing Method options available are: Sizing Method • API . • Peng Robinson .Soave Redlich Kwong Equation of State. • Vapour Pressure .Real Gas relationship. • Calculated . The options for the Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium calculations are as follows (see Appendix A Theoretical Basis for more details): • Compressible Gas .Vapour Pressure method as described in API Technical Data Book .If this option is selected.The fitting losses for the source will be calculated. the Default method for the VLE method (as defined on the Options view) will be used.

bursting disks and blowdown valves. select the Ignore check box. Note that the location can have an alphanumeric name.Nodes 10-25 Control Valve The control valve is used to model a constant flow source such as purge valves.g. You can specify where the pipe segment is to be attached to the Control Valve. The most significant difference to the relief valve is that the rated flow equals the nominal flow. You may wish to specify the location of the Control Valve in the plant. The following fields are available: Field Name Description The alphanumeric description of the Control Valve (e.FCV 1).18 The Connections tab is where the name of the Control Valve and its outlet stream is specified. Either type in the name of the pipe segment or select from the drop down menu. you can provide a different “location” name to different sections to make it more comprehensible. 10-25 . This feature is useful for large flowsheets. Location Outlet At To ignore the Control Valve during calculations. Connections Tab Figure 10. Flarenet will completely disregard the node until you restore it to an active state by clearing the check box. .

Valid values are between 0. Outlet Temperature Mass Flow 10-26 .10-26 Sources Conditions Tab Figure 10. Allowable Back Pressure It is recommended that a value for Outlet Temperature which corresponds to an isenthalpic flash from the upstream conditions down to the Allowable Back Pressure. This will give the highest probable entry temperature into the system which will in turn give the highest velocities. It is the sum of the superimposed and built-up back pressure. Valid values are between -250oC and 1500oC. This is the mass flow of the source. This is the temperature of the source on the downstream side of the valve. Valid values are between 0.19 The fields avalable on this page are: Field Inlet Pressure Descrption The pressure of the source on the upstream side of the valve. Valid values are between 0 and 100.01 to 600 bar. Inlet Temp Spec. The temperature specification of the source on the upstream side of the control valve. Pressing the Set button calculates the Allowable Back Pressure as a function of the valve type as defined on the Dimension tab. Valid values are between -260oC and 1500oC. The Allowed Back Pressure is the pressure that is allowed to exist at the outlet of a pressure relief device as a result of the pressure in the discharge system. then this temperature is used to determine the enthalpy of the source at the entrance to the pipe network.000. If the enthalpy method chosen is the Ideal Gas model. otherwise this enthalpy is calculated from the upstream pressure and temperature.01 and 600 bar.000 kg/hr.

Fluid Type Component Fractions 10-27 . If the two components of the specified fluid type are not found then the other components are used. If the composition basis selected is Mole Fractions. which may be either Mol.Nodes 10-27 Composition Tab Figure 10. If Molecular Weight is selected in the composition basis drop down box. Mole Fraction or Mass Fraction. Wt. If the composition basis selected is Molecular Weight. Mol. the molecular weight is updated when you enter or change the component fractions. When you exit the Source view. you will be prompted about the Invalid Composition if the sum of these fractions is not equal to one. Wt. You can only enter data here if the composition basis selected is Mole Fractions. you need to select the Fluid Type to calculate a binary composition in order to match the molecular weight. You can normalised the composition by either maually editting the component fractions or by pressing the Normalise button. Valid values are between 2 and 500. You can only enter data here if the composition basis selected is Molecular Weight. This is the fluid composition in either mole or mass fractions. It is the molecular weight of the fluid.. the component fractions are estimated when you change the molecular weight.20 The Composition tab contains the following fields: Field Basis Description This is the composition basis.

10-28 Sources Dimensions Tab Figure 10. It is the diameter of the valve discharge flange.21 The only field available on the Dimension tab is the Flange Diameter. 10-28 .

The options for the Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium calculations are as follows (see Appendix A Theoretical Basis for more details): • Compressible Gas .If this is selected. the Default method for the VLE method (as defined on the Options view) will be used. • Calculated .Peng Robinson Equation of State. the fitting losses for the control valve would not be calculated. • Peng Robinson .Real Gas relationship.If this option is selected.Nodes 10-29 Methods Tab Figure 10.The fitting losses for the source will be calculated.Volume 1. • Soave Redlich Kwong . • Vapour Pressure .Vapour Pressure method as described in API Technical Data Book .22 The available fields are: Fields Description The Fitting Loss drop down menu have the following two options available: Fitting Loss Method • Ignored . VLE Method 10-29 .Soave Redlich Kwong Equation of State. • Model Default .

23 The Copy Source Data to Scenarios view contains two columns: Copy and Scenario. 10-30 . You can select the scenarios from the Scenario list by activating the corresponding check box in the Copy colum.10-30 Sources 10.3. press the Copy To button to copy source data to other scenarios. You will see a view similar to the following: Figure 10.1 Copy Source Data On the Relief Valve Editor and Control Valve Editor views.

Typically. Rigourous rating calculations for all scenarios can be done by the Peng Robinson enthalpy method or any other enthalpy methods with pressure depedency and provides the down stream temperature.3. Select Refresh Source Temperatures from the Tools menu. this could have several hundred relief valves and the task of setting up the scenarios for each relief valve would be time consuming and error prone.2 Source Tools The initial sizing of a flare system is time consuming both in terms of time taken to build the model and the computation time. select Add Single Source Scenarios from the Tools menu. the original values for each source may no longer be valid. Speed is an important issue during sizing calculation especially for a complex multiple scenario case. Press Yes to allow FLARENET to analyse the existing scenarios to determine the greatest flow rate for each relief valve and create a scenario using this data. Using an Ideal Gas method can speed up the calculation during the initial sizing estimation. Updating Downstream Temperatures The downstream temperatures are only used to define the system entry temperature when ideal gas enthalpies are used. In the case of a petrochemical complex. 10-31 . Adding Single Source Scenarios The thorough evaluation of a flare network will require the evaluation of many scenarios. After several cycles of rating and sizing calculations.Nodes 10-31 10. there will be the possibility of each relief valve lifting on its own. the back pressure should be used for calculations. These values may be updated to reflect the results of the last calculation using an equation of state enthalpy method as follows. Once all the major scenarios have been defined. In most systems.

10-32

Ignoring/Restoring Nodes

10.4
When you ignore a single node, all upstream nodes are automatically ignored.

Ignoring/Restoring Nodes

You can ignore single or multiple nodes within the model. When you ignore a single node, all upstream nodes are automatically ignored. This enables you to do what if type calculations, where part of the network can be excluded from the calculation without the need for deletion and reinstallation of the appropriate nodes. To ignore a node: 1. 2. Open the node editor view of the node that you wish to ignore. On the Connections tab, see Figure 10.24, activate the Ignore check box.
Figure 10.24

To restore a node that has previously been ignored: 1. 2. Open the node editor view of the node that you wish to ignore. On the Connections tab, deactivate the Ignore check box.

10-32

Calculations

11-1

11 Calculations
11.1 Calculation Options ................................................................................... 3 11.1.1 11.1.2 11.1.3 11.1.4 General Tab............................................................................................ 3 Methods Tab........................................................................................... 6 Warnings Tab ......................................................................................... 9 Initialisation Tab.................................................................................... 10

11.2 Starting The Calculations ........................................................................ 11 11.3 Efficient Modelling Techniquies.............................................................. 12 11.3.1 Data Entry ............................................................................................ 12 11.3.2 Calculation Speed ................................................................................ 13 11.3.3 Sizing Calculations............................................................................... 15

11-1

11-2

11-2

Calculations

11-3

11.1

Calculation Options

The selection of settings and options for the calculations is managed from the Calculation Options Editor view. To access the Calculation Options Editor view, select Options from the Calculations menu.

11.1.1 General Tab
Figure 11.1

The fields available on this tab are:
Field Description The maximum number of iterations. The calculations will stop if this limit is reached. Valid values are between 1 and 100; the default is 25. When the difference in pressure between successive iterations is less than this tolerance, convergence is assumed. Valid values are between 0.00001% and 10%; the default is 0.01% This is the solution tolerance for the iterative mass balance performed during looped system calculations. Valid values are between 0.00001% and 10%; the default is 0.01% The damping factor used in the iterative solution procedure. A default-damping factor of 1 is used.

Max iterations

Pressure Tolerance

Mass Balance Tolerance

Damping Factor

11-3

11-4

Calculation Options

Field Atmospheric Pressure Ambient Temperature Wind Velocity Length Multiplier

Description Specify the atmospheric pressure. The default values are 1.01325 bar abs or 14.69618 psia. The Ambient temperature must be in the range -100oC to 100oC. The average wind velocity. The length of the pipe is multiplied by this value to determine the equivalent length used for the pressure drop calculation. Select the Calculating Mode from the drop down menu. The available options are:
• Rating - It is used to check the existing flare system in a plant. This method calculates the pressure profile for the existing pipe network.

Calculation Mode

• Design - It is used to design anew flare system for the plant. During calculation it adjust the diameters of all pipes until all the design constraints of MABP, velocity, etc, have been met. These diameters can be smaller than the initially defined data. • Debottleneck - It is used to determine areas of the flare system that must be increased in size due to either the uprating of the existing plant and hence flare loading, or the tie-in of new plant.

These algorithms provide globally convergent methods for nonlinear systems of equations. The following methods are available: Loop Solver
• Broyden - It provides a quicker solution since it does not have to calculate Jacobian matrix. You need to provide better guesses for the tear pipe flows. • Newton-Raphson - It works more reliably if default initial guesses are used but takes a longer time.

11-4

Calculations

11-5

The following check boxes are available on this tab:
Checkbox Description If checked, the rated flow will be used in the sizing calculations for the tailpipes (as opposed to the actual flowrates). The API guide for Pressure-Relieving and Depressuring Systems recommends that tailpipes be sized based on the rated capacity If checked, heat transfer can take place between the pipe segment and the surroundings for pipe segments which have Heat Transfer with Atmosphere enabled. If checked, the calculations will be made for all the scenarios defined in the model, otherwise the calculations will be made only for the scenario which is currently displayed. When sizing calculations are made for a number of scenarios simultaneously, a single network is calculated that will satisfy the design constraints for all scenarios. If left uncheked, velocities will not be limited to the sonic condition. This is useful in sizing calculations since the mach number limitations will still be met by the time the final solution is reached. Calculation speed is greater at the risk of numerical instability and convergence failure. When checked, it should enable printing of much more intermediate information during calculations. This should be left unchecked unless you have convergence problems. Check this option if you are modelling a convergent flare system, but with 2 flare tips as commonly found on offshore floating production facilities.

Rated Flow for Tailpipes

Enable Heat Transfer

All Scenarios

Choked Flow Check

Echo Solver History

Force Convergent Solver

11-5

11-6

Calculation Options

11.1.2 Methods Tab
Figure 11.2

The Methods tab contains the following fields:
Input Field Description The options for the Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium calculations are as follows (see Appendix A Theoretical Basis for more details): • Compressible Gas - Real Gas relationship. • Peng Robinson - Peng Robinson Equation of State. • Soave Redlich Kwong - Soave Redlich Kwong Equation of State. • Vapour Pressure - Vapour Pressure method as described in API Technical Data Book - Volume 113. The following calculation method for the determination of fluid enthalpies are available: • Ideal Gas - This method uses the specified downstream temperature of a source to calculate the heat balance within the network. • Peng Robinson - The Peng Robinson enthalpy is determined rigorously. • Soave Redlich Kwong - The Soave Redlich Kwong enthalpy is determined rigorously. • Lee-Kesler - This method uses the specified upstream temperature and pressure of a source to calculate the heat balance within the network. The Lee Kesler enthalpies may be more accurate than the Property Package enthalpies, but they require solution of a separate model.

VLE Method

Enthalpy

11-6

Horizontal and Inclined Pipes 11-7 .Theoretical Basis. see Appendix A .This is a compressible gas method that assumes adiabatic expansion of the gas as it passes along the pipe. Pressure losses due to change in elevation are ignored. • Beggs & Brill . pressure losses due to change in elevation are ignored. For more details.The Beggs and Brill method is based on work done with an air-water mixture at many different conditions. The options are: • Isothermal Gas .This is a compressible gas method that assumes isothermal expansion of the gas as it passes along the pipe. The outlet temperature from the pipe is calculated by adiabatic heat balance either with or without heat transfer. and is applicable for inclined flow.Theoretical Basis. Each component is evaluated independently and added algebraically to determine the overall pressure drop.Dukler breaks the pressure drop in two-phase systems into three components friction. elevation and acceleration. Flarenet uses averaged properties of the fluid over the length of the pipe. see Appendix A . For more details.Calculations 11-7 Input Field Description The Horizontal/Inclined method applies only when you have selected Two-Phase pressure drop. • Dukler. As with the Isothermal Gas method. • Adiabatic Gas .

bubble. The Friction Factor Method applies only when you have entered a value for friction factor. pressure losses due to change in elevation are ignored. In simulations involving high heat transfer rates.Theoretical Basis.although the Dukler method is not generally applicable to vertical pipes. Vertical Pipes Two Phase Elements Friction Factor Method 11-8 . Pressure losses due to change in elevation are ignored. On each element. so does the calculation time. • Orkiszewski . slug. two-phase flow for four different flow regimes . The options are: • Round . It tends to over predict the friction factor by up to 10% in the fully turbulent region. due to the non-linearity of the temperature profile. • Adiabatic Gas . For more details.Theoretical Basis. see Appendix A . and is therefore included as an option for vertical pressure drop methods. As with the Isothermal Gas method. and annular mist. The options are: • Isothermal Gas .It should always be the method of preference since it gives better predictions and fully turbulent flow conditions normally found within flare systems.This is a compressible gas method that assumes adiabatic expansion of the gas as it passes along the pipe. it is included here to allow comparison with the other methods. Obviously. energy and meterial balances are solved along with the pressure drop correlation. you should try to select a number of increments which reflects the required accuracy. many increments may be necessary.Although the Beggs and Brill method was not originally intended for use with vertical pipes. For more details. as the number of increments increases.This method has been maintained primarily for historical purposes in order for older Flarenet calculations to be matched. • Chen . it is nevertheless commonly used for this purpose. annular-slug transition. see Appendix A . Flarenet uses averaged properties of the fluid over the length of the pipe. • Beggs & Brill .11-8 Calculation Options Input Field Description The Vertical method applies only when you have selected Two-Phase pressure drop. therefore. • Dukler . For two-phase calculations.This is a compressible gas method that assumes isothermal expansion of the gas as it passes along the pipe. the pipe segment is divided into a specified number of elements.This is a pressure drop correlation for vertical. The outlet temperature from the pipe is calculated by adiabatic heat balance either with or without heat transfer.

1./Max Temp.3 You can set the level of detail of the warnings by checking the appropriate boxes. they are all checked. By default. Carbon Steel Min.Calculations 11-9 11.3 Warnings Tab Figure 11. There are three groups available on the Warnings tab: • Design Problems • Calculation Problems • Sizing Status Design Problems Group The following options can be selected in this group: • • • • • • • • • • Mach Number Velocity Rho V2 Noise Back Pressure Choked Flow Slug Flow Temperature Carbon Steel Min. 11-9 ./Max Temp.

11-10 Calculation Options Calculation Problems Group The Calculation Problems group contain the following check boxes: • • • • • Physical properties Failure Heat Balance Failure Choke Pressure Failure Pressure Drop Failure Liquid With Vapour Only Method Sizing Status Group The check boxes available in this group are: • Initialisation • Size Change • Limited Reached 11. 11-10 .4 Initialisation Tab Figure 11.4 The Initialisation tab allows you to specify the initial value for the pressure for physical property calculations.1. It should be at least equal to the system exit pressure.

the second box on the status bar shows that the node mass and energy balance calculations are performed for tee Tee 1. In the following screen shot.5 To abort calculations. Stop Calculations Button Due to speed considerations.2 Starting The Calculations To start the calculations. The third box shows that at the second iteration. select the Stop Calculations button.45e-1. Alternatively. Figure 11. select Calculate from the Calculations menu. the pressure tolerance for the sixth pipe is calculated as 2. you could select the Start Calculations button on the button bar. it is recommended that sizing calculations be performed subject to the constraints: • Compressible Gas VLE • Ideal Gas Enthalpy Method • No Heat Transfer Calculations 11-11 . which takes the place of the Start Calculations button during calculations.Calculations 11-11 11. Start Calculations Button The following words before the object on the status bar shows the type of calculation being performed: B = Mass and Energy Calculations P = Pressure Drop Calculations The status of the rating calculations is shown on the status bar.

11. Ensure that the Edit Objects On Add check box is active if you wish to edit the object data as each new flowsheet object is created.1 Data Entry Flarenet has a wide range of methods for entering the data for each object within the model. In general. from the Preferences view. Although there is no set order in which the model must be built. standard texts such as API-RP521 can be used to select preliminary acceptable values. by selecting Description under File in the menu bar. type of tee. These will usually be defined by company standards or by local health and safety regulations. Set preferences for the default piping materials. etc. but experience has shown that use of the PFD environment for definition of the piping configuration and layout can save many man days of labour with large flare networks. 5. etc. Rapid construction of the computer model of the flare system.3. Fast and efficient calculation of the computer model of the flare system. Efficient acquisition of the data for the piping configuration and layout. Grass roots design will require analysis of a far wider range of scenarios to those required by the simple expansion of a flare system to incorporate a new relief valve. Once complete. you should use the method that you are most comfortable with. the recommended sequence of data entry for building the model is: 1. Define the project description. Definition of the design constraints for the flare system. If unavailable. composition basis. the efficient use of Flarenet can lead to a satisfactory project conclusion. These may be overwritten on an object by object basis at any stage. 4. 2. accessed via the File command in the menu bar.11-12 Efficient Modelling Techniquies 11. 2. 11-12 . Objectives 1 to 5 can only be achieved by the use of engineering skill and judgement. 3. user name.3 Efficient Modelling Techniquies Efficient modelling of a flare network requires some forethought in order to meet the primary objectives which are in general: 1. Definition of the scenarios or contingencies which should be evaluated.

Define all the source nodes (relief valves and control valves) for the first scenario. Drag the nodes from the toolbox to the PFD. 6. define default calculation methods for VLE. To access this view. To open this view. Highlight it on the Scenario Manager and select the Current button. Make the new scenario current. Define a pipe class if appropriate. Define the design constraints on Mach number.3. Set source node on ignored status for this scenario. select the Build menu. When considering the desired accuracy for the calculations. Define the pipe network (common to all scenarios).Calculations 11-13 3.2 Calculation Speed Calculation time will often be only a small percentage of the time taken to construct the computer model. 11-13 . The data for the sources should be cloned from the previously defined scenario that has the most similar data. 4. Add the next scenario by selecting the Add button on the Scenario Manager. The first scenario should be the one that has the greatest level of common data amongst the complete set of scenarios. etc for the first scenario using the Scenario Manager. With the Calculation Options Editor. 9. Double click sources on the PFD Repeat steps #8 through #10 for all scenarios 11. Edit the design constraints of this scenario if necessary. then Scenarios from the drop-down list. This will ensure that you only use pipe sizes as allowed by your project. 10. If the network is to be sized. on low specification personal computers. Open the Pipe Class Editor using the Tools command in the menu bar. select Options under the Calculations menu. a sizing calculation for a complex multiple scenario model could take several hours. noise. 7. etc. some care must be taken in defining reasonable estimates for the pipe diameters. if not days. Pressure drop. However. if care is not taken in the selection of the thermodynamic models or in the definition of the component slate. with a steady state modelling tool. 8. 5. Edit the source data for each source for the new scenario. due consideration must be given to the fact that you are modelling a system that will rarely if ever come close to a steady state condition.

Especially when the VLE is calculated by an equation of state instead of treating the fluids as a simple compressible gas. which is the fastest of the multiphase methods. Thus the Compressible Gas VLE method is the only one that should ever be used in association with molecular weight modelling. When modelling a system in which two phase effects are important. since the VLE behaviour cannot be reasonably predicted from this level of detail. This type of fluid characterisation is only suitable for network analyses in which the fluids are assumed to be vapour. The Vapour Pressure VLE method. strictly speaking. only valid for pressures below 10 bar. When a composition is defined solely by molecular weight Flarenet analizes the user defined component slate to select a pair of components whose molecular weights straddle the defined value. The properties that you use for the characterisation should be optimised to: • Ensure the component stays in the liquid phase • Match the liquid phase density VLE Method Source compositions may be modelled either by definition of a molecular weight or by a detailed component by component analysis. The reduced temperature of the fluid should also be greater than 0. You should therefore endeavour to characterise the heavy ends of petroleum fluids by as few components as possible. A binary composition is then calculated to match this value.11-14 Efficient Modelling Techniquies Component Slate As a rule of thumb you can assume that the calculation time is proportional to the square of the number of components. Experience has shown that it also works to an acceptable degree of accuracy for flare system analysis at 11-14 . When modelling using a detailed component by component analysis.3. Flare systems generally operate at conditions in which heavy components such as hexane or heavier will stay in the liquid phase throughout the system. The computation time for the fluid properties then becomes several order of magnitudes faster that those involving a liquid phase. consideration must be given to the pressures both upstream of the sources and within the flare piping. if you are confident that the system will be liquid free then the Compressible Gas VLE method should be used since it does not have the overhead of determining the vapour/liquid equilibrium split. is.

11. Estimate the diameters from: d = W ----------------300PM (11. • There is not generally a great deal of difference between the pressure drops calculated for a two phase system. the back pressure on each source should not vary greatly with line size. This will give reasonable temperatures downstream of each source.Calculations 11-15 pressures well beyond this. Build the network using reasonable estimates for the pipe diameters. then it is recommended that a scenario with as many active sources as possible be rated both using one of the cubic equations of state and this method. but for initial sizing calculations a number of points should be considered when selecting appropriate calculation methods.1) where: d = Diameter (m) W = Mass flow (kg/s) P = Tip pressure (bar abs) M = Design mach number 2. This occurs since as the fluid condenses the velocities will decrease but the two-phase friction factor will increase.3. The recommended procedure for performing sizing calculations is as follows: 1. • Unless choked flow is allowed in the system. If speed is an issue.3 Sizing Calculations The final calculations upon which a flare system is built should of course be made using the most detailed model consistent with the quality of data available. If acceptable agreement between the results is achieved then it may be reasonably assumed that the extrapolation is valid. The specification of a reasonable fixed downstream temperature for each source for use with the ideal gas enthalpy model should therefore give reasonable results. 11-15 . whether calculated by treating the system as a compressible gas or as a two phase fluid. Rate the network for all the scenarios with your desired detailed model for the VLE and enthalpies.

Rate the network for all the scenarios with your desired detailed model for the VLE and enthalpies. 4. 5. If there are any design violations. make a debottlenecking calculation with these methods. Copy the calculated temperatures downstream of each source to the source data by the Refresh Source Temperatures option under the Tools menu.11-16 Efficient Modelling Techniquies 3. 11-16 . Size the network for all scenarios using Compress Gas VLE and Ideal Gas enthalpies.

..............................................1 Database Features ................................... 5 12............................ 4 Printing.....................................................3 12.............................................................. 3 Manoeuvring Through the Table ..................................................................... 5 12... 8 12-1 .....................5 Component Database Editor ...Databases 12-1 12 Databases 12.......................................1..... 6 12..... 5 Adding/Deleting Data .............................................1..........................1 12.......4 Selection Filter .............3 Pipe Schedule Database Editor ....................1.........2 Setting The Password .......................4 Fittings Database Editor ........ 7 12..........................2 12.................................................................................. 3 12.............................................................1......................

12-2 12-2 .

12.1. 120. You may use the following wildcard characters: • ? . The databases may be password protected by a single password common to each.1 Database Features 12. or an incorrect access password has been entered. Mcyclopentane. These files are initially installed to the Database sub-directory in your main FLARENET directory. 100.The pure component database. you cannot edit or delete any of the original data.Represents a group of characters of undefined length.Represents a single character. • FITTINGS.The pipe schedule database. 30. 40. You may add and edit your own data to the databases. This contains data for both carbon steel and stainless steel pipe. 12-3 .Databases 12-3 The data for the various installable components of the model are stored in user-modifiable database files. 140. Ethane Methane. 140. which may be edited. 60. 160 All 90 degree bends and elbows All Pipe Entrance fittings Methane. 160 100. • Any filter string has an implied * character at the end. The database files are: • SCHEDULE. the databases may be reviewed in read-only mode (note that original data is always read-only).1 Selection Filter The Selection Filter may be used to restrict the data which is shown. 100. etc. • COMPS. Some examples are shown below: Filter *0 1?0 As you navigate through the table. 160 10. You must have defined an access password before any database can be edited. However. User-defined records.The pipe fittings database.MDB . 20. are shown in blue. you will see that the standard database records are shown in black. • * . 140. 80.MDB .MDB . 1* *90* *Entrance* *thane M* Application Pipe Schedule Pipe Schedule Pipe Schedule Fittings Fittings Components Components Result 10. If the password has been disabled. 120. 120.

Figure 12. Go to first record Go to last record Go to previous record Use this scroll bar to manoeuvre through the Properties (applicable only to the Component Database Editor).1 Indicates the selected record Use this scroll bar to move through the database list. Go to next record 12-4 .1. then navigate through the table using the navigator and scroll bar controls.12-4 Database Features 12.2 Manoeuvring Through the Table Click on the table to select a record.

Add Button Click OK to close the Database Editor view. You can only delete your own data. Figure 12. Note that user-defined data is shown in blue.1. FLARENET prints formatted output using the default printer settings.2 1.4 Adding/Deleting Data When the Add button is clicked. Add Button When you add items.Databases 12-5 12. Print All Button 12. Select the Delete button to delete the current record. fittings or component data.3 Printing Select the Print All button to print the pipe schedule. or Cancel to abort the procedure. depending on which editor you are currently using. The Password Editor dialog box will now be displayed. Enter your existing password in the Old Password field. you first need to enter the existing password before supplying the new one. You should override this data with your actual data. Setting The Password To set or modify the password: Select Set Password from the Database menu on the menu bar. 12. 3. the cursor will move to the last record on the table and insert a new record that contains dummy data. they will then become immediately available to the simulation.2 If you have already set your password. 12-5 .1. Enter your new password in both the New Password and Confirm New Password field and then click OK. 2.

Internal Diameter. Wall Thickness and Group for each entry is tabulated. For information on the Database view features that are common to the Pipe Schedule. Schedule. and to add and edit userdefined entries. as shown in Figure 12. To use the Pipe Schedule Database Editor.3.3 Select the material you wish to view using the Material drop down.1 Database Features. select Pipe Schedule from the Database menu. Figure 12. The Nominal Diameter.12-6 Pipe Schedule Database Editor 12. If you have already set your password.3 Pipe Schedule Database Editor The Pipe Schedule Database Editor allows you to view the pipe schedule data for all pipes in the database. This may be either Carbon Steel or Stainless Steel. see Section 12. you will need to enter the password before accessing the databases. 12-6 . the Pipe Schedule Database Editor view will be displayed. After you enter the password. Fittings and Components Databases.

select Pipe Fittings from the Database menu. and to add and edit user-defined entries. Fittings and Components Databases. After you enter the password.4 The description of each fitting. To display the Fittings Database Editor. The pipe fitting equation is: K = A + BFt For information on the Database view features that are common to the Pipe Schedule.1 Database Features. The Reference defines the literature source for the data. 12-7 . as well as the A and B term in the pipe fitting equation is tabulated. the Fittings Database Editor view will be displayed. Figure 12. as shown in Figure 12.4 Fittings Database Editor The Fittings Database Editor allows you to view the pipe fittings data for all fittings types in the database.Databases 12-7 12.4. see Section 12.

After you enter the password. see the next section. 12-8 .5. To display the Component Database Editor. Fittings and Components Databases. Figure 12. and to add and edit user defined entries. the Component Database Editor view will be displayed.12-8 Component Database Editor 12. select Component from the Database menu.5 The data for each component in the database is tabulated.5 Component Database Editor The Component Database Editor allows you to view the component data for all the pure components in the database. as shown in Figure 12. For information on the Database view features that are common to the Pipe Schedule.

HCL into the HYSIM working directory from the \HYSIM directory under your main program directory. which must be created previously within HYSIM.TXT. Note the Import button is unique to the Component Database Editor. Load the HYSIM case containing the component data into HYSIM. 3.60 into the component database. Figure 12.6 Print All Button A utility to create this file from a HYSIM case is supplied. In order to create the HYSIM transfer file: 1. enter the file name. This file will be given the extension . Two steps are necessary in order to import component data from HYSIM Version 2. 2. 2. via the component database editor. At the main HYSIM command line prompt.Databases 12-9 12. type the command !EXPORT. This need be done only once.1 Importing Component Data Additional components may be added to the database via an ASCII file whose format is given in Appendix B .File Format. Export the component data from HYSIM. You must previously have copied the file EXPORT. The component data file can be read into FLARENET by selecting the Import Button on the Component Database Editor view. The transfer file will now be created (in your HYSIM directory). A calculator program must be executed within HYSIM in order to convert the component data to the proper format. 12-9 . This feature allows you to specify the text file. Import the component data into FLARENET. 1. When prompted for the name of the export file.5. on the Select Import File view.

12-10 Component Database Editor 12-10 .

............................................................................... 12 13..................................................................................................................................13..13........................................................................................ 16 13..........12 Scenario Summary................5 Nodes Data.......................................... 7 Loops tab ....................................... 3 13.....................1 Components Data.......................... 4 13......................3 13........................................................... 14 13.................................... 6 Data Echo Tab...................................................................4 Sources Data ........................6..........................................2 Axes Tab ......................................Viewing Data and Results 13-1 13 Viewing Data and Results 13................................. 13 13....... 8 13.....................................1 13............................................................ 17 13-1 ....................6..........6 Messages .............................................................3 ChartStyles Tab.....4 13....6....................................... 9 13...................................................13 Graph Control ..... 5 13......................................................8 Compositions .............................................................. 11 13......................... 15 13..................................................... 6 13.............................6........6......................1 Control Tab.................................................................................................................10 Profile ..... 9 13..... 7 Sizing Tab........ 6 Solver Tab .....2 Scenarios Data ................................................................................... 3 13.........................11 Flow Map ........3 Pipes Data ........................... 4 13................................................9 Physical Properties ...............................2 13..................................................................................................................................5 Problems Tab ..........................................7 Pressure/Flow Summary ....... 8 13.............................................................13....................

..........................4 Legend Tab ... 20 13-2 .........6 Plot Area Tab.........................................................13................... 19 13....13-2 13......................................................................................13...................................5 ChartArea Tab..............13......... 18 13...

For all of these views. you can use the key combination <Alt><V><D><S>. columns can be resized and moved as described in Section 5. you can use the key combination <Alt><V><D><C>. For more information on editing the components see Section 7. Alternatively. Figure 13.2 . on the Component Editor view.2 .5.Changing Column Width and Section 5. by double clicking on any cell in the appropriate row.1 Components Data Properties for all components in the current case can be viewed by selecting Data and then Components from the View menu.5. 13. 13. Figure 13.Changing Column Order.2 Scenarios Data Scenario data for all the scenarios in the case can be viewed by selecting Data and then Scenarios from the View menu. Alternatively.1 Components can be edited.2 13-3 .Adding/Editing Components.1 .Viewing Data and Results 13-3 Tabulated Data and Results can be viewed from the View menu in the menu bar.

Adding/Editing Scenarios for more information on editing scenarios. you can use the key combination <Alt><V><D><S>.Adding/Editing a Pipe for more information on editing pipe segments. Figure 13.3 Pipes Data Properties of the pipe network on a segment-by-segment basis can be viewed by selecting Data and then Pipes from the View menu.3 You can edit an individual segment by double clicking on any cell in the appropriate row.4 Sources Data Source data can be viewed by selecting Data and then Sources from the View menu. See Section 8.4 13-4 . you can use the key combination <Alt><V><D><P>.1 . Alternatively.13-4 Pipes Data The Scenario Editor can be accessed by double clicking on any cell in the appropriate row. Figure 13. Alternatively. See Section 9. 13. 13.1 .

5 You can edit an individual node by double-clicking on any cell in the appropriate row. Figure 13.5 Nodes Data Properties for all the nodes in the current case can be viewed by selecting Data and then Nodes from the View menu. See Section 10. You can edit an individual source by double clicking on any cell in the appropriate row. you can use the key combination <Alt><V><D><N>. Alternatively.Sources for more information on editing sources.Viewing Data and Results 13-5 To change scenarios. 13-5 . For information on editing nodes see Section 10. and the Sources view will change accordingly.3 . To view source data for a different scenario select the appropriate scenario in the scenario selector on the toolbar.1 Node Manager. or select one from the Scenario Manager. you could select the appropriate scenario tab. 13.

6.1 Problems Tab The following design constraints will be checked for violations : Any violations of the design constraints are shown on this tab. Messages Messages can be viewed by selecting Results and then Messages from the View menu.7 13-6 .6 The messages that are displayed depend on the Message options you have selected (see Section 11. you can use the key combination <Alt><V><R><M>. Figure 13. 13.6.6 • • • • • • • • Mach Number Velocity pv2 Noise Back Pressure Temperature Slug Flow Ice Formation 13. Alternatively.Note that they can be viewed only after you have run the calculations.3 Warnings Tab).13-6 Messages 13.1.2 Data Echo Tab The Data Echo tab shows the options chosen for the calculation. Figure 13.

Figure 13.Viewing Data and Results 13-7 13. Figure 13.8 13.6.6.4 Sizing Tab This tab displays the sequence of line size changes during sizing calculations.9 13-7 .3 Solver Tab This tab displays any complications encountered by the solver.

US Rho V2 US Energy Downstream (DS) Static Pressure DS Temperature DS Velocity DS Mach No.6.7 Pressure/Flow Summary After running the case.13-8 Pressure/Flow Summary 13. it is displayed in emboldened red. 13-8 .10 The following variables are shown: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Mass Flowrate Molar Flowrate Rated Flowrate Static Pressure Drop Noise Static Source Back Pressure Upstream (US) Static Pressure US Temperature US Velocity US Mach No.5 Loops tab This tab displays the solution history for looped network calculations.g.11 Note that if any value violates a design limitation (e. you can view the Pressure/Flow Summary by selecting Results and then Pressure/Flow Summary from the View menu. DS Rho V2 DS Energy Flow Regime Static Pipe Acceleration Loss Static Pipe Elevation Loss Static Pipe Fittings Loss Friction Factor Reynolds Number Duty Overall HTC External HTC Internal HTC Length Used 13. Figure 13.a Mach number is greater than the maximum allowable Mach number). Figure 13. .

Figure 13.12 The Composition view may not be available if Save Phase Propertise is not active on the General tab of the Preferences Editor view. 13-9 .8 Compositions After running the case. you can view the Physical Properties for each pipe segment by selecting Results and then Physical Properties from the View menu. Figure 13.Viewing Data and Results 13-9 13. 13. you can use the key combination <Alt<V><R><R>. Alternatively.9 The following properties are displayed (Upstream and Downstream): • • • • • • • • • • Density Enthalpy Entropy Phase Fraction Heat Capacity Molecular Weight Surface Tension Thermal Conductivity Viscosity Z Factor Physical Properties After running the case.13 The Physical Properties view may not be available if Save Phase Propertise is not active on the General tab of the Preferences Editor view. You can also use the <Alt><V><R><C> key combination to access the view. you can view the Compositions for each pipe segment by selecting Results and then Compositions from the View menu.

13-10 Physical Properties You can view properties for different fluid phases by double-clicking anywhere inside the view. Each line expands to display properties for the various phases. F = Fluid (Overall) V = Vapour Phase L = Liquid Phase W = Water Phase M = Mixed (Water & Liquid) Figure 13. 13-10 .14 Double clicking again. will contract the view to its original state. inside the view.

Viewing Data and Results 13-11 13. After running the case. You will be prompted for the file name and path. You can select the property type from the drop down menu. Copy the graph to the Windows clipboard. Three buttons are available: Button View Description Print the graph using the current printer settings.15 Select the Source for which you want to display the profile. Print Save Copy 13-11 . The Profile displays the profile from the selected Source (which may be chosen from the drop down menu at the top of the view) to the Flare.10 Profile The following properties profile are available: • • • • • • • Pressure Temperature Mass Flow Molar Flow Mach No. you can view the properties profile by selecting Results and then Profile from the View menu or by pressing the key combination <Alt><V><R><P>. It can then be pasted in other applicable Windows applications (such as your word processor). Noise Rho V2 Figure 13. The output also includes important information such as the name of the file.wmf. and the model statistics. The property type can be selected from the drop down box. Save the graph to a windows metafile . the scenario.

both upstream and downstream pipe conditions will generally be close to each other. Figure 13.Graph Control for more information on 2D Chart Control Properties view. After running the case. Unless the pipe segment has a single phase flow with a large pressure drop.000 flow pattern observations. 13. It was based on almost 6.16 You can display the flow map for each pipe segment by selecting the desired pipe segment from the drop down box on the top of the view. from a variety of systems. The upstream and downstream condition are marked with a red dot and a label on the flow map. See Section 13.11 Flow Map The flow map available in FLARENET displays the flow pattern correlation of Gregory Aziz and Mandhane which is currently the most widely used method. 13-12 .13-12 Flow Map The plot can be modified by the 2D Chart Control Properties which is available on object inspecting the plot area.13 . Typically. the superficial gas and liquid velocities in a horizontal pipe are the most important single parameters influencing the flow pattern. and many independent studies and it is strictly applicable only to horizontal flow. you can view the Gregory Aziz and Mandhane flow map by selecting Results and then Flow Map from the View menu or by pressing the key combination <Alt><V><R><W>.

wmf. Save the graph to a windows metafile .Viewing Data and Results 13-13 Three buttons are available: Button View Description Print the graph using the current printer settings. and the model statistics.17 You can select a source from the drop-down menu at the top of the view. It can then be pasted in other applicable Windows applications (such as your word processor).12 Scenario Summary After running the case. Figure 13. Print Save Copy 13. You will be prompted for the file name and path. 13-13 . Copy the graph to the Windows clipboard. the scenario. you can view the Scenario Summary by selecting Results and then Scenario Summary from the View menu. The output also includes important information such as the name of the file.

Axes. and the model statistics.13-14 Graph Control Two buttons are also available: Button View Description Print the results using the current printer settings. The output also includes important information such as the name of the file. 13-14 . ChartStyles. Save the results to an ASCII text file . scenario.13 Graph Control You can customize each individual plot in Flarenet using the Chart Control tool. You will be prompted for the file name and path. ChartArea and PlotArea. Figure 13. Print Save 13. Legend.txt.18 You can open the 2D Chart Control Properties view by object inspecting any spot on an active plot. which are categorized into the six tabs of the 2D Chart Control Properties view: Control. You can modify many of the plot characteristics.

19 The Control tab is used to specify the background border. Valid values are between #000000 and #ffffff. Select the Color name from the drop down box. Enter the RGB value for the specified background color. background and foreground colors and background image. Enter the boarder type width in pixels. Select the color name from the drop down box. Enter the RGB value for the specified foreground color. Interior 13-15 . Valid values are between 0 and 20 pixels. The inner tabs available on the Control tab are: Inner Tab Option Type Border Width Background Color RGB Background Color Name Foreground Color RGB Foreground Color Name Description Select the border type drawn around the area from the drop down box. Valid values are between #000000 and #ffffff.1 Control Tab Figure 13.13.Viewing Data and Results 13-15 13.

List the name of the specified line color. 13-16 . Click the button on the right to choose a new font. the GridStyle returns to the default. it does not apply to the selected axis. or style. List the RGB value of the line color. in pixels. there is no matching color name for the specified color. Shows a sample of how text will appear with the specified font setting. Specifies the grid increment. List the available line patterns. Specify the width of the line. If this option is disabled.13-16 Graph Control 13.size. using the following inner tabs: Inner Tab Option IsStyleDefault Grid Spacing Pattern Width Color RGB GridStyle Color name Description When checked. If this option is disabled. To choose a new color by its name. click the down arrow or type the name of the color here.2 Axes Tab Figure 13. When displaying Undefined. Valid values are between #000000 and #ffffff. it does not apply to the selected axis.20 The Axes tab allows you to customize the plot area.13. Description Font Sample List the current font setting for the text.

there is no matching color name for the specified color. To choose a new color by its name. When displaying Undefined. Lists the RGB value of the symbol color. there is no matching color name for the specified color. Lists the name of the specified fill color.21 Press the Add button to add a ChartStyle after the selected Style in the list. click the down arrow or type the name of the color here. Valid values are between #000000 and #ffffff. Valid values are between #000000 and #ffffff.3 ChartStyles Tab Figure 13. To choose a new color by its name. Specifies the size of the symbol. Lists the name of the specified fill color. Lists the name of the specified symbol color. Specifies the width of the line. in pixels. Lists the RGB value of the fill color. To choose a new color by its name. click the down arrow or type the name of the color here. Valid values are between #000000 and #ffffff. When displaying Undefined. Shape Size Color RGB Lists the available symbol shapes. Pattern Width Color RGB Lists the avaiable line patterns. Lists the RGB value of the fill color. The ChartStyles tab allows you to customize how data series look in the chart. The inner tabs available on the ChartStyles tab are: Option Pattern Color RGB Description This drop down box lists the available fill patterns. When displaying Undefined. click the down arrow or type the name of the color.13. there is no matching color name for the specified color. Press the Remove button to remove the selected ChartStyle from the list.Viewing Data and Results 13-17 13. Inner Tab FillStyle Color Name LineStyle Color Name SymbolStyle Color Name 13-17 .

13-18 Graph Control 13. Specifies the width of the border in pixels. If this option is disabled. You can fine-tune the positioning with the Location inner tab. in pixels. Top Location Width Height Type Border Width 13-18 . Specifies the layout of items in the Legend.13. in pixels. relative to the ChartArea. the height cannot be changed. Specifies the distance from the top edge of the chart to the area. Displays the label. you cannot change the position of this area. If this option is disabled. If this option is disabled. If this option is disabled. the distance cannot be changed. if Series-labels have been defined Specifies the distance from the left edge of the chart to the area. the width cannot be changed. If this option is disabled. Specifies the type of border drawn around the area.4 Legend Tab Figure 13.22 The Legend tab allows you to customize the legend on the following inner tabs: Inner Tab Option Anchor General Orientation IsShowing Left Description Specifies where the legend is positioned. you cannot change the border type. Specifies the width of the area in pixels. Specifies the height of the area in pixels.

If this option is disabled. Top Location Width Height 13-19 . Inner Tab Option Left Description Specifies the distance from the left edge of the chart to the area. Specifies the distance from the top edge of the chart to the area. click the down arrow or type the name of the color. Valid values are between #000000 and #ffffff. To choose a new color by its name. Valid values are between #000000 and #ffffff. size. Shows a sample of how text will appear with the specified font setting.23 The ChartArea tab allows you to customize the chart area in detail. List the name of the specified foreground color. or style. in pixels. List the name of the specified background color.Viewing Data and Results 13-19 Inner Tab Option Background Color RGB Background Color Name Description Enter the RGB value for the specified background color.13. the height cannot be changed. Click the button on the right to choose a new font. Specifies the width of the area in pixels. you cannot change the position of this area. Enter the RGB value for the specified foreground color. If this option is disabled.5 ChartArea Tab Figure 13. click the down arrow or type the name of the color. If this option is disabled. the width cannot be changed. Specifies the height of the area in pixels. the distance cannot be changed. If this option is disabled. in pixels. Interior Foreground Color RGB Foreground Color Name Description Font Sample 13. List the current font setting for the text. To choose a new color by its name.

List the name of the specified foreground color. If this option is disabled. Enter the RGB value for the specified background color. Enter the RGB value for the specified foreground color.6 Plot Area Tab Figure 13. click the down arrow or type the name of the color. Positive values allow space for axis labels. Specifies the distance from the left side of the chart area to the axis. Positive values allow space for axis labels. Specifies the distance from the right side of the chart area to the axis.13. List the name of the specified background color. Specifies the width of the border in pixels. negative values let you “zoom in” on a chart. To choose a new color by its name. negative values let you “zoom in” on a chart. To choose a new color by its name. Specifies the distance from the top of the chart area to the axis. Positive values allow space for axis labels. Specifies the distance from the bottom of the chart area to the axis. negative values let you “zoom in” on a chart.24 The plot area can be customized on the PlotArea tab using the following inner tabs: Inner Tab Option IsBoxed Top Description Draws a box arount the plot area. Interior Foreground Color RGB Foreground Color Name 13. Bottom General Left Right 13-20 . click the down arrow or type the name of the color. you cannot change the border type. negative values let you “zoom in” on a chart.13-20 Graph Control Inner Tab Border Option Type Width Background Color RGB Background Color Name Description Specifies the type of border drawn around the area. Positive values allow space for axis labels. Valid values are between #000000 and #ffffff. Valid values are between #000000 and #ffffff.

Valid values are between #000000 and #ffffff. the image is embedded into the chart. the chart looks for the image in the specified location. List the name of the specified foreground color. Click this button to return the chart element background to its default. click the down arrow or type the name of the color. When unchecked. When checked. To choose a new color by its name. Enter the RGB value for the specified foreground color.Viewing Data and Results 13-21 Inner Tab Option Background Color RGB Background Color Name Description Enter the RGB value for the specified background color. Select the way you want the image to be displayed in the backround. Interior Foreground Color RGB Foreground Color Name File Layout Image IsEmbedded Reset button 13-21 . List the name of the specified background color. Valid values are between #000000 and #ffffff. click the down arrow or type the name of the color. Specifies the file name and path of the image you want to load into the chart element. To choose a new color by its name.

13-22 Graph Control 13-22 .

........................3 Installing Objects ..................................................................5 Manipulating the PFD...................................................... 8 14...............4 PFD Toolbar Buttons .5 Selecting PFD Objects .......... 10 Regenerate PFD .........5. 7 Viewports Option......7 Changing the PFD View Options ....... 10 Moving Objects ....................................................................................................1 14............................................2.......... 7 14...........................................5.......................................... 3 14..........1 Overview ... 5 Print Options ... 5 14....2....................................................................................4 Connecting Objects ........................................................................................... 11 14............. 9 14......... 6 Stream Label Options ........2 14.............................6 Printing and Saving the PFD Image..................................................................................................................................................................... 9 14...........3 14.....5..................3 14........................5.................................................................2...........................................................2 14.............2......... 9 Unselecting Objects .......PFD 14-1 14 PFD 14.... 12 14-1 ...............1 14.........................................2 Object Inspection ......................................................................... 11 14..............................

14-2 14-2 .

The PFD has been developed to satisfy a number of functions. You can also reposition objects.1 Overview One of the key benefits of the Process Flow Diagram (PFD) is that it provides the best representation of the flowsheet as a whole. pipe segments. resize icons and reroute connections. From this one location. the blue dot is for downstream flow whereas magenta is for branch flow in case of a tee or horizontal separator. The red dot is for upstream flow. you have an immediate reference to your current progress in building the Flare network. Each object has a specific icon to represent it: Object Pipe-Segment Icon Flare Tip Connector Tee Relief Valve Control Valve 14-3 .PFD 14-3 14. The PFD also possesses analytical capabilities in that you can access the Edit views for nodes. In addition to the graphical representation. and sources which are displayed. you can build your flowsheet within the PFD using the mouse to install objects and make connections. The nodes on the objects have been colour coded to show the flow path.

A separate window with its own tool bar is opened.1 PFD Tool Bar Vertical Scroll Bar Horizontal Scroll Bar 14-4 .14-4 Overview Object Icon Vertical Separator Horizontal Separator Orifice Plate Flow Bleed To open the PFD. Figure 14. select PFD and then Open from the View menu.

wmf format (Windows Metafile). Copies the PFD to the clipboard. All objects you move or add "snap to" the current grid spacing. source or node. Toggle the grid on and off.PFD 14-5 14. 14. If you double-click on any pipe-segment.2. The most basic tools relate to what is displayed in the PFD Window. It is saved in a .2 All of these buttons perform an important function as explained below: Button Print PFD Save the PFD to file. this button will be faded.1 PFD Toolbar Buttons The PFD toolbar buttons are arranged as follows: Figure 14. When the grid is on. 14-5 . Save PFD Copy PFD Toggle Grid Display Coarser Grid This button increases grid spacing. PFD Toolbar There are several tools that helps to simplify your interaction with the PFD. the appropriate edit view will be opened for that object. View Description Print the PFD to the Printer.2 Object Inspection One of the key features of the FLARENET PFD is the ability to inspect objects in the flowsheet. allowing you to paste it into other applications.

The PFD is printed without the page header and footer to allow compilation of a multiple tiled image.2 Print Options You can specify the area of the PFD that you desire to print by selecting the following options available on the PFD button bar. Print Selected 14-6 . All objects you move or add "snap to" the current grid spacing. While in the snap mode. Snap To Grid On/Off Rotate Pipes Clockwise Toggle Direct/ Orthogonal connections Toggle Arrange/ Connect Mode Toolbox 14. the Status bar displays the word Snap. Connect mode allows you to graphically connect compatible objects. The status bar on the PFD shows which mode is activated. All current connections (and any connections you subsequently make) will conform to the connection method you have selected. Option Print Visible Print All Description Print part of the PFD visible on the screen.14-6 Object Inspection Button View Description This button decreases grid spacing. Toggle between Arrange and Connect modes. You can highlight the part of the PFD by clicking once on the PFD and than dragging the section of PFD. Finer Grid The Ctrl+Shift+S hot keys snaps the objects to the grid. Print only the selected part of the PFD. Rotate the selected pipe segments and nodes. When the snap to grid is on all pipe segments and nodes will be snapped to the closest grids.2. Toggle between bent and straight connections. Arrange mode allows you to move icons and labels. Print the whole PFD. Toggles the snap to grid option on and off. This button toggles the Toolbox view.

a single PFD viewport is defined as Overall. You can chose between the type of labels for the pipe segments and nodes by selecting the property drop down box on the PFD button bar.4 Viewports Option You have the option to change the PFD viewports.2.3 Stream Label Options The following properties are available: • Energy Flow • Length • Mach Number • Mass Flow • Molecular Weight • Molar Flow • Noise • Nominal Diameter • Pressure • Rho V2 • Temperature • Vapour Fraction • Velocity • Velocity (Liq) • Velocity (Vap) Scroll down to see more variables. If the object label is red in colour it indicates that the object violated the limits setup in the Scenarios Editor or the fluid is in the slug region.PFD 14-7 14.2. 14. Some of the possible causes are ice formation. You can specify a different setting for each viewport including percent zoom and stream labels. Delete an Existing Viewport You can delete an existing viewport from the PFD by right clicking the PFD view title bar and selecting the Delete Viewport from the menu.3 The box on the right side of the property drop down box displays the default units for the chosen property. If the object label is grey in colour it indicates that the object is ignored for calculation by activating the Ignore check box on the object property view. temperature violation and source back pressure. By default. By default. Figure 14. slug flow. each object on the PFD has a label that displays its name. 14-7 . You can change all object name labels so that the current value of a key variable is shown in the place of each object name. Add a New Viewport New viewports can be added to the PFD by right clicking the title bar of the PFD view and selecting the Add Viewport from the displayed menu.

2. Object specifications are then supplied via the appropriate Property view which can be accessed by doubleclicking the object icon. • Press the Toolbox button on the PFD button bar. select the object you wish to delete. 14-8 . • Press the <F4> key. To delete an object. If the Edit Objects on Add check box is activated. 14. as well as connect compatible objects.4 Pipe Segment Connector Relief Valve Vertical Separator Orifice Plate Flare Tip Tee Control Valve Horizontal Separator Flow Bleed The procedure for installing operations via the Toolbox is as follows: 1. Click in the specific area in the PFD where you want to place the object icon. Drag and drop the desired object using the secondary mouse key.14-8 Installing Objects Print Viewport Visible viewports can be printed to a selected printer by choosing the Print Window from the menu. The PFD Toolbox is used to install operations. The Toolbox can be accessed by doing one of the following: • Open the View menu and then open the PFD sub-menu. the object editor view will be open for each new object which is added to the PFD.3 Installing Objects The PFD can be used to install objects into the flowsheet. Click the desired object in the PFD Toolbox. You will see the button being depressed. 3. then press the <Delete> key on the keyboard. Select Toolbox. The object then appears in the PFD. Figure 14.

There are a number of features built into the PFD interface to modify its appearance. Move the mouse pointer over the central handle point (blue fill instead of white for this handle point) then press the left mouse button. There are two methods you can use to select multiple objects: Method One 1. Press the left mouse button (outside the group). Release the left mouse button. 2. These small boxes are used to size an object. and drag the mouse so that a A pipe and the corresponding text which have been selected. This toggles between connect and arrange modes. 3. The selected object will have eight small boxes outlining its border. Arrange Mode button Connecting Objects To connect objects: Enter connect mode by clicking the Connect button on the tool bar. The manipulations apply to all objects that are installed in the PFD. the quickest and easiest way is to marquee select that group.1 Selecting PFD Objects To select a single object. position the mouse pointer on top of the object. Click on the source object to select it. but in order to select an object. Connect Mode button 5. that is. you must be in Arrange mode. A pipe which has been selected. 14. 14-9 . If the objects are all contained within the same area. when you select an object.PFD 14-9 14. the corresponding text is not also automatically selected. Drag off the source object and over the destination object. 14. then click once with the left mouse button.5 Manipulating the PFD FLARENET allows you to select single objects as well as multiple objects. Note that text must be selected separately.4 1.5. 4.

5. If the grid is on. To select a second object. 4. Continue dragging until this box contains all the objects that you want selected. 3. 3. 2. indicating it has been selected.5. Position the mouse pointer on one of the objects and press the left mouse button. • To unselect only one item. then click on the second object with the left mouse button. Method Two 1. Continue this method for the remainder of the objects you wish to select. 14.2 Unselecting Objects The following methods can be used: • Click on an empty spot in the PFD with the left mouse button. 2. 2. hold down the <Shift> key or <Ctrl> key. or as a group.5. Press the left mouse button to select this object. Drag the mouse to the new position on the PFD and release the mouse button. Select the item or items you want to move. 14.4 Locating Objects on the PFD You can locate individual object on the PFD by pressing the <Ctrl><Shift><F> hot keys. Their movement will be constrained to the grid spacing. 14. Two objects will now be selected.14-10 Manipulating the PFD box appears. 14-10 . each object will have its own rectangular box surrounding it. When you release the mouse button. The object will be highlighted on the PFD. Position the mouse pointer on the first object in the PFD you want to select.3 Moving Objects You can move objects individually. You can select individual objects from the list by clicking on them using the primary mouse key. 1. press the <Shift> key and click on the object with the left mouse button. which displays the Locate Object view. all objects which are moved will "snap to" the grid. All selected items will move to the new location. 3.

1. then click OK. you can then use a program which is capable of reading . To save the PFD in a .6 Printing and Saving the PFD Image The first three toolbar buttons are used to transfer the PFD to the printer. Regenerate PFD option places all the objects along a vertical path in the best possible manner.wmf format (Windows Metafile).5.5 Print PFD Button Enter the file name and path.wmf files (such as Corel DrawTM). You can then make additional changes to further fine-tune your PFD. This feature is a great time-saver especially when you have not laid out the PFD as you were building the case. Rather than placing all objects yourself. see Section 15. It is not recommended to regenerate well laid out PFDs. Windows Metafile and to memory. To view the PFD. You will be prompted to enter a file name: Save PFD Button Figure 14. 14.PFD 14-11 14. press the Print PFD button. regenerate the PFD in this manner. press the Save PFD button.3 Printer Setup. Select PFD and then Regenerate from the View menu. To print the PFD using the current Print Setup. For more information on the Print Setup. 14-11 .5 Regenerate PFD Use this function to reposition all objects in a logical manner.

and Connection. 14-12 . All of these options are available via toolbar buttons. Copy PFD Button 14. Rotate. a grid is superimposed upon the existing PFD.7 Changing the PFD View Options When in the PFD window. namely. The following is a brief description of each button: Button Description When the Grid Toolbar button is selected. Grid.14-12 Changing the PFD View Options To copy the PFD to the clipboard. You can select to rotate or mirror (flip) the selected object about its centre in one of the following five ways: Rotate • Rotate 90 • Rotate 180 • Rotate 270 • Flip Y • Flip X Grid Toggle Direct/ Orthogonal This button allows you to toggle between direct and orthogonal connecting lines. These buttons allow you to either increase or decrease the grid density as well as snap the elements to grid. There are also 3 buttons beside the Grid Toolbar button. FLARENET allows you to select several view options. select the Copy PFD button. You can then paste it into other Windows applications as you would with any Windows object.

... 16 15............3 Importing from Microsoft Access....... Importing and Printing 15-1 15 Exporting.............................. 8 15.............................1 ASCII Text Files................1............................................... 8 15.......... Importing and Printing 15............1... 7 15.........................................................................2...........................................................Exporting.....................3 Printer Setup .........................2 Location-Specific Printing ................3 Exporting to Microsoft Access ...2................................................2 Importing Source Data........ 7 15.................................................................................................2 Importing HYSYS Source Data.................................. 17 15-1 ........................2..............1 Printing............... 13 15......... 4 15...........

15-2 15-2 .

it should be possible to import component data from any external source provided it conforms to this file format. This data is transferred via an ASCII file. 15-3 . The printing of data and results is included as an export function since the printing functionality incorporated within FLARENET is also used to export data and results in a number of industry standard formats. • All data and results may be saved as either ASCII text.Importing Component Data. • Component data from the HYSIM process simulator. Consequently. This data is transferred via an ASCII file. or Tab-separated text. The format of this database is given in the appendices. The following data may be exported from FLARENET: • All data and results may be printed on any Windowscompatible printer. The following data may be imported into FLARENET: • Source data from the HYSIM and HYSYS process simulators. • All data and results may be saved in a Microsoft Access database. Importing and Printing 15-3 Data can be either exported to. which is discussed in Section 12. Comma-separated text. it should be possible to import source data from any external source provided it conforms to this file format. • Data from a Microsoft Access database.Exporting. Consequently.5.1 . or imported from a number of external sources.

By default. select Print from the File drop down menu. Check the All Scenarios box if you want printouts for all of the scenarios. the printout is only for the current scenario. • CSV. Figure 15. If you want the results to be saved as an ASCII text file. You will then be able to select the file format via the Text File Format drop-down menu. with all values separated by commas. • TSV. Comma Separated .Saves the data in ASCII format.1 Select the items that you wish to print by checking the appropriate boxes in the Database.Saves the data in ASCII format.15-4 Printing 15.Saves the data in ASCII format. Data and Results group box. Tab Separated . with all values separated by spaces. check the Print To File box. The Print view will be displayed. with all values separated by tabs.1 Printing In order to print either model data or calculation results that are not specific to a single source. The following file formats are supported: • Text . 15-4 .

fmt Comps.fmt" files for each printed report are: Report Component Database Pipe Fittings Database Pipe Schedules Database Components Scenarios Pipes Source Nodes Messages Pressure/Flow Summary Compositions .fmt Pipes.FMT Files The printouts can be customised to a limited extent using a series of ASCII text files with the extension ".1 .fmt Scenarios.fmt DbSchedules.fmt MoleFracs.Exporting. 15. If you did not check the Print To File check box. the results will immediately be printed when you click OK on the Print view. then click OK. Figure 15.1.2 Select or directly enter the file.fmt Nodes.fmt Messages. These files may be edited using any ASCII text editor such as the NOTEPAD application distributed with Microsoft Windows.fmt File DbComps.fmt".fmt 15-5 . the Print To File view will be displayed when you click OK.fmt Sources.fmt DbFittings. Importing and Printing 15-5 If you checked the Print To File check box.fmt Summary. The default ".

15-6 Printing Report Physical Properties Scenario Summary . You can change the location and ".File Format. these files are located in the Flarenet program directory.fmt By default. Figure 15.fmt" file for each report via the Reports tab on the Preferences Editor view.3 These files conform to the format shown in Appendix B .fmt ScenSum.fmt File Properties. 15-6 .

1.1. and any other settings applicable to your printer. The Profile view is shown here: Figure 15.Profile and Section 13.3 Printer Setup To edit the printer setup. Save Print Copy 15.10 . It is similar to the Printer Setup commands in other Windows applications.6 Printing and Saving the PFD Image. Note that the Print 15-7 .Exporting. print orientation.Scenario Summary for more details. The Profile. This is used to select the default/specific printer. Flow Map and Scenario Summary views each have a Print button which can be selected to print the displayed data. paper source.2 Location-Specific Printing Information on printing the PFD is given in Section 14.12 . Results that are specific to a single source must be printed individually. select Printer Setup from the File menu or press the <Alt><F><R> key combination. paper size.4 See Section 13. Importing and Printing 15-7 15.

You could load up data from a specially formated text file or directly from HYSYS.2 Importing Source Data FLARENET allows you to import source data through multiple ways. Figure 15.15-8 Importing Source Data Setup Options vary for different printers.2. 15.5 15. select Import from the File menu and then select Text File Sources from the Import 15-8 .1 ASCII Text Files To access the ASCII text files containing the source data. as well as using existing Access database to import data.

Importing and Printing 15-9 submenu. If Downstream is selected from the drop down box. Select the source to which the source data will be imported. whereas the Overwrite Existing copies all the component data from text file to the FLARENET case. The Ignore Existing selection does not copy the same components from the text file to the FLARENET case. Select the text file from this view and press the OK button. the allowable back pressure and the outlet temperature is copied from the source data file. Specify the pressure and temperature location for the source. Specify the action to be taken if similiar components exist in the text file and the FLARENET case. Press the Open button to load the source data file in FLARENET. The Text Import of Source Data view will be displayed: Figure 15. Pressing the Browse button opens the Text File For Source Data view.Exporting. List all the streams available to be imported in FLARENET. the relieving pressure and the actual Inlet temperature specification is copied from the source data file.6 The following objects are available on this view: Object Description Specify the file from which the source data will be imported. If Upstream is selected from the drop down box. List all the scenarios available in the FLARENET case. You can select the scenarios to which the data will be copied. File P/T Location Component Data Stream Source Scenarios 15-9 .

A calculator program must be executed within HYSIM in order to convert the source data to the proper format. When prompted for the pressure and temperature location as shown below. Load the HYSIM case containing the source data into HYSIM. This file will be given the extension . Figure 15.7 3. define whether the conditions for the streams within the simulation case represent either conditions upstream or downstream of the source valve. Import the source data into FLARENET. At the main HYSIM command line prompt. enter the file name.9 15-10 .8 4. using the File Import feature. When prompted for the name of the export file as shown below. This need be done only once. 2. You must previously have copied the file FNW25. type the command !FNW26 as shown below. 2. Figure 15. Export the source data from HYSIM.PRN.HCL into the HYSIM working directory from the \HYSIM program directory under your main program directory.15-10 Importing Source Data Example: Importing from HYSIM Two steps are necessary in order to import source data from HYSIM Version 2.6 or later. In order to create the HYSIM transfer file: 1. 1. Figure 15.

enter the source number for the selected scenario within the FLARENET model that corresponds to each HYSIM stream. Specify the P/T Location and the Component Data from the drop down box. Figure 15. On the Text Import Of Source Data view. Importing and Printing 15-11 5.11 2. Select Import then Text File Sources from the File menu. In order to import the HYSIM transfer file: 1. When prompted for the streams to export as shown below.10 The transfer file will now be created (in your HYSIM directory).Exporting. Figure 15. select as many streams as you wish (do not select energy streams). 15-11 . enter the file name. When prompted for the Text Import File as shown below. by using the standard HYSIM stream selection methods.

15-12

Importing Source Data

Example 2: Importing From HYSYS
Two steps are necessary in order to import source data from HYSYS.1. 1. Export the source data from HYSYS. A program must be executed externally to HYSYS in order to convert the source data to the proper format. Import the source data into FLARENET, using the File Import feature.

2.

In order to create the HYSYS transfer file: 1. Run the FNETEXPT.EXE program. This is initially installed in the \HYSYS directory under your main program directory. The following dialog box will be displayed. Enter the name of the HYSYS file containing the streams of interest, then click Open. The Flowsheet Streams list will then contain a list of all the material streams in the file.
Figure 15.12

2.

3. 4.

Select the streams to export as well as the location that the pressure and temperature represent (P&T Location). Click Export. Select a name for the transfer file then click OK. The transfer file will now be created.

15-12

Exporting, Importing and Printing

15-13

In order to import the HYSYS transfer file: 1. Select Import then Text File Sources from the File menu. When prompted for the Text Import File as shown below, enter the file name.

Figure 15.13

Blank source name fields means that the stream data is not imported

2.

On the Text Import Of Source Data view, enter the source number for the selected scenario within the FLARENET model that corresponds to each HYSYS stream. Specify the P/T Location and the Component Data from the drop down box.

15.2.2 Importing HYSYS Source Data
The Source data can also be imported directly from HYSYS. To access the HYSYS files containing the source data, select Import from the File menu and then select HYSYS Sources from the submenu. The Hysys

15-13

15-14

Importing Source Data

Import of Source Data view will be displayed:
Figure 15.14

The following objects are available on this view:
Object Description Specify the HYSYS file from which the source data will be imported. Pressing the Browse button opens the Hysys File For Source Data view. Select the HYSYS file from this view and press the OK button. Press the Open button to load the source data file in FLARENET. Specify the pressure and temperature location for the source. If Upstream is selected from the drop down box, the relieving pressure and the actual Inlet temperature specification is copied from the source data file. If Downstream is selected from the drop down box, the allowable back pressure and the outlet temperature is copied from the source data file. Specify the action to be taken if similiar components exist in the HYSYS file and the FLARENET case. The Ignore Existing selection does not copy the same components from the HYSYS file to the FLARENET case, whereas the Overwrite Existing copies all the component data from HYSYS file to the FLARENET case. List all the streams available in HYSYS file which can be imported in FLARENET.

File

P/T Location

Component Data

Stream

15-14

Exporting, Importing and Printing

15-15

Object Source Scenarios

Description Select the source to which the source data will be imported. List all the scenarios available in the FLARENET case. You can select the scenarios to which the data will be copied.

15-15

15-16

Importing Source Data

15.2.3 Importing from Microsoft Access
Source data can be imported from a Microsoft Access database. In order to import source data: 1. Select Access Database from the Import sub-menu under the File menu on the main program menu bar. The Import Data From Access Database view will be displayed.
Figure 15.15

2.

Select the file to be imported by either typing or selecting the appropriate file in the File Name box. The search directory and drive can be changed using the Directories and Drives boxes. Click OK.

3.

FLARENET looks for data in the following tables in the Access data file.

• • • • • • • • • • • •

Components Connectors ControlValves FlowBleeds HorizontalSeparators OrificePlates Pipes PressureFlowSummary ReliefValves Tees Tips VerticalSeparators

For a description of fields contained in each of these tables see Appendix B - File Format.

15-16

Exporting, Importing and Printing

15-17

15.3

Exporting to Microsoft Access

In order to save the components and nodes in a Microsoft Access database, select Export and then Access Database from the File menu. The Export Data To Access Database view will be displayed:
Figure 15.16

You can open the Access data file from within Access. This file contain the following tables, which will be created even if they contain no data.

• • • • • • • • • • • •

Components Connectors ControlValves FlowBleeds HorizontalSeparators OrificePlates Pipes PressureFlowSummary ReliefValves Tees Tips VerticalSeparators

For a description of fields contained in each of these tables look in Appendix B - File Format.

15-17

15-18

Exporting to Microsoft Access

15-18

.2 A....................................................................Theoretical Basis A-1 A Theoretical Basis A...............3 A.... 20 Liquid Viscosity ............ 17 Peng Robinson ...............2...............4 Compressible Gas ............. 11 A..............................3.......................................................... 18 A..3......... 3 A...................................1 A.......................1...................... 27 A-1 .....................................................2......................1 Pipe Pressure Drop Method ............................................................................ 19 Liquid Density .................................................................................................................................................5 A.............................................................................................................1.................................................................................................2...2 Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium.....................................6 Vapour Density ... 16 Soave Redlich Kwong...............................2 A. 15 Vapour Pressure .............................. 15 A... 23 Enthalpy..1 Pressure Drop ..........................................................3 Physical Properties ...................................3............................................ 24 A................................. 19 Vapour Viscosity .... 3 A.........4 A.... 20 Thermal Conductivity.............................................1 A...................................................3 A.....2 Fittings Pressure Drop Methods .......2.......3.................. 19 A..3...................................................................3.........4 Noise ..........................

A-2 A-2 .

--.Theoretical Basis A-3 A.+ --------------------------------.+ ----.2) where: G = Mass flow a = Cross sectional area of pipe P1 = Upstream pressure A-3 .= è φø γ – 1 P1 a 2 ---------.ln ----.ln ----è V 2ø è V 1ø γ (A.+ 2f -.1.V 1 è Gø 2γ V1 2 γ + 1 V2 1 – ----– ----------.1) where: G = Mass flow a = Cross sectional area of pipe P1 = Upstream pressure P2 = Downstream pressure R = Universal gas constant f = Moody friction factor φ = Internal diameter L = Equivalent length T = Temperature M = Molecular weight or from the theoretically derived equation for adiabatic flow of a compressible fluid in a horizontal pipe2: L 4f -.= 0 .--.1 Pipe Pressure Drop Method Vapour Phase Pressure Drop Methods Pressure drop can be calculated either from the theoretically derived equation for isothermal flow of a compressible fluid in a horizontal pipe2: 2 2 M(P 2 – P 1) G 2 P1 L G 2 --.1 Pressure Drop A.è aø è φø è a ø è P 2ø 2RT (A.

= – 4 log --------------.– --------------.6 log -----------------------------------------e f 0.+ -----------è 2.4) where: f = Moody friction factor Re = reynolds number φ = Internal diameter e = Absolute pipe roughness A-4 .135 Re -. Reynolds number and roughness of the pipe4: Turbulent Flow (Re > 4000) The friction factor may be calculated from either the Round equation: Re 1 ----.3) 7.8981 5.0452 1 e⁄φ (e ⁄ φ) ----.+ 6.A-4 Pressure Drop R = Universal gas constant V1 = Upstream velocity V2 = Downstream velocity f = Moody friction factor φ = Internal diameter L = Equivalent length γ = Ratio of specific heats The Moody friction factor is calculated using an equation appropriate for the flow regime.7065 f 1.5 è φ ø where: f = Moody friction factor Re = Reynolds number φ = Internal diameter e = Absolute pipe roughness Or from the Chen21 equation: (A.log -------------------------. These equations correlate the friction factor to the pipe diameter.1098 (A.149 0.= 3.8257 è Re ø ø Re 3.

using A-5 .log ---------.log ---------.7φ Re ø è 3.– --------è 3. it is nevertheless commonly used for this purpose.= – 4. and is applicable for inclined flow.5) where: f = Moody friction factor Re = Reynolds number φ = Internal diameter e = Absolute pipe roughness Laminar Flow (Re < 2100) 16.– --------. the flow regime is determined using the Froude number and inlet liquid content.Theoretical Basis A-5 Transition Flow (2100 ≤ Re ≤ 4000) 5. The Beggs and Brill9 method is based on work done with an air-water mixture at many different conditions.02 e 13. distributed and transition.6) fd = 4 • f where: f = Moody friction factor fd = Darcy friction factor (A. the liquid hold-up for a horizontal pipe is calculated.7φø Re è 3.0 log ---------. Once the flow regime has been determined.0 e 1 ----.7) 2-Phase Pressure Drop Beggs and Brill Although the Beggs and Brill method was not intended for use with vertical pipes.7φø Re f (A.0 f = --------Re where: f = Moody friction factor Re = Reynolds number The Darcy friction factor is given by: (A. intermittent.– --------. In the Beggs and Brill correlation.02 e 5. and is therefore included as an option for vertical pressure drop methods. The flow map used is based on horizontal flow and has four regimes: segregated.

From the hold-up. a two-phase friction factor is calculated and the pressure gradient determined.0179x + 0.0207x ) 2 3 (A.A-6 Pressure Drop the correlation applicable to that regime. A factor is applied to this hold-up to account for pipe inclination.62 – 3.001 0.1 1 The boundaries between regions are defined in terms of two constants and the Froude number 10: L 1 = exp ( – 4.602x – 1.9) A-6 .061 – 4.1 0.481x – 0.01 Input Liquid Content 0.0001 0.8) L 2 = exp ( 1.000635x ) where: x = ln(λ) λ = input liquid content = qliquid/(qliquid +qgas) q = in situ volumetric flowrate 2 3 5 (A. Figure A.609x – 0.757x – 0.1 Beggs and Brill Flow Regimes 1000 Distributed 100 Froude Number Intermittent 10 Segregated 1 Transition 0.

10) 2f TP LV m ρ m ∆P F = ------------------------------144g c D 2 (A. If the Froude number is less than L1.2 lbm-ft/lbf-s2) D = Inside diameter of pipe (ft) A-7 . If the Froude number is greater than L1 and smaller than L2 the flow pattern is intermittent. Elevation and Acceleration.11) where: fTP = Two-phase friction factor (determined empirically) L = Equivalent length of the pipeline (ft) Vm = Velocity of the two-phase mixture in pipeline assuming equal velocity (ft/s) ρm = Density of two-phase mixture (lb/ft3) gc = Gravitational constant (32. the flow pattern is segregated.Theoretical Basis A-7 According to Beggs and Brill: 1. the flow pattern is distributed. The total pressure drop is the sum of the pressure drop due to these components: ∆P Total = ∆P F + ∆P E + ∆P A where: ∆PTotal = Total change in pressure ∆PF = Change in pressure due to friction ∆PE = Change in pressure due to elevation ∆PA = Change in pressure due to acceleration The pressure drop due to friction is: (A. If the Froude number is greater than both L1 and L2. 2. 3. Dukler Method The Dukler10 method breaks the pressure drop into three components Friction.

12 method assumes there are four different flow regimes existing in vertical two-phase flow . The bubble flow regime consists mainly of liquid with a small amount of a free-gas phase.+ ------------------cos θ 2 RL ø 1 – RL RL ø 144g c A è 1 – R L DS è US (A.12) where: Eh = Liquid head factor (determined empirically) ρL = Liquid density ΣH = Sum of elevation changes The pressure drop due to acceleration is usually very small in oil/gas distribution systems.------------------. the gas phase is most pronounced. In the slug flow regime.+ ------------------– ------------------. annular-slug transition and annular-mist.bubble.13) where: A = Cross-sectional area ρg = Gas density QGPL = Volume of gas flowing at pipeline temperature and pressure (ft3/hr) QLPL = Volume of liquid flowing at pipeline temperature and pressure (ft3/hr) RL = Liquid holdup in pipeline as a percentage of pipeline capacity θ = Angle of the pipe bend Orkiszewski Method The Orkiszewski11. The gas phase consists of small. The gas A-8 . slug.A-8 Pressure Drop The pressure drop due to elevation is as follows: Eh ρL å H ∆P E = ----------------------144 (A. but becomes significant in flare systems: 2 2 2 2 ρ g Q GPL ρ L Q LPL ρ g Q GPL ρ L Q LPL 1 ∆P A = -------------------. randomly distributed gas bubbles with varying diameters. The gas phase has little effect on the pressure gradient (with the exception of its density).

The liquid slug between the gas bubbles virtually disappears in the transition regime. The bulk of the liquid is entrained and carried in the gas phase. The gas and liquid phases may have significant effects on the pressure gradient. the gas phase becomes more dominant. At high flow velocities. slug flow.Theoretical Basis A-9 bubbles coalesce and form stable bubbles of approximately the same size and shape. Orkiszewski defined bubble flow.14) RL = Dimensionless factor dependent on non-slip velocity gc = Gravitational constant (32. the liquid can become entrained in the gas bubbles. then slug flow exists. The pressure drop in A-9 . mist flow and gas velocity numbers which are used to determine the appropriate flow regime. If the ratio of superficial gas velocity to the non-slip velocity is less than the bubble flow number. the gas phase is continuous and is the controlling phase. In this regime. for which the pressure drop is: V sL 2 ------è RL ø ∆P = f tp ρ L ---------------2g c D where: ∆P = Pressure drop (lb/ft2 per foot of length) ftp = Two-phase friction factor ρL = Liquid density (lb/ft3) VsL = Superficial liquid velocity (ft/s) (A. The gas bubbles move faster than the liquid phase. There is a film of liquid around the gas bubbles. In the annular-mist regime. with a significant amount of liquid becoming entrained in the gas phase. Transition flow is the regime where the change from a continuous liquid phase to a continuous gas phase occurs. The gas bubbles are separated by slugs of a continuous liquid phase.2 lbm-ft/lbf-s2) D = Hydraulic diameter (ft) If the ratio of superficial gas velocity to the non-slip velocity is greater than the bubble flow number. then bubble flow exists. and the gas velocity number is smaller than the slug flow number.

These are converted to total pressure drop by: ρ∆PL ∆P total = --------------------------------------------------Q total G f 144 1 – ---------------------2 è 4637PA p ø (A.15) where: Vns = Non-slip velocity Vr = Bubble rise velocity Γ = Constant The pressure drop calculation for mist flow is as follows: ( V sg ) ∆P = f tp ρ g --------------2g c D 2 (A. dependent on mist flow.17) (A.+ Γ ∆P = -------------------2g c D ø è V ns + V rø è (A.16) where: Vsg = Superficial gas velocity (ft/s) ρg = Gas density (lb/ft3) The pressure drop for transition flow is: ∆P = ∆P s + ( 1 – χ )∆P m where: ∆Ps = Pressure drop for slug flow ∆Pm = Pressure drop for mixed flow χ = Weighting factor. slug flow.18) where: ρ = Density of the flowing regime (lb/ft3) Qtotal = Mass rate of combined liquid/gas (lb/s) A-10 .------------------. The pressure drop calculated by the previous equations are for a onefoot length of pipe. and gas velocity numbers.A-10 Pressure Drop this case is: 2 V sL + V r f tp ρ L V ns .

– P 2 + -----------2 ø è 2 ø è Where: ∆ P = Total pressure loss P = Static pressure ρ = Density U = Velocity Subscripts: 1 = Inlet 2 = Outlet 2 2 (A.19) The static inlet pressure is then calculated from the following equation in which it is assumed that there is no elevation change across the node. K. which is defined by ∆P K = --------------------2 ( ρU ) ⁄ 2 Where: ∆ P = Total pressure loss ρ = Density U = Velocity (A.2 Fittings Pressure Drop Methods Fitting pressure losses are calculated from a type specific loss coefficient. ρ1 U1 ρ2 U2 ∆P = P 1 + -----------.Theoretical Basis A-11 Gf = Gas flow rate (ft3/s) Ap = Cross-sectional area of pipe (ft2) p = Average pressure in segment (psia) ∆P = Unit pressure drop (as calculated above) L = Length of line segment (ft) A.20) A-11 .1.

23) A-12 .2 If θ < 45° : θ 2 0. which is defined by: d1 β = ---d2 (A.( 1 – β ) K1 2 K 2 = -------------------------------------.8 sin -.21) Sudden and gradual contraction Figure A.A-12 Pressure Drop Enlargers/Contractions The loss coefficient is calculated from the ratio of the smaller diameter to the larger diameter. β.5 ( 1 – β ) sin -K1 2 K 2 = -----------------------------------------.= -----4 4 β β Otherwise: (A.22) 2 θ 0.= -----4 4 β β (A.

= -----4 4 β β (A.( 1 – β ) K1 2 K 2 = ----------------------------------------. The following numbering scheme is used to reference the flow paths.4 A-13 .Theoretical Basis A-13 Sudden and gradual enlargement Figure A.6 sin -.25) Tees Tees can be modelled either using a flow independent loss coefficient for each flow path or using variable loss coefficients that are a function of the volumetric flow and area for each flow path as well as the branch angle. Figure A.= -----4 4 β β Otherwise: (A.3 If θ < 45° : θ 2 2 2.24) 2 2 K1 (1 – β ) K 2 = --------------------.

A-14

Pressure Drop

Constant Loss Coefficient
If: θ = 90°

K 13 = K 31 = 0.5

(A.26)

K 23 = K 32 = 0.5 Otherwise :

(A.27)

K 13 = K 31 = 1.37

(A.28)

K 23 = K 32 = 0.76

(A.29)

Variable Loss Coefficients
The loss coefficient is a function of the branch angle, branch area to total flow area ratio and branch volumetric flow to total volumetric flow ratio. These values have been graphically represented by Miller. reference here A typical chart for K23 in combining flow is shown.
Figure A.5

Area Ratio A1/A3

Flow Ratio, Q1/Q3

A-14

Theoretical Basis

A-15

Orifice Plates
Orifice plates can either be modelled as a sudden contraction from the inlet line size to the hole diameter followed by a sudden expansion from the hole diameter to the outlet line size. This simplistic treatment if often adequate given the uncertainty in the prediction of two phase loss coefficients. Alternatively the equation for a thin orifice plate may be used:

2.825 ( 1 – β ) K 2 = ----------------------------------------------------------4 β

2 1.5082β

0.08596

(A.30)

d1 β = ---d2 where: d1 = Inlet pipe diameter d2 = Hole diameter

(A.31)

Separators
The pressure loss for a separator is modelled by treating it as a sudden enlargement of the total flow from the inlet line size to the hydraulic diameter of the body followed by a sudden contraction of the vapour flow from the hydraulic diameter of the body to the to the outlet line size. Friction losses within the separator body are ignored.

A.2

Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium

A.2.1 Compressible Gas
The PVT relationship is expressed as:

PV = ZRT

(A.32)

A-15

A-16

Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium

where: P = pressure V = Volume Z = Compressibility factor R = Gas constant T = Temperature The compressibility factor Z is a function of reduced temperature and pressure. The overall critical temperature and pressure are determined using applicable mixing rules.

A.2.2 Vapour Pressure
The following equations are used for estimating the vapour pressure, given the component critical properties3:

ln p∗ r = ( ln p∗ r )

(0)

(1) + ω ( ln p∗ r )

(A.33)

( ln p∗ r )

(0)

6 6.09648 = 5.92714 – ------------------ – 1.28862 ln T r + 0.169347T r Tr

(A.34)

( ln p∗ r )

(1)

6 16.6875 = 15.2518 – ------------------ – 13.4721 ln T r + 0.43577T r Tr

(A.35)

where: p*r = Reduced vapour pressure (p*/pc) p* = Vapour pressure (psi abs) pc = Critical pressure (psi abs) ω = Acentric factor Tr = Reduced temperature (T/Tc) T = Temperature (°R) Tc = Critical Temperature (°R) This equation is restricted to reduced temperatures greater than 0.30, and should not be used below the freezing point. Its use was intended for hydrocarbons, but it generally works well with water.

A-16

Theoretical Basis

A-17

A.2.3 Soave Redlich Kwong
It was noted by Wilson (1965, 1966) that the main drawback of the Redlich-Kwong equation of state was its inability of accurately reproducing the vapour pressures of pure component constituents of a given mixture. He proposed a modification to the RK equation of state using the acentricity as a correlating parameter, but this approach was widely ignored until 1972, when Soave (1972) proposed a modification of the SRK equation of this form: RT a ( T, T c, ω ) P = ----------- – -------------------------V – b V(V + b)

(A.36)

The a term was fitted in such a way as to reproduce the vapour pressure of hydrocarbons using the acentric factor as a correlating parameter. This led to the following development:

ac α RT P = ----------- – --------------------V – b V(V + b)

(A.37)

R Tc a c = Ω a ------------- (Ω a the same as RK) Pc

2

2

(A.38)

α = 1 + S ( 1 – Tr

0.5

)

(A.39)

S = 0.480 + 1.574ω – 0.176ω The reduced form is:

2

(A.40)

3T r 3.8473α P r = --------------------------- – -------------------------------------V r – 0.2559 V r ( V r + 0.2599 )

(A.41)

The SRK equation of state can represent with good accuracy the behaviour of hydrocarbon systems for separation operations, and since it is readily converted into computer code, its usage has been extensive in the last twenty years. Other derived thermodynamic properties, like enthalpies and entropies, are reasonably accurate for engineering work, and the SRK equation enjoys wide acceptance in the engineering
A-17

A-18

Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium

community today.

A.2.4 Peng Robinson
Peng and Robinson (1976) noted that although the SRK was an improvement over the RK equation for VLE calculations, the densities for the liquid phase were still in considerable disagreement with experimental values due to a universal critical compressibility factor of 0.3333, which was still too high. They proposed a modification to the RK equation which reduced the critical compressibility to about 0.307, and which would also represent the VLE of natural gas systems accurately. This improved equation is represented by: ac α RT P = ----------- – -----------------------------------------------V – b V( V + b) + b(V – b)

(A.42)

R Tc a c = 0.45724 ------------Pc

2

2

(A.43)

RT c b = 0.07780 -------Pc

(A.44)

They used the same functional dependency for the α term as Soave:

α = 1 + S ( 1 – Tr

0.5

)

(A.45)

S = 0.37464 + 1.5422ω – 0.26992ω

2

(A.46)

3.2573T r 4.8514α P r = --------------------------- – ---------------------------------------------------------V r – 0.2534 V 2 + 0.5068V – 0.0642
r r

(A.47)

The accuracy of the SRK and PR equations of state are roughly the same (except for density calculations).

A-18

Theoretical Basis

A-19

A.3

Physical Properties

A.3.1 Vapour Density
Vapour density is calculated using the compressibility factor calculated from the Berthalot equation5. This equation correlates the compressibility factor to the pseudo reduced pressure and pseudo reduced temperature.

Pr 6.0 Z = 1.0 + 0.0703 ---- 1.0 – ------2 Tr è T ø
r

(A.48)

The density is then calculated from the real gas equation.

PM ρ = ---------ZRT

(A.49)

A.3.2 Liquid Density
Saturated liquid volumes are obtained using a corresponding states equation developed by R. W. Hankinson and G. H. Thompson14 which explicitly relates the liquid volume of a pure component to its reduced temperature and a second parameter termed the characteristic volume. This method has been adopted as an API standard. The pure compound parameters needed in the corresponding states liquid density (COSTALD) calculations are taken from the original tables published by Hankinson and Thompson, and the API data book for components contained in FLARENET's library. The parameters for hypothetical components are based on the API gravity and the generalized Lu equation. Although the COSTALD method was developed for saturated liquid densities, it can be applied to subcooled liquid densities, i.e., at pressures greater than the vapour pressure, using the Chueh and Prausnitz correction factor for compressed fluids. The COSTALD model was modified to improve its accuracy to predict the density for all systems whose pseudo-reduced temperature is below 1.0. Above this temperature, the equation of state compressibility factor is used to calculate the liquid density.

A-19

A-20

Physical Properties

A.3.3 Vapour Viscosity
Vapour viscosity is calculated from the Golubev3 method. These equations correlate the vapour viscosity to molecular weight, temperature and the pseudo critical properties. Tr > 1.0
0.667 ( 0.71 + 0.29 ⁄ T r )

3.5M P c Tr µ = ----------------------------------------------------------------------0.167 10000.0T c Tr ≤ 1.0

0.5

(A.50)

3.5M P c T r µ = ----------------------------------------------0.167 10000.0T c

0.5 0.667 0.965

(A.51)

A.3.4 Liquid Viscosity
FLARENET will automatically select the model best suited for predicting the phase viscosities of the system under study. The model selected will be from one of the three available in FLARENET: a modification of the NBS method (Ely and Hanley), Twu's model, and a modification of the Letsou-Stiel correlation. FLARENET will select the appropriate model using the following criteria:
Chemical System Lt Hydrocarbons (NBP < 155 F) Hvy Hydrocarbons (NBP > 155 F) Non-Ideal Chemicals Liquid Phase Methodology Mod Ely & Hanley Twu Mod Letsou-Stiel

All the models are based on corresponding states principles and have been modified for more reliable application. These models were selected since they were found from internal validation to yield the most reliable results for the chemical systems shown. Viscosity predictions for light hydrocarbon liquid phases and vapour phases were found to be handled more reliably by an in-house modification of the original Ely and Hanley model, heavier hydrocarbon liquids were more effectively handled by Twu's model, and chemical systems were more accurately handled by an in-house modification of the original

A-20

Accuracy for highly aromatic or naphthenic oil will be increased by supplying viscosity curves when available. The model also handles water and acid gases as well as quantum gases. A complete description of this model is given in the paper18 titled "Internally Consistent Correlation for Predicting Liquid Viscosities of Petroleum Fractions". For chemical systems the modified NBS model of Ely and Hanley is used for predicting vapour phase viscosities. Kinematic or dynamic viscosity versus temperature curves may be supplied to replace FLARENET's internal pure component viscosity correlations. The shape factor constants for all the library components have already been regressed and are stored with the pure component properties. A complete description of the original corresponding states (NBS) model used for viscosity predictions is presented by Ely and Hanley in their NBS publication16. Pseudo component shape factor constants are regressed when the physical properties are supplied. The Twu model18 is also based on corresponding states principles. whereas a modified form of the Letsou-Stiel model15 is used for predicting the liquid viscosities. The generalized Leech-Leland shape factor models have been replaced by component specific models. but if it is available it will increase the accuracy of the calculation. FLARENET uses the viscosity curves. Pure component data is not required. with the physical properties to generate a PVT map and regress the shape factor constants. the Twu method was found to do a better job of predicting the viscosities of heavier hydrocarbon liquids. A-21 . The original model has been modified to eliminate the iterative procedure for calculating the system shape factors.Theoretical Basis A-21 Letsou-Stiel model. FLARENET constructs a PVT map for each component and regresses the shape factor constants such that the PVT map can be reproduced using the reference fluid. Although the modified NBS model handles these systems very well. whether supplied or internally calculated. It is important to note that the PVT map is constructed using the COSTALD for the liquid region. but has implemented a viscosity correlation for n-alkanes as its reference fluid instead of methane. This method is also based on corresponding states principles and was found to perform satisfactorily for the components tested. The general model employs methane as a reference fluid and is applicable to the entire range of non-polar fluid mixtures in the hydrocarbon industry. since the pure component property generators were developed for average crude oils.

52) where: µeff = apparent viscosity µoil = viscosity of Hydrocarbon phase νoil = volume fraction Hydrocarbon phase ii) If the volume fraction of the hydrocarbon phase is less than 0.Aqueous mixtures are calculated using the following "mixing rules": i) If the volume fraction of the hydrocarbon phase is greater than or equal to 0.4µ H O 2 µ eff = 1 + 2. the following equation is used19: µ eff = µ oil e 3. the following equation is used20: µ oil + 0. improved accuracy over a more narrow operating range can be achieved by supplying viscosity curves for any given component.33.µ H O 2 è µ oil + µ H2 O ø where: µeff = apparent viscosity µoil = viscosity of Hydrocarbon phase µH2O = viscosity of Aqueous phase νoil = volume fraction Hydrocarbon phase The remaining properties of the pseudo phase are calculated as (A. Although this will yield good viscosity predictions as an average over the entire range.A-22 Physical Properties The parameters supplied for all FLARENET pure library components have been fit to match existing viscosity data over a broad operating range. Liquid Phase Mixing Rules for Viscosity The estimates of the apparent liquid phase viscosity of immiscible Hydrocarbon Liquid . This may be achieved either by modifying an existing library component through FLARENET's component librarian or by entering the desired component as a hypothetical and supplying its viscosity curve.53) A-22 .33.6 ( 1 – υ oil ) (A.5ν oil ----------------------------------.

Theoretical Basis

A-23

follows:

mw eff =

å xi mwi

(molecular weight)

(A.54)

ρ eff = 1 ⁄ ( å ( x i ⁄ p i ) )

(mixture density)

(A.55)

Cp eff =

å xi Cpi

(misture specific heat)

(A.56)

A.3.5 Thermal Conductivity
As in viscosity predictions, a number of different models and component specific correlations are implemented for prediction of liquid and vapour phase thermal conductivities. The text by Reid, Prausnitz and Poling15was used as a general guideline in determining which model was best suited for each class of components. For hydrocarbon systems the corresponding states method proposed by Ely and Hanley16is generally used. The method requires molecular weight, acentric factor and ideal heat capacity for each component. These parameters are tabulated for all library components and may either be input or calculated for hypothetical components. It is recommended that all of these parameters be supplied for nonhydrocarbon hypotheticals to ensure reliable thermal conductivity coefficients and enthalpy departures. The modifications to the method are identical to those for the viscosity calculations. Shape factors calculated in the viscosity routines are used directly in the thermal conductivity equations. The accuracy of the method will depend on the consistency of the original PVT map. The Sato-Reidel method15 is used for liquid phase thermal conductivity predictions of glycols and acids, the Latini et al. Method15 is used for esters, alcohols and light hydrocarbons in the range of C3 - C7, and the Missenard and Reidel method15 is used for the remaining components. For vapour phase thermal conductivity predictions, the Misic and Thodos, and Chung et al.15 methods are used. The effect of higher pressure on thermal conductivities is taken into account by the Chung et al. method.

A-23

A-24

Physical Properties

As in viscosity, the thermal conductivity for two liquid phases is approximated by using empirical mixing rules for generating a single pseudo liquid phase property.

A.3.6 Enthalpy
Ideal Gas
The ideal gas enthalpy is calculated from the following equation:

H

ideal

= Ai + Bi T + Ci T + Di T + Ei T

2

3

4

(A.57)

where: H = Ideal enthalpy T = Temperature A, B, C, D, E = Ideal Gas heat capacity terms

Lee-Kesler
The Lee-Kesler enthalpy method corrects the ideal gas enthalpy for temperature and pressure.

H = H

ideal

+H

dep

(A.58)

H ω H H H ----------- = ----------- + ----- ----------- – ----------r è RT c ø è RT c ø è RT c ø è RT c ø ω

dep

dep s

dep r

dep s

(A.59)

3b 4 2b 3 3c 3 k k b 2 – ---------- + ---------c 2 – ---------k k Tr ø è T 2 ø dep è è Tr2 ø d2 H k t ----------- = – T r Z – 1.0 – ----------------------------------------------------- – ----------------------------- + ---------------- + 3E 2 5 Tr Vr è RT c ø 2T r V r 5T r V r

k

k

k

(A.60)

A-24

Theoretical Basis

A-25

k c4 k k γ E = --------------- β + 1.0 – β + 1 + ------- e 3 k 2 è 2T r γ Vr ø

k

γ – ------2 Vr

k

(A.61)

where: Tc = Critical temperature H = Specific enthalpy ω = Acentric factor r = Reference fluid s = Simple fluid Hideal = Ideal enthalpy b, c, d, β, γ = Lee-Kesler terms Hdep = Ideal Gas departure enthalpy

Equations of State
The Enthalpy and Entropy calculations are performed rigorously using the following exact thermodynamic relations:

1 H–H ------------------- = Z – 1 + -----RT RT

ID

V

∂P T ------ – P dV è ∂Tø V

(A.62)

S – S° P ------------------ = ln Z – ln ----- + R P°

ID

V

1 ∂P 1 -- ------ – -- dV R è ∂Tø V V

(A.63)

For the Peng Robinson Equation of State, we have:

da V + ( 2 + 1 )b 1 H–H ------------------- = Z – 1 – ------------------- a – T ----- ln ----------------------------------1.5 dt RT è V + ( 2 0.5 – 1 )bø 2 bRT

ID

0.5

(A.64)

A-25

A-26

Physical Properties

0.5 S – S° Z + ( 2 + 1 )B A T da P - - ------------------ = ln ( Z – B ) – ln ----- + ------------ -- ----- ln -----------------------------------1.5 è a dTø 0.5 P° 2 B R Z – ( 2 – 1 )B

ID

(A.65)

where:

N

N 0.5

a =

å å xi xj ( ai aj )
i = 1j = 1

( 1 – k ij )

(A.66)

For the SRK Equation of State:

da 1 b H–H ------------------- = Z – 1 – --------- a – T ----- ln 1 + -dT è bRT Vø RT

ID

(A.67)

S – S° B P A T da - - - ------------------ = ln ( Z – B ) – ln ----- + -- -- ----- ln 1 + -Zø P° B a dT è R A and B term definitions are provided below:
Term Peng-Robinson Soave-Redlich-Kwong

ID

(A.68)

bi

RT ci 0.077796 ---------P ci a ci α i ( RT ci ) 0.457235 ----------------P ci 1 + m i ( 1 – T ri
0.5 2

RT ci 0.08664 ---------P ci a ci α i ( RT ci ) 0.42748 ----------------P ci 1 + m i ( 1 – T ri
2 0.5 2

ai a ci

αi mi

)

)
2

0.37646 + 1.54226ω i – 0.26992ω i

0.48 + 1.574ω i – 0.176ω i

A-26

Theoretical Basis

A-27

where:

N

N 0.5

a =

å å xi xj ( ai aj )
i = 1j = 1

( 1 – k ij )

(A.69)

and

N

b =

å xi bi
i=1

(A.70)

ID = Ideal Gas ° = Reference state R = Ideal gas constant H = Enthalpy S = Entropy

A.4

Noise

The sound pressure level at a given distance from the pipe is calculated from the following equations. In these equations the noise producing mechanism is assumed to be solely due to the pressure drop due to friction.

∆P πφ W m = 1.36 ------ -------è L øè 4 ø

2

(A.71)

10 ηW m L SPL r = 10 log -------------------------- – 1 è 4πr 2 ø where: L = Equivalent length SPL = Sound pressure level r = Distance from pipe

13

(A.72)

A-27

A-28

Noise

φ = Internal diameter pressure η = Acoustic efficiency ∆P = Change in Pressure The acoustical efficiency is calculated from the following graph.
Figure A.6 10-3

10-4

10-5

Acoustical Efficiency

10-6

10-7

10-8 pt = 10.0 10-9 pt = 1.0 10-10 pt = 0.1 10-11 0.0 0.2 0.4 Mach Number 0.6 0.8 1.0

P1 T2 2 pt = ----- ----è P 2ø è T 1ø

(A.73)

A-28

Theoretical Basis

A-29

The transmission loss due to the pipe wall is calculated from:

0.5mv t = 17.0 -------------- – 36.0 è φ ø

(A.74)

A-29

A-30 Noise A-30 .

...................................FMT Files Format ... 16 B-1 .................................... 5 B.................................................3 ControlValves Table ..................File Format B-1 B File Format B..................1.............. 3 B.................... 14 B... 9 B........... 13 B..........................1.................................................................................. 11 B............................1............. 7 B...........................................1.............................1 Access File ........ 6 B......2 Connectors Table .....................................1......... 4 B.............................................................1..... 8 B..............10 Tees Table...4 FlowBleeds Table...... 10 B............................1 Components Table ........................................................1...............................................................6 OrificePlates Table..................1........................ 3 B...1..........1.................................................................8 PressureFlowSummary Table.......................................................11 Tips Table .....12 VerticalSeparators Table.................................................................................................................................................1...................5 HorizontalSeparators Table........9 ReliefValves Table.1...2 ...........7 Pipe Table ............................................................ 15 B.............................................

B-2 B-2 .

1 Components Table The following table gives a description of the fields in the Access file called Components. Components Connectors ControlValves FlowBleeds HorizontalSeparators OrificePlates Pipes PressureFlowSummary ReliefValves Tees Tips VerticalSeparators A description of fields contained in each of these tables is given below.1.1 • • • • • • • • • • • • Access File FLARENET looks for data in the following tables in the Access data file. Field Name Type MolWt StdDensity NBP Watson Pc Tc Vc Vchar Omega OmegaSRK Ha Hb Hc Hd Description Component Name Component Type Component Molecular Weight Standard Liquid Density Normal Boiling Point Watson Characterisation factor Critical Pressure Critical Temperature Critical Volume Characteristic Volume Acentric Factor SRK Acentric Factor Indeal Gas Enthalpy Coefficient A Indeal Gas Enthalpy Coefficient B Indeal Gas Enthalpy Coefficient C Indeal Gas Enthalpy Coefficient D Type Text Text Double Double Double Double Double Double Double Double Double Double Double Double Double Double kJ/kgmole kJ/kgmole/K kJ/kgmole/K2 kJ/kgmole/K3 bar abs K m3/kgmole m3/kgmole kg/m3 K Units B-3 . B.File Format B-3 B.

3 = 270o. Included Angle. 1 = 90o. 2 = 180o. The 0.0 coordinate refers to the top left corner Y coordinate of upper left corner of icon on PFD. The 0.1. Set to -32767 for unknown X coordinate of upper left corner of icon on PFD. -32767 = unknown) Segment Length. -32767 = unknown) Name of node connected to downstream end Index of connection on node connect to downstream end (0 = Upstream.0 coordinate refers to the top left corner X coordinate of upper left corner of label on PFD. 1 = Downstream. These must be in a table called Connectors. Set to -32767 for unknown. Add 4 to value to flip about Y axis before rotation Type Text Text Text Integer Units Text Integer Double Double Double Twips Double Twips Ypos Double Twips XposLabel Double Twips YposLabel Double Rotation B-4 . The 0. The 0. 1 = Downstream.2 Connectors Table The following table gives a description of the fields in the Access file.0 coordinate refers to the top left corner Rotation of icon on PFD (0 = Normal.0 coordinate refers to the top left corner Y coordinate of upper left corner of label on PFD. Field Name Location Connection1 ConnectionPoint1 Connection2 ConnectionPoint2 Length Angle Xpos Description Segment Name Segment Location Name of node connected to upstream end Index of connection on node connect to upstream end (0 = Upstream.B-4 Access File Field He Hf S ViscA ViscB Description Indeal Gas Enthalpy Coefficient E Indeal Gas Enthalpy Coefficient F Entropy Coefficient Viscosity Coefficient A For Ely And Hanley Method Viscosity Coefficient B For Ely And Hanley Method Type Double Double Double Double Double Units kJ/kgmole/K4 kJ/kgmole/K5 B.

Halogen. Aldehyde. Amine. These must be in a table called ControlValves.File Format B-5 B. Add 4 to value to flip about Y axis before rotation Type Text Text Text Integer Units Double Double Double Integer mm kg/hr bar abs Double C Temperature AllowableBackPressure FluidType Double Text bar abs Double MoleFractionx Double Twips Xpos Double Twips Ypos Double Twips XposLabel Double Twips YposLabel Double Rotation B-5 . 1 = Superheat. 2 = Subcool Inlet Temperature Specification Relative To Type Defined By Temperature Flag Allowable Pressure At Outlet Flange Description Of Fluid Type. Ether Component mole fraction in detailed composition. The 0.0 coordinate refers to the top left corner Rotation of icon on PFD (0 = Normal. Ester. Field Name Location Connection1 ConnectionPoint1 FlangeInternalDiameter MassFlow Pressure TemperatureFlag Description Segment Name Segment Location Name of node connected to upstream end Index of connection on node connect to upstream end (0 = Upstream. 2 = 180o.1.0 coordinate refers to the top left corner Y coordinate of upper left corner of icon on PFD. Carbacid. Phenol. 0 = Absolute. 3 = 270o. Alcohol.3 ControlValves Table The following table gives a description of the fields in the Access file. The 0. The 0. x gives the index of the component in the component list. Nitrile. 1 = 90o. 1 = Downstream.0 coordinate refers to the top left corner X coordinate of upper left corner of label on PFD. Ketone. X coordinate of upper left corner of icon on PFD. HC. starting at 1. Misc. -32767 = unknown) Internal Diameter Of Outlet Flange Mass Flow Inlet Pressure Flag To Indicate Type Of Temperature Specification. The 0.0 coordinate refers to the top left corner Y coordinate of upper left corner of label on PFD.

-32767 = unknown) Name of node connected to downstream end Index of connection on node connect to downstream end (0 = Upstream.0 coordinate refers to the top left corner Y coordinate of upper left corner of label on PFD.4 FlowBleeds Table The following table gives a description of the fields in the Access file. The 0. The 0. Set To -32767 for unknown. Maximum Bound To Calculated Offtake.0 coordinate refers to the top left corner Rotation of icon on PFD (0 = Normal.B-6 Access File B. 1 = 90o. The 0.1. 1 = Downstream. -32767 = unknown) Fixed Pressure Drop.0 coordinate refers to the top left corner Y coordinate of upper left corner of icon on PFD. Field Name Location Connection1 ConnectionPoint1 Connection2 ConnectionPoint2 PressureDrop FlowOffset FlowMultiplier FlowMinimum FlowMaximum Xpos Description Segment Name Segment Location Name of node connected to upstream end Index of connection on node connect to upstream end (0 = Upstream. 1 = Downstream. These must be in a table called FlowBleeds. 2 = 180o. Set to -32767 for unknown. Add 4 to value to flip about Y axis before rotation Type Text Text Text Integer Units Text Integer Double Double Double Double Double Double bar kg/hr kg/hr kg/hr kg/hr Twips Double Twips Ypos Double Twips XposLabel Double Twips YposLabel Double Rotation B-6 .0 coordinate refers to the top left corner X coordinate of upper left corner of label on PFD. Set ot -32767 for unknown X coordinate of upper left corner of icon on PFD. Fixed Flow Offtake Contribution Proportional Flow Offtake Contribution Minimum Bound To Calculated Offtake. 3 = 270o. The 0.

-32767 = unknown) Vessel Diameter Liquid Level X coordinate of upper left corner of icon on PFD. -32767 = unknown) Name of node connected to downstream end Index of connection on node connect to downstream end (0 = Upstream. Add 4 to value to flip about Y axis before rotation Type Text Text Text Integer Units Text Integer Text Integer Double Double Double mm mm Twips Double Twips Ypos Double Twips XposLabel Double Twips YposLabel Double Rotation B-7 .0 coordinate refers to the top left corner X coordinate of upper left corner of label on PFD. Field Name Location Connection1 ConnectionPoint1 Connection2 ConnectionPoint2 Connection3 ConnectionPoint3 Diameter LiquidLevel Xpos Description Segment Name Segment Location Name of node connected to upstream end Index of connection on node connect to upstream end (0 = Upstream.5 HorizontalSeparators Table The following table gives a description of the fields in the Access file. The 0.0 coordinate refers to the top left corner Y coordinate of upper left corner of label on PFD. 1 = Downstream. -32767 = unknown) Name of node connected to secondary inlet Index of connection on node connect to secondary inlet (0 = Upstream. These must be in a table called HorizontalSeparators. 1 = Downstream.0 coordinate refers to the top left corner Y coordinate of upper left corner of icon on PFD. 1 = 90o. The 0. 1 = Downstream. The 0.1. 3 = 270o.File Format B-7 B.0 coordinate refers to the top left corner Rotation of icon on PFD (0 = Normal. The 0. 2 = 180o.

Ratio of orifice diameter to inlet diameter. Add 4 to value to flip about Y axis before rotation Type Text Text Text Integer Units Text Integer Double Double Double Double mm Twips Double Twips Ypos Double Twips XposLabel Double Twips YposLabel Double Rotation B-8 .0 coordinate refers to the top left corner X coordinate of upper left corner of label on PFD. These must be in a table called OrificePlates. 1 = Downstream.0 coordinate refers to the top left corner Y coordinate of upper left corner of icon on PFD. Set to -32767 for unknown.0 coordinate refers to the top left corner Y coordinate of upper left corner of label on PFD.B-8 Access File B. 3 = 270o. 2 = 180o. 1 = 90o. -32767 = unknown) Name of node connected to downstream end Index of connection on node connect to downstream end (0 = Upstream.6 OrificePlates Table The following table gives a description of the fields in the Access file. Field Name Location Connection1 ConnectionPoint1 Connection2 ConnectionPoint2 OrificeDiameter OrificeInletDiameterRatio OrificeOutletDiameterRatio Xpos Description Segment Name Segment Location Name of node connected to upstream end Index of connection on node connect to upstream end (0 = Upstream. Set to -32767 for unknown. Ratio of orifice diameter to outlet diameter. Set to -32767 for unknown. X coordinate of upper left corner of icon on PFD. The 0. The 0.1. 1 = Downstream.0 coordinate refers to the top left corner Rotation of icon on PFD (0 = Normal. The 0. -32767 = unknown) Diameter of orifice. The 0.

-32767 = unknown.7 Pipe Table The following table gives a description of the fields in the Access file. These must be in a table called Pipe. 0 = False) Segment Length Elevation Change Pipe Material (0 = Carbon Steel.0 coordinate refers to the top left corner Type Text Text Text Integer Units ConnectionPoint1 Connection2 Text Integer ConnectionPoint2 TailPipe Length ElevationChange MaterialCode Roughness InternalDiameter WallThickness NominalDiameter Schedule LengthMultiplier K1 K2 Ambient WindSpeed OutletTemp Duty InsulationName InsulationThickness InsulationConductivity Xpos Integer Double Double Integer Double Double Double Text Text Double Double Double Double Double Double Double Text Double Double Double mm W/m/C Twips C m/s C kJ/hr inches inches inches m m B-9 . -32767 = unknown.1. 1 = Downstream. 2 = Branch/Secondary Inlet) Tailpipe flag (1 = True. 2 = Branch/Secondary Inlet) Name of node connected to downstream end Index of connection on node connect to downstream end (0 = Upstream.File Format B-9 B. 1 = Stainless Steel) Pipe Roughness Pipe Internal Diameter Pipe Wall Thickness Nominal Pipe Size Pipe Schedule Fitting length multiplier A in fitting loss equation B in fitting loss equation Ambient temperature Wind speed Fluid outlet temperature (Set to 32767 if to be calculated) Heat transfer to pipe (Set to -32767 if to be calculated) Description of insulation Insulation thickness Insulation thermal conductivity X coordinate of upper left corner of icon on PFD. 1 = Downstream. The 0. Field Name Location Connection1 Description Segment Name Segment Location Name of node connected to upstream end Index of connection on node connect to upstream end (0 = Upstream.

Pressure Drop Due To Fittings Average Sound pressure level At A Distance Of 1 m From The Pipe Fracition Factor Reynolds number Flow Regime Equivalent Length Of Pipe Inluding Physical Length And Fittings. 2 = 180o.0 coordinate refers to the top left corner Rotation of icon on PFD (0 = Normal. -32767 if unknown.1. The 0. Calculated Duty Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient External Heat Transfer Coefficient Type Text Double Double Double Double Double Double Double Double Double Double Double Double Text Double Double Double Double m kJ/hr W/m2/C W/m2/C kg/hr kg/hr kgmole/hr bar bar bar bar bar bar dB Units B-10 . Add 4 to value to flip about Y axis before rotation Type Double Units Twips Double Twips XposLabel Double Twips YposLabel Double Rotation B. Field Name MassFlow RatedFlow MolarFlow PressureDrop PressureAtSource PressureDropFriction PressureDropElevation PressureDropAcceleratio n PressureDropFittings Noise FrictionFactor Reynolds FlowRegime EquivalentLength Duty Htc HtcExternal Description Segment Name Mass Flow Rated Flow Molar Flow Based Upon Mass Flow Pressure Drop Pressure At Source Node Outlet Flange. Elevation Component Of Pressure Drop. These must be in a table called PressureFlowSummary.B-10 Access File Field Ypos Description Y coordinate of upper left corner of icon on PFD. Friction Component Of Pressure Drop.0 coordinate refers to the top left corner X coordinate of upper left corner of label on PFD. -32767 if unknown. 1 = 90o.0 coordinate refers to the top left corner Y coordinate of upper left corner of label on PFD. Acceleration Component Of Pessure Drop. 3 = 270o. -32767 if unknown. -32767 if unknown. The 0. The 0.8 PressureFlowSummary Table The following table gives a description of the fields in the Access file.

1 = Fire) Type Text Text Text Integer Units Double Double Double Double Double Integer mm kg/hr kg/hr bar abs bar abs Double C Temperature ContingencyFlag Double B-11 . These must be in a table called ReliefValves. -32767 = unknown) Internal Diameter Of Outlet Flange Mass Flow Rated Flow (The Maximum Flow That The Valve Can Pass) Maximum Allowable Working Pressure Inlet Pressure Flag To Indicate Type Of Temperature Specification.File Format B-11 Field HtcInternal Pressure1 Temperature1 Velocity1 Mach1 RhoV21 Energy1 Pressure2 Temperature2 Velocity2 Mach2 RhoV22 Energy2 Description Internal Heat Transfer Coefficient Upstream Pressure Upstream Temperature Upstream Velocity Upstream Mach Number Upstream Rho V2 Upstream energy Flow Downstream Pressure Downstream Temperature Downstream Velocity Downstream Mach Number Downstream Rho V2 Downstream energy Flow Type Double Double Double Double Double Double Double Double Double Double Double Double Double Units W/m2/C bar abs C m/s kg/m/s2 kJ/hr bar abs C m/s kg/m/s2 kJ/hr B.1. 1 = Downstream. 2 = Subcool Inlet Temperature Specification Relative To Type Defined By Temperature Flag Type oF Contingency (0 = Operating. 0 = Absolute. 1 = Superheat. Field Name Location Connection1 ConnectionPoint1 FlangeInternalDiameter MassFlow RatedFlow MAWP Pressure TemperatureFlag Description Segment Name Segment Location Name of node connected to upstream end Index of connection on node connect to upstream end (0 = Upstream.9 ReliefValves Table The following table gives a description of the fields in the Access file.

Misc. 1 = 90o. The 0. Carbacid.B-12 Access File Field AllowableBackPressure ValveTypeFlag ValveCount OrificeAreaPerValve FluidType Description Allowable Pressure At Outlet Flange Type Of Valve (0 = Balanced Bellows. 3 = 270o. Ketone. Amine. Alcohol.0 coordinate refers to the top left corner Y coordinate of upper left corner of label on PFD. Add 4 to value to flip about Y axis before rotation Type Double Double Integer Double Text Units bar abs mm2 Double MoleFractionx Double Twips Xpos Double Twips Ypos Double Twips XposLabel Double Twips YposLabel Double Rotation B-12 . starting at 1.0 coordinate refers to the top left corner Rotation of icon on PFD (0 = Normal.0 coordinate refers to the top left corner Y coordinate of upper left corner of icon on PFD. 1 = Conventopnal) Number Of Valves In The Assmbley Orifice Area Per valve Description Of Fluid Type. Ether Component mole fraction in detailed composition. The 0. Aldehyde. 2 = 180o.0 coordinate refers to the top left corner X coordinate of upper left corner of label on PFD. Phenol. The 0. Halogen. x gives the index of the component in the component list. The 0. X coordinate of upper left corner of icon on PFD. HC. Ester. Nitrile.

0 coordinate refers to the top left corner Y coordinate of upper left corner of icon on PFD. 2 = 60o. 2 = Branch) X coordinate of upper left corner of icon on PFD. Add 4 to value to flip about Y axis before rotation Type Text Text Text Integer Units Text Integer Text Integer Integer Integer Body Double Xpos Double Ypos Double XposLabel Double YposLabel Double Rotation B-13 . 3 = 270o. -32767 = unknown) Name of node connected to downstream end Index of connection on node connect to downstream end (0 = Upstream.1. -32767 = unknown) Branch Angle Identifier ( 0 = 30o. 1 = Downstream. The 0. 1 = Downstream. The 0. -32767 = unknown) Name of node connected to branch Index of connection on node connect to branch (0 = Upstream.0 coordinate refers to the top left corner Rotation of icon on PFD (0 = Normal.0 coordinate refers to the top left corner X coordinate of upper left corner of label on PFD. The 0. 1 = Downstream. 1 = Downstream.0 coordinate refers to the top left corner Y coordinate of upper left corner of label on PFD.10 Tees Table The following table gives a description of the fields in the Access file.File Format B-13 B. 3 = 90o) Coonection Ondex Of Pipe That Defines The Body Diameter (0 = Upstream. 2 = 180o. These must be in a table called Tees. 1 = 90o. 1 = 45o. The 0. Field Name Location Connection1 ConnectionPoint1 Connection2 ConnectionPoint2 Connection3 ConnectionPoint3 BranchAngleIndex Description Segment Name Segment Location Name of node connected to upstream end Index of connection on node connect to upstream end (0 = Upstream.

Add 4 to value to flip about Y axis before rotation Type Text Text Text Integer Units Double Double Integer Integer Double mm kg/hr Double bar CurvePressureDropx Double Twips Xpos Double Twips Ypos Double Twips XposLabel Double Twips YposLabel Double Rotation B-14 . -32767 = unknown) Exit Diameter Total Head Loss Coefficient Use Curve Flag (0 = No.0 coordinate refers to the top left corner Y coordinate of upper left corner of label on PFD. The 0. starting at 1. Pressure Drop Point In Pressure Drop Curve.0 coordinate refers to the top left corner Rotation of icon on PFD (0 = Normal. 1 = 90o. X coordinate of upper left corner of icon on PFD. The 0. 1 = Yes) Number of points in pressure drop curve.B-14 Access File B. 1 = Downstream. 2 = 180o.0 coordinate refers to the top left corner X coordinate of upper left corner of label on PFD. 3 = 270o. Mass Flow Point In Pressure Drop Curve. These must be in a table called Tips. The 0.1. Field Name Location Connection1 ConnectionPoint1 Diameter K CurveFlag CurvePoints CurveMassFlowx Description Segment Name Segment Location Name of node connected to upstream end Index of connection on node connect to upstream end (0 = Upstream. x gives the index of the point. The 0.0 coordinate refers to the top left corner Y coordinate of upper left corner of icon on PFD.11 Tips Table The following table gives a description of the fields in the Access file. starting at 1. x gives the index of the point.

1. The 0. Add 4 to value to flip about Y axis before rotation Type Text Text Text Integer Units Text Integer Double Double mm Twips Double Twips Ypos Double Twips XposLabel Double Twips YposLabel Double Rotation B-15 . The 0. These must be in a table called VerticalSeparators. 1 = Downstream.0 coordinate refers to the top left corner Y coordinate of upper left corner of icon on PFD. Field Name Location Connection1 ConnectionPoint1 Connection2 ConnectionPoint2 Diameter Xpos Description Segment Name Segment Location Name of node connected to upstream end Index of connection on node connect to upstream end (0 = Upstream.0 coordinate refers to the top left corner X coordinate of upper left corner of label on PFD.12 VerticalSeparators Table The following table gives a description of the fields in the Access file. -32767 = unknown) Vessel Diameter X coordinate of upper left corner of icon on PFD. 2 = 180o.0 coordinate refers to the top left corner Y coordinate of upper left corner of label on PFD.0 coordinate refers to the top left corner Rotation of icon on PFD (0 = Normal. 1 = Downstream. 1 = 90o. The 0.File Format B-15 B. 3 = 270o. -32767 = unknown) Name of node connected to downstream end Index of connection on node connect to downstream end (0 = Upstream. The 0.

fmt Messages. The default “.fmt”. You can change the location and “.FMT Files Format The printouts can be customised to a limited extent using a series of ASCII text files with the extension “.2 .fmt ScenSum.fmt By default.B-16 .fmt MoleFrac.1 B-16 .fmt Summary.fmt Scenarios. these files are located in the Flarenet program directory.fmt Pipes.FMT Files Format B.fmt” file Comps. These files may be edited using any ASCII text editor such as the NOTEPAD application distributed with Microsoft Windows. Figure B.fmt Node.fmt Properties.fmt DbComps.fmt DbSchedules.fmt“ file for each report on the Reports tab on the Preferences Editor view.fmt Sources.fmt” files for each printed report are: Report Component Data Component Database Compositions Fittings Database Messages Node Data Pipes Data Physical Properties Pipe Schedule Database Pressure/Flow Summary Scenarios Data Scenarios Summary Source Data “.fmt DbFittings.

20.fmt Summary.0. Branch and Tail Segment Pipe Class Mole Fractions Number Of Items Damping Factor Standard Liquid Density Downstream Density Upstream Density Description Downstream Node Heat Loss Elevation Change Energy x x x x x x Pipes.fmt ScenSum.fmt DbFittings.fmt Comps.fmt MoleFracs.0.fmt Scenarios.0. 1 = Once only) The following defines which variable may be printed with each report: DbSchedules.20.fmt Messages.0.0.1 group.1 Description Number of variables to display Font Size (Point) Font Name Variable Name.1 wall.fmt B-17 .0 nominal.width (mm).fmt ambient angle backpres basis calcloss calculations class comps connections count damp density densitydown densityup desc dsn duty elevation energy Ambient Temperature Angle To Horizontal Back Pressure Composition Basis Autocalculated Fittings Loss Equation Node Run.fmt DbComps.20.1 internal.fmt Nodes.20.File Format B-17 These files confirm to the following format.fmt file. here shown for part of the DbSchedules. Variable 5 6 Arial schedule.fmt Properties.fmt Variable Name Variable Description x x x x x x x x x x x Sources. repeat flag (0 = All panes.20.

fmt Variable Name Variable Description x x x x x x x x x x B-18 Sources.FMT Files Format DbSchedules.fmt Summary.fmt Properties.fmt Scenarios.fmt x x Comps.fmt Messages.fmt ScenSum. Header Vapour Velocity Header Liquid Velocity Header Rho V2 Header Noise Downstream Heat Capacity Upstream Heat Capacity Enthalpy A Coefficient Enthalpy B Coefficient Enthalpy C Coefficient Enthalpy D Coefficient Enthalpy E Coefficient Enthalpy F Coefficient Heat Transfer Coefficient Overall HTC x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Pipes.fmt energydown energyup enthalpy enthalpydown enthalpyup entropy entropydown entropyup equivlength factor fitloss fittingsa fittingsb fittingsuse flange flow fractiondown fractionup frictionfractor group headmach headvelvap headvelliq headrhov2 headnoise heatcapdown heatcapup hia hib hic hid hie hif htc htcoverall Downstream Energy Flow Upstream Energy Flow Enthalpy Downstream Enthalpy Upstream Enthalpy Entropy Downstream Entropy Upstream Entropy Equivalent Length Rated Flow factor Fittings Loss Equation Fitting Loss A Fitting Loss B Flange Diameter Mass flow Downstream Phase Fraction Upstream Phase Fraction Friction Factor Item Group Header Mach No.fmt .fmt DbComps.B-18 .fmt DbFittings.fmt MoleFracs.fmt Nodes.

fmt MoleFracs.fmt htcexternal htcinternal id ignored insname insthick insconductivity internal length lmultiply location machdown machup massflow material methoddamping methoddp methodelements methodfriction methodfitlos methodhordp methodincdp methodverdp methodvle molarflow moleflow molwt molwtdown molwtup msg multiply name nbp node External HTC Internal HTC Item ID Item Ignored Insulation Description Insulation Thickness Insulation Conductivity Internal Diameter Segment Length Length Multiplier Segment Location Downstream Mach Number Upstream Mach Number Mass Flow Material Of Construction Damping Factor Pressure Drop Method Twp Phase Elements Friction Factor Fittings Loss Method Horizontal 2 Phase Pressure Drop Method Inclined Pressure Drop Vertical 2 Phase Pressure Drop Method VLE method Molar Flow Source Molar Flow Molecular Weight Downstream Molecular Weight Upstream Molecular Weight Text Message Fittings Equation Multiplier Item Name Normal Boiling Point Node x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Pipes.fmt ScenSum.fmt B-19 .fmt Summary.fmt DbComps.fmt Variable Name Variable Description x x x x x x x x x x Sources.fmt Scenarios.fmt Properties.fmt x x x x x Comps.fmt Nodes.fmt DbFittings.File Format B-19 DbSchedules.fmt Messages.

fmt Scenarios.fmt Properties.fmt Messages.fmt MoleFracs.fmt ScenSum.FMT Files Format DbSchedules.fmt x x Summary.fmt .fmt noise nominal number offmaximum offminimum offmultiply offrate offset omega omegasrk pc phase plant pressource presallow presdown presdrop presdropfriction presdropacceler ation presdropelevatio n presdropfittings presin presup property ratedflow refer regime resize reynolds rhov2up rhov2down roughness scenario schedule Noise Nominal Pipe Diameter Index Number Maximum Flow Offtake Minimum Flow Offtake Offtake Flow Multiplier Offtake Flow Offset Fittings Equation Offset Acentric Factor SRK Acentric Factor Critical Pressure Phase Label Source Plant Location Static Source Back Pressure Allowable Back Pressure Downstream Static Pressure Pressure Drop Static Pipe Friction Loss Static Pipe Acceleration Loss Static Pipe Elevation Loss Static Pipe Fittings Loss Inlet Pressure Upstream Static Pressure Property Description Rated Mass Flow Literature Reference Flow Regime Resizable Flag Reynolds Number Upstream Rho V2 Downstream Rho V2 Wall roughness Scenario Name Pipe Schedule x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Pipes.fmt Variable Name Variable Description x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x B-20 Sources.fmt Comps.B-20 .fmt Nodes.fmt DbComps.fmt DbFittings.

fmt x Comps.fmt DbFittings.fmt Variable Name Variable Description x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Sources.fmt MoleFracs.fmt DbComps. Tailpipe Noise Tailpipe Flag Tailpipe Rho V2 Tailpipe Liquid Velocity Tailpipe Vapour Velocity Critical Temperature Temperature Inlet Temperature Calculations Downstream Temperature Outlet Temperature Inlet Temperature Specification Upstream Temperature Downstream Thermal Conductivity Upstream Thermal Conductivity Item Type Upstream Node Source Vapour Fraction Critical volume Characteristic Volume Downstream Velocity Upstream Velocity x x x x x x x x x x x x Pipes.fmt ScenSum.fmt Properties.fmt B-21 .fmt Summary.fmt seg1 seg2 seg3 separate si source status surftendn surftenup tailmach tailnoise tailpipe tailrhov2 tailvelliq tailvelvap tc temp tempcalc tempdown tempout tempspec tempup thermconddn thermcondup type usn vapourfrac vc vchar veldn velup Node Run Segment Node Branch Segment Node Tail Segment Separator Flag Entropy Coefficient Source Name Ignored Status Flag Downstream Surface Tension Upstream Surface Tension Tailpipe Mach No.File Format B-21 DbSchedules.fmt Messages.fmt Scenarios.fmt Nodes.

fmt Comps.FMT Files Format DbSchedules.fmt Nodes.fmt MoleFracs.fmt Scenarios.fmt ScenSum.B-22 .fmt DbFittings.fmt DbComps.fmt visca viscb viscdown viscup volume wall watson wind zfactordown zfactorup Viscosity A Coefficient Viscosity B Coefficient Downstream Viscosity Upstream Viscosity Pipe volume Wall Thickness Watson Characterisation Parameter Wind Velocity Downstream Compressibility Factor Upstream Compressibility Factor x x x x x x x x x x x x x B-22 Pipes.fmt .fmt Properties.fmt Summary.fmt Variable Name Variable Description Sources.fmt Messages.

References C-1 C References C-1 .

C-2 C-2 .

“Viscosity of Gases And Mixtures”. R. p. Hankinson.653 (1979). Maddox and Larry L.. and Thompson. Natinoal Technical Information Services. NBS Technical Note 1039 (1983). "Chemical Process Computations 1.W.D.H. Elsevier Applied Science Publishers Ltd. Beggs. “chemical Engineering Volume 1”.M. J. H. J. Petrol.. Conditioning and Processing. May (1973). 1967. 1985. 2nd Edition. J. Technical Data Book .E. 653 (1979).I. "Technical Data Book-Petroleum Refining". Lilly. 607. F. J.References C-3 1 “GPSA Engineering Data Book”. 25. 1982 by Campbell Petroleum Series (second edition. Robert N. M Coulson and J. F.J. Gas Conditioning and Processing. June. Golubev..H.Volume 1 . 1983.P. I. No. B29-B38. Technol. 1990). and Thompson. H. 1982 by Campbell Petroleum Series (second edition. American Petroleum Institute. TT7050022. A. J.. 1959.W. and Hanley. AIChE J. Raghu. Volume 3. Ely.. 25. 1990).263 .. American Petroleum Institute. and Brill. Raman. Richardson. "A Study of Two-Phase Flow in Inclined Pipes". 4.. Robert N. Chemical Engineering-Data Processing". "A Computer Program for the Prediction of Viscosity and Thermal Conductivity in Hydrocarbon Mixtures". D. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Gas 13 API 14 Hankinson..F. Pergamon Press. Journal of Petroleum Technology. Volume 3. Journal. C-3 . p. 3 . Lilly. G. G. R. 1977. Maddox and Larry L..Ch. Berthalot. "Journal Of Physics". Orkiszewski. J.

2nd.. Selection.H. W. Lichtenthaler. Ed. 1979. C. Prog.M. Twu. H. “Guide for Pressure-Relieving and Depressuring Systems”. Chen.J....G.. NBS Technical Note 1039.C.M.H. B..C-4 15 Reid. BHR Group Limited. 18. Fund. and Installation of Pressure . 6th. Los Angeles. R. presented at the spring meeting. p. Proc Des & Dev.. 1993 API Recommended Practice 521. Azevedo. Poling. Prausnitz.E. Inc. "The Properties of Gases &Liquids". Gambill. "Easily Size Relief Devices and Piping for Two-Phase Flow". 10. J. "A Computer Program for the Prediction of Viscosity and Thermal Conductivity in Hydrocarbon Mixtures". Calif.. 1987. McGraw-Hill. Pausnitz. C-4 . Ely.F... 1942. 1287 (1985). Ed. N. 28. 1990 Leung. Chem. “Sizing. 3rd. p. "Viscosity of Crude-Oil Emulsions".. 1996. Ed.. Pacific Coast District.. Mar. J. December. D. and Hanly. R. 2nd. Woelfin. Inc. Chem..R. API Recommended Practice 520. Chem Eng. Part I. W. American Petroleum Institute.M. McGraw-Hill. "An Explicit Equation for Friction Factor in Pipe". Ind.. IEC... 296. J. 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Miller. 1990. "Internal Flow Systems". American Petroleum Institute. Eng. Division of Production. November. E..M. 1986. "Molecular Thermodynamics of Fluid Phase Equilibria". J..N. Eng..C.Relieving Devices in Refineries”. March 9. Ed. 24.. March. 1959..

.............................................................. 4 D.................................................. 4 D.................................................................................15 Security Device............................................. 4 D.......1................. 3 D.......................................18 Tailpipe......... 3 D.....................................................................................Glossary of Terms D-1 D Glossary of Terms D................2 Choked Flow ..................11 Reduced Pressure .1...............1........................................................................................................... 5 D-1 .................. 3 D...........................1.......................4 Critical Temperature......13 Scenario .................3 Critical Pressure ...17 Static Pressure ........................................................................................1................... 5 D........................................19 Total Pressure......... 5 D..1.................................................1......................................... 5 D.....................1.......................................................................................................10 Node ....................................9 Mach Number ....... 4 D..................................... 3 D. 5 D........................6 Equivalent Length ............. 4 D.......1...........1........ 3 D......................................................1.5 Dongle .............. 5 D..................................12 Reduced Temperature ....................................................................................... 3 D........8 MABP................1 Adiabatic Flow ...............14 Schedule......................................................1......................................1..............................1.........................1................1.................................... 3 D...........................................1.....7 Isothermal Flow ........................... 4 D......................20 Velocity Pressure .............................................1.............................................. 5 D.................1...........16 Source ..............1.........................

D-2 D-2 .

1.4 Critical Temperature The critical temperature is the temperature at which the vapour density and liquid density of a substance may be the same.1.Glossary of Terms D-3 D.7 Isothermal Flow Isothermal flow is the constant temperature flow of a fluid in a pipe. D.1. then a pressure discontinuity is seen at the exit end of the pipe. This assumption leads to a small error in the calculated pressure profile. In general when the pressure of a gas reduces. this difference does not exceed 5% and in fact never exceeds 20%. D.1. If the flow of fluid in a pipe is great enough that the sonic velocity is reached. there is a small change in temperature.1.2 Choked Flow The velocity of a fluid in a pipe of constant cross sectional area cannot exceed the sonic velocity of the fluid. D.6 Equivalent Length The equivalent length of a pipe is the straight length of pipe which would create the same pressure drop as the actual pipe length plus losses due to bends and fittings.1. D. D.5 Dongle See Security Device. D-3 . In practice for pipes of length at least 1000 diameters.1.3 Critical Pressure The critical pressure is the pressure at which the vapour density and liquid density of a substance may be the same.1 Adiabatic Flow Adiabatic flow is the constant enthalpy flow of a fluid in a pipe. D.

1.11 Reduced Pressure Reduced pressure is the ratio of the absolute pressure to the critical pressure of the fluid. D.12 Reduced Temperature Reduced temperature is the ratio of the absolute temperature to the critical temperature of the fluid.8 MABP The Maximum Allowable Back Pressure on a relief device is the maximum pressure that can exist at the outlet of the device without affecting the capacity of the device. Node 0 always refers to the exit from the flare system. In general the MABP for a conventional pressure relief valve should not exceed 10% of the set pressure at 10% overpressure. These are always represented by integer numbers. and pipes with sources. D-4 . D. In general the MABP for a balanced pressure relief valve should not exceed 40% of the set pressure at 10% overpressure. D. D.D-4 D.10 Node Nodes define the connection points between pipes.9 Mach Number Mach number is the ratio of the fluid velocity to the sonic velocity in the fluid.1.1. D.1.1.13 Scenario A scenario represents a set of flow and compositional data for all sources in the system.1.

D..1. the fluid is defined in terms of its composition. D.1. D.20 Velocity Pressure ρU Given by --------.18 Tailpipe The section of pipe between the discharge flange of the source valve and the main collection header is generally refered to as a tailpipe.Glossary of Terms D-5 D. D.1.15 Security Device The hardware device that is connected to the parallel port of the computer. FLARENET cannot be run unless this device is connected. 2 2 D-5 .19 Total Pressure The sum of the static and velocity pressures. D.14 Schedule The schedule of a pipe defines a standard thickness for a given nominal pipe size. mass flowrate.1.16 Source A source refers to a fluid entering the piping network regardless of the type of pipe fitting from which it enters. pressure and temperature. also called the kinematic pressure.1.17 Static Pressure The pressure acting equally in all directions at a point in the fluid. In general. D.1. Physical properties are calculated at the static pressure condition. flare and vent systems are constructed from schedule 40 or 80 pipe.1.

D-6 D-6 .

10-26 B Berthalot Equation A-19 Button Bar 5-6 C Calculation Options 11-3 Calculation Options Editor 11-3 General tab 11-3 Methods tab 11-6 Warnings tab 11-9 Calculation Problems group 11-10 Design Problems group 11-9 Sizing Status group 11-10 Calculations 11-1 starting the 11-11 Case creating a new 6-3 opening an existing 6-4 saving a 6-5 Case Description View 6-3 Check Box 5-4 Chen Equation A-4 Choked Flow definition D-3 Column Order changing 5-10 Column Width changing 5-9 Comma Separated Values 15-4 Component adding/editing 7-5 changing 7-9 list 7-4 removing selected 7-5 selecting 7-3 matching name string 7-4 selection filter 7-4 sorting 7-9 swapping 7-9 type 7-3 Component Editor View 7-5 Critical tab 7-7 estimating unknown properties 7-8 Identification tab 7-6 Other tab 7-8 Component Manager View 7-3 Composition Basis 5-14 Connector Editor 10-6 Calculations tab 10-7 Connections tab 10-6 Control Valve Editor Composition tab 10-27 Conditions tab 10-26 Connections tab 10-25 Dimensions tab 10-28 Methods tab 10-29 Copying Source Data See Sources copy source data COSTALD Calculations A-19 Critical Pressure definition D-3 Critical Temperature definition D-3 CSV See Comma Separated Values D Darcy Friction Factor A-5 Data components 13-3 sources 13-4 I-1 . A-17. A-25 Adiabatic Flow definition D-3 Allowable Back Pressure 10-21.Index A Acentric Factor A-16. A-23.

A-10 turbulent A-4 Flow Bleed Editor Calculations tab 10-17 Connections tab 10-16 FMT Files 15-5 Froude Number A-6 H Help Menu 5-16 Horizontal Separator Editor Calculations tab 10-13 Connections tab 10-12 Hysim 15-3 I Importing ASCII text files 15-8 from HYSIM 15-8 from Microsoft Access 15-16 HYSYS source data 15-13 Interface 5-1 Isothermal Flow definition D-3 M MABP definition D-4 Mach Number definition D-4 Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP) 1020 Menu Bar 5-5 Mod Ely & Hanley Method A-20 Mod Letsou-Stiel A-20 Modal View 5-4 Moody Friction Factor A-4 N Network rating an existing 11-12 Node definition D-4 Node Manager 10-3 Node Types 10-4 connector 10-6 flare tip 10-4 flow bleed 10-16 horizontal separator 10-12 orifice plate 10-14 sources 10-18 tee 10-8 vertical separator 10-10 Nodes 10-1 Noise A-27 acoustical efficiency A-28 I-2 . A-9.I-2 viewing 13-1 Data Export 15-3 Data Import 15-3 Data View 5-4 editing 5-9 Database Editor component 12-8 fittings 12-7 pipe schedule 12-6 Database Features 12-3 adding/deleting data 12-5 manoeuvring through the table 12-4 printing 12-5 selection filter 12-3 Databases Menu 12-1 Dialog Box 5-4 Dongle See Security Device Drop Down List Box 5-4 E Edit Box 5-4 Equation Berthalot A-19 Chen A-4 Real Gas A-19 Round A-4 SRK A-17 Equivalent Length definition D-3 Exporting to Microsoft Access 15-17 Exporting to Microsoft Access 15-17 F Flare Tip Editor 10-4 Calculations tab 10-5 Connections tab 10-5 Flow laminar A-5 mist A-10 transition A-5.

Index I-3 Non-Modal View 5-4 O Orifice Plate Editor Calculations tab 10-15 Connections tab 10-14 P Password setting the 12-5 PFD 14-1 button bar 14-5 changing view options 14-12 grid 14-12 toggle direct/orthogonal 14-12 connecting objects 14-9 icons 14-3 installing objects 14-8 manipulating the 14-9 moving objects 14-10 object inspection 14-5 overview 14-3 printing 14-11 regenerate 14-11 saving 14-11 selecting objects 14-9 method one 14-9 method two 14-10 unselecting objects 14-10 view 14-4 Physical Properties A-19 liquid density A-19 liquid viscosity A-20 mixing rules A-22 thermal conductivity A-23 vapour density A-19 vapour viscosity A-20 Golubev method A-20 Physical Prperties enthalpy A-24 Equations of State A-25 ideal gas A-24 Lee-Kesler A-24 Pipe adding/editing a 9-3 arranging display order 9-12 ignoring/restoring 9-11 multiple editing 9-10 Pipe Editor 9-3 Fittings tab 9-6 Heat Transfer tab 9-7 External Conditions group 9-7 Heating group 9-8 Insulation group 9-7 Methods tab 9-8 Pipe Tools 9-13 pipe class editor 9-13 Preferences setting 5-12 Preferences Editor Databases tab 5-15 Defaults tab 5-14 General tab 5-12 Import tab 5-16 Reports tab 5-15 Pressure Drop A-3 Printer Setup 15-7 Printing 15-4 location-specific 15-7 PVT Relationship A-15 R Real Gas Equation A-19 Reduced Pressure definition D-4 Reduced Temperature definition D-4 Refresh Source Temperatures 10-31 Relief Valve Editor Composition tab 10-22 Conditions tab 10-20 Connections tab 10-19 Dimensions tab 10-23 Methods tab 10-24 Removing 7-5 Results compositions 13-9 messages 13-6 physical properties 13-9 pressure/flow summary 13-8 scenario summary 13-13 viewing 13-1 Round Equation A-4 S Scenario definition D-4 Scenario Editor I-3 .

I-4 Estimates tab 8-7 General tab 8-5 Headers tab 8-6 Sources tab 8-7 Tailpipes tab 8-6 Scenario Management 8-3 Scenario Manager View 8-3 Scenario Selector 5-4 Scenario Tools 8-8 Scenarios adding single source 8-8 adding/editing 8-5 General tab 8-5 Sources tab 8-7 Schedule definition D-5 number 9-5 Security Device definition D-5 Source copy source data to scenarios 10-30 definition D-5 Source Tools 10-31 adding single source scenarios 10-31 updating downstream temperatures 10-31 Source Types control valve 10-25 relief valve 10-19 SRK Equation A-17 SRK Equation of State A-26 Status Bar 5-8 T Tab Separated Values 15-4 Tee Editor 10-8 Calculations tab 10-9 Connections tab 10-9 Terminology 5-3 Title Bar 5-4 Tool Tip 5-4 TSV See Tab Separated Values Two-Phase Pressure Drop A-5 Beggs and Brill A-5 Dukler method A-7 Orkiszewski method A-8 Twu Method A-20 V Vaour Phase Pressure Drop methods A-3 Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium A-15 compressible gas A-15 Peng Robinson A-18 Soave Redlich Kwong A-17 vapour pressure A-16 Vertical Separator Editor Calculations tab 10-11 Connections tab 10-10 W Windows Menu 5-16 I-4 .

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