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State the three principal causes for mechanical failure. A) Improper materials selection or processing B) Inadequate design C) Component misuse

**2. What is the magnitude of the maximum stress that exists at the tip of an internal crack having a
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radius of curvature of 1.9 x 10-4 mm and a crack length of 3.8 x 10-2 mm when a tensile stress of 140 MPa is applied? (2800 MPa) This problem asks that we compute the magnitude of the maximum stress that exists at the tip of an internal crack. Equation (8.1b) is employed to solve this problem, as 1/2 σ m = 2σ o

= (2)(140 MPa)

(3.8 x10 −2 mm ) / 2 1/2 = 2800 MPa −4 1.9 x10 mm

**3. Estimate the theoretical fracture strength of a brittle material if it is known that fracture occurs by
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the propagation of an elliptically shaped surface crack of length 0.25 mm and having a tip radius of curvature of 1.2 x 10-3 mm when a stress of 1200 MPa is applied. (3.5 x 104 MPa) In order to estimate the theoretical fracture strength of this material it is necessary to calculate σ m using Equation (8.1b) given that σ o = 1200 MPa, a = 0.25 mm, and ρ t = 1.2 x 10-3 mm. Thus, σ m = 2σ o = (2)(1200 MPa)= 3.5 x 104 MPa

**4. A specimen of a ceramic material having a modulus of elasticity of 300 GPa is pulled in tension
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with a stress of 900 MPa. Will the specimen fail if its "most severe flaw" is an internal crack that has a length of 0.30 mm and a tip radius of curvature of 5 x 10-4 mm? Why or why not? (31.2 GPa, Yes) In order to determine whether or not this ceramic material will fail we must compute its theoretical fracture (or cohesive) strength; if the maximum strength at the tip of the most severe flaw is greater than this value then fracture will occur--if less than, then there will be no fracture. The theoretical fracture strength is just E/10 or 30 GPa, inasmuch as E = 300 GPa.

The magnitude of the stress at the most severe flaw may be determined using Equation

1

Thus σ c = = = 927 MPa Therefore. and the plane strain fracture toughness. Will this specimen experience fracture if it is known that the largest surface crack is 0. The stress intensity factor is a parameter used in expressions such as: K = Yσ πa …(eqn. For this same component and alloy. Some aircraft component is fabricated from an aluminium alloy that has a plane strain fracture toughness of 35 MPa m .2 GPa Therefore. Describe the significant differences between the stress intensity factor. given the values of KIc. 7. (927 MPa.13). 5. plane strain and plane stress fracture toughnesses represent unique and critical values of K at which crack propagation occurs. while plane stress is for specimens thinner than this threshold. will fracture occur at a stress level of 325 MPa when the maximum internal crack length is 2 . the plane stress fracture toughness.75 mm long? Why or why not? Assume that the parameter Y has a value of 1. This requires that we solve for σ c from Equation (8. 6.0. plane strain fracture toughness is this critical value for specimens thicker than some minimum threshold thickness. fracture will most likely occur because this specimen will tolerate a stress of 927 MPa before fracture. Yes) This problem asks us to determine whether or not the 4340 steel alloy specimen will fracture when exposed to a stress of 1000 MPa. It has been determined that fracture results at a stress of 250 MPa when the maximum (or critical) internal crack length is 2. However.σ m = 2σ o = (2)(900 MPa)= 31. which is less than the applied stress of 1000 MPa.0 mm. Y. On the other hand. fracture will occur since this value is greater than E/10. and the largest value of a in the material. 8) Its value is variable and dependent on applied stress and crack length. A specimen of a 4340 steel alloy having a plane strain fracture toughness of 45 MPa is exposed to a stress of 1000 MPa m .

2 MPa) is less than the KIc of the material-35 MPa. (288 MPa) This problem asks us to determine the stress level at which an aircraft component will fracture for a given fracture toughness (40 MPa) and maximum internal crack length (4. stress level (325 MPa). Suppose that a wing component on an aircraft is fabricated from an aluminium alloy that has a plane strain fracture toughness of 40 MPa m .2 MPa. It first becomes necessary to solve for the parameter Y for the conditions under which fracture occurred using Equation (8. For this same component and alloy. Thus.5 mm. so as to ascertain whether or not this value is greater than the KIc for the alloy.11). 8. fracture will not occur since this value (32.1.0 mm). It has been determined that fracture results at a stress of 365 MPa when the maximum internal crack length is 2.0 mm).50 Now we will solve for the product Yσ for the other set of conditions.13) as 3 .0 mm? Why or why not? No) (32. compute the stress level at which fracture will occur for a critical internal crack length of 4. Yσ = (2. Therefore.2 MPa m Therefore. We are asked to determine if an aircraft component will fracture for a given fracture toughness (35 MPa).50)(325 MPa) = 32.11).0 mm. It first becomes necessary to solve for the parameter Y for the conditions under which fracture occurred using Equation (8. Y = = = 1. Y = = = 2. given that fracture occurs for the same component using the same alloy at one stress level and another internal crack length. and maximum internal crack length (1. given that fracture occurs for the same component using the same alloy for another stress level and internal crack length.75 Now we will solve for σ c using Equation (8. Therefore.

Assume that the value of Y is 1.1) component that is loaded to a stress one half of its yield strength.024 m = 24 mm 10. determine the minimum length of a surface crack that will lead to fracture. therefore 2 ac = = 2 = 0. Now solving for 2ac using Equation (8. and Y = 1.35. A large plate is fabricated from a steel alloy that has a plane strain fracture toughness of 55 MPa m . If the design stress is one half of the yield strength and the value of Y is 1. KIc = 24 MPa m and σ = σ y/2 = (495 MPa)/2 = 248 MPa . If.0033 m = 3. the plate is exposed to a tensile stress of 200 MPa.0. The flaw size resolution limit of the flaw detection apparatus is 4. we are given values of KIc. determine whether or not a critical flaw for this plate is subject to detection. during service use. the value of KIc (77 MPa). and Y for a large plate and are asked to determine the minimum length of a surface crack that will lead to fracture.σ c = = = 288 MPa 9. the design stress (σ y/2) in which σ y = 1400 MPa. (3. σ .14) yields 2 2ac = = 2 = 0. (24 mm) For this problem.1 given that it is loaded to a stress level equal to one-half of its yield strength.0 mm). Assume a value of 1. (3. thus 4 .3 mm) This problem asks us to calculate the maximum internal crack length allowable for the 7075-T651 aluminum alloy in Table 8. All we need do is to solve for ac using Equation (8.0 mm.3 mm 11.9 mm) This problem asks that we determine whether or not a critical flaw in a wide plate is subject to detection given the limit of the flaw detection apparatus (4. A structural component in the form of a wide plate is to be fabricated from a steel alloy that has a plane strain fracture toughness of 77 MPa m and a yield strength of 1400 MPa. For this alloy. We first need to compute the value of ac using Equation (8. Calculate the maximum internal crack length allowable for a 7075-T651 aluminium alloy (Table.14).0 for Y.14).0.

Since the minimum crack length for detection is 2 mm.4 mm 13. a yield strength of 825 MPa.5 MPa Now. If the plate is to be loaded to a stress of 300 MPa. to determine the minimum allowable plate width to ensure that fracture will not occur if the minimum crack length that is subject to detection is 2 mm. If it is known that the minimum crack length subject to detection is 2 mm. from this plot.13a is plotted Y versus a/W for the crack-plate geometry of this problem.11) we solve for the value of Y assuming that a = 2. and to determine if fracture will occur given the following: W = 75 mm. and its thickness (B) is 12. B = 12. the plate width (W) is 75 mm.9 MPa m . where σ y = 825 MPa. determine the minimum allowable plate width assuming a plane strain fracture toughness of 80 MPa m . We are also given that KIc = 80 MPaand that the plate may be loaded to half its yield strength.9 mm Therefore.0 mm resolution limit. 12. Yes) This problem asks that we consider a steel plate having a through-thickness edge crack.0 mm as Y= = = 2. Consider a steel plate having a through thickness edge crack similar to that shown in Figure 13a. and that the plate is to be loaded to one half of its yield strength.2 ac = = 2 = 0.45 In Figure 8. would you expect failure to occur if the crack length a is 15 mm? Why or why not? (87. Furthermore.45. the critical flaw is not subject to detection since this value of ac is less than the 4.0039 m = 3. a/W = 0. (4. for a steel plate having a through-thickness edge crack. plane strain fracture toughness and yield strength values for this material are 80 MPa m and 1200 MPa. Consider a steel plate having a through thickness edge crack similar to that shown in Figure 13a.45.4 mm) This problem asks that we determine.0 mm. First of all the applied stress is just σ = = = 412. σ y 5 . KIc = 80 MPa. for Y = 2. using Equation (8. respectively.0 mm. the minimum width allowable is just W = = = 4.

Thus Yσ = (1. Next.011 m = 11 mm Inasmuch as the plate thickness is 12 mm (which is greater than 11 mm). which is just 15 mm/75 mm = 0. and a = 15 mm. From this ratio and using Figure 8. 2 2.12).35.9 MPa) is greater than the KIc for the steel (80 MPa). Y = 1. if it is greater than KIc then fracture will occur.20.35)(300 MPa) = 87. At this point it becomes necessary to determine the value of the Yσ product.= 1200 MPa.5 = 0.13a. fracture will occur since this value (87. 6 . From Equation (8. the situation is a plane strain one. The first thing to do is determine whether conditions of plane strain exist. σ = 300 MPa. we must determine the a/W ratio.9 MPa m Therefore.5 2 = 2.

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