1.What is ecosystem? Describe it’s classification .

Ecosystem  An ecosystem is a biological environment consisting of all the organisms living in a particular area, as well as all the nonliving, physical components of the environment with which the organisms interact, such as air, soil, water, and sunlight.  It is all the organisms in a given area, along with the nonliving (abiotic) factors with which they interact; a biological community and its physical environment.  Ecosystems are functional units consisting of living things in a given area, non-living chemical and physical factors of their environment, linked together through nutrient cycle and energy flow.  The entire array of organisms inhabiting a particular ecosystem is called a community.  In a typical ecosystem, plants and other photosynthetic organisms are the producers that provide the food.  Ecosystems can be permanent or temporary. Ecosystems usually form a number of food webs. Structure of eco system →Abiotic factors →Biotic factors - Producers - Consumers i)Primary(Herbivores) ii)Secondary(Carnivores) iii)Tertiary (Secondary carnivores) - Decomposers Classification of ecosystem 1. Natural  Terrestrial ecosystem

→Grassland →Tundra →Desert →Forest Aquatic ecosystem →Fresh water ۞Lentic, the ecosystem of a lake, pond or swamp, pools,ditch etc(Standing water).
 ۞Lotic,

the ecosystem of a river, stream or spring (Running water).

→Marine ecosystem

Artificial - ecosystems created by humans like crop,industrial space,agro ecosystem.

Terrestrial ecosystem The terrestrial habitat is the most complex one.In the terrestrial habitat,there are great fluctuations and interactions of environmental factors than in an aquatic environment. a).Grassland Grasslands (also called savvanahs) are areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses (Poaceae) and other herbaceous (non-woody) plants (forbs). However, sedge (Cyperaceae) and rush (Juncaceae) families can also be found. Grasslands occur naturally on all continents except Antarctica. In temperate latitudes, such as northwest Europe and the Great Plains and California in North America, native grasslands are dominated by perennial bunch grass species, whereas in warmer climates annual species form a greater component of the vegetation.[1] Grasslands are found in most ecological regions of the earth. For example there are five Terrestrial ecoregion classifications (subdivisions) of the Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands Biome ('Ecosystem'), which is one of eight Terrestrial ecozones of the Earth's surface.

One well-studied example is the specializations of mammalian kidneys shown by desert-inhabiting species. . and Antarctic tundra. Many desert animals (and plants) show especially clear evolutionary adaptations for water conservation or heat tolerance. and many lizards. deserts would be classified as arid megathermal climates. less than enough to support growth of most plants. and so are often studied in comparative physiology. Many examples of convergent evolution have been identified in desert organisms. and lichens. ecophysiology. Deserts are defined as areas with an average annual precipitation of less than 250 millimetres (10 in) per year. kangaroo rats and jerboas. Scattered trees grow in some tundra. sedges and grasses.In tundra. In the Thornthwaite climate classification system. The ecotone (or ecological boundary region) between the tundra and the forest is known as the tree line or timberline.Grassland types ( biomes ) →Tropical and subtropical grasslands →Temperate grasslands →Flooded grasslands →Montane grasslands →Tundra grasslands b). coyote. including between cacti and Euphorbia. Deserts have a reputation for supporting very little life. Tundra In physical geography. including animals that remain hidden during daylight hours to control body temperature or to limit moisture needs. and evolutionary physiology. but in reality deserts often have high biodiversity.There are three types of tundra: Arctic tundra. Phrynosoma and Moloch lizards." "treeless mountain tract. tundra is a biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. Desert A desert is a landscape or region that receives an extremely low amount of precipitation. Some fauna includes the kangaroo rat. These animals adapted to live in deserts are called xerocoles. mosses. alpine tundra. or as areas where more water is lost by evapotranspiration than falls as precipitation. The term tundra comes through Russian тундра from the Kildin Sami word tūndâr "uplands. c). the vegetation is composed of dwarf shrubs. jack rabbit. In the Köppen climate classification system. deserts are classed as BWh (hot desert) or BWk (temperate desert).

2. Prickly Pears. Organisms and their adaptations Many well-known animals live in this kind of forest. Canada. Birds include the bald eagle. d) Temperate deciduous forest A temperate deciduous forest. and the Brittlebush. Europe. shrubs and grasses). wolves. including ecosystems. cardinals. These animals have unique adaptations suited for seasonal life. China. leaf types (such as broadleaf and needleleaf). snakes. hawks. and large birds of prey like red-tailed hawks. mice. woodland. plant spacing (forest. Examples include oak. rats. West Asia. Some examples are the Eastern Gray Squirrel. bears. soil organisms and climatic conditions. such as ecological communities of plants and animals. raccoons. Desert Holly. is a biome found in the eastern and western United States. Biomes Biomes are a classification of globally similar areas. more precisely termed temperate broadleaf forest or temperate broadleaved forest. Marine biomes . Freshwater biomes. taxonomic or historical similarities. foxes.  Classification  A fundamental classification of biomes is: 1.Some flora includes shrubs. and the snowy owl. central Mexico. some rodents store up fat.  Biomes are in part defined based on factors such as plant structures (such as trees. beech. southern South America. savanna) and climate. Most desert plants are drought. A temperate deciduous forest consists of trees that lose their leaves every year. Terrestrial (land) biomes. Biomes are often identified with particular patterns of ecological succession and climax vegetation. maple. then hibernate during cold winters. For example.  Unlike ecozones. beavers. biomes are not defined by genetic. such as xerophytes. Japan. deer. nightingale. and elm. 3. South Korea and parts of Russia. North Korea.or salt-tolerant.

Global warming  The average facade temperature of the globe has augmented more than 1 degree Fahrenheit since 1900 and the speed of warming has been almost three folds the century long average since 1970. regardless of cause. mainly the discharge of green house gases from smokestacks. The most general definition of climate change is a change in the statistical properties of the climate system when considered over periods of decades or longer. vehicles. Climate change may be limited to a specific region. .What is the climate change? Describe Cause and effect of climate change . greater or fewer extreme weather events. It may be a change in the average weather conditions or a change in the distribution of weather events with respect to an average.  This increase in earth’s average temperature is called Global warming.2. and burning forests. or may occur across the whole Earth. for example. Climate change Climate change is a long-term change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods of time that range from decades to millions of years.  More or less all specialists studying the climate record of the earth have the same opinion now that human actions. are perhaps the leading power driving the fashion.

Some of the more prominent ones are continental drift.those that are due to natural causes and those that are created by man. ocean currents. The causes of climate change can be divided into two categories . the earth was not as we see it today. This drift also had an impact on the climate because it changed the physical features of the landmass. the earth's tilt. which are now widely separated by the Atlantic Ocean. The gases and dust particles partially block the incoming rays of the sun. ice cores. The continents that we are familiar with today were formed when the landmass began gradually drifting apart. Although the volcanic activity may last only a few days. leading to cooling. water vapour. Millions of tonnes of sulphur dioxide gas can reach the upper levels of the atmosphere (called the stratosphere) from a major eruption. yet the large volumes of gases and ash can influence climatic patterns for years. which affected the climate. and ash into the atmosphere. 1. slowly but steadily. Proof of this comes from the similarity between plant and animal fossils and broad belts of rocks found on the eastern coastline of South America and western coastline of Africa. . These changes are being studied by scientists all over the world who are finding evidence from tree rings. their position and the position of water bodies. The separation of the landmasses changed the flow of ocean currents and winds. volcanoes. but the continents were all part of one large landmass. Let's look at them in a little detail. Continental drift About 200 million years ago they were joined together! Scientists believe that back then. and comets and meteorites.Causes of climate change The earth's climate is dynamic and always changing through a natural cycle. Volcanoes When a volcano erupts it throws out large volumes of sulphur dioxide (SO2). pollen samples.Natural causes There are a number of natural factors responsible for climate change. dust. the Himalayan range is rising by about 1 mm (millimeter) every year because the Indian land mass is moving towards the Asian land mass. This drift of the continents continues even today. What the world is more worried about is that the changes that are occurring today have been speeded up because of man's activities. and sea sediments. millions of years back.

The earth's tilt The earth makes one full orbit around the sun each year. These droplets are so small that many of them can stay aloft for several years. Movement of aerosols north and south is always much slower. But the oceans are surrounded by land masses. at the rate of a little more than a half-degree each century. It is tilted at an angle of 23. Ocean currents The oceans are a major component of the climate system. which means that the distance between the earth and the Sun varies over the course of a year. the star pointing to the North. Changes in the tilt of the earth can affect the severity of the seasons . If there was no tilt we would not have experienced seasons. the northern hemisphere tilts towards the sun. The coast of Peru and other adjoining regions are directly influenced by the Humboldt . called precession is responsible for changes in the climate. and screen the ground from some of the energy that it would ordinarily receive from the sun. This should give you some idea of the ways by which cooling can be brought about for a few years after a major volcanic eruption. it always seems to point toward Polaris (also known as the Pole Star and the North Star).Sulphur dioxide combines with water to form tiny droplets of sulphuric acid. and will not always be. In the other half when it is winter. Winds push horizontally against the sea surface and drive ocean current patterns. They cover about 71% of the Earth and absorb about twice as much of the sun's radiation as the atmosphere or the land surface. less tilt means cooler summers and milder winters.5° to the perpendicular plane of its orbital path. after all. Certain parts of the world are influenced by ocean currents more than others. So Polaris has not always been. called the stratosphere. The Earth's orbit is somewhat elliptical. the pole was near the star Thuban (Alpha Draconis). When the pyramids were built. For one half of the year when it is summer.more tilt means warmer summers and colder winters. so heat transport through the water is through channels. They are efficient reflectors of sunlight. This gradual change in the direction of the earth's axis. Actually. Ocean currents move vast amounts of heat across the planet roughly the same amount as the atmosphere does. the earth is tilted away from the sun. Winds in the upper levels of the atmopshere. carry the aerosols rapidly around the globe in either an easterly or westerly direction. We usually think of the earth's axis as being fixed. around 2500 BC. it is not quite constant: the axis does move.

remains frozen. The rest of the Arctic Ocean. etc. creating mountains of waste. The warm current along the Norewgian coast keeps much of the Greenland-Norwegian Sea free of ice even in winter. households. as is believed to have happened at the end of the last Ice Age. This trend is continuing even today. The energy sector is responsible for about ¾ of the carbon dioxide emissions. Also. 2.some parts of coastal Norway have an average temperature of -2°C in January and 14°C in July. Any or all of these phenomena can have an impact on the climate. coal and natural gas supply most of the energy needed to run vehicles. Consumerism (our increasing want for material things) has increased by leaps and bounds. about 14. Yet. Fossil fuels such as oil. industries. If we compare places at the same latitude in Europe and North America the effect is immediately obvious.current that flows along the coastline of Peru. All this has contributed to a rise in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. our population has increased to an incredible extent. More and more land that was covered with vegetation has been cleared to make way for houses. Ocean currents have been known to change direction or slow down. and consumption. These industries created jobs and over the years. 1/5 of the methane emissions and a large quantity of nitrous oxide. generate electricity for industries.000 years ago. the most abundant greenhouse gas on Earth. people moved from rural areas to the cities. The El Niño event in the Pacific Ocean can affect climatic conditions all over the world. It also produces nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon . even though it is much further south. transport. water vapor also contributes to the formation of clouds. Much of the heat that escapes from the oceans is in the form of water vapour. while places at the same latitude on the Pacific coast of Alaska are far colder: -15°C in January and only 10°C in July. which shade the surface and have a net cooling effect. Natural resources are being used extensively for construction.Human causes  Greenhouse gases and their sources  How we all contribute every day  Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Variations The Industrial Revolution in the 19th century saw the large-scale use of fossil fuels for industrial activities. Another region that is strongly influenced by ocean currents is the North Atlantic. Take a closer look at this example .

Effect of climate change Physical effect –  Increase of atmospheric temperature  Sea level rise  Arctic shrinkage  Arctic methane release  Release terrestrial carbon from permafrost  Arctic methane release in coastal sediment . carbon dioxide is emitted. When soil is covered with water it becomes anaerobic or lacking in oxygen. goats. Nearly 90% of the paddy-growing area in the world is found in Asia. the most important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. methaneproducing bacteria and other organisms decompose organic matter in the soil to form methane. horses. pigs. If the waste is put into an incinerator or burnt in the open. as rice is the staple food there. and other activities have all led to a rise in the emission of carbon dioxide. Methane is also emitted during the process of oil drilling. Greenhouse gases and their sources Carbon dioxide is undoubtedly. Changes in land use pattern. About ¼ of all methane emissions are said to come from domesticated animals such as dairy cows. agriculture. buffaloes. China and India. Methane is also released from rice or paddy fields that are flooded during the sowing and maturing periods. between them. A large amount of nitrous oxide emission has been attributed to fertilizer application. These animals produce methane during the cud-chewing process. and sheep. Contributions are also made by leguminous plants. Methane is another important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. camels. have 80-90% of the world's rice-growing areas. This in turn depends on the type of fertilizer that is used. land clearing. deforestation. such as beans and pulses that add nitrogen to the soil. coal mining and also from leaking gas pipelines (due to accidents and poor maintenance of sites).monoxide (CO) which are not greenhouse gases but do have an influence on the chemical cycles in the atmosphere that produce or destroy greenhouse gases. how and when it is used and the methods of tilling that are followed. Methane is also emitted from landfills and other waste dumps. Under such conditions.

They are human being and economic components. 18% fresh water flow increases.  Heat wave  Cold wave  Severe cyclonic effect (SIDR. Development means improving people’s lives. as a result Pakistan flood in 2010)  Oceanic acidification due of increase of carbon dioxide  Oceanic temperature stratification  Oceanic circulation  Local climate change  Health  Food supply 3. CATHERINA)  Draught  Unequal distribution of population  Reduce diversity of ecosystem  Unequal development (some region will be benefited and some will be loser)  Increase of fresh water flow (1990-2006 . Extreme frequency in weather events . Environment development is the development of environment and it’s resources. To achieve environment development at least two fronts are needed. AILA. Problem threats to environment development →Food security →Education →Health →Housing →Sewerage system →Power and energy →Water →Economy .Describe about environmental development Environment and Development The word environment encompasses everything that is around us.

or expected to lead to. group. krisis) is any event that is. societal or environmental affairs.→Pollution →Habit →Ecological imbalance How to overcome these problems →Political commitment →Government policy →Donation (condition less) →Expertise development →Indigenous knowledge →Peoples category Development challenges →GDP →Redistribution of resources →Adequate facilities →Self sufficiency →Population growth Environmental issues →Natural hazards →Agriculture →Industrialization →Forestry →Fishiness →Biodiversity →Ecosystem →Population 4.Environmental crisis A crisis (plural: "crises". political. economic. Crises are deemed to be negative changes in the security. an unstable and dangerous situation affecting an individual. adjectival form: "critical") (from the Greek κρίσις. community or whole society. .

but it also causes the destruction of the earth's thin layer of healthy. Industrial 2. toxic or heavy metals also affects the environment. All this makes earth more hollow and empty. The irrigation of soil in dry areas with poor drainage can leave still water in fields. it leaves salt deposits behind. With infertile soil. When this standing/still water evaporates. people dispose billions of metric tons of solid waste. and non-routine events or series of events that [create] high levels of uncertainty and threat or perceived threat to an organization's high priority goals. unexpected.Use of natural resources . productive soil. Every year. Many scientists believe that acid /salty rain can also reduce soil fertility. where much of our food is grown. Mining operations and smelting dirty." World Trend 1. making the soil too salty for growing crops. Salt has great power to melt even the bones of human beings and heavy iron metals.Environmental crises have four defining characteristics that are "specific. Population growth Impact/Effect →Population health: Dirty smoke from a power plant might appear to harm the atmosphere alone. farmers cannot grow necessary quantities of food to support the large global population. →Agriculture Various human activities also damage soil.

a recent warming of the Earth's surface and lower atmosphere.Quality consistency →Global warming.Living standard 5. cataracts.Ability . 3.Sea level rise .Quantity . →Food/Drinking water →Energy production →Working force . Thus. 4. →Harmful effects of ozone depletion to humans include risks of skin cancer.Emission of greenhouse gases 6.Atmospheric composition 7.wastes account for a majority of the discarded material. is believed to be the result of a strengthening of the greenhouse effect mostly due to humanproduced increases in atmospheric greenhouse gases.Tecnological development →Natural ecosystem All living things exist in relationships we call the ecosystems. and adverse effects on the immune system. These ecosystems must be in harmony for our planet to have ecological balance.Habitual change . any excess that affects any one part of the environment will also affect all others. All the ecosystems of the earth are connected.

Classification of natural disaster 1.g. hurricane. It leads to financial. also called their resilience.[1] This understanding is concentrated in the formulation: "disasters occur when hazards meet vulnerability.→Costal zone environment Scientists reported that higher ocean temperatures—all around the world—were killing off the coral reefs that harbor a quarter of the sea’s life at a record pace. e. Many natural hazards are interrelated. earthquakes can cause tsunamis and drought can lead directly to famine. Hydrological hazards Geological hazards3 Climatic and atmospheric hazards 1.. In the words of a federal researcher. The term natural has consequently been disputed because the events simply are not hazards or disasters without human involvement A natural hazard is a threat of a naturally occurring event that will have a negative effect on people or the environment. earthquake. “this is a really huge event and we are going to see a lot of corals dying. tornado.g.Hydrological hazards . environmental or human losses.g.What do u mean by natural disaster and classify it. 5. Natural disaster A natural disaster is the effect of a natural hazard (e. 3. volcanic eruption." A natural hazard will hence never result in a natural disaster in areas without vulnerability. 2. or landslide). strong earthquakes in uninhabited areas. flood. The resulting loss depends on the vulnerability of the affected population to resist the hazard. e.

but their power tends to be exaggerated in fiction. More powerful ones are more properly termed maelstroms. rapid melting of large amounts of snow. Maelstroms can reach speeds of 20–40 km/h. posing the threat of suffocating wildlife. e) Seiche A seiche is a standing wave in an enclosed or partially enclosed body of water. The key requirement for formation of a seiche is that the body of water be at least partially bounded. .a)Flood Floods are the result of prolonged rainfall from a storm. Such an eruption may also cause tsunamis in the lake as the rising CO2 displaces water. or by two tectonic plates vibrating to cause a wave. f)Tsunami A tsunami is a wave of water caused by the displacement of a body of water. volcanic activity. Tsunamis can be caused by submarine earthquakes as in the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake (pictured). b) Limnic eruption Also referred to as a 'lake overturn'. Seiches and seiche-related phenomena have been observed on lakes. or explosions can trigger such an eruption. The vast majority of whirlpools are not very powerful. d) Maelstrom Maelstroms are large tidal whirlpools. reservoirs. Tropical cyclones can result in extensive flooding and storm surge. including thunderstorms. c) Whirlpool A whirlpool is a swirling body of water usually produced by ocean tides. livestock and humans. Alaska. or by landslides such as the one which occurred at Lituya Bay. or rivers which swell from excess precipitation upstream and cause widespread damage to areas downstream. bays and seas. The largest known maelstrom is Moskstraumen off the Lofoten islands in Norway. Powerful whirlpools have killed unlucky seafarers. Scientists believe landslides. a limnic eruption is a rare type of natural disaster in which CO2 suddenly erupts from deep lake water. or less frequently the bursting of man-made dams or levees.

e )Volcanic eruption A volcanic eruption is the point in which a volcano is active and releases its power. caused when a buildup of snow is released down a slope.2. such as a cave. Climatic and atmospheric hazards a) Blizzard A blizzard is a severe winter storm icy and windy conditions characterized by low temperatures. usually caused by the collapse of a subterranean structure. earthquakes may manifest themselves by a shaking or displacement of the ground and sometimes tsunamis.Geological hazards a)Avalanche An avalanche is a geophysical hazard a slide of a large snow (or rock) mass down a mountainside. . c) Lahar A lahar is a type of natural disaster closely related to a volcanic eruption. b)Earthquake An earthquake is a phenomenon that results from a sudden release of stored energy that radiates seismic waves. it is one of the major dangers faced in the mountains in winter. Although rare. and ash sliding down the side of the volcano at a rapid pace. d) Sinkholes A sinkhole is localized depression in the surface topography. large sinkholes that develop suddenly in populated areas can lead to the collapse of buildings and other structures. 3. rock. These flows can destroy entire towns in seconds and kill thousands of people. and involves a large amount of material. including mud. and the eruptions come in many forms. An avalanche is an example of a gravity current consisting of granular material. At the Earth's surface. and heavy snow. strong winds.

urban or environmental water needs. due to atmosphere conditions.b) Drought Drought is defined as an acute shortage of water and crop failure that results when the average rainfall is very less than the normal. katabatic winds. It is caused by evaporated water that comes off of the ocean and becomes a storm f)Ice storm An ice storm is a particular weather event in which precipitation falls as ice. and can result in wildfires. Tornadoes are violent. Scientists warn that global warming may result in more extensive droughts in coming years. or can occur in large tornado outbreaks associated with supercells or in other large . and may include temperature inversions. A drought is an abnormally dry period when there is not enough water to support agricultural. ruining crops and damaging equipment. and possibly higher. including stadial events (the opposite to glacial 'ice age' events). or other phenomena. tropical cyclone. Hailstorms can be especially devastating to farm fields. rotating columns of air which can blow at speeds between 50 mph (80 km/h) and 300 mph (480 km/h). Tornadoes can occur one at a time. e) Cyclonic storms Hurricane. c) Hailstorm A hailstorm is a natural hazard where a thunderstorm produces numerous hailstones which damage the location in which they fall. and typhoon are different names for the same phenomenon: a cyclonic storm system that forms over the oceans. Extended droughts can result in deaths by starvation or disease. d) Heat wave A heat wave is a hazard characterized by heat which is considered extreme and unusual in the area in which it occurs. There is potential for longer term events causing global warming. or through human induced climatic warming. g) Tornado A tornado is a natural disaster resulting from a thunderstorm. Heat waves are rare and require specific combinations of weather events to take place.

water. disorder. the elements of pollution.areas of thunderstorm development. or naturally occurring. heat. when naturally occurring. thermal. can be foreign substances or energies.Definition. i) Geomagnetic storm Geomagnetic storms can disrupt or damage technological infrastructure. These are given in below:→Agricultural sources →Land sources →Air sources →Water sources →Industrial sources →Extra-terrestrial sources A point source of pollution is a single identifiable localized source of air. such as noise. and disorient species with magnetoception. Sources of Pollution Six different sources are identified as agents for pollution. noise or light pollution. h)Climate change Climate change is a long-term hazard which can increase or decrease the risk of other weather hazards.sources. 6. distinguishing it from other pollution source geometries.water pollution. harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i. The sources are called .causes and effect of environment pollution. they are considered contaminants when they exceed natural levels. physical systems or living organisms. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution. Environment pollution Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into a natural environment that causes instability. Waterspouts are tornadoes occurring over tropical waters in light rain conditions.e. and also directly endangers property due to sea level rise and biological organisms due to habitat destruction. A point source has negligible extent. Pollutants. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy. or light.

point sources because in mathematical modeling. . they can be approximated as a mathematical point to simplify analysis. etc Types of pollution →Air pollution →Water pollution →Noise pollution →Land pollution →Thermal pollution →Pesticide pollution →Radio active pollution Water pollution Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e. oceans and groundwater). engineering. lakes. optics and chemistry point sources and include: • • • • • • Water pollution from an oil refinery wastewater discharge outlet Noise pollution from a jet engine Disruptive seismic vibration from a localized seismic study Light pollution from an intrusive street light Thermal pollution from an industrial process outfall Radio emissions from an interference-producing electrical device Causes of Pollution i) Human activity ii) Population explosion iii) Industries iv) Automobiles v) Smoke vi) Biocides vii) Fertilizers viii) Sewage . rivers.g. Pollution point sources are identical to other physics. Water pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds.

livestock operation and corp lands. and may become a limiting nutrient in freshwater systems. NPS pollution is often the cumulative effect of small amounts of contaminants gathered from a large area. which can inhibit growth of submerged aquatic plants and consequently affect species which are dependent on them. and.Water pollution affects plants and organisms living in these bodies of water. High turbidity levels also inhibit drinking water purification systems. etc. landfill. in almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and populations. . reducing the amount of light reaching lower depths. 1. and from surface runoff due to improper plant cover on urban and rural land Sediment creates turbidity (cloudiness) in water bodies. a factory. identifiable source. or a city storm drain. although these are point sources. A common example is the leaching out of nitrogen compounds from fertilized agricultural lands. Nutrient runoff in stormwater from "sheet flow" over an agricultural field or a forest are also cited as examples of NPS pollution. (Sediment can also be discharged from improperly managed construction sites.[7] →Phosphorus is a nutrient that occurs in many forms that are bioavailable. It is a main ingredient in many fertilizers used for agriculture as well as on residential and commercial properties.Nutrients Nutrients mainly refers to organic matter from runoffs. Examples of sources in this category include discharges from a sewage treatment plant. Source of water pollution Point sources Point source pollution refers to contaminants that enter a waterway from a single.) 2. such as fish and shellfish. which can be managed with erosion controls and sediment controls. such as a pipe or ditch. Non–point sources Non–point source (NPS) pollution refers to diffuse contamination that does not originate from a single discrete source. Sediment may enter surface waters from eroding stream banks. but also to the natural biological communities.Sediment Sediment (loose soil) includes silt (fine particles) and suspended solids (larger particles). It mainly include Phosphorus and Nitrogen.

urban runoffs. 6. 3.Pathogens Pathogens may be present in nonpoint source runoff. These toxic chemicals could come from croplands. 5. Heavy Metals Heavy metals like lead. Effects of environment pollution .e. like pestisides that have severe effects to the ecosystem and waterbody. gardens. lawns and landfills. nurseries. building sites. industrial operations and andfills. The nitrogen is usually added to a watershed as organic-N or ammonia (NH3). orchards. vehicle emissions.→Nitrogen is the other key ingredient in fertilizers. Mercury. 4. ect mainly come from mining operations. industrial sites and landfills. mining operations. Since the nitrate is generally already incorporated into the soil. zinc. Pathogens found in contaminated runoff may include: • • • • • Cryptosporidium parvum Giardia lamblia Salmonella Novovirus and other viruses Parasitic worms (helminths). Acids and salts Acids and salts mainly refers to inorganic pollutants from irrigated lands. interflow and tile drainage) is the most likely to transport it. so nitrogen stays attached to the soil until oxidation converts it into nitrate.. rather than surface runoff.Toxic Chemicals Toxic chemicals mainly include organic and inorganic compounds. and can be a source of disease if they enter drinking water supplies. →Nitrogen is most often transported by water as nitrate (NO3). and it becomes a pollutant in saltwater systems where nitrogen is a limiting nutrient. the water traveling through the soil (i. urban runoff.

It causes headache .Noise diminishes the power of hearing .Contributes to formation of acid rain. slower growth and development. encephalitis.It increases blood pressure . nose and throat . thus making soil and water acidic.Effect of Air pollution .It increases the rate of heart beat . diarrhoea.Noise pollution . vomiting. pink eye -Respiratory infections -Hepatitis.It interferes with communication system . gastroenteritis.1.It gives pain to the ear .Physiological effects .Mercury in water can cause abnormal behavior. Effect of Water pollution Waterborne diseases caused by polluted drinking water: -Typhoid -Amoebiasis -Giardiasis -Ascariasis -Hookworm -Waterborne diseases caused by polluted beach water: -Rashes. reduced reproduction.Reduces the ability to work or learn . ear ache. and death -Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may cause declines. and stomach aches .Causes heart disease .Causes premature death 2. deformities and death of fish life -Too much sodium chloride (ordinary salt) in water may kill animals 3. -Causes irritation of eyes.It causes stress .Reduces oxygen supply to various organs of the body .Contributes to global warming .

Noise disturbs sleep 4. 1.It causes lack of concentration . 11. Use of non-fossil fuels 5. 14. 7. Air pollution control technology should be incorporated through legal requirement into design of the individual plant. More use of natural manure should be adopted. Loudspeakers should be set at low sound. Vehicular emission standards should be setup. . Quality of fuel should be improved. 6. 12. 17. Use of waste water for irrigation. 15. 7. It is essential to have sewage treatment plants for every town and city.Effect of thermal pollution - The temperature of the earth increases and icecaps melt.factories and airports.How did u reduce the intensity of pollution? Reducing the intensity of pollution A continuous air pollution survey should be conducted in the area and its neighbouring region 2. The hot water should not be released into the rivers. Minimizing the use of fertilizers.This will cause flood in the coastal and low-lying areas of land. insecticides. 8. 4. No dumping of industrial waste into water courses.It causes deafness . Smoking should be banned in public places. Residential houses should be constructed far away from industries . 10. 3. Factories and power stations should be provisions for storing and cooling of hot water. Industrial zone should be separated. Noise producing machines should be placed in closed room’s. 13. 9.. 16.

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