OD INTERVENTIONS

WHAT IS ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT?
Organization Development (OD) is the process of improving organizations. The process is carefully planned and implemented to benefit the organization, its employees and its stakeholders. The client organization may be an entire company, public agency, non-profit organization, volunteer group - or a smaller part of a larger organization. The change process supports improvement of the organization or group as a whole. The client and consultant work together to gather data, define issues and determine a suitable course of action. The organization is assessed to create an understanding of the current situation and to identify opportunities for change that will meet business objectives. OD differs from traditional consulting because client involvement is encouraged throughout the entire process. The ways in which people communicate and work together are addressed concurrently with technical or procedural issues that need resolution. WHY IS ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT IMPORTANT? Profitability, productivity, morale and quality of work life are of concern to most organizations because they impact achievement of organization goals. There is an increasing trend to maximize an organization's investment in its employees. Jobs that previously required physical dexterity now require more mental effort. Organizations need to "work smarter" and apply creative ideas. The work force has also changed. Employees expect more from a day's work than simply a day's pay. They want challenge, recognition, and a sense of accomplishment, worthwhile tasks and meaningful relationships with their managers and co-workers. When these needs are not met, performance declines. Today's customers demand continually improving quality, rapid product or service delivery; fast turn-around time on changes, competitive pricing and other features that are best achieved in complex environments by innovative organizational practices. The effective organization must be able to meet today's and tomorrow's challenges. Adaptability and responsiveness are essential to survive and thrive.

WHAT DO ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT CONSULTANTS DO? Examples of activities which are facilitated by OD consultants are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Teambuilding Goal Setting Group Facilitation Creative Problem solving Strategic Planning Leadership Development Management Development Career Management Conflict Resolution Developmental Education Interpersonal Communication Human Resources Management Managing Workforce Diversity Organization Restructuring High Involvement Work Teams Sociotechnical Systems Design Technical Training Total Quality Management

Often described as "change agents," OD consultants come from varied backgrounds with experience and training in organization development, organization behavior, psychology, education, management and/or human resources. Many have advanced degrees and most have experience in a variety of organizational settings. There are both internal and external OD consultants. An internal OD consultant is a full-time employee with a given organization. External consultants may be selfemployed or on the staff of a consulting firm. "Externals" work with one or more clients contracting for specific projects. WHOM DO ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT CONSULTANTS SERVE? OD consultants work with all levels of employees. Examples include: The Board of Directors, CEO or Vice Presidents -- during changes in corporate strategy, mission, leadership development, technology or organization structure. Middle Managers -- within specific areas or across functions to identify sources of conflict and barriers to performance, or help build a broader vision and more effective leadership. First-line supervisors -- improve operations and employee involvement, establish high involvement work teams, improve organizational communication, install statistical process control (SPC) develop supervisory training or new reward systems. Line workers -- to facilitate job redesign improved performance, teambuilding or improvement in the work environment. OD SERVICES Organization Development (OD) consultants provide services to improve organization effectiveness and/or individual employee effectiveness. The purposes are to increase productivity, work satisfaction and profit for the client company. Organization Effectiveness Consultants apply organization effectiveness strategies such as those shown below when there are needs for assessment, planning, growth, quality improvement, teamwork and other organizational changes.

redesigning job functions to assure that the way work gets done in the organization produces excellence in production and service. Goal Setting Defining and applying concrete goals as a road map to help an organization get where it wants to go. developing a common ground from which to resolve or better manage conflict. Organizational Restructuring Changing departmental and/or individual reporting structures.Action Research An assessment and problem solving process aimed at improved effectiveness for the entire organization or specific work units. Managing Resistance to Change Helping clients identify. and begin to manage their resistance to planned organizational change. Project Management The general management of specific work. participation and accomplishment. (Can also be applied to employee development. blending diverse functions and skills. The consultant helps the client organization identify the strengths and weaknesses of organization and management issues and works with the client in addressing problem opportunities. identifying roles and responsibilities. understand. Consultants serve as facilitator in a conflict situation or train employees to better understand and manage conflict. . usually for a fixed time and aimed at reaching defined outcomes.) Conflict Management Bringing conflicts to the surface to discover their roots. (Some form of action research is generally applied as a foundation for other consulting strategies.) Group Facilitation Helping people learn to interact more effectively at meetings and to apply group guidelines that foster open communication. Executive Development One-on-one or group developmental consultation with CEO's or VP's to improve their effectiveness.

Strategic Planning A dynamic process which defines the organization's mission and vision. teambuilding. work methods. Teambuilding Improving how well organization members help one another in activities where they must interact. Creative Problem Solving . work processes. commitment and leadership. Sociotechnical Systems Design Designing and managing organizations to emphasize the relationship between people's performance. sets goals and develops action steps to help an organization focus its present and future resources toward fulfilling its vision. defining quality and setting measurable standards. approach zero-defects and be more market-driven.Self-Directed Work Teams Developing work groups to be fully responsible for creating a well defined segment of finished work. career selection and job seeking help individuals make career decisions. the workplace environment and the technology used to produce goods and services in order to effect high level productivity. the consultant assists the organization in becoming more cost effective. Coordination & Management of Multi-Disciplinary Consultants One or several different technical specialists team up with an OD consultant to design and install new equipment. Total Quality Management Through work process analysis. or work procedures. Career Counseling Focused attention on goal setting. Employee Effectiveness Consultants use employee effectiveness strategies such as those below when there are needs for employee improvement in skill.

Typically paid for by the employer. Human Resource Management Managing the function of hiring. Labor Relations Facilitation of conflict.Organization members use practical problem solving models to address existing problems in a systematic. Developmental Education Training in basic math. benefits and employee relations toward systematic goals of the organization's morale and productivity. non-judgmental way. change management and creative problem solving. communications and problem solving. Includes visioning. Sales Training Training in the art of selling a product or service. planning and problem-solving among management and workforce union representation. Interpersonal Communication Skills Increased skill in exchanging needed information within the organization and providing feedback in a non-threatening. Customer Service Training Creating interpersonal excellence in public contact positions where the individual and the organization are expected to meet or exceed customer expectations. Outplacement Providing individual and group job search skills and services to employees who have been affected by corporate downsizing. Management Development Training in various management skill areas with particular focus on performance management. creative manner. writing and grammar. reading. Leadership Development Training in select areas which change managers to leaders. Stress Management . compensation.

services. results. Training Evaluation Systematic controlled inquiry grounded in sound statistical practice. confirming market direction and market niche. products. mission. discrepancies. Examples: producing internal . disagree. there are conflicting objectives. Interventions that inform: Activities that communicate goals. expectations. Assessment focuses on course relevance. both for themselves and others. or have different expectations. such as computers. relationships. Technical Training Training in a specific technical area. responsibilities. assessing online training effectiveness and/or business impact. transfer and cost value. Workforce Diversity Facilitating understanding between groups toward the goal where differences among people in an organization become the strengths for competitive advantage. market position. and so on. outcomes. productivity and work satisfaction TYPES OF OD INTERVENTION Information-based Intervention Interventions that define : Activities that specify or clarify the vision.An individual growth workshop designed to arm and activate healthy responses to stress. or people do not have a shared understanding. process. purpose. expectations. mutually setting performance goals. Time Management An opportunity for individuals and organizations to effect higher levels of productivity with the time they are allotted. and so on. objectives. Examples: holding sessions to create vision statements. It enables participants to maximize positive stressors and minimize the negative. roles. This intervention is delivered when people are unclear.

or hard to access. the people have changed. double-checking. This intervention is delivered when information has changed. and reward desired outcomes. This intervention is delivered when people don’t know what criteria are being used to judge productivity. manuals. and so forth are lacking or inadequate. Interventions that document: Activities that codify information (to preserve it and make it accessible.newsletters. more. Examples: developing a scorecard. removing. This intervention is delivered when information is not accessible over time or is too complex. Example: policing. help screens. paying for performance. job aids. creating manuals. or the people are uninformed. performance. or measures are inappropriate. eliminate undesirable behaviors. or there are few incentives for people to-do beater. reviewing. Examples: holding public ceremonies and annual recognition events. tracking means and variance in performance over time. suspending. and the consequence is poor performance. THE MAJOR FAMILIES OF OD INTERVENTION . Consequences-based Intervention Interventions that reward: Activities and programs that induce and maintain desired behaviors. expert systems. or differently. and so on. This intervention is delivered when consequences for poor performance or unacceptable behavior are hidden or not enforced. withholding pay. value. job aids. Intervention that measure: Activities and systems that provide metrics and benchmarks so people can monitor performance and have a basis to evaluate it. Interventions that enforce: Activities that actualize consequences and achieve compliance. and they could better control their own performance if they knew what the criteria were. holding debriefing sessions. giving feedback. or people don't get the information they need. inaccurate. measures of good performance are lacking. and decision guides. This intervention is delivered when current incentives either reinforce the wrong behaviors or ignore the desired behaviors. Examples: setting up libraries.

and knowledge of individuals. temporary task force teams. newly constituted teams. They may relate to task issues. Diagnostic Activities: Fact-finding activities designed to ascertain the state of the system. when more than two groups are involved. Team-Building Activities: Activities designed to enhance the effective operation of system teams. In addition. and meetings. Education and Training Activities: Activities designed to improve skills." Available methods range from projective devices such as build a collage that represents for you your place in this organization to the more traditional data collection methods of interviews. such as formal work teams. and cross-functional teams. the "way things are. There are several activities available . the activities are often called organizational mirroring. the status of a problem. Again. 5. surveys. the needed skills to accomplish tasks. or they may relate to the nature and quality of the relationships between the team members or between members and the leader. the resource allocations necessary for task accomplishments. a wide range of activities is possible. When two groups are involved. such as the way things are done. 3.1. they are important enough in their own right to be considered separately. They focus on joint activities and the output of the groups considered as a single system rather than as two subsystems. 4. consideration is given to the different kinds of teams that may exist in the organization. However. abilities. Intergroup Activities: Activities designed to improve effectiveness of interdependent groups. questionnaires. Survey Feedback Activities: Related to and similar to the diagnostic activities mentioned in that they are a large component of those activities. the activities are generally designated intergroup or interface activities. These activities center on actively working the data produced by a survey and designing action plans based on the survey data. 2.

Coaching and Counseling Activities: Activities that entail the consultant or other organization members working with individuals to help them (a) define learning goals. The activities may be directed toward technical skills required for effective task performance or may be directed toward improving interpersonal competence. Process Consultation Activities: Activities on the part of the consultant that help the client to perceive. decision making. leadership and authority. 8. and so forth. and intergroup cooperation and competition. responsibilities and functions of group members. 6. problem solving. (b) learn how others see their behavior. These activities perhaps more accurately describe an approach. a consulting mode in which the client is given insight into the human processes in organizations and taught skills in diagnosing and managing them. the individual can be educated in isolation from his or her own work group (say.and several approaches possible. understand. and (c) learn new modes of behavior to see if these help them to achieve their goals better. leader and member roles in groups. problem solving and decision making. A central feature of this activity is the non-evaluative feedback . For example. group norms and group growth. goal setting and planning. or one can be educated in relation to the work group (say. The activities may be directed toward leadership issues. in a T-group comprised of strangers). 7. and act upon process events which occur in the client's environment. Primary emphasis is on processes such as communications. Structural Activities: Activities designed to improve the effectiveness of the technical or structural inputs and constraints affecting individuals or groups. when a work team learns how better to manage interpersonal conflict). The activities may take the form of (a) experimenting with new organization structures and evaluating their effectiveness in terms of specific goals or (b) devising new ways to bring technical resources to bear on problems.

planning paradigms. 9. Planning and Goal-Setting Activities: Activities that include theory and experience in planning and goal setting. and opportunities and engage in longrange action planning of both a reactive and proactive nature. A second feature is the joint exploration of alternative behaviors. and total organization. The effective diagnosis of organizational culture. to exploring the interactions of people in the context in which they operate. Organizational development . The goal of all of them is to improve these skills at the levels of the individual. Since the beginnings of organizational development as a profession. and structural and operational strengths and weaknesses are fundamental to any successful organizational development intervention. the traditional silo approach to diagnostics is becoming increasingly rare. diagnosis has moved from the purely behavioral towards a strategic and holistic business diagnostic approach. threats. 10. group. utilizing problem-solving models.given by others to an individual. Strategic Management Activities: Activities that help key policy makers reflect systematically on their organization's basic mission and goals and environmental demands. These activities direct attention in two important directions: outside the organization to a consideration of the environment. Equally as organizations are increasingly collaborative in nature. One of those is the area of organizational diagnosis and the use of structured organizational diagnostic tools. Moving away from looking at human interventions in isolation. and the like. and away from the present to the future • ORGANISATONAL DIAGNOSIS In the field of Organizational Development there are many activities and disciplines. ideal organization versus real organization "discrepancy'' models.

leadership skills and the ability to work closely together as a team to problem solve.and in particular the diagnostic phase of activities is spreading from the occupational psychologists towards main stream business. Teambuilding is an important factor in any environment. It generally sits within the theory and practice of organizational development. but can also be applied to sports teams. Work environments tend to focus on individuals and personal goals. "How to create effective teams is a challenge in every organization" Team building can also refer to the process of selecting or creating a team from scratch. and other contexts. • TEAM BUILDING Team Building refers to a wide range of activities. presented to businesses. sports teams. positive communication. The purpose of the diagnosis is to examine the problem faced by the organization in some detail. its focus is to specialize in bringing out the best in a team to ensure self development. to identify factors and forces that are causing the problem and prepare all information needed for deciding how to orient any possible solutions to the problems identified. . and can range from simple bonding exercises to complex simulations and multi-day team building retreats designed to develop a team (including group assessment and group-dynamic games). usually falling somewhere in between. schools. Team building is not to be confused with "team recreation" that consists of activities for teams that are strictly recreational. An example of such a process is: Entry --> Diagnosis --> Action Planning --> Implementation --> Termination [2] As the second phase in most change of consulting cycles it is also the first fully operational phase of the consulting process or cycle. with reward & recognition singling out the achievements of individual employees. school groups. The diagnosis of the problem is a separate phase or set of activities from the solutions themselves. commonly called 'a consulting process'. religious or nonprofit organizations designed for improving team performance Team building is pursued via a variety of practices. This is important for OD practitioners as the role is increasingly holistic The organizational Diagnostic phase is often integrated within an overall OD process.

Reasons for Team Building include        Improving communication Making the workplace more enjoyable Motivating a team Getting to know each other Getting everyone "onto the same page". Communications exercises are problem solving activities that are geared towards improving communication skills. There are also more complex team building exercises that are composed of multiple exercises such as ropes courses. • Goal: Create an activity which highlights the importance of good communication in team performance and/or potential problems with communication. The issues teams encounter in these exercises are solved by communicating effectively with each other. There are many types of team building activities that range from kids games to games that involve novel complex tasks and are designed for specific needs. The purpose of team building exercises is to assist teams in becoming cohesive units of individuals that can effectively work together to complete tasks. Types of Team Building Exercises Communication Exercise This type of team building exercise is exactly what it sounds like. including goal setting Teaching the team self-regulation strategies Helping participants to learn more about themselves (strengths and weaknesses) Identifying and utilizing the strengths of team members Improving team productivity Practicing effective collaboration with team members    What are Team Building Exercises and what is their purpose? Team building exercises consist of a variety of tasks designed to develop group members and their ability to work together effectively. . corporate drumming and exercises that last over several days.

individual programs given to groups (sometimes physically challenging) team development activities . • Goal: Show the importance of planning before implementing a solution Trust Exercise A trust exercise involves engaging team members in a way that will induce trust between them.Problem Solving/Decision Making Exercise Problem Solving/Decision making exercises focus specifically on groups working together to solve difficult problems or make complex decisions. • Goal: Give team a problem in which the solution is not easily apparent or requires the team to come up with a creative solution Planning/Adaptability Exercise These exercises focus on aspects of planning and being adaptable to change. They are sometimes difficult exercises to implement as there are varying degrees of trust between individuals and varying degrees of individual comfort trusting others in general. • Goal: Create trust between team members Subgroups of Team Building Exercises   simple social activities . and training in how to work better together    .to encourage team members to spend time together group bonding sessions . These exercises are some of the most common as they appear to have the most direct link to what employers want their teams to be able to do. how the team works together. and discover better methods psychological analysis of team roles.company sponsored fun activities to get to know team members (sometimes intending also to inspire creativity) personal development activities .group-dynamic games designed to help individuals discover how they approach a problem. These are important things for teams to be able to do when they are assigned complex tasks or decisions.

and to design a gap-closure strategy.Team interaction involves "soft" interpersonal skills including communication. Models of Team Behavior Team building generally sits within the theory and practice of organizational development. leadership. processes and tools for organizing and coordinating a team towards a common goal as well as the inhibitors to teamwork and ways to remove. and can be used to create and develop better functioning teams. Depending on the type of team building.in contrast to technical skills directly involved with the job at hand. To improve its current performance. a team may embark on a process of self-assessment to gauge its effectiveness and improve its performance. Belbin Team Types can be assessed to gain insight into an individual's natural behavioral tendencies in a team context. The related field of team management refers to techniques. mitigate or overcome them.  The forming-storming-norming-performing model posits four stages of new team development to reach high performance. negotiation. This model is based on social networks approach and improves the team performance by improvement of specific cooperation ties between the people. a team seeks feedback from group members to find out both its current strengths and weakness. Some team activities are designed to speed up (or improve) this process in the safe team development environment. feedback from the team assessment can be used to identify gaps between the desired state and the current state. Team development can be the greater term . Team Sociomapping is a visual approach to team process and structure modeling. Several well-known approaches to team management have come out of academic work. and motivation . To assess itself.   Organizational Development In the organizational development context. the novel tasks can encourage or specifically teach interpersonal team skills to increase team performance.

making recommendations. the consultant is then responsible for providing a useful intervention that will transfer back into the organizational setting. and providing activities (exercises that compose a team building intervention) for the team are the main responsibilities of the consultant. After the intervention has been employed. so that they will have a better understanding of their working style. team awareness. One of the most important objectives of team building interventions relies on improving interdependency of team members. such as goal setting. Team building is applicable where group activities are interdependent. as well as their fellow team mates. The underlying premise is that the aggregated value of the team is much greater than any individual. Moreover. What does a Team-Building Consultant do? A team-building consultant is responsible for each component of a team building intervention. role clarification and analysis. usually a written proposal is required after the evaluation process. development of interpersonal relations among team members. and communities of practice.containing this assessment and improvement actions. problem solving. while allowing for flexibility. A structured teambuilding plan is a good tool to implement team bonding and thus. He will likely interact with the team once. in which the trainer indicates how he or she would go about improving the team’s performance. According to Robbins (1994). among other. During these first contacts. The . or done internally by the human resource department. or as a component of organizational development. or for a limited number of times. These may be introduced by companies that does teambuilding sessionsm. Once the organization and consultant determine which recommendations to utilize (if not all). This responsibility usually requires the consultant to create a detailed plan of events. decision making. Another way is to allow for personality assessment amongst the team members. actively assessing the team. the consultant will typically evaluate the team-building program and communicate the results to the organization Team Development and Group Processes Interventions Team development and group processes interventions aim at improving different aspects of a group performance.

Brief team leaders and employees about the process 3. it is vital to have a clear understanding of strategies for diagnosis and prevention of important organization problems. it becomes the leader’s responsibility to familiarize the team with the findings. Train leaders on facilitating team discussions 6. strengths. Provide feedback to leaders 8. Leaders present reports on progress and results to Senior Management 10. If all leaders and members alike are clear about the organizational development and change. weakness. Analyze the data and construct a report 7. Survey feedback is a tool that can provide this type of honest feedback to help leaders guide and direct their teams. Follow-up by senior leadership to ensure progress and accountability RESPONSIBILITY OF THE TEAM LEADER: Once the data has been collected and observations have been clarified. Team leaders conduct feedback action planning and meetings 9. strategies can be designed and implemented to support positive change. Identify project plan and objectives 2. SURVEY PROCESS STEPS: 1. Next the leader involves the team in outlining appropriate solutions and strategies that members can "buy into" and support over the long-haul. Conduct interviews and focus groups 5. Obstacles and gaps between the current status quo and the desired situations may or may not be directly apparent. When leaders can facilitate . organizations are seeking information about obstacles to productivity and satisfaction in the workplace. In either case. which will result in increasing the team’s performance” • SURVEY FEEDBACK In globally competitive environments. Survey feedback provides a participative approach and enables all members to become actively engaged in managing the work environment.objective is to improve the coordination efforts of members. Administer survey 4.

Once the meeting begins. In any case. consider a few of these ideas: • • • • • • Be optimistic and excited about the information and how it can be used to better the organization. it must be implemented into a comprehensive strategy that includes goals. not a single event. Following the initial meeting. Establish a clear commitment to utilize the survey feedback long-term and seek further feedback from the group. Verbally express positive points. and reviews.collaborative teaming and become an organizational development and change agent. If the survey feedback is to be effective. . Follow-up meetings are necessary to coordinate and evaluate changes and progress. If the team feedback meeting is poorly handled. It is important for leaders to not underestimate the time and facilitation skills needed to pass on the information and foster an action-oriented environment. Invite them to explore with you the areas that need improvement. leaders need to gain a full understanding of the survey data and begin to structure a plan for the first meeting. The initial meetings and communication sessions are just the start of a development process. Tailoring sessions to meet the group characteristics will provide for a more effective discussion. Ask for participation by all members and reinforce their openness and contributions. and the leader will need to consider this as the survey data is disseminated. Of course group dynamics will be unique in every situation. people in the team will contribute creative ideas to enhance their work environment. Be supportive and clear about action and follow-up plans. there will be low front-end commitment on the part of the team. responsibilities. Prior to the action meetings. with no plan for positive change. a summary should be documented and action plans circulated. Action plans are the means of fully utilizing the survey feedback. without it we simply have a snap shot of where the organization is. revisions. time frames. the leader should guide the group's evaluation of the results and development of solutions.

knowledge management and organizational learning. task methods and job design) and structure (for example division of labor and hierarchy)” (p. the idea is to find problems to solve. Kormanik (2005) includes as technostructuralinterventions the following: organizational structure. the grouping of core tasks so that a team has major unit of total work to be accomplished. socio-technical systems. change management. According to Cummings and Worley (2001) techno structural approaches focus on improving an organization’s technology (for example. organization systems. and the availability of great deal of information and feedback to work groups for self-regulation of productivity and . work flow arrangements and changes in communications and authority. These interventions are rooted in the fields of engineering. sociology. Sociotechnical System: is largely associated with experiments attempted to create better fit among the technology. and psychology. space and physical settings. Premises of Sociotechnical System (1) Effective work system must jointly optimize the relationship between their social and technical parts. job design / enrichment. 104). This system tend to feature the formation of autonomous work group. competency-based management. 1.• TECHNO STRUCTURAL ACTIVITIES Techno structural interventions Techno structural interventions focus on improving the organizational effectiveness and human development by focusing on technology and structure. structure and social interactions of a particular production unit. (2) Such system must effectively manage the boundary separating and relating them to the environment. delegation to the work group of many aspects of how the work gets done. combined with socio-technical systems and job analysis and design. the training of group members in multiple skills. who reports to whom. methods of control. This class of interventions include changes in how the overall work of an organization is divided into units. the arrangement of equipment and people. business process redesign. These types of interventions rely on a deficit based approach.

That remit might be a specific project. • Should be fully empowered. A self-managed team is not just a group of people working together but also a genuine collaboration. The team’s accountability is based on team’s result and not on the performance of its members. It is measured by its results. The team is autonomous and its members are responsible to no one but each other. on shared motivation and shared leadership. • Should be able to request assistance from outside the team but never have it imposed. • Help to flatten organizational structure. Self managed teams what is a self-managed team? A self-managed team has total responsibility for its defined remit. Work redesign (Richard Hackman & Greg Oldham) OD approach to work redesign based on a theoretical model of what job characteristics lead to the psychological states that produce what they call "higher internal work motivation. Self –managed teams: • Should set their targets." . 2. Self-managed teams: • Are more independent than other types of team. • Must maintain contact with the organization. • Must monitor performance and maintain quality. • Eliminate intermediate levels of responsibility and removes the requirement for middle management. not the performance of its individual member. A self-managed team thrives on interacting skill sets.quality. 3. Individual performance is an internal team issue. • Favor natural leaders.

task significance. QWL Features .Job rotations. Quality of work life (QWL) An attempt to restructure multiple dimensions of the organization and to institute a mechanism. .Encouragement for skill development. autonomy and feedback from the job. which introduces and sustains changes over time.According Hackman and Oldham organization analyses jobs using the five core job characteristics . 4. The outcome of these job characteristics is: High work motivation High satisfaction High work effectiveness.Regular plant and team meetings. .Participation in forecasting. task identity.Training for team problem solving . . Skill variety Related to experienced Task identity meaningfulness of the work Task significance Job autonomy .related to psychological state of knowledge of the result of the work activities.Union agreement with process and participation.Related to experienced responsibility for the outcome of the work Feedback . .e.Use of quality circles . skill variety.Assurance of no loss of job .Voluntary involvement on the part of employees .i. work planning .

rather than refining current ways of doing work. The cross-functional team. A business process is a set of logically related tasks performed to achieve a defined business outcome. cut operational costs. Business Process Reengineering is the analysis and design of workflows and processes within an organization. It is more than just business improvising. and become worldclass competitors.5. A key stimulus for reengineering has been the continuing development and deployment of sophisticated information systems and networks. It is an approach for redesigning the way work is done to better support the organization's mission and reduce costs. or Business Process Change Management. Business Process Reengineering (BPR) is basically the fundamental rethinking and radical re-design. has become popular because of the desire to re-engineer separate functional tasks into complete cross-functional processes Business Process Reengineering is also known as Business Process Redesign. Re-engineering is the basis for many recent developments in management. Business process reengineering (BPR) began as a private sector technique to help organizations fundamentally rethink how they do their work in order to dramatically improve customer service. Reengineering starts with a high-level . Business Transformation. for example. made to an organization existing resources. Leading organizations are becoming bolder in using this technology to support innovative business processes.

The Impact of BPR on Organizational Performance The two cornerstones of any organization are the people and the processes. Within the framework of this basic assessment of mission and goals. Only after the organization rethinks what it should be doing. As a structured ordering of work steps across time and place. It can also be completely redesigned or eliminated altogether. a business process can be decomposed into specific activities.assessment of the organization's mission. organizational performance will be poor. analyzes. If individuals are motivated and working hard. does it go on to decide how best to do it. Reengineering maintains that optimizing the performance of sub processes can result in some benefits. What appear to be minor changes in processes can have dramatic effects on cash flow. Business Process Reengineering is the key to transforming how people work. particularly in terms of the wants and needs of its customers. This drive for realizing dramatic improvements by fundamentally rethinking how the organization's work should be done distinguishes reengineering from process improvement efforts that focus on functional or incremental improvement. For that reason. reengineering focuses on the organization's business processes—the steps and procedures that govern how resources are used to create products and services that meet the needs of particular customers or markets. and customer needs. but cannot yield dramatic improvements if the process itself is fundamentally inefficient and outmoded. and speed. and improved. service. strategic goals. Basic questions are asked. such as cost. . no one is responsible for the overall performance of the entire process. Even the act of documenting business processes alone will typically improve organizational efficiency by 10%. Reengineering identifies. reengineering focuses on redesigning the process as a whole in order to achieve the greatest possible benefits to the organization and their customers. measured. such as "Does our mission need to be redefined? Are our strategic goals aligned with our mission? Who are our customers?" An organization may find that it is operating on questionable assumptions. Often. and redesigns an organization's core business processes with the aim of achieving dramatic improvements in critical performance measures. quality. modeled. yet the business processes are cumbersome and non-essential activities remain. service delivery and customer satisfaction. Reengineering recognizes that an organization's business processes are usually fragmented into sub processes and tasks that are carried out by several specialized functional areas within the organization.

Mouton & McCanse. and intergroup learning works best when the teams involved share commitment and common objectives. Blake. is to use the Grid theory of leadership styles to establish candor.D. McKee & Carlson. and create standards of excellence in teamwork. is a systematic six-phase theory-based programme.D. relationships and results . • Defining behaviors that will enable the organization to achieve its' aims. and respect in the workplace. which develops from the research and insights of the Managerial Grid theory. Grid Organization Development is a structured approach to O. mutual. 1991. 1969. . These three characteristics are a prerequisite for a total organization approach to strategy and transformation. • Producing key performance measures to track progress. The goal of Grid O. trust. • GRID OD Grid O. The theory and seminars provide a framework for identifying sound and unsound behaviors in the workplace. • Build these into a clear business strategy thereby deriving the project objectives. The core insight of the Grid is that the 3 Rs of people management resources. which aims at creating and implementing systematic change in organizations (Blake & Mouton. Team learning builds on the development of individual awareness and critique skills.D. It is a normative approach in that it is built on the premise that awareness starts at the individual level and builds the foundation for further development. to provide a clear picture of the desired future position. 1989). That means: • Starting with mission statements that define the purpose of the organization and describe what sets it apart from others in its sector or industry. and not undertake a project in isolation. • Producing vision statements which define where the organization is going.are optimally managed and transformed by studying the degree of concern for results and people issues as they interact interdependently in work relationships (Blake & McCanse.How to Implement A BPR Project The best way to map and improve the organization's procedures is to take a top down approach. • Relating efficiency improvements to the culture of the organization • Identifying initiatives that will improve performance. the BPR exercise can begin. Once these building blocks are in place.

Phase 2 . lay the foundation for organization wide change by building shared assumptions and candor.D. performance review. decision-making. role definition.1999). and critique. evaluating culture and so on. decreasing resistance to change.Grid Team Building Phase 2 carries the same learning from the individual setting into the intact work teams. Anxieties relating to personal performance are reduced by conducting the seminar composed of "stranger" teams. Through a series of scored activities.. This team structure allows members to feel more comfortable in exploring personal critique and feedback. Organizations can then begin addressing strategic change. The synergetic designs make the experience more lasting than a traditional lecture-notes-test-grading setting (Mouton & Blake. competition. members have enough experience with each other to provide constructive critique regarding personal performance. building commitment. Participants also learn specific skills to increase effectiveness. inquiry. which occupy the second three stages of Grid O. and competition issues in order to make progress. time pressure.. decision making. and critique and feedback. These first three stages of Grid O.The Grid Seminar The Grid seminar is a weeklong seminar in which managers and organization leaders examine their own leadership style in comparison with the Grid theory of styles. There are six programmed phases of Grid O. are examined in comparison with an agreed-upon model . (Figure 1) Phase I .D. The synergetic designs also increase the transfer of learning by accurately re-creating the workplace in the activities. conflict. problem-solving. and increasing commitment and personal stake. Team members are forced to deal with diverse personalities. The seven styles of leadership are analyzed and evaluated as the participants test their effectiveness against various measurements. A series of 3-4 day workshops are held during which teams apply their Phase 1 Grid Seminar learning to their own team's performance. conflict resolution. resilience. Members also have enough experience to provide concrete and meaningful examples that often reflect comments heard before but ignored or discounted. many for the first time. including initiative. Key team structure and process issues such as: mutual trust and respect.. The learning then progresses to intact teams and intergroup development. By the end of the week. Learning begins with individual development as related to seven specific behaviors. advocacy. where no direct co-workers participate in the same team. 1984).D. participants learn how their personal behavior impacts the people around them.

(3) clear operational definitions of the nature and scope of markets.Developing an Ideal Strategic Model In the Phase 4 design. Phase 5 . As a conclusion. (2) specifying which parts of the organization are sound and which parts require change. senior organizational leaders work towards establishing a vision of organizational excellence through: (1) specifying key optimum and minimum financial objectives. they are in a better position to begin designing and implementing change strategies. Key representatives of each group engage in a structured process whereby they study the relationship and structures as they currently exist. many of the barriers to implementation will have already been surmounted or reduced. (4) an organizational structure which integrates operations. customers etc. (3) designing implementation steps from move from the existing to . (2) clear and explicit definitions of the nature and scope of organizational activities to be pursued. With the organization sharing the "common language" of what effective leadership looks like. units. The assumption of the Grid learning is that strategic planning can only take place when underlying and unresolved dynamic issues are overcome. analyze the underlying issues and establish ways of dealing with the areas of disagreement or conflict (Blake & Mouton. Phase 4 . and (6) identifying development requirements for growth and avoiding obsolescence and stagnation. Phase 3 . (5) basic policies for organizational decision-making. The synergetic design used to develop an ideal strategic model increases commitment by giving people throughout the organization a sense of personal stake and involvement with in the effort to be undertaken. team members create an action plan for specific team-effort project along with criteria for measurement and follow-up.Implementing the Ideal Strategic Model Blake and Mouton point out that if the four phases have been completed successfully. 1984)..of effectiveness. The motivational "gap" produced by the comparison is then addressed by the team through designing specific improvement steps. Implementing the strategic model becomes a matter of: (1) studying the gap between the ideal mode and the existing organization culture and structure. groups.Intergroup Development/Interface Conflict Solving Phase 3 is aimed at solving conflicts which might occur between two teams. This occurs through the structured critique cycles that include participation across the organization's hierarchy. departments or management and unions.

to begin with the Interface Conflict Solving (Phase 3) to resolve an existing impasse. These three characteristics are a prerequisite for a total organization approach to strategy and transformation. however. and so on. is a systematic six-phase theory-based programme. 2. which develops from the research and insights of the Managerial Grid theory and forty years of testing. Role playing: Next. Phase 6 . and intergroup learning works best when the teams involved share commitment and common objectives. trainees watch live or video examples that show models behaving effectively in a problem situation. Mouton and McCanse (1989) point out. • BEHAVIOR MODELLING Behavior modeling involves (1) showing trainees the right or model way of doing something (2) letting trainees practice that way. Modeling: First. As Blake. There is a natural flow to them in that insights from the Grid seminar may be brought to the team building activity. and monitoring changes in the external environment which make forced changes in the model. and then move to individual and team development.D. It is not uncommon. if teaching how to discipline is the aim of the training program. The basic procedure is as follows: 1. well researched and highly regarded psychological based training interventions. and then (3) giving feedback on the trainees’ performance. Behavior modeling training is one of the most widely used.Consolidation of the Model The final phase is the systematic effort to assess and evaluate progress by critiquing the change effort.the ideal. The video might show a supervisor effectively disciplining a subordinate. these six phases are not a fixed and inviolate sequence. 3. It is a normative approach in that it is built on the premise that awareness starts at the individual level and builds the foundation for further development. here they practice and rehearse the effective demonstrated by the models. In summary. identifying problems and taking corrective action. Team learning builds on the development of individual awareness and critique skills. (4) continuing to keep the business in operation which simultaneously changing towards the ideal model. the trainees are given roles to play in a simulated situation. Grid O. Social reinforcements: The trainer provides reinforcement in the form of praise .

if you see another student rewarded with extra credit for being to class on time. trainees are encouraged to apply their new skills when they are back on their job. Anything that detracts your attention is going to have a negative effect on observational learning. you are far more likely to dedicate your full attention to learning. For example. The following steps are involved in the observational learning and modeling process: • Attention: In order to learn. The Modeling Process . Retention can be affected by a number of factors. Transfer of training: Finally. • Retention: The ability to store information is also an important part of the learning process. but the ability to pull up information later and act on it is vital to observational learning. • Motivation: Finally.. you have to be motivated to imitate the behavior that has been modeled. you might start to show up a few minutes early each day. you need to be paying attention. Reinforcement and punishment play an important role in motivation. • Reproduction: Once you have paid attention to the model and retained the information. in order for observational learning to be successful.and constructive feedback based on how the trainee performs in the role playing situation. so can observing other experience some type of reinforcement or punishment. . it is time to actually perform the behavior you observed. While experiencing these motivators can be highly effective. Further practice of the learned behavior leads to improvement and skill advancement. If the model interesting or there is a novel aspect to the situation. 4.

• EDUCATION AND TRAINING Organizational development services have simplified the learning process by creating a wide range of programs that compliment just about any business environment. some of which allow them to bring workshops and seminars directly to your office. although some do. Many Indian firms have also set up in house development centers along the lines of corporate universities. Bain & Company. establish in house development centers (often called corporate universities). employers are increasingly collaborating with academic institutions. Indian public sector units (PSUs) have established dedicated training institutions with separate campus and trainers for training their employees. making it convenient to learn more about organizational development issues and techniques. Public Sector Units (PSU) banks and insurance companies are examples . Organizational development consultants can train staff through various formats. learning portals are becoming their virtual corporate universities. In–house development centers typically offer a catalogue of courses and special programs aimed at supporting the employers’ management development need. They typically do not produce all (or most) of their own training and development programs. Corporate Universities: Many firms. training and development program providers program providers and Web based educational portals to create packages of programs and materials appropriate to their employees’ needs. It provides a means not only for conveniently coordinating all the company’s training efforts . For many firms. management consulting firm. Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd (BHEL). and IBM are just a few examples. has such a Web based virtual university for its employees. GE. McDonalds. Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL). particularly larger ones. In fact. In house development center: A company based method for exposing prospective managers to realistic exercises to develop improved management skills. While firms such as GE have long had their own bricks and mortar corporate universities. but also for delivering web based modules that cover topics from strategic management to mentoring. learning portals let even smaller firms have corporate universities. Organizational development education and training programs have moved beyond the traditional classroom setting. SAIL.

Recent examples include the Infosys academy in Mysore. specifically activities that are designed to change fundamentally the nature of the organization. and the Tata Management training Center (TMTC) constituted for the Tata group. Groups of industries or industrial associations have sponsored learning centers to cater to the industry’s learning requirements.of such organizations. Laszlo and Laugel (2000) note that a key focus for leaders should be nurturing the emergence of organizational intelligence. values and culture. Jr. Satyam Learning Center (SLC) established by Satyam Computers. the Apollo Laureate Academy of Apollo Tyres Ltd. Large-scale transformation in organizations needs to be seen as both a resocialization process as well as a journey of discovery. The National Institute of bank management (NIBM) at Pune has been founded by the banking industry to function as the apex level training center for banking in India. (1999) define Organisational Transformation activities as those that involve large-scale system changes. reward systems. The National Institute of Construction Management and Research (NICMR) was found by the construction industry and the Ahmadabad Textile Research Association (ATIRA) by the textile industry. In the process of true Organisational Transformation. the nature of their internal . the design of work and the organization’s mission. management philosophy. To achieve this. • Today’s organizations need to renew and reinvent themselves continually in order to stay ahead of the competition. the National Insurance Academy (NIA) established by the insurance industry. business leaders need to anticipate trends and grow their organization’s capacity for continuous learning. the Indian Oil Institute of Petroleum Management of IOCL. Bell. • Global corporations of today need to be less focused on structure and internal resources and more on the dynamics of change. French & Cecil H. Companies are defined by their ideas and business processes. Similarly.. • ORGANISATIONAL TRANSFORMATION ACTIVITIES Wendell L. almost everything about the organization is changed including the structure.

Improving Operation: To achieve a quantum improvement in the firm's efficiency. And transformational leaders are creating environments in which diverse viewpoints are encouraged in a culture of sharing. 2. 3. Three Types of Transformation 1. • • Phases of Transformation . Strategic Transformation: The process of changing strategy seeks to regain a sustainable competitive advantage by redefining business objectives.• • • and external relationships and by the way they work with their business partners. when managing large-scale change in organizations. creating new competences and harnessing these capabilities to meet market opportunities. improving quality and services and reducing development time. are recognizing that they are managing ‘multiple-realities’ to the extent that no single change intervention is now viewed as being sufficient to make large-scale transformational change happen successfully. Organisations are looking for ways to encourage integration and create more fluid boundaries. Transformational leaders. often by reducing costs. These leaders are looking for multiple methods for influencing the transformational process. This is why Whole-System Participatory approaches. active listening and dialogue. are providing some of the best opportunities to leaders who are driving largescale change in their organizations . mutual respect. Corporate Self-Renewal: Self-Renewal creates the ability for a firm to anticipate and cope with change so that strategic and operational gap does not develop. specifically large-group intervention models which incorporate small-group work sessions.

Phase 3: It may become principal vehicles for growth. Phase-2: It focuses on adding features. value-added processes and new service to the core business. the existing business can be redefined.Phase-1: It begins with the automation of existing activities to reduce cost and raise capacities and expands to encompass a broader range of applications to optimize operations. functions. .

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