BIET, Davangere





BIET. Davangere MEMS .

On the other hand. Three decades ago. Three fabrication techniques. Microaccelerometers. In this paper overview and application of MEMS will be presented. Due to the dramatic reduction in size. bio-medical and television industries. It is possible. to integrate micro-transducers with the microcomputer such that an integrated system capable of sensing. Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS). MEMS is a fundamental technology which has the potential to influence advancements in many fields. and the LIGA process. are commonly used in producing mechanical parts on the micron scale. Micromachining is a batch production process which utilizes lithographic processes. micro transducers can outperform traditional ones by orders of magnitude. most of which are mechanical. For sensing and manipulating the environment. bulk micromachining. sensors and actuators are needed.system is immeasurable and could parallel the progress of microelectronics technology. MEMS products have already made appreciable impacts. the MEMS fabrication process is a derivative of microelectronics fabrication technology. Davangere ABSTRACT A technology. though not necessarily straightforward. KEYWORDS MEMS. emerged in the late 1980s which enables us to fabricate mechanical parts on the order of microns. but it does not interact with the environment.BIET. Micromachining technology is suitable for developing new transducers or improving existing transducer designs. microelectronics technology made such an advance: the computer became an indispensable part for our lives. Virtual reality. Furthermore. Microengineering. Microfabrication. IBM Millipede Memory. and actuation becomes feasible. MEMS . the computer is a collection of solid state transistors which perform fast calculations and carry out preset logic decisions. MEMS technology provides sensors and actuators that are micron sized. In the automobile. The potential of this micro-electromechanical. decision. surface micromachining. electronics. INTRODUCTION A new technology with broad applications may spark a revolutionary change in industry. Furthermore.

etc. remarkable research progresses have been achieved in MEMS under the strong capital promotions from both government and industries. moulding (LIGA) processes. Sometimes many microdevices can also be fabricated using semiconductor processing technologies or stereolithography on the polymeric multifunctional structures. gears. Some branches of MEMS. and lithography. especially in the last fifteen years. etc. micromirrors for projection. springs. etc. grooves. silicon nitride. Silicon micromachining is the most advanced of the micromachining technologies. actuators. a variety of mechanical microstructures including beams.. data storage. wireless communications. polycrystalline silicon. have attracted a great deal of research interests since their potential applications market. Micromachining has become the fundamental technology for the fabrication of microelectromechanical devices and. In the beginning of 1990s. galvanoforming. in particular. when some specific application requirements (e. optics. biomedical. aerospace. surface micromachining. such as microaccelerometers. appearing as microoptoelectromechanical systems (MOEMS). MEMS emerged with the aid of the development of integrated circuit (IC) fabrication processes. and a great diversity of other complex mechanical structures have been conceived. orifices.g. micrototal analysis systems ( TAS). the concepts and feasibility of more complex MEMS devices have been proposed and demonstrated for the applications in such varied fields as microfluidics.. In addition to the commercialization of some less integrated MEMS devices. MEMS . Biomedical devices) and the microactuators with higher output power were called for in MEMS. and control functions are cofabricated in silicon. suspensions. Since then. making the structures three dimensional and bringing new principles to the designers. Three-dimensional (3D) microfabrication processes incorporating more materials were presented for MEMS recently.. and it allows for the fabrication of MEMS that have dimensions in the submillimeter range. in which sensors. miniaturized sensors and actuators. diaphragms. Davangere History of MEMS Technology MEMS have developed in the past decades. most of MEMS devices with various sensing or actuating mechanisms were fabricated using silicon bulk micromachining. inkjet printer head..BIET. display. As of the end of 1990s. It refers to fashioning microscopic mechanical parts out of silicon substrate or on a silicon substrate. etc. Employing materials such as crystalline silicon. chemical analysis.

regulating. CMOS. and electronics on a common silicon substrate through microfabrication technology [Microengineering]. The electronics then process the information derived from the sensors and through some decision making capability direct the actuators to respond by moving. to allow microsystems to sense and control the environment. FIG.g. sensors. making possible the realization of complete systems-on-a-chip. Davangere What is Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System Technology? Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is the integration of mechanical elements. and magnetic phenomena.BIET.1 MEMS promises to revolutionize nearly every product category by bringing together siliconbased microelectronics with micromachining technology. Bipolar. augmenting the computational ability of microelectronics with the perception and control capabilities of microsensors and microactuators and expanding the space of possible designs and applications. Sensors gather information from the environment through measuring mechanical. biological. and filtering. Microelectronic integrated circuits can be thought of as the "brains" of a system and MEMS augments this decision-making capability with "eyes" and "arms". pumping. optical. thereby controlling the environment for some desired outcome or MEMS . MEMS is an enabling technology allowing the development of smart products. thermal. actuators. positioning. the micromechanical components are fabricated using compatible "micromachining" processes that selectively etch away parts of the silicon wafer or add new structural layers to form the mechanical and electromechanical devices.. While the electronics are fabricated using integrated circuit (IC) process sequences (e. chemical. or BICMOS processes).

Microfabrication methods 1. Silicon is the primary substrate material used in the production microelectronic circuitry (ie. is a very well developed technology. When considering such small devices. One of the main goals of Microengineering is to be able to integrate microelectronic circuitry into micromachined structures. and microfluidics. to produce completely integrated systems (microsystems).BIET. Micromachining is the name for the techniques used to produce the structures and moving parts of microengineered devices. On the surface of a silicon wafer. Such systems could have have the same advantages of low cost. Because MEMS devices are manufactured using batch fabrication techniques similar to those used for integrated circuits. bettersilicon chips). a number of physical effects have different significance on the micrometer scale compared to macroscopic scales. Surface micromachining technology makes thin micromechanical devices on the surface of a silicon wafer. This includes such topics as micromechanics. and sophistication can be placed on a small silicon chip at a relatively low cost. reliability. producing electronic circuitry on silicon chips. since this is one of the better developed micromachining techniques. and so is the most suitable candidate for the eventual production of microsystems. reliability and small size as silicon chips produced in the microelectronics industry. and this technology integrates well with electronics. Microelectronics. which deals with the moving parts of microengineered devices. unprecedented levels of functionality. What is Microengineering? Microengineering refers to the technologies and practice of making three dimensional structures and devices with dimensions in the order of micrometers. Davangere purpose. The two constructional technologies of microengineering are microelectronics and micromachining. thin layers of structural and sacrificial material are deposited and patterned. Large numbers of devices can be inexpensively made. Bulk Silicon micromachining is given most prominence. At the MEMS . etc. 2. Interest in microengineering has spawned or renewed interest in a number of areas dealing with the study of these effects on microscopic scales.

This micro-tool was used to position atoms in complex arrangement.. The reasons that prompt the use of MEMS technology can be classified broadly in three classes:  Miniaturization of existing devices. but the technology has the possibility to bring unique benefits. In 1986 H. Binnig at IBM were awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for their work on scanning tunneling microscope. Microengineered components can be made from a variety of materials using this technique.) that shares the presence of micromachined sharp micro-tips with radius below 50 nm. scanning near-field optical microscope. A typical example is given by the biochips where electrical field are use to pump the reactant around the chip. Why MEMS Technology? The development of a MEMS component has a cost that should not be underestimated.5 cm3 package. Rohrer and G. and completely assembled micro mechanical devices remain. LIGA for Deep Structures is a technique that can be used to produce moulds for the fabrication of micromachined components. however it does suffer the disadvantage that currently the technique requires X-rays from a synchrotron source.BIET.. writing Chinese character or helping verify some prediction of quantum mechanics. This work heralded the development of a new class of microscopes (atomic force microscope. This so called electro-osmotic effect based on the existence of a drag force in the fluid works only in channels with dimension of a fraction of one mm. like for example the production cm3 to a chip of a few grams contained in a 0. 3.  Development of new tools to interact with the micro-world. at micro-scale. Another example of this class of MEMS devices at a slightly larger scale would be the development of micro-grippers to handle cells for analysis. MEMS . Davangere end of the processing the sacrificial material is removed. that is. of silicon based gyroscope which reduced existing devices weighting several kg and with a volume of 1000  Development of new devices based on principles that do not work at larger scale.

greater data certainty Comparison Conventional      Bulky Power hungry Mechanical wear and tear Highly accurate Expensive       MEMS based Miniaturised.  Multiplicity: Cooperative work from many small micromachines may be best way to perform a large task inexpensive to make many machines in parallel. Low power consumption Less moving parts Accuracy not up to inertial class Less weight Low cost MEMS .based on IC batch fabrication  Use in previously unfeasible domains  Employ large numbers of devices  Redundancy  Large sampling size.  Microelectronics: Integrate microelectronic control devices with sensors and actuators. Shock resistant  Inexpensive . Davangere What can MEMS Offer?  Miniaturization: Micromachines (sensors and actuators) can handle microobjects and move freely in small spaces. MEMS Features  Low interference with environment  Accurate.BIET. Compact.

Virtual reality (VR) Virtual reality (VR) is a technology which allows a user to interact with a computersimulated environment. but as a practical matter.  3D accelerometers: adds functions for man machine interface and silent mode activation. MEMS .To make the virtual world appear real. the sensor should be able to operate in free space (i. not tethered mechanically to anything outside the user).  RF MEMS passive and active devices: provides better integration of passive devices for RF module and faster frequency agility..  Gyroscope for camera stabilisation and GPS: enables real digital imaging. preserves the GPS signal. the VR system must know how you¶re moving and what you¶re looking at.e.  Microfuel cell: provides longer lifetime for the batteries ‡ Chemical and Biochip: personal weather station and health care monitor. MEMS sensor that can give you real-time positional information is used. Davangere MEMS applications MEMS for Mobile Phones  Silicon microphone: improves the manufacturability of microphones for similar performance compared to Electret Condensor Microphone (ECD).BIET. whether that environment is a simulation of the real world or an imaginary world.

Communications High frequency circuits will benefit considerably from the advent of the RF-MEMS technology. The demonstrated samples of mechanical switches have quality factors much higher than anything previously available. this approach costs over $50 per automobile. the mechanical switch. Davangere Biotechnology MEMS and Nanotechnology is enabling new discoveries in science and engineering such as the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) microsystems for DNA amplification and identification. while the total circuit area. micromachined Scanning Tunneling Microscopes (STMs). biochips for detection of hazardous chemical and biological agents. and microsystems for high-throughput drug screening and selection. In addition. is a key component with huge potential in various microwave circuits. Electrical components such as inductors and tunable capacitors can be improved significantly compared to their integrated counterparts if they are made using MEMS and Nanotechnology. power consumption and cost will be reduced. MEMS and Nanotechnology has made it possible to integrate the accelerometer and electronics onto a MEMS . Accelerometers MEMS accelerometers are quickly replacing conventional accelerometers for crash air-bag deployment systems in automobiles. Reliability and packaging of RF-MEMS components seem to be the two critical issues that need to be solved before they receive wider acceptance by the market.BIET. as developed by several research groups. the performance of communication circuits will improve. With the integration of such components. The conventional approach uses several bulky accelerometers made of discrete components mounted in the front of the car with separate electronics near the air-bag.

MEMS . more functional. IBM demonstrated a prototype millipede storage device at CeBIT 2005. but this disadvantage is hoped to be offset by the sheer storage capacity that Millipede technology would offer.BIET. At launch. IBM Millipede Memory Millipede is a non-volatile computer memory stored on nanoscopic pits burned into the surface of a thin polymer layer. Davangere single silicon chip at a cost between $5 to $10. It promises a data density of more than 1 terabit per square inch (1 gigabit per square millimeter). and was trying to make the technology commercially available by the end of 2007. These MEMS accelerometers are much smaller. it would probably be more expensive per-megabyte than prevailing technologies. about 4 times the density of magnetic storage available today. Millipede storage technology is being pursued as a potential replacement for magnetic recording in hard drives. at the same time reducing the form-factor to that of Flash media. and are produced for a fraction of the cost of the conventional macroscale accelerometer elements. lighter. read and written by a MEMS-based probe. more reliable.

as we already discussed. the system-on-a-chip approach may not be optimal in many cases. biomedical sensors to be used by doctors or. but here the stringent requirements make the progress slow. using MEMS switch and surface high-Q component. From the market side. this trend should increase in the future.BIET. MEMS will undoubtedly invade more and more consumer products. From the manufacturer point of view. by patients are expected to become an important market. A farthest opportunity for MEMS lies probably in nanotechnology. nanotechnology is bringing a lot of hope . and by providing tools to produce nano-patterns at an affordable price. In the midterm. but current emerging tendencies may help foresee what will happen in the medium term. Actually. MEMS . before micromachines can wade in the human body to repair or measure. one likely good candidate for integration will be the fabrication of a single-chip wireless communication system. but finally will lead to pursue less expensive micro-fabrication method than photolithography. Another possibility for reducing cost will be integration with electronics . Davangere Future trend of MEMS Looking in the crystal ball for MEMS market has shown to be a deceptive work. The recent use of accelerometer in cameras.but. MEMS will play a role by interfacing nano-scale with meso-scale systems. Still. handphone or in the Segway is a clear demonstration of the larger applicability of the MEMS solutions . Different favors of soft-lithography are solid contenders here and microuidic and BioMEMS are already starting to experience this change.and as the prices drop. Of course medical application can be expected to be a major driver too.and some hype .but current fabrication techniques are definitely not ready for production. more interesting. a quest for lowering manufacturing cost will hopefully result in standardization of the MEMS interfacing as we discussed earlier.

numerical modeling and simulation tools for MEMS packaging are virtually non-existent. As for the components themselves. and have no capability or expertise in microfabrication technology. MEMS device design needs to be separated from the complexities of the process sequence. Approaches which allow designers to select from a catalog of existing standardized packages for a new MEMS device without compromising performance would be beneficial. Most companies find that packaging is the single most expensive and time consuming task in their overall product development program. Packaging The packaging of MEMS devices and systems needs to improve considerably from its current primitive state. Some of the obstacles preventing its wider adoption are: Limited Options Most companies who wish to explore the potential of MEMS and Nanotechnology have very limited options for prototyping or manufacturing devices. Currently almost all MEMS and Nano development efforts must develop a new and specialized package for each new device. Often the development of even the most mundane MEMS device requires a dedicated research effort to find a suitable process sequence for fabricating it. Fabrication Knowledge Required Currently the designer of a MEMS device requires a high level of fabrication knowledge in order to create a successful design. MEMS packaging is more challenging than IC packaging due to the diversity of MEMS devices and the requirement that many of these devices be in contact with their environment.BIET.or medium-volume applications. A mechanism giving smaller organizations responsive and affordable access to MEMS and Nano fabrication is essential. Davangere Current Challenges MEMS and Nanotechnology is currently used in low. MEMS . Few companies will build their own fabrication facilities because of the high cost.

Although the MEMS business with an intrinsically segmented structure will most probably never see the emergence of an Intel we can be sure that the future for MEMS is bright. the burst of the telecommunication bubble has reminded people that in business it is not enough to have a product to be successful . MEMS: Introduction and Fundamentals ( Mohamed Gad-el-Hak ) MEMS .org/Xplore/ At least need customers. and if the pace of development is no more exponential it remains solid at 2 digits.BIET.jsp 2. because. which inspired some of the MEMS pioneers. "There's plenty of room at the bottom"! References 3. Feynman stated boldly in his famous 1959 talk. indeed. IEEE Explore http://ieeexplore. with MEMS constantly invading more and more markets. Now the industry has set more modest goals. Davangere Conclusion The MEMS industry thought it had found the killer application when at the turn of the millennium 10's of startups rushed to join the fiber telecommunication bandwagon. as R. MEMS Clearinghouse http://www. Alas. Journal of Micromechanical Systems (JMEMS) 4.